1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers

You can Download Chapter 1 Overview of Computers Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers

1st PUC Computer Science Overview of Computers One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is a computer?
Answer:
Computer is defined as an electronic machine used for storing, processing and analysing data or information as per a set of instructions given to it by humans

Question 2.
What is computer hardware?
Answer:
The physical components of a computer are called the hardware.

Question 3.
Define program.
Answer:
A computer program is a sequence of logical actions or instructions.

Question 4.
Define programming.
Answer:
A program must contain instructions in a precise order. To organize and write these instructions in a logical order is called Programming.

Question 5.
Define software.
Answer:
A group of programs that are put into a computer to operate and control its activities are called the “software”.

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Question 6.
How is the input unit useful to the computer?
Answer:
The user enters the program and data into the computer through the input unit.

Question 7.
that is the main function of the CPU?
Answer:
The main function of the CPU is to translate the program instructions and carry out those instructions in a sequence.

Question 8.
What is the function of ALU?
Answer:
ALU unit performs all the arithmetic calculations and logical operations involved in the program

Question 9.
What is the task of the output unit?
Answer:
The output unit receives information from the CPU and presents it to the user in the desired form.

Question 10.
Define computer memory.
Answer:
The working place in the computer where all the data and instructions are stored is called the memory.

Question 11.
What are the registers?
Answer:
It is a temporary storage location of the CPU.

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Question 12.
Name any two output devices.
Answer:
Two output devices are Visual Display Unit (VDU) and Printer.

Question 13.
Name the oldest computing tool.
Answer:
Abacus is the oldest computing tool.

Question 14.
What is the contribution of Prof. John Napier in the field of computers?
Answer:
John Napier invented a calculating device which is a set of 9 marked rods called “Napier

Question 15.
Name the device invented by William Oughtrcd to do computations.
Answer:
The device invented by William Oughtred for computations is the “slide rule”.

Question 16.
Who is the inventor of Pascaline?
Answer:
A French philosopher Blaise Pascal invented “Pascaline” the first mechanical calculator.

Question 17.
Who invented Jacquard loom?
Answer:
Joseph Mary Jacquard invented Jacquard loom.

Question 18.
Who is the father of the computer?
Answer:
Charles Babbage is known as the father of the computer.

Question 19.
Who invented the difference engine?
Answer:
Charles Babbage invented the difference engine.

Question 20.
Who is the first computer programmer?
Answer:
Lady Ada Lovelace was the first computer programmer.

Question 21.
Where was Herman Hollerith machine was used?
Answer:
Herman Hollerith machine was used in a faster way to process the US census in a faster way in the year 1890.

Question 22.
What is the earlier name of IBM?
Answer:
Tabulating Machine Company.

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Question 23.
Expand IBM.
Answer:
International Business Machine

Question 24.
Expand the term ENIAC.
Answer:
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator.

Question 25.
Expand the term EDVAC.
Answer:
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer.

Question 26.
Who developed the stored program concept?
Answer:
John von Neumann developed the stored program concept.

Question 27.
Expand the term UNIVAC.
Answer:
UNIVersal Automatic Computer.

Question 28.
Name the main electronic component used in I generation computer systems.
Answer:
“Vacuum Tube” was the main electronic component used in the first generation computer system.

Question 29.
Name the language used in the first generation of computers.
Answer:
Machine language was used in the first generation of computers.

Question 30.
What is the processing speed of first-generation computers?
Answer:
The processing speed of first-generation computers was in milliseconds.

Question 31.
Name the main electronic component used in II generation computer, systems.
Answer:
The main electronic component of second-generation computer systems was a transistor.

Question 32.
What is the processing speed of Second-generation computers?

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Answer:
The processing speed of Second-generation computers was in microseconds.

Question 33.
Expand the terms COBOL and FORTRAN.
Answer:
Common Business Oriented Language and Formula Translation.

Question 34.
Name the main electronic component used in III generation computer systems.
Answer:
Integrated Circuit chips were the main electronic components used in the third generation computers.

Question 35.
What is the processing speed of third-generation computers?
Answer:
Nanoseconds are the processing speed of third-generation computers.

Question 36.
Name the main electronic component used in IV generation computer systems.
Answer:
LSICs and VLSICs are the electronic components used in IV generation computer systems.

Question 37.
What is the processing speed of fourth-generation computers?
Answer:
Pico seconds is the processing speed of fourth generation computers.

Question 38.
What is a microprocessor?
Answer:
The CPU of a computer system in which thousands of integrated circuits are built onto a single silicon chip is called a microprocessor.

Question 39.
What is the working principle of an analog computer?
Answer:
The working principle of an analog computer is by measuring rather than counting.

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Question 40.
What is the working principle of a digital computer?
Answer:
The working principle of a digital computer is counting.

Question 41.
What are the workstation computers?
Answer:
High-performance, single-user computers typically used for graphics, CAD, software development and scientific applications.

Question 42.
Expand the term PDA.
Answer:
Personal Digital Assistants.

Question 43.
What is a tablet computer?
Answer:
It is a general-purpose computer contained in a single panel in which a touch screen is used as the input device.

Question 44.
What do you mean by a wearable computer?
Answer:
The wearable computing devices are body-worn computers such as wrist-attached devices that compute distance and heart rate etc.,

1st PUC Computer Science Overview of Computers Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What are the capabilities of a computer?
Answer:

  • Computers can perform complex and repetitive calculations rapidly and accurately.
  • Computers can store large amounts of data and information for subsequent manipulations.

Question 2.
Mention the main characteristics of a computer.
Answer:
The main characteristics of a computer are speed, storage capacity, accuracy, and diligence.

Question 3.
What are the essential components of a computer?
Answer:
Input units, CPU and output units are the essential components of a computer.

Question 4.
Write the important units of CPU.
Answer:
The important units of CPU are ALU, Control unit, Registers/Memory unit.

Question 5.
How the Leibniz invented machine is different from Pascals invented Pascaline?
Answer:
The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invented the machine had addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division calculators whereas Pascaline had only an addition calculator.

Question 6.
What is the stored program concept? Who developed it?
Answer:
A stored-program concept is one in which program and data are stored in the main memory and then the processor fetches instructions and executes them, one after another. It was developed by von Neumann.

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Question 7.
Write the names of any two First generation computers.
Answer:
ENIAC, EDSAC

Question 8.
Mention any two disadvantages of the first generation computers.
Answer:
Too big in size and very slow in speed.

Question 9.
Write any two important features of the second-generation system.
Answer:

  • Use of symbolic or assembly language.
  • Introduction of early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN which were high-level languages.

Question 10.
Name any two computers developed in the second generation.
Answer:
IBM 70, Honeywell 400

Question 11.
Mention the two computer languages of the second generation computers.
Answer:
COBOL and FORTRAN

Question 12.
What are the two important features of the third generation system?
Answer:

  • The development of the integrated circuits.
  • The users interacted with computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system.

Question 13.
Name any two computers developed in the third generation system.
Answer:
IBM 360, PDP 8 Series.

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Question 14.
Write any two important features of fourth generation computers.
Answer:

  • The microprocessor was introduced in the fourth generation computers,
  • They could be linked together to form networks.

Question 15.
Give the name of any two latest processors available in the market.
Answer:
Intel core i9 5 generation and AMD’s FX processors

Question 16.
What is the main difference between microcomputer and minicomputer?
Answer:
The main difference is microcomputers are single-user computers and mini-computers are multi-user computers.

Question 17.
How mainframe computers are different from supercomputers?
Answer:
Mainframe computers are used in business process applications and supercomputers are used in scientific applications and calculations.

Question 18.
Give the application of hybrid computers.
Answer:
Hybrid computers are used in Process control (industries) and Robotics.

Question 19.
How computers are useful in education? Mention any two uses.
Answer:
Using Computer Aided Learning (CAL) & Computer Based Training

  • Students can readily learn and get new skills at their own convenient speed.
  • Students can get timely and high-quality training on demand.
  • Students can solve different kinds of problems quickly and efficiently, by using computers.

Question 20.
Give the application of computers in industries.
Answer:

  • Computers are used to control machines and the continuous running of machinery.
  • A robot is an automatic programmable machine and can be used in hundreds of applications like assembling and spray painting of cars etc.

Question 21.
What are the advantages of computers in business?
Answer:

  • Office paperwork is reduced by using computers.
  • Many businesses use websites to sell their products and contact their customers.
  • Computerized banking saves time and is convenient for the customer.

Question 22.
Explain the uses of computers in the entertainment and multimedia field.
Answer:

  • Nowadays, the computer can be used to watch television programs on the Internet. People can also watch movies, listen to music and play games on the computer.
  • Multimedia is used to develop special effects in movies and animations.

Question 23.
What are the uses of computers in the field of science and technology?
Answer:

  • A flight simulation can be used to train pilots and how to deal with critical situations.
  • Computer-based weather forecasting collects accurate data from many devices all around the world to predict more reliable weather forecasts.

1st PUC Computer Science Overview of Computers Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Briefly explain the characteristics of a computer.
Answer:
1. Speed:
Computers are fast in doing calculations. The speed of the computer is measured in terms of No. of million instructions per second (MIPS).

2. Storage Capacity:
Computers come with a very large amount of memory space. They can hold a lot of data. Computers can extract a particular piece of information from a large amount of available data within a very short time.

3. Diligence:
After doing work for some time, humans become tired but computers do not become tired. They work continuously. In fact, Computers which control telephone exchanges, are never shut down. This is called diligence.

4. Accuracy:
The results that the computers produce are accurately provided that the input data and programs are reliable.

Question 2.
Write a short note on the history of computers.
Answer:
1. Abacus:
The abacus was an early tool for mathematical computations. A skilled abacus user can work on addition and subtraction problems at the speed of a calculator. The abacus is still in use today.

2. Napier Bones:
John Napier invented logarithms, where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks which are now called Napier’s Bones.

3. Slide Rule:
Napier bones were modified by Edmund Guntur in the year 1620. It consists of a ruler and a sliding piece both marked with logarithmic values. It was further modified by William Oughtred.

4. Pascal’s calculating machine:
The first successful mechanical calculator was constructed by Pascal in 1642.

5. Leibnitz’s Machine:
It is the modified form of Pascal’s machine.

6. Charles Babbage’s Machine:
In 1833, Charles Babbage invented Charles Babbage Machine. He is known as the “Father of Computers”.

7. Census Machine:
This machine was devised by Dr. Hermann Hollerith for tabulating the 1980 US. Census.

8. Jacquard Loom:
A weaving machine invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in the beginning of the 19th century.

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Question 3.
Draw the schematic block diagram of a computer showing its essential components. Discuss the function of each component.
Answer:
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 1
1. Input Unit:
It is a device through which we enter the program and data into the computer. The data is then stored and processed with the help of programs.

2. Central Processing Unit:
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of three units namely, the control unit, the arithmetic, and the logic unit and the memory unit.

3. Control Unit:
This unit is considered to be the nervous system of the computer. It controls all the arithmetic operations to be performed. It also coordinates the functions of all the hardware units of the computer.

4. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU):
This unit performs all the arithmetic calculations and logical operations involved in the program.

5. Memory Unit:
The function of this unit is to store the data and the set of instructions given by the programmer. The computation results are also stored in the memory and they may be used for subsequent computations or sent to the output unit.

6. Output Devices:
Output devices receive information from the CPU and present it to the user in the desired form. Some common output devices are a visual display unit (VDU), Printer, etc.

Question 4.
Write a short note on the first generation of computers.
Answer:
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 2

  1. The first computers used vacuum tubes for electronic circuitry and magnetic drums for memory.
  2. They were very expensive to operate and the power consumption was high, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.
  3. First-generation computers were communicated through machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time.
  4. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.
  5. UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.

Advantages:

  • For Calculation and computation.
  • Payroll Processing
  • Record keeping

Disadvantages:

  • Required a huge space
  • Too big in size
  • Very slow in speed
  • Low level of accuracy and reliability
  • Low storage capacity
  • High power consumption
  • High heat generation
  • Used machine language
  • Difficult to maintain
  • Fault finding was very difficult

Question 5.
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 3

Explain second generation computers in detail.
Answer:
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 4

  1. In the second generation computers, symbolic or assembly languages were used.
  2. High-level programming languages were also in use at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN.
  3. The memory storage used was magnetic core technology.
  4. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.

Advantages:

  • Smaller in size
  • Better speed
  • Low power consumption
  • No heat was generated.
  • Better storage capacity
  • More reliability
  • Compact Design
  • Faster than I Generation Computers.

Disadvantages:

  • Needed Air conditioning environment
  • Constant maintenance needed.
  • No operating system.

Question 6.

Model

Manufacturer

IBM 70,1400,1600 IBM
Honeywell 400,800 Honeywell
UNIVAC III, 5590, 1107 UNIVAC

Write a short note on the third generation computers.
Answer:
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 5

  1. The development of the integrated circuit was made used in third-generation computers. Transistors were miniaturized and were placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors.
  2. The processing speed and efficiency of computers increased.
  3. Keyboards and monitors were used as input and output devices.
  4. The computer system had an operating system and helped to run multiple applications simultaneously. Computers gained a lot of popularity because of small size and low cost.

Advantages:

  • Better than first and second-generation computers
  • Used high level language
  • Size got reduced further
  • Speed got increased
  • Much better performance
  • Much more reliability

Disadvantages:

  • Initial problem with Manufactures.

Question 7.

Models

Manufacturer

IBM 360, 370 Series IBM
PDP 8 Series Digital Equipment
Spectra 70 Series RCA
UNIVAC 1108,9000 UNIVAC

Explain fourth generation computers in detail.
Answer:
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 6

  1. The microprocessor was used in the fourth generation computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
  2. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer – from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls – on a single chip.
  3. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.
  4. Network technology was introduced at this time. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

Advantages

  • Speed and Reliability are more
  • Computer occupies every walks of life.
  • More superior to earlier computers.
  • Computer-aided Design introduced (CAD)
  • LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide area network) got introduced

Question 8.

Models

Manufacturer

Apple Series APPLE
M 68000 Motorola
8086, Z 8000 Intel
DEC 10, STAR 1000 Digital Equipment
3033 IBM

Explain the classification of computers based on size, speed, and performance.
Answer:
Micro Computers:
Computers using Microprocessors are called Micro Computers. This is the smallest general-purpose processing system. These computers are designed for use by a single person at a time.

  • They brought revolution in the history of computers.
  • They are also known as Personal Computers.
  • They are cheap and user-friendly.
  • The main components are Monitor, CPU, Keyboard, Mouse, Speakers, Modem and Printer.
  • They are used as desktops either in offices or even homes.
  • Their operation can be easily learned by anyone having some basic logical aptitude.
  • Children enjoy playing games & watching movies on these computers.
  • The most popular micro computer’s processing chip manufacturing company is Intel.

Mini Computers:
These are medium-sized computers that are costlier but powerful than a microcomputer. A mini-computer is usually designed to serve more than one user simultaneously. These computers need less power and less cooling arrangement. Up to 8 users can use the system simultaneously, all of them running their own programs.

  • They have less memory & storage capacity than mainframe computers.
  • Only a limited range of softwares can be used by them.
  • The end users can directly operate on them.
  • They are used for data processing

Super Computers:
The supercomputer is the largest, fastest and most expensive mainframe computer. Their computing speed is 10 times faster than any other type of computer. These computers are capable of executing more than 10,000 million instructions per second and have storage capacities of millions of bits per chip.

  • They are huge computers installed in space centres, nuclear power stations, etc.
  • They are used for performing complex mathematical calculations.
  • Only scientists and mathematicians can operate them.
  • They are having huge memories & tremendous processing speed.
  • They are used in the fields of electronics, petroleum engineering, weather forecasting, structural analysis, chemistry, medicine, and physics.

Question 9.
Explain the use of computers in the field of business.
Answer.
All business firms do certain business tasks on a daily basis like generating customer bills, studying sales of various products at different locations, etc., using computers. There are many departments like sales, purchase, finance, etc., is big business firms. These departments are involved in different business tasks which are large in volume and huge storage space is required and computers are used in such places.
1. Marketing:
Marketing applications provide information about the products, their distribution, advertising and selling activities.

2. Stock Exchanges:
The stock market uses a computerized system that makes it possible for stockbrokers and customers to do all their trading electronically. Brokers connect to stock exchanges using the internet and do the buying and selling of shares online. Money transfer is done electronically.

3. Banks:
Computerized banking saves time for the customer. Cheques are read by MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader, a device used to allow the data on cheques to be read by machines). Banks use computers to maintain their customer’s accounts and their transaction details. Customers can also use internet banking to transfer money. Money can be withdrawn from any ATM’s any time.

4. Departmental Stores:
At departmental stores, cashiers enter sales data by waving a bar code scanner. Bar codes are read by bar code readers that translate the bar code symbols into digital forms. The price of a particular item is set with the store’s computer and appears on the computer and billing is done automatically. The report of purchases, sales and stock are generated using computers. Security cameras are used and continuous recording using DVR is widely used in departmental stores and other locations to monitor home or business operations to ensures security and safety.

5. E-Commerce:
E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the buying, selling, and exchanging of products, services, and information via computer network/internet. It promotes online buying and selling of goods and services. A buyer can buy products using a computer connected to the internet sitting anywhere in the world at any time of the day.

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Question 10.
Write a short note on the different types of latest personal computers.
Answer:
The personal computer (PC) means “a computer designed for general use by a single person”. PCs were first known as microcomputers.
1. Workstation:
A workstation is simply a desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of tasks, such as 3D Graphics or game development.

2. Desktop computer:
A PC that set up in a permanent location and is not movable is called desktop computer. Most desktops offer more processing power, speed, and storage for less cost but the size is relatively big.

3. Laptop:
Also called notebooks, laptops are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.

4. Netbook:
Netbooks are ultra-portable computers that are even smaller than laptops. They are cheaper than a laptop but internal components are less powerful than those in regular laptops.

5. PDA:
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on touch screen technology for user input. PDAs are typically smaller, very lightweight with a reasonable battery life. A slightly larger and heavier version of the PDA is the handheld computer.

6. Server:
A server computer is designed to provide services to other computers over Servers usually have powerful processors, lots of memory space and large hard drives are costlier compared to any other type of personal computers.

7. Wearable Computer:
The latest trend in computing is wearable computers. Most common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches, cell phones, and even clothing.

Question 11.
Explain generations of computer in detail.
Answer:
First-generation computers
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 7
The first computers used vacuum tubes for electronic circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. They were very expensive to operate their electricity consumption was high and they generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.
First-generation computers were communicated through machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time.
Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.
Advantages:

  • For Calculation and computation.
  • Payroll Processing
  • Record keeping

Disadvantages:

  • Required a huge space
  • Too big in size
  • Very slow in speed
  • Low level of accuracy and reliability
  • Low storage capacity
  • High power consumption
  • High heat generation
  • Used machine language
  • Difficult to maintain
  • Fault finding was very difficult

Second Generation Computers1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 8

1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 9

  1. In second-generation computers symbolic or assembly languages were used.
  2. High-level programming languages were also in use at this time, such as the early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN.
  3. The memory storage used magnetic core technology.
  4. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.

Advantages:

  • Smaller in size
  • Better speed
  • Low power consumption
  • No heat was generated.
  • Better storage capacity
  • More reliability
  • Compact Design
  • Faster than I Generation Computers.

Disadvantages:

  • Needed Air conditioning environment
  • Constant maintenance needed.
  • No operating system.

 

Model Manufacturer
IBM 70, 1400, 1600 IBM
Honeywell 400,800 Honeywell
UNIVAC 111,5590, 1107 UNIVAC

Third Generation Computers
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 10

  1. The development of the integrated circuit was made use of in the third generation of computers.
  2. Transistors were miniaturized and were placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors.
  3. The processing speed and efficiency of computers increased.
  4. Keyboards and monitors were used as input and output devices.
  5. The computer system had an operating system and helped to run multiple applications simultaneously. Computers gained a lot of popularity because of small size and low cost.

Advantages:

  • Better than first and second-generation computers
  • Used high-level language
  • Size got reduced further
  • Speed got increased
  • Much better performance
  • Much more reliability

Disadvantages:

  • Initial problem with Manufactures.

 

Model Manufacturer
IBM 360,370 Series IBM
PDP 8 Series Digital Equipment
Spectra 70 Series RCA
UNIVAC 1108,9000 UNIVAC

Fourth Generation Computers
1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Overview of Computers 11

  1. The microprocessor was used in fourth the generation computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
  2. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls on a single chip.
  3. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.
  4. Network technology was introduced at this time. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

Advantages:

  • Speed and Reliability are more
  • Computer occupies every walks of life.
  • More superior to earlier computers.
  • Computer-aided Design introduced (CAD)
  • LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide area network) got introduced

 

Model

Manufacturer

Apple Series APPLE
M 68000 Motorola
8086, Z 8000 Intel
DEC 10, STAR 1000 Digital Equipment
3033 IBM

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
Write a note on the classification of computers in detail.
Answer:
Based on operating principles, computers can be classified into 3 types. They are,

  1. Digital Computers
  2. Analog computers
  3. Hybrid computers

1. Digital computers:
They operate essentially by counting. All quantities are expressed as discrete digits or numbers. Digital computers are useful for evaluating arithmetic expressions and the manipulation of data. The majority of the computers used in the world today are digital.
2. Analog Computers:
They operate by measuring rather than counting. The computer functions by establishing similarities between two quantities that are usually expressed as voltages or currents. Analog computers are powerful tools to solve differential equations.
3. Hybrid Computers:
Computers which combine features of both analog and digital type are called hybrid computers.

Computers are also classified in terms of speed, accuracy, word length and storage capacity. Computers are also available in different sizes and with different capabilities. Broadly, they may be categorised as microcomputers, mini, mainframe, and supercomputers.
1. Micro Computers:
Computers using Microprocessors are called Microcomputers. This is the smallest general-purpose processing system usually designed for use by a single person at a time.

2. Mini Computers:
These are medium-sized computers that are costlier and powerful than a microcomputer. An important distinction between a micro and a minicomputer is that a mini-computer is usually designed to serve multiple users simultaneously. This type of computers need less power and less cooling arrangements. Up to 8 users can use the system simultaneously, running their own individual programs.

3. Super Computers:
The supercomputer is the largest, fastest and most expensive mainframe computer. It is normally used by large business organisations that require an extraordinary amount of computing power. Their computing speed is 10 times faster than any other type of computer. These computers are capable of executing more than 10,000 million instructions per second and have storage capacities of millions of bits per chip.
Normally, the supercomputer is used for solving or handling large scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering fields. These include applications in electronics, petroleum engineering, weather forecasting, structural analysis, chemistry, medicine, and physics.

Question 13.
Explain the importance and usage of computers in different fields.
Ans.
Businesses. Computers help businesses to predict future sales, profits, costs, etc. making companies more accurate in their accounts. Businessmen make bar graphs and pie charts from numerical figures. Firms can store large amounts of data in less space. Many business application software like tally, ms-word, excel are useful in processing business transactions easily.
1. Buildings:
Architects use computer-animated graphics to give their clients a visual walk¬through of their proposed buildings. Computers provide architects many facilities to create different buildings with greater accuracy, better designing, and editing tools, and get the work ‘ done at the fastest speed possible.

2. Education:
Computers are used in classrooms to teach different subjects. It has been proved that learning with computers has been more successful and many forms of new teaching methods have been introduced. This enriches the knowledge of the student at a much faster speed. Likewise, Colleges and various Universities use computers as many educators prefer ‘learning by doing’ method – an approach uniquely suited to the computer.

3. Departmental stores:
Products from salt to grains are packed with zebra-striped bar codes that can be read by the computer scanners at supermarket checkout stands to determine prices. Thus, a detailed bill can be generated, which is useful for both the customer and the retail store.

4. Energy:
Energy companies use computers to locate oil, coal, natural gas and uranium. Electric companies use computers to monitor vast power networks. In addition, meter readers use handheld computers to record how much energy is used each month in homes and offices and generate bills.

5. Transportation:
Computers are used in cars to monitor fluid levels, temperatures, and electrical systems. Computers are also used in the air control traffic systems, where computers are used to control the flow of traffic between airplanes.

6. Banks:
Computers speed up record-keeping and allow banks to offer same-day services and even do-it-yourself banking over the phone and internet.

7. Agriculture:
Farmers use small computers to help with billing, crop information, and cost per acre, feed combinations, and market price checks apart from specific weather forecasts.

8. Entertainment:
Computers can be used to watch television programs on the Internet. People can also watch movies, listen to music and play games on the computer. Many computer games and other entertainment materials of different kinds are available on the Internet.

9. Home:
At home, the computer is used to maintain personal records and to access a lot of information on the Internet. People can also use the computer at home for making home budgets etc.

10. Medical:
Computers are used for maintaining patient history & other records. They are also used for patient monitoring and diagnosis of diseases etc.

Question 14.
Explain the role of computers in the education field.
Answer:
Students use computers for simple word processing that is, to type reports and other documents and to print out the results. This application allows students to revise and edit easily. A computer makes it much easier to redraft a sentence and produce a new printout when compared with producing a handwritten copy.

Encyclopedias and other reference works are available on CD-ROMs, which can be searched by students using the computers at their classroom or school library. Computer-aided instruction (CA1).Interactive programs provide practice in such basic skills as spelling, math computation, and word recognition.

Internet and World Wide Web are a source of information resources that students may access, using their computers at school or at home. Computers are used in running School and College administrations, during the admission procedures, storing of official and student records. They are also used in syllabus planning and decision-making, controlling.

Computers are helpful in directing aptitude tests and achievement tests, at the time of entrance exams. They also process records of salaries, examinations, schemes of examination, printing of papers and question papers, evaluation of answer sheets, mark sheets, and certificates.

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