1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers

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Karnataka 1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers

Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100


  1. Write the question numbers legibly in the margin.
  2. Answer for a question should be continuous.

Section – A

I. Choose the correct answer: ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 1.
Scarcity is the root of
(a) All economic problems
(b) Social problems
(c) Political problems
(d) All problems
(a) All economic problems.

Question 2.
A histogram is a
(a) One dimensional diagram
(b) Three dimensional diagram
(c) Two dimensional diagram
(d) Four dimensional diagram
(c) Two dimensional diagram

Question 3.
In India, Census is carried out once in _________.
(a) 5 years
(b) 1 year
(c) 10 years
(d) 2 years
(c) 10 years.

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Question 4.
Poverty line separates
(a) Poor and non-poor
(b) Poor and weak
(c) Rich and non-rich
(d) None of the above
(a) Poor and non-poor.

Question 5.
Workers who own and operate an enterprises to earn their livelihood is called
(a) Ministers
(b) Self-employees
(c) Public servant
(d) Government doctor
(b) Self-employees.

II. Fill in the blanks: ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 6.
Body of the table contains _________.
actual data.

Question 7.
Index numbers are expressed in _________.

Question 8.
RBI regulates _________ sector.

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Question 9.
Indian system of medicines includes _________ systems.

Question 10.
Thermal power plants emit large quantities of _________.
carbon dioxide.

III. Match the following: ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 11.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 1
1 – c
2 – e
3 – d
4 – a
5 – b

IV. Answer the following questions in a word sentence: ( 1 × 5 = 5 )

Question 12.
What is dispersion?
Dispersion refers to the extent to which values in a distribution differ from the average of the distribution.

Question 13.
Why do we need statistical tools?
Statistical tools are needed in our daily life and are used in the analysis of data pertaining to economic activities such as production, consumption, distribution, banking and insurance, trade, transport, etc.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
Who introduced the great Proletarian Cultural Revolution?
The Chinese Leader Mao introduced the great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

Question 15.
What is seasonal unemployment?
Seasonal unemployment is a situation where people get employment only during a particular season. For example, agricultural workers get jobs only during the rainy season.

Question 16.
What type of economic system is followed in Pakistan?
Mixed economic system is being followed in Pakistan.

Section – B

V. Answer any four of the following questions in four sentence each. ( 2 × 4 = 8 )

Question 17.
Write any two qualities of a good questionnaire.

  • Questionnaire should not be too long
  • Questionnaire should be precise and clear

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Question 18.
Differentiate between inclusive and exclusive methods of classification.
Exclusive method: Under this method. the classes are formed in such a way that the upper class limit of one class will be equal to the lower class limit of the next class. Here the continuity of the data is maintained. This method is most suitable in case of data of a continuous variable. For example, among class intervals 10-20 and 20-30, 20 is included in the next class interval i.e., 20-30 and not in 10-20.

Inclusive method: Under this method, upper class limit is included in a class interval. So here, both upper class limit and lower class limit are parts of the class interval.

In the above example, if we take the class interval 10-19, the lower limit, 10 and the upper 19 are included in the class interval 10-19. If we consider the class intervals as marks of students, the marks scored by students between 10 and 19 falls in this class interval. If a student secures 20, it falls in the next class interval.

Question 19.
How can you obtain the frequency curve?
The frequency curve is obtained by drawing a smooth freehand curve passing through the points of the frequency polygon as closely as possible. It may not necessarily pass through all the points of the frequency polygon, but it passes through them as closely as possible.

Question 20.
Calculate the value of the median from the following figures.
X: 5, 7, 9, 12, 11, 8, 7, 15, 25.
We need to put in ascending order
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 2

Question 21.
Give the meanings of the two types of correlation.
The two types of correlation are as follows:

1. Negative correlation: The correlation is said be negative when the variables move in opposite directions.
Example: When the price of tomato increases, the demand for tomato decreases. More is the time spent for studies, less are the chances of failure.

2. Positive correlation: The correlation is said to be positive when the variables move together in the same direction.

  • When our income increases, our consumption also increases.
  • When there is a rise in temperature, there will be an increase in the sales of cool drinks.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 22.
Name the first four steps in developing a project.
Following are the four steps in developing a project:

  1. Identifying a problem or an area of study.
  2. Collection of data.
  3. Choice of target group.
  4. Organisation and presentation of data.

VI. Answer any five of the following questions in four sentence each. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 23.
What were the infrastructure facilities developed during colonial rule?
The main infrastructure facilities developed during colonial rule were railways, ports, water transport, posts and telegraphs. However, the real motive behind this development what not to provide basic amenities to the people, but to observe various colonial interests.

Question 24.
List the features of the poorest households.
Starvation and hunger are the main features of the poorest households. They do not possess any assets. They live in slums and some sleep in public places. In rural areas. they are landless labourers. Many do not get even two meals a day. They lack basic literacy and skills and have limited economic opportunities.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
What are the various forms of health expenditure?
The various forms of health expenditures are as follows:

  • Preventive medicine (vaccination).
  • Curative medicine (medical intervention during illness).
  • Social medicine (spread of health awareness).
  • Provision of clean drinking water and good sanitation.

Question 26.
Give the meaning of rural development.
Rural development means improvement of the socioeconomic lives of rural people by providing basic infrastructures which make them to engage in productive activities. In simple words, the term rural development refers to the overall development of the rural economy.

Question 27.
Who are all included in labour force?
All those who are engaged in economic activities, in whatever capacity-high or low are called workers. Even if some of them temporarily abstain from work due to illness, injury or other physical disability, bad weather, festivals, social or religious functions are also workers. Apart from these, the labour force also consists of those who help the main workers and other self- employed workers.

Question 28.
How does infrastructure help the modern economy?

  • It is the support system for the efficient working of the industrial sector.
  • It encourages speedy development of agricultural sector.

The agriculture and industry largely depend on infrastructure. Transportation of seeds, pesticides, fertilizers and the produce using modem roadways, railways and shipping facilities help in development of agriculture which leads to the development of the economy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 29.
Mention any four strategies to achieve sustainable development.

  • Utilisation of non-conventional sources of energy.
  • Use of liquified petroleum gas and gobar gas in rural areas.
  • Use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in public transport.
  • Use of solar energy.
  • Practice of traditional knowledge in healthcare and other fields.

Section – C

VII. Answer any three of the following questions in twelve sentence each. ( 3 × 4 = 12 )

Question 30.
Briefly explain how statistics helps to study economics.
Statistics plays a very important role in the field of economics. It helps in study of economics in many ways:
1. It helps to understand economic problems: By using various statistical tools, effort is being made to find the causes behind the economic problems with the help of qualitative and the quantitative facts. Once the causes of a problem are identified. it is easier to formulate certain policies to tackle them.

2. It enables an economist to present economic facts in a precise and definite form: Statistics help the economists to present economic facts with accuracy. It also helps in proper comprehension of that is stated in the subject matter. When economic facts are expressed in statistical terms. they become exact. Exact facts are more convincing than vague statements. For instance, saying 350 people have died in Kashmir unrest since 2000. is more accurate than saying that a lot of people have died in the unrest.

3. Helps in condensing mass data into a few numerical measures: Statistics condenses the mass data into a few numerical measures like mean, variance, correlation, etc. These numerical measures help to summarise data. For example, it would be impossible to remember the income of all the people of a country. But we can remember average income i.e., per capita income.

4. It is used to find relationships between different economic factors: An economist may be interested in finding out what happens to the demand for a commodity when its price changes or what will be impact on inflation, when the government has more budget deficits. Such situations can be dealt, if any relationship exists between the various economic factors. Here, the nature of relationship can be studied with the help of statistical tools.

5. It helps in formulation of plans and policies: Sometimes, formulating plans and policies require the knowledge of future trends. For instance, an economic planner has to decide in 2010 how much the economy should produce in 2016-17. In other words, one must know what could be the expected level of consumption in 2016-17. So. the statistical tools to predict consumption in 2016-17 could be based on the data of consumption of past years obtained by surveys.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
Do samples provide better results than the surveys? Give reason for your answer.
Yes, samples survey provide better results than census. A sample refers to a group or section of the population from which information is to be obtained. A good sample is generally smaller than the population and is capable of providing ‘ reasonably accurate information about the population at a much lower cost and shorter time.

Suppose you want to study the average income of people in a particular state, according to the census method, we need to find out the income of every individual in the region, add them up and divide by number of individuals to get the average income of people in the state. This method would require huge expenditure, as a large number of investigators are to be employed.

Alternatively, if a representative sample of few individuals is selected from the state to find their income, it saves time, money and energy in the process of determination of income.

To sum up, sampling is considered a better method due to following reasons:

  • It is more economical than the other techniques of collection of data.
  • Sample investigation can be done at a greater speed as it consumes less time.
  • When sampling is conducted scientifically and carefully, it gives accuracy.
  • Planning, organization and supervision can be conveniently managed which leads to administrative convenience.

Question 32.
Draw scatter diagram and conclude about the correlation.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 3
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 4
Conclusion: There is a positive corrilation between the X and Y variable.

Question 33.
Write a note on classification of data.
The raw data is classified in various ways depending on the purpose. Generally data can be classified as follows:

1. Chronological classification: When the data is grouped according to time, it is called as chronological classification, in such a classification, data are classified either in ascending or in descending order with reference to time such as years, quarters, months weeks days, etc.

2. Spatial classification: If the data are classified with reference to geographical locations such as countries, states, cities, districts, etc., it is called spatial classification.

3. Qualitative classification: When the data are classified on the basis of certain attributes or qualities like literacy, religion, gender, marital status etc., then it is called qualitative classification. These attributes can be classified on the basis of either the presence or the absence of a qualitative characteristic.

4. Quantitative classification: If the classification of data is done on the basis of certain characteristics like height, weight. age, income, marks of students etc., it is called as quantitative classification.

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Question 34.
The yield of rice per acre for ten districts of a state are as under:
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 5
Calculate quartile deviation:
QD for rice: Arrange the given observations in the ascending order.
X: 12 12 12 15 18 18 22 23 29 34
Calculation of lower quartile (Q1):
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 6

Calculation of Upper quartile(Q3):
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 22
The size of 8.25th item = size of 8th item + 0.25 items
(0.025 item = size of 9th item – size of 8th item)
∴Q3 = size of 8.25th item
Q3 = 23 + 0.25 (29 – 23) = 23 + 0.25 (6) = 23 + 1.5
Q3 = 24.5
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 8

VIII. Answer any four of the following questions in twelve sentence each: ( 4 × 4 = 16 )

Question 35.
Explain the demographic profile of India during colonial period.
The various details about the population of British India were first collected through a census in 1881. It revealed the unevenness in India’s population growth. Subsequently, every ten years census was conducted. Before 1921, India was in the first stage of demographic transition. The second stage of transition began after 1921.

During British rule, the overall literacy level was less than 16%. Out of this, the female literacy level was at a negligible low of about 7%. Public health facilities were either unavailable to large chunks of population or when available, were highly inadequate. Consequently, water and air-borne diseases were common and took a huge number of deaths.

The mortality rate was very high and in that particularly, the infant mortality rate was quite alarming i.e., it was 218 per thousand. The life expectancy was also very low i.e., 44 years in contrast to the present 68 years. There was also extensive poverty prevailed in India during the colonial period which contributed to the worsening demographic profile of India during British period.

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Question 36.
Write a short note on land reforms in India.
Land reforms refer to changes in the ownership of land holdings. At the time of independence, the land tenure system was characterized by intermediaries like zamindars. jagirdars etc.. who were just indulged in collecting rent from the actual cultivators without contributing towards improvements on the agricultural land. The low productivity of the agricultural sector forced India to import food from USA. At this juncture, the land reforms were introduced.

After introduction of land reforms, steps were taken to abolish intermediaries and to make the tillers the owners of land. The idea behind this move was that ownership of land would make incentives to the tillers to invest in making improvements provided sufficient capital was made available to them. Abolition of zamindari system and ceiling on land holdings were the major land reforms introduced immediately after independence.

Question 37.
Agriculture sector appears to be adversely affected by reforms. Why?
The economic reforms of 1991 have not been able to benefit agriculture, where the growth rate is not up to the expected level.

The public sector investment in agricultural sector, particularly in infrastructural development like irrigation. power. roads, market linkages and research and extension has fallen during in the reform period.

The removal of fertilizer subsidy has led to an increase in the cost of production, which has severely affected the small and marginal farmers.

This sector has been experiencing a number of policy changes such as reduction in import duties on agricultural products, removal of minimum support price and lifting of quantitative restrictions on agricultural products. These have adversely affected Indian farmers as they now have to face increased international competition.

Further, due to export oriented policy strategies in agriculture, there has been a shift from production for the domestic market towards production for the export market focusing on cash crops in steel of production of food grains. This has resulted in increase in an prices of food grains.

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Question 38.
Write a short note on alternative markets.
The examples for emerging alternate marketing channels are as follows:

1. Farmers directly sell their agricultural produce to consumers. Example: Apni Mandi in Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan, Rythu Bazars (vegetables and fruits markets) in Andhra Pradesh, Uzhavar Sandhai – (a farmers market) in Tamil Nadu.

2. Agricultural contracts several domestic and multinational companies entering agreements with Indian farmers in which farmers are encouraged to grow farm products (vegetables and-fruits) of desired quality by providing them with not only seeds and other inputs but also assured procurement of the produce at predecided prices.

The main benefits of alternative agricultural marketing channels are:

  • The farmers get seeds and other agricultural inputs.
  • Farmers are assured of procurement of agricultural products at predecided prices.
  • Help in reducing price risk of farmers.
  • Expansion of markets for farm products in India and abroad.

Question 39.
Explain the state of health infrastructure in India.
From the time of independence, the Government of India has taken many steps to build vast health infrastructure and manpower at different levels. They are as follows:

1. At the village level, single – physician clinics popularly known as Primary Health Centres are established. Apart from regular medical treatments, They mainly focus on Infant immunization. Anti epidemic drives, Birth – Control programs and pregnancy related care both pre-natal and post natal.

2. Government has given licence to voluntary agencies and private sector to establish hospitals, pharmacy and nursing colleges manned by trained professionals and para medical professionals.

3. Increase in the number of hospitals from 9300 to 43,300 and hospital beds from 1.2 million to 7.2 million by 2000.

4. Private sector is playing predominant role in medical education and training, medical technology and diaostics, manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, hospital construction and provision of medical services.

5. Due to the liberalization policy of Government of India, many non-resident Indians and industrial and pharmaceutical companies have set up state-of-afl super-specialty hospitals to attract Indicatess rich and medical tourists.

6. The Indian systems of medicine includes six systems viz., ayurveda. yoga, unani, siddha, naturopathy and homeopathy (AYUSH). There are 3,000 ISM hospitals, 23,000 dispensaries and about 6,00,000 registered practitioners in India.

But, one of the studies reveals that India has about 17% of world’s population hut it bears just 20% of the global burden of diseases (GBD).

In India, more than 50% of GBD is accounted b’ communicable diseases like diarrhoea. malaria and tuberculosis. Every year about 5,00,000 children die due to waterborne diseases. It is also reported that only 38% of primary health centres have the required number of medical practitioners and only 30% of PHCs have the requisite medicines.

The people living in rural areas do not have sufficient medical infrastructure. There are only
0.36 hospitals for every lakh people in rural areas and in urban areas it is 3.6 for every lakh

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
What are the various indicators of human development?
The various indicators of human development are as follows:

  • Human development index: It consists of standard of living index, life expectancy at birth and educational attainment. If the HDI is high it is good indicator of human development.
  • Life expectancy at birth: It is the average number of years a person is expected to live. In other words, it is the longevity of life. A high value of life expectancy better indicates a quality human development.
  • Adult literacy rate: It is the average number of persons who have reading and writing skills with basic local knowledge. It is expressed in percentages. The high literacy rate shows high human development.
  • GDP per capita: The gross domestic product per head is also one of the indicators of human development. The high value of GDP per capita indicates a better human development.
  • Infant mortality rate: It means the death of babies per thousand live births. If the IMR is high it indicates low human development.
  • Maternal mortality rate: It shows the death of mothers per 1 lakh live births. If MMR is low, it indicates a better human development.
  • Population using improved sanitation: If the percentage of population using improved sanitation is more, it is a good indicator of human development.
  • Population with sustainable access to improved water sources: If the percentage of population using sustainable access to improved water source is high, it is a good indicator of human development.
  • People living below poverty line: If less people are living below poverty line, then it is a good indicator of human development.
  • Percentage of children undernourished: If the number of undernourished children is diminishing, then ¡t is a good indicator of human development.

Section – D

IX. Answer any two of the following questions in about twenty sentence each. ( 2 × 6 = 12 )

Question 41.
What is component bar diagram? Draw a component bar diagram with the help of the following table. Enrolment by gender at schools (in percentage) of children aged 6-14 years in a district of Bihar.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 9
Component bar diagrams or charts also called subdiagrams, are very useful in comparing the sizes of different component parts and also for throwing light on the relationship among these integral parts.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 10

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Calculate Q1, Q2 and Q3 from the following data:
22, 26, 14, 30, 18, 11, 35, 41, 12, 32.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 11
Calculation of Q1:
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 12
= 2nd item + 0.75th item
i.e., 2nd item + 0.75th ( 3rd item – 2nd item )
Q1 = 12 + 0.75 ( 14 – 12 ) = 12 + 0.75 (2) = 12 + 1.5
Q1 = 13.5

Calculation of Q2:
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 13
Q2 = 42.5

Calculation of Q3:
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 14
Q3 = Size of 8.25th item
Q3 = 8th item + 0.25( 9th item – 8th item )
Q3 = 32 + 0.25 (35 – 32) = 32 + 0.25 (3) = 32 + 0.75
Q3 = 32.75

KSEEB Solutions

Question 43.
The yield of wheat per acre for 10 districts of a state is as under.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 15
Calculate standard deviation and coefficient of variation.
QD for rice: Arrange the given observations in the ascending order.
x: 12 12 12 15 18 182223 29 34
Calculation of lower quartile (Q1):
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 16
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 17

The size of 2.75th item = size of 2th item + 0.75 item
(0.75 item size of 3rd item – size of 2nd item)
Q1 = 12 + 0.75(12 – 12)
Q1 = 12 + 0.75(0)
Q1 = 12

Calculation of upper quartile (Q3 ):
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 18
= The size of 8.25th item
The size of 8.25th item = size of 8th item + 0.25 items
(0.025 item = size of 9th item – size of 8th item)
Q3 = size of 8.25th item
Q3 = 23 + 0.25 (29 – 23) = 23 + 0.25 (6) = 23 + 1.5
Q3 = 24.5.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 19

X. Answer any two of the following questions in about twenty sentence each. ( 2 × 6 = 12 )

Question 44.
Explain the important areas of liberalization.
Liberalization was one of the reforms of New Economic Policy of 1991. It was introduced to put an end to the restrictions and open up various sectors of the economy. The following are the important areas of liberalization:

1. Deregulation of industrial sector: The liberalization policy removed many restrictions enforced on industrial sector. Industrial licensing was abolished for almost all but product categories like alcohol, cigarettes, hazardous chemicals, industrial explosives, electronics, aerospace and drugs and pharmaceuticals.

The only industries which are not reserved for the public sector are defence equipments, atomic energy generation and railway transport. Many goods produced by the small scale industries have now been de-reserved.

2. Financial sector reforms: The financial sector consists of financial institutions like commercial banks, investment banks, stock exchange operations and foreign exchange market.

The financial sector in India is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. The RBI decides the amount of money that the banks can keep with themselves, fixes interest rates, nature of lending to various sectors, etc.

The major objective of financial sector reforms is to reduce the role of RBI from regulator to facilitator of financial sector. That means, the financial sector may be allowed to take decisions on many matters independent of RBI.

The financial sector reform policies led to the establishment of private sector banks both Indian and foreign. Foreign investment limit in banks was raised to around 50%. The banks which fulfill certain conditions have been given freedom to set up new branches without the approval of the RBI. Foreign institutional investors (FIT) like merchant bankers, mutual funds and pension funds are now allowed to invest in Indian financial markets.

3. Tax reforms: These are the reforms which are concerned with government’s taxation and public expenditure policies which are collectively known as its fiscal policy. There are two types of taxes, direct and indirect.

Since 1991, there has been a continuous reduction in the taxes on individual incomes as it was felt that high rates of income tax were an important reason for tax evasion. It is now widely accepted that moderate rates of income tax encourage savings and voluntary disclosure of income.

The rate of corporation tax (tax on income of companies) which was very high earlier has been gradually reduced. A new tax called Goods and Services Tax (GST) has been introduced from 1.7.2017 to bring uniformity in indirect taxes.
In order to encourage better compliance on the part of tax payers, many procedures have been simplified and the rates also substantially lowered.

4. Foreign exchange reforms: During 1991, the Government took an immediate measure to resolve the balance of payments crisis, the rupee was devalued against foreign currencies. This led to an increase in the inflow of foreign exchange. It also set the tone to free the determination of rupee value in the foreign exchange market from government control. At present, the market forces i.e., demand and supply, determine the exchange rates.

5. Trade and investment policy reforms: A new trade and investment policy under liberalization strategy was made to increase international competitiveness of industrial production and a foreign investments and technology into the economy. The aim was also to promote the efficiency of the local industries and the adoption of modem technologies.

To protect Indian industries, the government was following quantitative restrictions on imports which encouraged tight control over imports. At the same time, tariffs were very high. These policies reduced efficiency and competitiveness which led to a slower growth of manufacturing sector.

The main objectives of Trade and Investment Policy were:

  • To remove quantitative restrictions on imports.
  • To reduce quantitative restrictions in exports.
  • Reducing tariff rates.
  • Removal of licensing system.

Import licensing was abolished except in case of hazardous and environmentally sensitive industries. Quantitative restrictions on imports of manufactured consumer goods and agricultural products were also fully removed. Export duties have been removed to increase the competitive position of Indian goods in the international markets. A process of disinvestment was also initiated by selling of part of equity shares of public sector enterprises to the public.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 45.
Explain the need for acquiring information relating to health and education expenditures.
The majority of people spend huge amounts to acquire information relating to the labour market and other markets like education and health.

For instance, people want to know the level of salaries associated with various types of jobs, whether the educational institutions provide the right type of employable skills land at what cost. This type of information is required to make decisions regarding investments in human capital and efficient utilisation of the acquired human capital stock.

Expenditure incurred for acquiring information relating to the labour market and other markets is also a source of human capital formation.
In simple words, people spend money to acquire information for the following reasons:

  • To know the labour market (about salary, types of jobs available, schools and colleges for the right type of employable skills based education) and other markets like education and health.
  • They spend on the above information to take decisions regarding investments in human capital and for efficient utilization of acquired human capital stock.

Question 46.
What do you mean by organized sector? Discuss the reasons fall in employment in the organized sector.
The organized sector is that sector which includes all the Public Sector Establishments and those Private Sector Establishments which employ 10 or more hired workers. They are called formal sector or organized sector establishments and those who work in such establishments are formal sector workers or organized labour.

The following are the major reasons for the decline in the employment opportunities in organized sector:

  • Lack of initiative from the government in creating new employment opportunities.
  • Industrial sickness has made Public Sector industries to cut down on their vacancies.
  • Migratory character of workforce.
  • The strict labour laws have made Public Sector Enterprises to go for in-formalisation of labour which has resulted in decline in employment oppourtnities.
  • Privatisation and Disinvestment have made decrease in jobs in public sector.
  • Amalgamation and merger among large scale industries have led to decrease in employment opportunities.
  • The business process outsourcing is also one of the reasons for decline in employment opportunities.
  • The risk of loss and economic recession are forcing the public sector companies to reduce the working staff.

XI. Answer any two of the following project oriented questions. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 47.
Record the daily expenditure, quantities bought and price paid per unit of the daily purchases of your family for two weeks (such as rice, tomato, milk, toordal and onions). How has the price change affected your family?
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 20
Now we need to calculate CPI by calculating price relative with the help of formulae.
1st PUC Economics Model Question Paper 4 with Answers img 21
Calculation of Living Index or Consumer Prise Index is calculated as follows:
\(\mathrm{CPI}=\frac{\Sigma \mathrm{WP}}{\Sigma \mathrm{W}}=\frac{1600}{15}=106.66\)
CPI = 106.66
Comment: It shows that there is an increase in price by 6.66%, which has a little effect on standard of living.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 48.
Suppose you are a resident of a village, suggest a few measures to tackle the problem of poverty.

  1. Swamajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
  2. Swamajayanthi Shahari RozgarYojana (SJSRY)
  3. Pradhana Manthri Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
  4. National Food for Work Programme (NFWP)
  5. Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana ( SGRY)
  6. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP)
  7. Public Distribution System (PDS)
  8. Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS)
  9. Mid-day Meals Scheme
  10. Pradhana Manthri Gram Sadak Yojana
  11. Indira Awas Yojana
  12. Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana.

Question 49.
Identify and prepare the list of reasons responsible for the land degradation in your locality.
Land in India suffers from varying degrees and types of degradation. These are increasing mainly due to the factors mentioned below :

  • Deforestation, i.e. reckless cutting down of trees resulting in loss of vegetation.
  • Indiscriminate and over exploitation of forest products such as fuel wood and over grazing.
  • Conversion of forest lands into agricultural lands.
  • Forest fire and faulty methods of cultivation.
  • Excessive application of pesticides and insecticides.
  • Disproportionate and excessive use of chemical fertilizers in Indian agriculture.
  • The irrigation systems in India are not properly planned and managed.
  • Over exploitation of ground water for various competing utilities like human settlement, industrialization, etc.
  • No proper introduction of crop rotation techniques and organic farming.
  • Illiteracy and ignorance of rural population in respect of causes and effects of land degradation.

Land is indispensable for human settlement. If proper care is not taken for the conservation of land and water, there shall be severe scarcity of water and natural resources in future which may lead to conflict among the countries.

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