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Karnataka 1st PUC Economics Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 (North)
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Write the question numbers legibly in the margin.
- Answer for a question should be continuous.
Section – A
I. Choose the correct answer: ( 1 x 5 = 5 )
Scarcity is the root of
(a) All economic problems
(b) Social problems
(c) Political problems
(d) All problems
(a) All economic problems.
The index numbers of which year price is assumed to be 100
(a) Current year
(b) Base year
(c) Selection of price
(d) None of these
(b) Base year.
Railway transport introduced in India in the year.
Which is not the goal of five year plan
GDP stands for
(a) Gross domestic product
(b) Gross dollar price
(c) Gross domestic price
(d) None of the above
(a) Gross domestic product.
II. Fill in the blanks: ( 1 x 5 = 5 )
Body of the table contains ____________.
A measure that divides the series into hundred equal parts is called ____________.
Infrastructure facilities can be classified into ____________ types.
Investment on education is considered as one of the main source of ____________.
____________ farming is free from chemicals.
III. Match the following: ( 1 x 5 = 5 )
1 – c
2 – a
3 – d
4 – e
5 – b
IV. Answer the following questions in a word sentence: ( 1 x 5 = 5 )
What is dispersion?
Dispersion refers to the extent to which values in a distribution differ from the average of the distribution.
National Sample Survey Office.
What is infrastructure?
Infrastructure is a network of physical facilities and public services which act as important base for economic and social development of the country.
What is meant by environment?
Environment refers to the totality of the physical conditions on the earth or a part of it. In other words, it refers to physical surroundings, conditions, circumstances, etc., in which a person lives.
What type of economic system is followed in Pakistan?
Section – B
V. Answer any four of the following questions in four sentence each. ( 1 x 5 = 5 )
Mention the two sources of data.
Primary data and secondary data are the two sources of data.
Give the formula to find out mid-point.
The formula to find out midpoint is as follows:
What are four kinds of classification used in tabulation?
The four kinds of classifications used in tabulation are as follows:
- Qualitative classification
- Quantitative classification
- Temporal classification
- Spatial classification.
Mention the types of correlation.
There are two types of correlation negative correlation and positive correlation. Again they are classified perfect positive and perfect negative correlations.
Calculate the value of the median from the following figures.
X: 5, 7, 9, 12, 11, 8, 7, 15, 25
Mention the name of any four statistical tools?
The most important statistical tools are the measures of central tendency, dispersion, correlation, bar diagrams, pie chart, histogram, etc.
VI. Answer any five of the following questions in four sentence each. ( 2 x 5 = 10 )
What were the main causes of Indian agricultural stagnation during the colonial period?
The agricultural stagnation during the colonial period was caused because of the following reasons:
1. Land settlement system: The various systems of land settlement that were introduced by the colonial government were the major cause of agricultural stagnation during colonial rule in India.
2. Revenue settlement: The terms of the revenue settlement were also responsible for the zamindars to adopt aggressive attitude towards farmers. The British fixed the dates to deposit specified sum of revenue, failing which the zamindars were to lose their rights.
Apart from the above, low levels of technology, lack of irrigation facilities and negligible use of fertilizers etc., were also responsible for stagnation of agricultural sector during colonial rule.
Who are the rural poor? Give examples.
Rural poor are those people who live in villages without basic needs. Example land less labourers. Even if some have land, it is only dry or waste land. Many do not get even two meals a day. They borrow from moneylenders or landlords who charge high rates of interest that leads to rural indebtedness.
State the meaning of human capital?
Human capital refers to that part of population which possesses skills, knowledge, education and experience. It also includes the ability of human beings to give their best and their ability to create economic value for things.
Name the two life giving sources of Ashing communication.
The major life giving sources for fishing community are rivers, lakes, oceans, natural and aquatic ponds.
Name the institutional sources of rural credit.
The institutional sources of rural credit are as follows:
- Commercial Banks
- Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
- Cooperative Societies
- Land Development Banks.
Name the three sectors of economy.
- Primary sector: It includes agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry, etc.
- Secondary sector: It includes all manufacturing industries.
- Service sector: It includes, transport, communication, banking, insurance, health, education, warehousing, etc.
Name the types of medical systems included in AYUSH.
The components of Indian systems of medicine (AYUSH) are as follows:
Section – C
VII. Answer any three of the following questions in twelve sentence each. ( 3 x 4 = 12 )
Briefly explain how statistics helps to study economics.
Statistics plays a very important role in the field of economics. It helps in study of economics in many ways:
1. It helps to understand economic problems: By using various statistical tools, effort is being made to find the causes behind the economic problems with the help of qualitative and the quantitative facts. Once the causes of a problem are identified. it is easier to formulate certain policies to tackle them.
2. It enables an economist to present economic facts in a precise and definite form: Statistics help the economists to present economic facts with accuracy. It also helps in proper comprehension of that is stated in the subject matter. When economic facts are expressed in statistical terms. they become exact. Exact facts are more convincing than vague statements. For instance, saying 350 people have died in Kashmir unrest since 2000, is more accurate than saying that a lot of people have died in the unrest.
3. Helps in condensing mass data into a few numerical measures: Statistics condenses the mass data into a few numerical measures like mean, variance, correlation, etc. These numerical measures help to summarise data. For example, it would be impossible to remember the income of all the people of a country. But we can remember average income i.e., per capita income.
4. It is used to find relationships between different economic factors: An economist may be interested in finding out what happens to the demand for a commodity when its price changes or what will be impact on inflation, when the government has more budget deficits. Such situations can be dealt, if any relationship exists between the various economic factors. Here, the nature of relationship can be studied with the help of statistical tools.
5. It helps in formulation of plans and policies: Sometimes, formulating plans and policies require the knowledge of future trends. For instance, an economic planner has to decide in 2010 how much the economy should produce in 2016-17. In other words, one must know what could be the expected level of consumption in 2016-17. So, the statistical tools to predict consumption in 2016-17 could be based on the data of consumption of past years obtained by surveys.
Do sample survey provide better results than census? Give reasons for your answer.
Yes, samples survey provide better results than census.
A sample refers to a group or section of the population from which information is to be obtained. A good sample is generally smaller than the population and is capable of providing reasonably accurate information about the population at a much lower cost and shorter time.
Suppose you want to study the average income of people in a particular state, according to the census method, we need to find out the income of every individual in the region, add them up and divide by number of individuals to get the average income of people in the state. This method would require huge expenditure, as a large number of investigators are to be employed. Alternatively, if a representative sample of few individuals is selected from the state to find their income, it saves time, money and energy in the process of determination of income.
To sum up, sampling is considered a better method due to following reasons:
- It is more economical than the other techniques of collection of data.
- Sample investigation can be done at a greater speed as it consumes less time.
- When sampling is conducted scientifically and carefully, it gives accuracy.
- Planning, organization and supervision can be conveniently managed which leads to administrative convenience.
Calculate the arithmetic mean by direct method from the following data.
The yield of wheat per acre for 10 districts of a state are as under:
Calculate mean deviation from median.
Mention the difficulties in construction of consumer price index.
The following are the difficulties encountered during the construction of consumer price index:
- Index numbers are not based on all items: As index numbers are generally based on a couple of sample, it is not possible to take into account each and every item in the construction of index.
- Index numbers are not free from error: In every stage of the construction of index numbers, starting from selection of commodities to the choice of formulae there is a chance an error being introduced.
- It is also said that, index numbers are also special type of averages, since the various averages like mean, median and mode and have their relative limitations which may lead to some errors.
- Index numbers are meant for a particular purpose: An index number is used to measure the change for a particular purpose only.
- Prices used in the construction of cost of living index are retail prices, which vary from shop to shop, place to place and consumer to consumer. Therefore, index numbers prepared on such prices cannot be used for different places or different classes of people.
- Index numbers include so many commodities of unstable quality, which can not be used at different points of time.
- The ratio of expenditure on different products at different points of time and by various persons are not same and they create difficulties in the construction of cost of living index numbers.
VIII. Answer any four of the following questions in twelve sentence each. ( 4 x 4 = 16 )
The traditional handicraft industries were ruined under British Rule. Justify this statement.
Yes, the traditional handicrafts industries were ruined under the British rule. The decline of the indigenous handicraft industries created not only massive unemployment in India but also a new demand in the Indian consumer market, which was now deprived of the supply of locally made goods.
The British imposed heavy duties on Indian handicrafts, so that they became more expensive than British woolen and silk manufacturers. They followed a policy of duty free export of raw materials and import of finished goods. Apart from these, Indian handicrafts had to face competition from machine made goods from Britain.
India could not develop a sound industrial base under the colonial rule. Even as the country’s world famous handicraft industries declined, no corresponding modern industrial base was allowed to come up to take pride of place so long enjoyed by the Indians.
The intention of British was to reduce India to the status of a mere exporter of important raw materials for the upcoming modem industries in Britain and to turn India into a market for their finished products of those industries, so that their continued expansion could be ensured to the maximum advantage of their home country.
Explain the drawbacks of Agricultural Market.
Agricultural marketing is a process that involves the assembling, storage, processing, transportation, packaging, grading and distribution of different agricultural commodities across the country. The major drawbacks of agriculture marketing in India are as follows;
- Long chain of middlemen taking away the profit of farmers.
- No proper storage facilities to protect the agricultural products.
- Faulty methods of weighing/measuring agricultural crops.
- Manipulation of accounts.
- Farmers are forced to sell their products at low prices due to lack of information.
List out the major problems of rural development.
the major problems which need fresh initiatives for development in rural India are as follows:
1. Development of human resources: The development of human resources include promotion of literacy particularly female literacy, education and skill development, providing health care by addressing both sanitation and public health.
2. Land reforms: The land reforms include ceiling on land holdings, prevention of fragmentation and subdivision of land and making the tiller as the owner of the land.
3. Infrastructure development: The development of infrastructure like provision of electricity, irrigation, banking, marketing, transportation (village roads, feeder roads to nearby highways), agricultural research centres, information, etc.
4. Poverty alleviation measures: Special measures for poverty alleviation and bringing progress among weaker sections of the population and giving importance to productive employment opportunities are also part of the major issues of rural economy.
Explain the functions of environment.
Environment refers to the totality of the physical conditions on the earth or a part of it. In other words, it refers to physical surroundings, conditions, circumstances, etc., in which a person lives. Environment is defined as the total planetary inheritance and the totality of all resources and includes biotic (birds, animals and plants, forests, fishes) and abiotic (air, water, land, rocks and sunlight) factors.
The major functions of environment are as follows:
1. The environment supplies both renewable and non-renewable resources. Renewable resources are those resources that can be used again and again. There will be a continuous supply of resources. Example, water, forest, land etc.
Non-renewable resources are those which get exhausted with extraction and use. Example, mineral resources like petrol, coal, iron ore etc.
2. The environment assimilates waste. That means that environment absorbs the solid and liquid wastes created by humans and other living beings.
3. The environment sustains the life on earth by providing both genetic and bio-diversities.
4. Environment also provides aesthetic services like-beautiful scenery of forest lands, water falls, mountains like the Himalaya ranges, lagoons, glaciers, valleys, etc.
Briefly explain the state of infrastructure in rural India.
Majority of people in India live in rural areas. In spite of so much of technological progress in the world, rural women are still using bio-fuels like agricultural waste, dried dung and fire wood to meet their energy requirement. They have to walk long distances to bring fuel, water and other basic needs.
According to the latest estimates, in rural India only 56% of households have electricity connection and 43% still use kerosene. About 90% of the rural households use bio- fuels for cooking. Tap water availability is limited to only 24 % rural households. About 76 % of the population drinks water from open sources like wells, tanks, ponds, lakes, rivers, canals etc. Access to improved sanitation in rural areas only 20 %.
What are the various indicators of human development?
The various indicators of human development are as follows:
- Human development index: It consists of standard of living index, life expectancy at birth and educational attainment. If the HDI is high it is good indicator of human development.
- Life expectancy at birth: It is the average number of years a person is expected to live. In other words, it is the longevity of life. A high value of life expectancy better indicates a quality human development.
- Adult literacy rate: It is the average number of persons who have reading and writing skills with basic local knowledge. It is expressed in percentages. The high literacy rate shows high human development.
- GDP per capita: The gross domestic product per head is also one of the indicators of human development. The high value of GDP per capita indicates a better human development.
- Infant mortality rate: It means the death of babies per thousand live births. If the IMR is high it indicates low human development.
- Maternal mortality rate: It shows the death of mothers per 1 lakh live births. If MMR is low, it indicates a better human development.
- Population using improved sanitation: If the percentage of population using improved sanitation is more, it is a good indicator of human development.
- Population with sustainable access to improved water sources: If the percentage of population using sustainable access to improved water source is high, it is a good indicator of human development.
- People living below poverty line: If less people are living below poverty line, then it is a good indicator of human development .
- Percentage of children undernourished: If the number of undernourished children is diminishing, then it is a good indicator of human development.
IX. Answer any two of the following questions in about twenty sentence each. ( 2 x 6 = 12 )
Explain ogive with proper diagrams.
Ogive is also called cumulative frequency curve. As there are two types of cumulative frequencies, for example ‘less than’ type and ‘more than’ type, accordingly there are two ogives for any grouped frequency distribution data. Here in place of simple frequencies as in the case of frequency polygon, cumulative frequencies are plotted along Y axis against class limits of the frequency distribution.
For ‘less than’ ogives the cumulative frequencies are plotted against the respective upper limits of the class intervals whereas for more than ogives the cumulative frequencies are plotted against the respective lower limits of the class interval.
An interesting characteristic of the two ogives together is that their intersection point gives the median of the frequency distribution. The following graph represents the ogives. As the shapes of the two ogives suggest, ‘less than’ ogive is never decreasing and ‘more than’ ogive is never increasing.
Calculate Q1, Q2, and Q3 from following data.
15, 21, 26, 30, 40, 45, 50, 54, 60, 65, 70
The yield of wheat per acre for 10 districts of a state is as under.
X. Answer any two of the following questions in about twenty sentence each. ( 2 x 6 = 12 )
Discuss the following as a source of human capital formation.
(a) Health infrastructure
(b) Expenditure on migration.
(a) Health infrastructure:
The various forms of health expenditures are as follows:
- Preventive medicine vaccinations to prevent deadly diseases.
- Curative medicine obtaining medical treatment during illness.
- Social medicine spread of awareness about keeping good health and its importance.
Provision of clean drinking water and good sanitation. The healthy individuals are a food source of human capital as they directly contribute for regular and higher productivity of labour. A sick labourer without access to medical facilities has to remain absent from work. This leads to loss of productivity. Hence, expenditure on health is an important source of human capital formation.
(b) Expenditure on migration: People migrate from their native places in search of jobs which may bring higher salaries. Unemployment is the only reason for rural-urban migration in India. Technically qualified persons like engineers and doctors migrate to other countries to earn better income. Though there is a high cost of transport, high cost of living and other factors, the enhanced income will motivate people to migrate. Hence, expenditure on migration is also a source of human capital formation.
What are the main causes of unemployment in India?
The main causes for unemployment in India are as follows:
1. Population explosion: Rapid population growth is the leading factor responsible for unemployment in India. This has adversely affected the unemployment situation in two ways. Firstly, the growth of population has directly encouraged unemployment by making a large addition to the existing labour force. Secondly, the rate of job expansion could never be as high as the population growth would have required.
2. Season agricultural and backwardness of agricultural: In rural economy, agriculture is the main source of employment. However, most of the rural people are engaged directly and indirectly in agricultural operations. But, agriculture in India is basically a seasonal occupation. It provides employment only for certain months i.e., only during rainy days. During the rest of the period in a year, people would become unemployed.
3. Illiteracy and ignorance: Many people are illiterates and unskilled. They are not trained in accordance with the employment being generated. There is miss-match between the education industry and employment industry.
4. Slow growth: The growth of Indian economy is not at the expected level. The growth of GDP is still less than 7%. That means income which is being contributed to the national income generated through creation of employment opportunities is insufficient.
5. Lack of initiatives from government: In India, the government is inactive in creation of jobs. Rather, the government is indulging in disinvestment and closing Public Sector Industries due to industrial sickness. This is aggravating the problem of unemployment.
6. Low investment: There is a decline in the rate of investment due to lack of supportive atmosphere both in private and public sectors. This has slowed down the creation of new employment opportunities in India.
7. Orthodox nature of population: In India, majority of people are traditional and very orthodox and believe in blind beliefs. Many will be sticking on to some age old occupation even many though it has lost scope in the modem word. This has made them voluntarily unemployed.
Write the short note on animal husbandry.
The animal husbandry i.e.. livestock rearing includes cattle breeding, goats, fowl rearing, etc. Livestock production provides stable income, food security, fuel and nutrition for the family, in rural areas. In India, more than 70 million small and marginal farmers have got alternate livelihood options from animal husbandry.
If the distribution of livestock rearing is taken into consideration, the poultry accounts for the largest share. The other animals which include camels, asses, horses, etc., are also found remunerative. In India, we have about 28.7 crores of cattle including 9 crores of buffaloes.
The performance of Indian diary sector has been remarkable in the past few decades. This is mainly because of implementation of’Operation Flood. It is a system whereby all the farmers can pool their milk produced according to different gradings and the same is processed and marketed to urban centres. In this, the farmers are assured of fair price and minimum income from the supply of milk to urban areas.
The animal husbandry is undertaken to develop organic farming by developing green manure and the animal waste is being used to produce gobar gas in rural areas. Meat, eggs, wool and other byproducts are also emerging as important productive sectors in animal husbandry.
Identify the formal and informal workers in the following.
(a) Petty shop owner
(b) Handloom weaver
(c) SBI cashier
(d) A street vendor
(e) Government hospital nurse
(f) Government school teacher
(h) Revenue Inspector
(j) Agricultural labour.
(a) Petty shop owner – informal worker
(b) Handloom weaver – informal worker
(c) SBI cashier – formal worker
(d) A street vendor – informal worker
(e) Government hospital nurse – formal worker
(f) Government primary school teacher – formal worker
(g) Tailor – informal worker
(h) Revenue inspector – formal worker
(i) Police – formal worker
(j) Agricultural labourers – informal workers.
Find out Agiculture, Industry, Nationalised, Private and Foreign Banks among the following:
(b) Canara Bank
(a) ICICI – Private Bank
(b) Canara Bank – Nationalized Bank
(c) HSBC – Foreign Bank
(d) IDBI – Industrial Bank
(e) NABARD – Agriculture.
As per the recorded temperature per two hours in a day from 6 am to 6 pm, calculate the range and mean temperature of the day.