KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 6 Life Processes

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 6 Life Processes are part of KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions. Here we have given Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 6 Life Processes.

Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 6 Life Processes

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Intext Questions

Text Book Part I Page No. 61

Question 1.
Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans?
Answer:
Diffusion is a process in which unicellular or small multicellular and generally, aquatic animal’s skin absorb atmospheric oxygen due to concentration difference between internal and external medium of the body. Multicellular organisms like humans possess complex body structure. They have specialised cells and tissues for performing different functions of the body. Special permeable skin is also required for diffusion process. Therefore, diffusion cannot meet huge oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms.

Question 2.
What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive?
Answer:
An indication of life, can be considered as Movement of various kind, breathing or growth etc. However, a living organism can also have movements, which are not visible by naked eye as movements at cellular level. Therefore, the presence of life processes is a fundamental criterion that can be used to decide whether something is alive or not.

Question 3.
What are outside raw materials used for by an organism?
Answer:
Food, water and oxygen are outside raw materials mostly used by an organism. Depending on the complexity of the organism its requirement varies from organism to organism.

An organism needs various raw materials from outside which are as follows:

  • Food – To supply energy and provide materials for growth and development of body.
  • Water – To provide medium in the cells for all metabolic processes necessary for living condition.
  • Oxygen – To oxidise food to release energy.

Question 4.
What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life?
Answer:
The main life processes are nutrition, respiration, transportation, excretion, reproduction, movement etc. which are considered essential.

Text Book Part I Page No. 67

Question 1.
What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition?
Answer:

Autotrophic Nutrition

  1. Food is produced by conversion of atmospheric gases and water in special conditions internally within their body.
  2. Presence of chlorophyll is necessary.
  3. Food is generally prepared during day time.
  4. Almost all plants and some bacteria have this type of nutrition.

Heterotrophic Nutrition

  1. Food is taken directly from autotrophs. Then, this food is broken down with the help of enzymes.
  2. No pigment is required in this type of nutrition.
  3. Food can be prepared at all times.
  4. All animals and fungi have this type of nutrition.

Question 2.

Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis?
Answer:

  1. Carbon dioxide: Plants get carbon dioxide through stomata.
  2. Water: Roots absorb water from soil and transports to leaves.
  3. Solar energy: Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy into chemical energy.

Question 3.
What is the role of the acid in our stomach?
Answer:
The hydrochloric acid present in our stomach dissolves bits of food and creates an acidic medium. In this acidic medium, enzyme pepsinogen is converted for pepsin, which is a protein-digesting enzyme.

Question 4.
What is the function of digestive enzymes?
Answer:
The digestive enzymes converts proteins to amino acids, complex carbohydrates into glucose and fat into fatty acids and glycerol.

Question 5.
How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food?
Answer:
The small intestine has millions of tiny finger-like projections called villi. These villi increase the surface area for more efficient food absorption. Within these villi, many blood vessels are present that absorb the digested food and carry it to the blood stream. From the blood stream, the absorbed food is delivered to each and every cell of the body.

Text Book Part I Page No. 71

Question 1.
What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?
Answer:
Terristrial animals can breathe the oxygen in the atmosphere, but animals that live in water need to use the oxygen dissolved in water. This oxygen is absorbed by different organs in different animals. All these organs have a structure that increase the surface area which is in contact with the oxygen-rich atmosphere.

Question 2.
What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidised to provide energy in various organisms?
Answer:
In all living organisms, firstly. Glucose is partially oxidised to form two molecules of pyruvate. This process occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. Further breakdown of pyruvate takes place in different manners in different organisms.

a) Anaerobic respiration: Here the pyruvate is converted into ethanol and carbondioxide in the absence of oxygen. This process takes place in yeast during fermentation. Sometimes, during vigorous muscular activities, when oxygen is inadequate for cellular respiration. Pyruvate is converted into Lactic acid.

b) Aerobic respiration: It takes place in the mitochondria, where puruvate is completely oxidised in the presence of oxygen. At the end CO2, water and large amount of energy is released.

Question 3.
How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?
Answer:
Haemoglobin transports oxygen molecule to all the cells of body for cellular respiration. The haemoglobin pigment present in the blood gets attached to four O2 molecules that are obtained from breathing. It thus, forms oxyhaemoglobin and the blood turns oxygenated. This oxygenated blood is distributed to all the body cells by the heart. After giving away O2 to the body cells, blood takes away CO2 which is the end product of cellular respiration. Now, the blood becomes de-oxygenated. Since, haemoglobin pigment has less affinity for CO2, CO2 is mainly transported in the dissolved form. This de-oxygenated blood gives CO2 to lung’s alveoli and takes O2 in return.

Question 4.
How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximise the area for exchange of gases?
Answer:
The exchange of gases takes place between the blood of the capillaries that surround the alveoli and the gases present in the alveoli. Thus, alveoli are the site for exchange of gases. The lungs get filled up with air during the process of inhalation as ribs are lifted up and diaphragm is flattened. The air that is rushed inside the lungs fills the numerous alveoli present in the lungs. Each lung contains 300-350 millions alveoli. These numerous alveoli increase the surface area for gaseous exchange making the process of respiration more efficient.

Text Book Part I Page No. 76

Question 1.
What are the components of the transport system in human beings? What are the functions of these components?
Answer:
Arteries, veins and capillaries are the components of the transport system in human beings.

  1. Arteries: Arteries are the vessels which carry blood away from the heart to various organs of the body.
  2. Veins: Veins collect the blood from different organs and bring it back to the heart under high pressure.
  3. Capillaries: These are smallest vessels which have one cell thick. Exchange of material between the blood and surrounding cells takes place across this thin wall.

Question 2.
Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?
Answer:
Separation of pure and impure blood is necessary to keep oxygenated and deoxygenated blood away from mixing. Warm-blooded animals such as birds and mammals maintain a constant body temperature by cooling themselves when they are in a hotter environment and by warming their bodies when, they are in a cooler environment. Hence, these animals require more oxygen (O2) for more cellular respiration so that they can produce more energy to maintain their body temperature. Such separation helps in a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body.

Question 3.
What are the components of the transport system in highly organised plants?
Answer:
The transport system in highly organised plants includes xylem and phloem (vascular tissues). Xylem transports water and mineral ions. Phloem conducts food from leaves to other parts of plants.

Question 4.
How are water and minerals transported in plants?
Answer:
The components of xylem tissue (tracheids and vessels) of roots, stems and leaves are interconnected to form a continuous system of water – conducting channels that reaches all parts of the plant. Transpiration creates a suction pressure, as a result of which water is forced into the xylem cells of the roots. Then, there is a steady movement of water from the root xylem to all the plant parts through the interconnected water-conducting channels. Components of xylem tissue helps in the water transport.

Question 5.
How is food transported in plants?
Answer:
Phloem transports food materials to the plant body. The transportation of food in phloem is achieved by utilizing energy stored as ATP. As a result of this, the osmotic pressure in the tissue increases causing water to move into it. This pressure moves the material in the phloem to the tissues which have less pressure. This is helpful in moving materials according to the needs of the plant. For example, the food material, such as sucrose, is transported into the phloem tissue using ATP energy.

Text Book Part I Page No. 78

Question 1.
Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.
Answer:
Each kidney has large numbers of filtration units called nephrons packed close together.
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 6 Life Processes 1

Functions of nephrons:
Some substances in the initial filtrate, such as glucose, amino acids, salts and a major amount of water, are selectively re-absorbed as the urine flows along the tube. The amount of water re-absorbed depends on how much excess water there is in the body, and on how much of dissolved waste there is to be excreted.

The urine forming in each kidney eventually enters a long tube, the ureter, which connects the kidneys with the urinary bladder. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until the pressure of the expanded bladder leads to the urge to pass it out through the urethra. The bladder is muscular, so it is under nervous control. As a result, we can usually control the urge to urinate.

Question 2.
What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?
Answer:
Plants can get rid of excess of water by transpiration. Waste materials may be stored in the cell vacuoles or as gum and resin, especially in old xylem. It is also stored in the leaves that later fall off.

Question 3.
How is the amount of urine produced regulated?
Answer:
Different organisms use varied strategies for excretion. Many unicellular organisms remove the wastes by simple diffusion from the body surface into the surrounding water. Multi cellular organisms use specialised organs to perform the same function. In human beings Nitrogenous waste products are removed by the nephrons in kidneys.

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for
(a) nutrition
(b) respiration
(c) excretion
(d) transportation
Answer:
(c) excretion.

Question 2.
The xylem in plants are responsible for
(a) transport of water.
(b) transport of food.
(c) transport of amino acids.
(d) transport of oxygen.
Answer:
(a) transport of water.

Question 3.
The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires
(a) carbon dioxide and water.
(b) chlorophyll.
(c) sunlight.
(d) all of the above.
Answer:
(d) all of the above.

Question 4.
The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in
(a) cytoplasm.
(b) mitochondria.
(c) chloroplast.
(d) nucleus.
Answer:
(b) mitochondria.

Question 5.
How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?
Answer:
Fats are digested in the small intestine. The small intestine gets bile juice and pancreatic juice respectively from the liver and the pancreas. The bile salts (from the liver) break down the large fat globules into smaller globules, so that the pancreatic enzymes can easily act on them. This is referred to as emulsification of fats. It takes place in the small intestine.

Question 6.
What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?
Answer:
The saliva contains an enzyme called salivary amylase that breaksdown starch which is complex molecule to give simple sugar.

Question 7.
What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its by products?
Answer:
Autotrophs absorbs solar energy and take CO2 and water, prepare their own food.
Glucose, CO2 and water are the by products of photosynthesis.

Question 8.
What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration.
Answer:

The differences between Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration are:

  1. Aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of O2 while anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of O2.
  2. Aerobic respiration involves the exchange of gases between the organism and the outside environment while in anaerobic respiration exchange of gases is absent.
  3. Aerobic respiration occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondria while anaerobic respiration occurs only in cytoplasm.
  4. Aerobic respiration always releases CO2 and H2O while in anaerobic respiration end products vary.
  5. Aerobic respiration yields 36 ATPs while anaerobic respiration yields only 2 ATPs.

Question 9.
How are the alveoli designed to maximise the exchange of gases?
Answer:
The alveoli provide a surface where the exchange of gases can take place. The walls of the alveoli contain an extensive network of blood vessels.

Question 10.
What would be the consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies?
Answer:
Red pigment present in our blood is haemoglobin. It supplies oxygen to all cells of our body Bloodlessness is caused by the deficiency of haemoglobin.

Question 11.
Describe double circulation of blood in human beings. Why is it necessary?
Answer:

A circulation system in which blood pumps through the heart twice during each trip around the body is called double circulatory system. Firstly, blood is pumped into the lungs, where it receives oxygen and becomes oxygenated, and is then pumped back into the heart, before it is finally pumped into the rest of the body.

The human heart has four chambers – the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium and the left ventricle.

Pathway of blood in the heart:

  • The heart has superior and inferior vena cava, which carries de- oxygenated blood from the upper and lower regions of the body respectively and supplies this de-oxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart.
  • The right atrium then contracts and passes the de-oxygenated blood to the right ventricle, through an auriculo – ventricular aperture.
  • Then, the right ventricle contracts and passes the de-oxygenated blood into the two pulmonary arteries, which pumps it to the lungs where the blood becomes oxygenated. From the lungs, the pulmonary veins transport the oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart.
  • Then, the left atrium contracts and through the auricular-ventricular aperture, the oxygenated blood enters the left ventricle.
  • The blood passes to aorta from the left ventricle. The aorta gives rise to many arteries that distribute the oxygenated blood to all the regions of the body.
  • Therefore, the blood goes twice through the heart. This is known as double circulation.

Importance of double circulation:

The separation of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood allows a more efficient supply of oxygen to every single cells. This efficient system of oxygen supply is very useful in warm-blooded animals such as human beings. As we know, warm-blooded animals have to maintain a constant body temperature. Thus, the circulatory system of humans becomes more efficient because of the double circulation.

Question 12.
What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem?
Answer:

Xylem phloem
i) This tissue trans­ports water and mineral salts. This tissue trans­ports only food.
ii) Roots absorb water and this is carried to all parts of the plant (upward) Food prepared in to upwards and downwards in both direction.

Question 13.
Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.
Answer:

  1. Structure of alveoli:
    • These are balloon like structures.
    • These provide a surface where the exchange of gases can take place.
      Function:
      Alveoli absorbs oxygen and give up carbon dioxide.
  2. Structure of Nephrons:
    Each kidney has large numbers of filtration units called nephrons packed close together.
    Function:
    Blood is reaching kidneys by renal artery. Here filtration takes place. By this glucose, Amino acid and salts are reabsorbed.

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Additional Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Draw a neat diagram showing schematic representation of transport and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Answer:
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 6 Life Processes 2

Question 2.
Write an equation which represents photosynthesis.
Answer:
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 6 Life Processes 3

Question 3.
Mention the function of Lymph.
Answer:
Lymph carries digested and absorbed fat from intestine and drains excess fluid from extra cellular space back into the blood.

Question 4.
Which are Heterotrophic organisms?
Answer:
Animals and Fungi.

Question 5.
Write three steps of photosynthesis.
Answer:
The following events occur during photosynthesis.

  1. Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
  2. Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen.
  3. Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.

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