1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 9 Small Business

Karnataka 1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 9 Small Business

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1st PUC Business Studies Small Business Textual Questions and Answers

1st PUC Business Studies Small Business Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What are the different parameters used to measure the size of business?
Several parameters can be used to measure the size of business units. These include the number of persons employed in business, capital invested in business, volume of output or value of output of business and power consumed for business activities. Appropriate parameter may be used depending on the need and advantages or limitations of various measures.

Question 2.
What is the definition used by Government of India for small scale industries?
The Government of India defines the small scale industries as per their investment in plant and machinery. In India the capital is scarce and labour is abundant this measure asks to keep in view the socio-economic environment.

Question 3.
How would you differentiate between an ancillary unit and a tiny unit?

SI. No. Ancillary Unit Tiny Unit
(i) An ancillary unit is the unit which supplies not less than 50% of its production to the parent unit. A tiny unit is the business enterprise those investment in plant and machinery is not more than Rs. 25 lakh.
(ii) Investment limit in such unit is one crore. Investment limit is Rs. 25 lakh in this type of unit.
(iii) Parent unit assists the ancillary unit by providing technical and financial help. No such assistance is there.

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Question 4.
State the features of cottage industries.
Cottage industries are those where artistic goods are produced using manual techniques. For e.g., Hand loom, Weaving etc. It is characterized by the following features:

  1. Cottage industries are organized by individuals, with private resources.
  2. Cottage industries normally use family labour and locally available talent.
  3. The equipment used in cottage industries is simple.
  4. Capital investment in cottage industries is small.
  5. Cottage industries produce simple products, normally in their own premises.
  6. Cottage industries produce goods using indigenous technology.

1st PUC Business Studies Small Business Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
How do small industries contribute to the socio-economic development of India?
India is a developing country and in developing countries the scope of small scale “industries are very wide. It is contributing to the socio-economic development in the following ways:

(i) Contribution in GDP
Small industries in India account for 96% of the industrial units in the country. They, contribute almost 40% of the gross industrial value added in the economy.

(ii) Contribution in Exports
45% of the total exports from India come from small scale industries. Gems and jewellery, handicrafts, sports goods, etc. are some items of exports from small scale sector.

(iii) Employment Generation
Small industries are the second largest employers of human resources, after agriculture and generate more number of employment opportunities per unit of capital invested compared to large industries.

(iv) Variety of Production
Small industries produce a wide variety of products ranging from mass consumption goods, readymade garments, hosiery goods, stationery items, soaps and detergents, domestic utensils, leather, plastic and rubber goods, processed foods and vegetables, wood and steel furniture, paints, varnishes, safety matches, etc. to the sophisticated items like electric and electronic goods, drugs and pharmaceuticals, agricultural tools and equipment and several other engineering products. Handlooms, handicrafts and other products from traditional village industries add to this diverse production from SSIs.

Regieiial Balance
Small induslries confriT’ri-fte-sjgnificantly to the balanced development of the country as they produce simple products using simple technologies and depend on locally I available resources both material and labour and can be set up anywhere in the country.

(vi) Entrepreneurship Development
Small industries provide opportunity for entrepreneurship development in the country. The latest skills and talents of people can be transformed into business ideas with little capital investment and almost nil formalities to start a small business.

(vii) Low Cost of Production
Small industries have the advantage of low cost of production as they use locally I available resources which are less expensive: Establishment and running costs of I small industries are lower because of low overhead expenses.

(viii) Quick Decision Making
Due to the small size of the organizations quick and timely decisions can be taken without consulting many people. New business opportunities can therefore be captured at the right time.

(ix) Customized Production
Small industries can design the product as per the tastes/preferences/needs of individual customers. They can provide customized production for even non-traditional products such as computers and other such products. They can produce according to the needs „ of the customers as they use simple and flexible production techniques.

(x) Personal Touch
Small industries have inherent strength of adaptability and a personal touch and therefore maintain good personal relations with both customers and employees. The government does not have to interfere in the functioning of a small scale unit.

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Question 2.
Describe the role of small business in rural India.
Small Scale enterprises provide the numerous benefits in rural area. The role of small business in rural India is explained in the following points:
(i) Non-farm Employment
Traditionally, rural households in India were exclusively engaged in agriculture. But now rural households have varied and multiple sources of income and participate in a wide range of non-agriculturai activities such as wage employment and self¬. employment in commerce, manufacturing and services, along with the traditional rural activities of farming and agricultural labour. This can be largely attributed to the setting up of agro-based rural small industries.

(ii) Employment for Artisans
Cottage and rural industries play an important role in providing employment opportunities in the rural areas, especially for the traditional artisans and the weaker sections of society.

(iii) Prevention of Migration
Development of rural and village industries can also prevent migration of rural population to urban areas in search of employment.

(iv) Poverty Alleviation
Village and small industries are significant as producers of consumer goods and nhgorherc nf surplus labour: thereby addressing the problems of poverty and unemployment. Promotion of small scale industries and rural industrialization has been considered by the Government of India as a powerful instrument for realizing the twin objective; of accelerated industrial growth and creating additional productive, employment potential in rural and backward areas.

(v) Socio-economic Aspects
These industries contribute to other socio-economic aspects, such as reduction . inequalities, dispersed development of other sectors of the economy.

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Question 3.
Discuss the problems faced by small scale industries.
Small businesses have been facing a large number problems compared to large scale industries. The scale of operations, shortage of funds, and procurement of raw materials are some of them. The detailed descriptions of problems are as follows:

(i) Finance
The most serious problem faced by SSIs is that non-availability of adequate finance to carry out their operations. Small scale sector lacks the creditworthiness and collateral I required to raise capital from the capital markets or financial institutions and hence they depend on local money lenders who charge high interest rates. These units also – suffer from lack of adequate working capital, either due to delayed payment of dues to them or locking up of their capital in unsold stocks.

(ii) Raw Materials
Another major problem of small business is the procurement of raw materials. If the required materials are not available, they have to compromise on the quality or have to pay a high price to get good quality materials. They purchase raw materials in small quantities due to lack of storage capacity and hence their bargaining power is low.

(iii) Managerial Skills
Small business is generally promoted and operated by a single person, who may not possess all the managerial skills required to run the business. Many of the small business entrepreneurs possess sound technical knowledge but are less successful in marketingand may not find enough time to take care of all functional activities. At the same time they are not in a position to afford professional managers.’

(iv) Less Productive Labour
Small business firms cannot afford to pay high salaries to their employees, which affects employee willingness to work. Thus, productivity per employee is relatively low and employee turnover is generally high. Small business organizations are unable to attract talented people because of lower remuneration. Division of labour cannot be practiced in small scale units, which results in lack of specialization and concentration.

(v) Marketing
Effective marketing is a weaker area of small organizations. These organizations depend excessively on middlemen, who at times exploit them by paying low price and delaying payments. Direct marketing is also not feasible for small business firms ! as they lack the necessary infrastructure.

(vi) Quality
Small business organizations generally concentrate oh cutting the cost and keeping the I prices low. In doing this, they are unable to maintain the desired standards of quality as they do not have adequate resources to invest in quality research and expertise to upgrade technology.

(vii) Capacity Utilization
Small business firms have to operate below full capacity due to lack of demand. Due . to this their operating costs tend to increase which gradually leads to sickness and closure of the business.

(viii) Technology
Use of outdated technology is a serious shortcoming of small industries which results in low productivity and uneconomical production.

(ix) Sickness
Small industries become sick due to both internal and external causes. Internal problems include lack of skilled and trained labour and managerial and marketing skills. Some of the external problems include delayed payment, shortage of working capital, inadequate loans and lack of demand for their products.

(x) Global Competition
Small businesses are threatened with global competition from multinational corporations and cheap imports. It is difficult for them to compete with the quality standards, technological skills and marketing capabilities of the large multinationals.

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Question 4.
What measures has the government taken to solve tin- problem of finance and marketing in the small scale sector?
The contribution of small scale industries is remarkable. Thus, Government has provided the following institutional support to solve the problem of finance and marketing in the small scale sector:

(i) National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
NABARD was setup in 1982, to promote integrated rural development. Apart from agriculture, it supports small industries, cottage and village industries, and rural artisAnswer: It provides credit and offers counseling and consultancy services and organizes training and development programmes for rural entrepreneurs.

(ii) The Rural Small Business Development Centre (RSBDC)
It was set up by the world association for small and medium enterprises and sponsored by NABARD. It works for the benefit of socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and groups. It aims at providing management and technical support to current and prospective micro and small entrepreneurs in rural areas.

(iii) National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) .
This was set up in 1955 with a view to promote, aid and foster the growth of small business units in the country. Functions ofNSIC include:

  1. Supply of machines on easy hire-purchase terms.
  2. Procure, supply and distribute raw materials.
  3. Export the products of small business units and develop export-worthiness.
  4. Mentoring and advisory services.
  5. Serve as technology business incubators.
  6. Creating awareness on technological up gradation.
  7. Developing software technology parks and technology transfer centers.

Scheme of ‘performance and credit rating’ of small businesses is implemented through NSIC to ensure that they score higher rating for their credit requirements as and when they approach the financial institutions for their working capital and investment requirements.

(iv) Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)
SIDBI was set up as an apex bank to provide direct/indirect financial assistance under different schemes, to meet credit needs of small business organizations and to coordinate the functions of other institutions in similar activities.

(v) TheNational Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) The NCEUS was constituted in September, 2004, with the objectives of recommending measures considered necessaiy for improving the productivity of small enterprises in the informal sector and to enhance the competitiveness of the sector in the emerging global environment by developing linkages of the sector with other institutions in the areas of credit, raw materials, infrastructure, technology up gradation, marketing, etc.

(vi) Rural and Women Entrepreneurship Development (RWED)
The Rural and Women Entrepreneurship Development programme aims at promoting a conducive business environment and at building institutional and human capacities that will encourage and support the entrepreneurial initiatives of rural people and women by providing training and advisory services.

(vii) Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI)
The Central Government set up this fund to make the traditional industries more productive and competitive and to facilitate their sustainable development. The main objectives of SFURTI are to develop clusters of traditional industries in various parts of the country; build innovative and traditional skills, improve technologies and encourage public-private partnerships, develop market intelligence etc.

(viii) The District Industries Centers, (DICs)
Djstrict Industries Centre is the institution at the district level which provides all the services and support facilities to the entrepreneurs for setting up small and village industries including identification of suitable schemes, preparation of feasibility reports, arranging for credit, machinery and equipment, provision of raw materials and other extension services. This was launched on 1st May, 1978.

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Question 5.
What are the incentives provided by the Government for industries in backward and hilly areas?
Some of the common incentives provided by the Government for industries in backward and hilly areas are as follows:

(i) Land
Every state offers developed plots for setting up of industries. The terms and conditions may vary. Some states don’t charge rent in the initial years, while some allow payment in installments.

(ii) Power
Power is supplied at a concessional rate of 50%, while some states exempt such units from payment in the initial years.

(iii) Water
Water is supplied on no-profit, no-loss basis or with 50% concession or exemption from water charges for a period of 5 years.

(iv) Sales Tax In all union territories, industries are exempted from sales tax, while some states extend exemption for 5 years period.

(v) Octroi
Most states have abolished octroi.

(vi) Raw Materials
Units located in backward areas get preferential treatment in the matter of allotment of scarce raw materials like cement, iron and steel etc.

(vii) Finance
Subsidy of 10-15% is given for building capital assets. Loans are also offered at concessional rates.

(viii) Industrial Estates
Some states encourage setting up of industrial estates in backward areas.

(ix) Tax Holiday
Exemption from paying taxes for 5 or 10 years is given to industries established in backward, hilly and tribal.areas.

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1st PUC Business Studies Small Business Additional Questions And Answers

1st PUC Business Studies Small Business Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which one of the following actions by an entrepreneur is most likely to contribute to creative destruction?
A) Development of a new product
B) Take-over of a competitor
C) Issuing shares
D) Reducing prices
A) Development of a new product

Question 2.
An advantage of the small firm in the innovation process?
A) Ability to carry out R&D
B) Ability to raise finance.
C) Ability of the entrepreneur to cany out multiple tasks
D) Ability of the entrepreneur to act on new ideas or product development
D) Ability of the entrepreneur to act on new ideas or product development

Question 3.
External links may provide incentives to:
A) Raise finance
B) Introduce new working practices
C) Introduce improvements to products
D) Attend business exhibitions
C) Introduce improvements to products

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Question 4.
Firms located on science parks compared to those located off science parks are:
A) More innovative
B) Less innovative
C) No more or less innovative
D) More growth orientated
C) No more or less innovative

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Question 5.
Innovative small firms are more likely in:
A) Knowledge-based sectors
B) Biotechnology
C) Automobile manufacture
D) Aerospace manufacture
A) Knowledge-based sectors

Question 6.
Schumpeter considered that innovative entrepreneurs would:
A) Thrive
B) Disappear.
C) Be absorbed within large innovative firms
D) Be absorbed within non-innovative firms
C) Be absorbed within large innovative firms

Question 7.
Innovative entrepreneurs face special issues in raising:
A) Development capital
B) Structured capital
C) Human capital
D) Seed capital
D) Seed capital

Question 8.
Innovative entrepreneurs may have to pay high insurance premiums due to the:
A) The need to protect patients
B) Greater employee liability
C) Greater customer liability
D) Greater trading risks
A) The need to protect patients

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Question 9.
Networking by innovative entrepreneurs may be most encouraged by?
A) Science parks
B) Business incubators
C) Chambers of Commerce
D) Business associations
B) Business incubators

Question 10.
The most likely problem encountered by innovative entrepreneurs in raising, finance is:
A) Limited security since R&D is an intangible asset
B) The costs of the patenting system
C) The exhaustion of personal equity in R&D
D) Inability of potential external funders to understand technology
C) The exhaustion of personal equity in R&D

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1st PUC Business Studies Small Business Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is small business?
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular¬sized business or corporation.

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1st PUC Business Studies Small Business Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on small business.
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation. Businesses are defined as “small” in terms of being able to apply for government support and qualify the preferential tax policy varies depending on the country and industry.

Small businesses range from fifteen employees under the Australian Fair Work Act 2009, fifty employees according to the definition used by the European Union, and fewer than five hundred employees, to qualify for many U.S. Small Business Administration programs. While small businesses can also be classified according to other methods, such as annual revenues, shipments, sales, assets, or by annual gross or net revenue or net profits, the number of employees is one of the most widely used measures.

Small businesses in many countries include service or retail operations such as convenience stores, small grocery stores, bakeries or delicatessens, hairdressers or tradespeople (e.g., carpenters, electricians), restaurants, guest houses, photographers, very small-scale manufacturing, and Internet-related businesses such as web design and computer programming. Some professionals operate as small businesses, such as lawyers, accountants, dentists and medical doctors (although these professionals can also work for large organizations or companies).

Small businesses vary a great deal in terms of size, revenues and regulatory authorization, both within a country and from country to country. Some small businesses, such as a home accounting business, may only require a business license. On the other hand, other small businesses, such as day cares, retirement homes and restaurants serving liquor are more heavily regulated, and may require inspection and certification from various government authorities.

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Question 2.
Explain the characteristics of small business.
Researchers and analysts of small or owner-managed businesses generally behave as of normal organizational forms (e.g., partnership, sole-trader, or corporation), and the consequent legal and accounting boundaries of owner-managed firms are consistently meaningful. However, owner-managers often do not delineate their behavior to accord with the implied separation between their personal and business interests.

Lenders also often contract around organizational (corporate) boundaries by seeking personal guarantees or accepting privately held assets as collateral. Because of this behavior, researchers and analysts may wish to be cautious in the way they assess the organizational types and implied boundaries in contexts relating to owner-managed firms. These include analyses that use traditional accounting disclosures, and studies that view the firm as defined by some formal organizational structure.

Relationship with entrepreneurship
The term “entrepreneur” is often conflated with the term “small business” or used interchangeably with this term. While most entrepreneurial ventures start out as a small business, not all small businesses are entrepreneurial in the strict sense of the term. Many small businesses are sole proprietor operations consisting solely of the owner, or they have a small number of employees, and many of these small businesses offer an existing product, process or service, and they do not aim at growth.

In contrast, entrepreneurial ventures offer an innovative product, process or service, and the entrepreneur typically aims to scale up the company by adding employees, seeking international sales, and so on, a process which is financed by venture capital and angel. Successful entrepreneurs have the ability to lead a business in a positive direction by proper planning, to adapt to changing environments and understand their own strengths and weakness.

Size definitions
The legal definition of “small business” varies by country and by industry. In the United States, the Small Business Administration establishes small business size standards on an industry-by-industry basis, but generally specifies a small business as having fewer than five hundred employees for manufacturing businesses and less than $7.5 million in annual receipts for most non-manufacturing businesses.

The definition can vary by circumstance – for example, a small business having fewer than twenty-five full-time equivalent employees with average annual wages below $50,000 qualifies for a tax credit under the health care reform bill Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The European Union generally defines a small business as one that has fewer than fifty employees. However, in Australia, a small business is defined by the Fair Work Act 2009 as one with fewer than fifteen employees. By comparison, a medium-sized business or mid-sized

Minute/Micro 1-2 1-6 1-4 <10
Small <15 <250 1-99 <50
Medium <200 <500 100-499 <250
Large <500 <1000 >500 <1000
Enterprise >500 >1000 N/A >1000

Most cells reflect sizes not defined in legislation business has fewer than five hundred employees in the US, and fewer than two hundred in Australia. In addition to number of employees, other methods used to classify small companies include annual sales (turnover), value of assets and net profit (balance sheet), alone or in a mixed definition. These criteria are followed by the European Union, for instance (headcount, turnover, and balance sheet totals). Small businesses are usually not dominant in their field of operation.

The table below serves as a useful guide to business size nomenclature.

Business size definitions (by number of employees)
Some definitions are multi-parameter, e.g., by industry, revenue or market share Demographics According to the US 2012 Survey of Business Owners (SBO) there are: 27.6 million businesses in the United States. 9.9 million of these businesses in the United States were owned or led by a woman, representing 35.9% of overall business ownership. African Americans have a long tradition of business ownership in the United States.

Franchise businesses
Franchising is a way for small business owners to benefit from the economies of scale of the big corporation (franchiser). McDonald’s and Subway are examples of a franchise. The small business owner can leverage a strong brand name and purchasing power of the larger company while keeping their own investment affordable. However, some franchisees conclude that they suffer the “worst of both worlds” feeling they are too restricted by corporate mandates and lack true independence.

It is an assumption that small business are just franchisees, but the truth is many franchisers are also small businesses, Although considered to be a successful way of doing business, literature has proved that there is a high failure rate in franchising as well, especially in UK, where research indicates that out of 1658 franchising companies operating in 1984, only 601 remained in 1998, a mere 36%.

Retailers cooperative
A retailers’ cooperative is a type of cooperative which employs economies of scale on behalf of its retailer members. Retailers’ cooperatives use their purchasing power to acquire discounts from manufacturers and often share marketing expenses. It is common for locally owned grocery stores, hardware stores, and pharmacies to participate in retailers’ cooperatives. Ace Hardware, True Value, and NAPA are examples of a retailers’cooperative.

Question 3.
Explain the advantages of a small business.
Many small businesses can be started at a low cost and on a part-time basis, while a person continues a regular job with an employer or provides care for family members in the home. In developing countries, many small businesses are sole-proprietor operations such as selling produce at a market stall or preparing hot food to sell on the street, that provide a small income.

In the 2000s, a small business is also well suited to Internet marketing; because, it can easily serve specialized niches, something that would have been more difficult prior to the Internet revolution which began in the late 1990s. Adapting to change is crucial in business and particularly small business; not being tied to the bureaucratic inertia associated with large corporations, small businesses can respond to changing marketplace demand more quickly.

Small business proprietors tend to be in closer personal contact with their customers and clients than large corporations, as small business owners see their customers in person each week. One study showed that small, local businesses are better for a local economy than the introduction of new chain stores. By opening up new national level chain stores, the profits of locally owned businesses greatly decrease and many businesses end up failing and having to close. This creates an exponential effect. When one store closes, people lose their jobs, other businesses lose business from the failed business, and so on. In many cases, large firms displace just as many jobs, as they create.

Independence is another advantage of owning a small business. A small business owner does not have to report to a supervisor or manager. In addition, many people desire to makeJhejr own decisions, take their own risks, and reap the rewards of their efforts. Small business owners possess the flexibility and freedom to making their own decisions within the constraints imposed by economic and other environmental factors. However, entrepreneurs have to work for very long hours and understand that ultimately their customers are their bosses.

Several organizations in the United States also provide help for the small business sector, such as the Internal Revenue Service’s Small Business and Self-Employed One-Stop Resource. Small businesses (often carried out by family members) adjust quicker to the changing conditions; however, they are closed to the absorption of new knowledge and employing new labor from outside.

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Question 4.
Explain the challenges of small business.
Small businesses often face a variety of problems, some of which are related to their size. A frequent cause of bankruptcy is under capitalization. This is often a result of poor planning rather than economic conditions. It is a common “rule of thumb” that the entrepreneur should have access to a sum of money at least equal to the projected revenue for the first year of business in addition to his or her anticipated expenses.

For example, if the prospective owner thinks that he or she will generate $100,000 in revenues in the first year with $150,000 in start-up expenses, then he or she should have not less than $250,000 available. Failure to provide this level of funding for the company could leave the owner liable for all of the company’s debt should he or she end up in bankruptcy court, under the theory of under Capitalization.

In addition to ensuring that the business has enough capital, the small business owner must also be mindful of contribution margin (sales minus variable costs). To break even, the business must be able to reach a level of sales where the contribution margin equals fixed costs. When they first start out, many small business owners under-price their products to a point where even at their maximum capacity, it would be impossible to break even. Cost controls or price increases often resolve this problem.

In the United States, some of the largest concerns of small business owners are insurance costs (such as liability and health), rising energy costs, taxes, and tax compliance. In the United Kingdom and Australia, small business owners tend to be more’concerned with excessive governmental red tape.

Contracting fraud has been an ongoing problem for small businesses in the United States. Small businesses are legally obligated to receive a fair portion (23 percent) of the total value of all the government’s prime contracts as mandated by the Small Business Act of 1953. Since 2002, a series of federal investigations have found fraud, abuse, loopholes, and a lack of oversight in federal small business contracting, which has led to the diversion of billions of dollars in small business contracts to large corporations.

Another problem for many small businesses is termed the ‘Entrepreneurial Myth’ or E-Myth. The mythic assumption is that an expert in a given technical field will also, be expert at running that kind of business. Additional business management skills are needed to keep a business running smoothly. Some of this misunderstanding arises from the failure to distinguish between small business managers as entrepreneurs or

capitalists. While nearly all owner-managers of small firms are obliged to assume the role of capitalist, only a minority will act as entrepreneur. The line between an owner- manager and an entrepreneur can be defined by whether or not their business is growth oriented. In general, small business owners are primarily focused on surviving rather than growing; therefore, not experiencing the five stages of the corporate life cycle (birth, growth, maturity, revival, and decline) like an entrepreneur would.

Another problem for many small businesses is the capacity of much larger businesses to influence or sometimes determine their chances for success. Business networking and social media has been used as a major tool by small businesses in the UK, but most of them just use a “scatter-gun” approach in a desperate attempt to exploit the market which is not that successful. Over half of small firms lack a business plan, a tool that is considered one of the most important factors for a venture’s success.

Business planning is associated with improved growth prospects. Funders and investors usually require a business plan. A plan also serves as a strategic planning document for owners and CEOs, which can be used as a “bible” for decision-making An international trade survey indicated that the British share of businesses which are exporting rose from 32% in 2012 to 39% in 2013.

Although this may seem positive, in reality the growth is slow, as small business owners shy away from exporting due to actual and perceived barriers. Learning the basics of a foreign language could be the solution to open doors to new trade markets, it is a reality that not all foreign business partners speak English. China is stated to grow by 7.6% in 2013 and still sadly 95% of business owners who want to export to China have no desire and no knowledge to » learn their local language.

Bankruptcy: When small business fails, the owner may file for bankruptcy. In most cases, this can be handled through a personal bankruptcy filing. Corporations can file bankruptcy, but if .it is out of business and valuable corporate assets are likely to be repossessed by secured creditors, there is little advantage to going to the expense of a corporate bankruptcy. Many states offer exemptions for small business assets so they can continue to operate during and after personal bankruptcy.

However, corporate assets are normally not exempt; hence, it may be more difficult to continue operating an incorporated business if the owner files bankruptcy. Researchers have examined small business failures in some depth, with attempts to model the predictability of failure.

Social responsibility: Small businesses can encounter several problems, related to engaging in corporate social responsibility, due to characteristics inherent in their size. Owners of small businesses often participate heavily in the day-to-day operations of their companies. This results in a lack of time for the owner to coordinate socially responsible efforts, such as supporting local charities or not-for-profit activities.

Additionally, a small business owner’s expertise often falls outside the realm of socially responsible practices, which contribute to a lack of participation. Small businesses also face a form of peer pressure from larger forces in their respective industries, making it difficult to oppose and work against industry expectations.

Furthermore, small businesses undergo stress from shareholder expectations. Because small businesses have more personal .relationships with their patrons and local shareholders, they must also be prepared to withstand closer scrutiny if they want to share in the benefits of committing to socially responsible practices or not.

Job quality: While small businesses employ over half the workforce in the US and have been established as a main driving force behind job creation, the quality of the jobs these businesses create has been called into question. Small businesses generally employ individuals from the Secondary labour market. As a result, in the U.S., wages are 49% higher for employees of large firms. Additionally, many small businesses struggle or are unable to provide employees with benefits they would be given at larger firms. Research from the U.S. Small Business Administration indicates that employees of large firms are 17% more likely to receive benefits including salary, paid leave, paid holidays, bonuses, insurance, and retirement plans.

Both lower wages and fewer benefits combine to create a job turnover rate among U.S. small businesses that is three times higher than large firms. Employees of small businesses also must adapt to the higher failure rate of small firms, which means that they are more likely to lose their job due to the firm going under. In the U.S. 69% of small businesses last at least two years, but this percentage drops to 51% for firms reaching five years in operation.

The U.S. Small Business Administration counts companies with as much as $35.5 million in sales and 1,500 employees as “small businesses”, depending on the industry. Outside government, companies with less than $7 million in sales and fewer than five hundred employees are widely considered ’small businesses.

Question 5.
Explain the marketing relating aspects of small business.
Although small business have close relationships with their existing customers, finding new customers and reaching new markets is a major challenge for small business owners. Small businesses typically find themselves strapped for time to do marketing, as they have to run the day-to-day aspects of the business. To create a continual stream of new business and find new clients and customers, they must work on marketing their business each week.

Common marketing techniques for small business include business networking (e.g., attending Chamber of Commerce events or trade fairs), “word of mouth” promotion by existing customers, customer referrals, Yellow pages directories, television, radio, and outdoor ads (e.g., roadside billboards), print ads, and Internet marketing. TV ads can be quite expensive, so they are normally intended to create awareness of a product or service. Another means by which small businesses can advertise is through the use of “deal of the day” websites such as Groupon and Living Social. These Internet deals encourage customers to patronize small businesses.

Many small business owners find internet marketing more affordable. Google AdWords and Yahoo! Search Marketing are two popular options of getting small business products or services in front of motivated web searchers. Successful online small business marketers are also adept at utilizing the most relevant keywords in their website content. Advertising on niche websites that are frequented by potential customers can also be effective, but with the long tail of the Internet, it can be time intensive to advertise on enough websites to garner an effective reach.

Creating a business website has become increasingly affordable with many do-it- yourself programs now available for beginners. A website can provide significant marketing exposure for small businesses when marketed through the Internet and other channels.

Some popular services are WordPress, JoomlaSquarespace, and EXAI. Social media has proven to be very useful in gaining additional exposure for many small businesses. Many small business owners use Facebook and Twitter as a way to reach out to their loyal customers to give them news about specials of the day or special coupons, generate repeat business and reach out to new potential clients.

The relational nature of social media, along with its immediacy and twenty-four- hour presence lend intimacy to the relationships small businesses can have with their customers, while making it more efficient for them to communicate with greater numbers. Facebook ads are also a very cost-effective way for small businesses owners to reach a targeted audience with a very specific message.

In addition to the social networking sites, blogs have become a highly effective way for small businesses to position themselves as experts bn issues that are important to their customers. This can be done with a proprietary blog and/or by using a back-link strategy wherein the marketer comments on other blogs and leaves a link to the small business’ own website. Posting to a blog about the company’s business or service area regularly can increase web traffic to a company website.

Marketing plan
Market research – To produce a marketing plan for small businesses, research needs to be done on similar businesses, which should include desk research (done online or with directories) and field research. This gives an insight in the target group’s behavior and shopping patterns. Analyzing the competitor’s marketing strategies makes it easier for small business to gain market share.

Marketing mix – Marketing mix is a crucial factor for any business to be successful. Especially for a small business, examining a competitor’s marketing mix can be very helpful. An appropriate market mix, which uses different types of marketing, can help to boost sales.

Product life cycle – After the launch of the business, crucial points of focus should be the growth phase (adding customers, adding products or services, and/ or expanding to new markets) and working towards the maturity phase. Once the business reaches maturity stage, an extension strategy should be in place. Re-launching is also an option at this stage. Pricing strategy should be flexible and based on the different stages of the product life cycle.

Promotion techniques – It is preferable to keep promotion expenses as low as possible. ‘Word of mouth’, ‘email marketing’, ‘print-ads’ in local newspapers etc. can be effective.

Channels of distribution – Selecting an effective channel of distribution may reduce the promotional expenses as well as overall expenses for a small business.

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Question 6.
How does a small business contribute to economy?
In the US, small businesses (fewer than five hundred employees) account for more than half the non-farm, private GDP and around half the private sector employment. Regarding small business, the top job provider.is those with fewer than ten employees, and those with ten or more but fewer than twenty employees comes in as the second, and those with twenty or more but fewer than one hundred employees comes in as the third (interpolation of data from the following references). The most recent data shows firms with fewer than twenty employees account for slightly more than 18% of the employment.

According to “The Family Business Review,” “There are approximately seventeen million sole-proprietorship in the US. It can be argued that a sole-proprietorship (an unincorporated business owned by a single person) is a type of family business” and “there are twenty-two million small businesses (fewer than five hundred employees) in the US and approximately 14,000 big businesses.”

Also, it has been found that small businesses created the most new jobs in communities, “In 1979, David Birch published the first empirical evidence that small firms (fewer than 100 employees) created the most new jobs”, and Edmiston claimed that “perhaps the greatest generator of interest in entrepreneurship and small business is the widely held belief that small businesses in the United States create most new jobs.

The evidence suggests that small businesses indeed create a substantial majority of net new jobs in an average year.” Local businesses provide competition to each other and also challenge corporate giants. Of the 5,369,068 employer firms in 1995, 78.8 percent had fewer than ten employees, and 99.7 percent had fewer than five hundred employees.

Question 7.
What are the sources of funding for small business?
Small businesses use various sources available for start-up capital:

  • Self-financing by the owner through cash savings, equity loan on his or her home, and or other assets
  • Loans or financial gifts from friends or relatives
  • Grants from private foundations, government or other sources
  • Private stock issue
  • Forming partnerships
  • Angel investors
  • Loans from banks, credit unions, or other financial institutions
  • SME finance, including collateral-based lending and venture capital, given sufficiently sound business venture plans.

Some small businesses are further financed through credit card debt – usually a poor choice, given that the interest rate on credit cards is often several times the rate that would be paid on a line of credit at a bank or a bank loan. Recent research suggests that the use of credit scores in small business lending by community banks is surprisingly widespread.

Moreover, the scores employed tend to be the consumer credit scores of the small business owners rather than the more encompassing small business credit scores that include data on the firms as well as on the owners. Many owners seek a bank loan in the name of their business; however, banks will usually insist on a personal guarantee by the business owner.

In the United States, the Small Business Administration (SBA) runs several loan programs that may help a small business secure loAnswer: In these programs, the SBA – guarantees a portion of the loan to the issuing bank, and thus, relieves the bank of some of the risk of extending the loan to a small business. The SBA also requires business owners to pledge personal assets and sign as a personal guarantee for the loan.

The 8(a) Business Development Program assists in the development of small businesses owned and operated by African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. Canadian small businesses can take advantage of federally funded programs and services. See Federal financing for small businesses in Canada (grants and loans).

On October 2010, Alejandro Cremades and Tanya Prive founded the first equity crowdfunding platform for small businesses in history as an alternative source of financing. The platform operates under the name of Rock The Post.

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Question 8.
Explain Business networks and advocacy groups.
Small businesses often join or come together to form organizations to advocate for their causes or to achieve economies of scale that larger businesses benefit from, such as the opportunity to buy cheaper health insurance in bulk. These organizations include local or regional groups such as Chambers of Commerce and independent business alliances, as well as national or international industry-specific organizations.

Such groups often serve a dual purpose, as business networks to provide marketing and connect members to potential sales leads and suppliers, and also as advocacy groups, bringing together many small businesses to provide a stronger voice in regional or national politics. In the case of independent business alliances, promoting the value of locally owned, independent business (not necessarily small) through public education campaigns is integral to their work.

The largest regional small business group in the United States is the Council of Smaller Enterprises, located in Greater Cleveland. United Kingdom trade and Investment (www.ukti.gov.ih) gives out research in different markets around the world, also research in program planning and promotional activities to exporters. The BEXA (British Exporters Association) role is to connect new exporters to expert services, it can provide details about regional export contacts, who could be made informally to discuss issues.

Trade associations and ail major banks could often provide links to international groups in foreign markets, seme could also help set up joint venture, trade fairs etc. A number of youth organizations, including 4-H, Junior Achievement, and Scouting have special interactive programs and training to help young people run their own small business under adult supervision.

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