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Karnataka 1st PUC Economics Question Bank Chapter 10 Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours
1st PUC Economics Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours TextBook Questions and Answers
Why are regional and economic groupings formed?
Regional economic grouping is one of the major instrument of promoting international trade activities among countries. It focusses on creation of larger economic unit Rom smaller national economies.
Regional and economic groupings such as the SAARC, European Union, ASEAN, G – 8, G – 20, BRIGS etc are formed to increase economic cooperation among nations in the neighbourhood or those sharing common economic Interests.
This is particularly considered essential by developing countries as they all facing competition not only from developed national but also amongst themselves in the relatively limited economic space enjoyed by the developing world.
Besides, cooperation with other economies in our neighbourhood is also required, as all major common economic activities in the region have an impact on overall human development in a shared environment.
What are the various means by which countries are trying to strengthen their own domestic economies?
Following are the various means by which countries are trying to strengthen their own domestic economics.
1. They are forming regional and economic grouping.
2. There is an increasing awareness on the parts of various nations to join hands together and understand the developmental processes pursued by their neighbouring nations at it, allows them to bettler comprehed their own strengths and weaknesses vis – vis their neighbours.
3. By trying to understand the neighbouring economies, as all major common economic activities in the region, have an impact on overall human development in a shared, environment.
What similar developmental strategies have India and Pakistan followed for their respective developmental paths.
Pakistan and India have followed, the mixed economy, model with co-existence of public and private sectors. The introduction of green revolution led to mechanisation and increase in public in infrastructure in select areas.
Which finally led to rise in the production of food grains and agriculture is the mainstay of both the countries. They have almost equal per capital income and both have succeeded in their per capita income.
Explain the Great Leap forward Campaign of China as initiated in 1958.
The Great Leap Forward (GLF) Campaign initiated in 1958 aimed at industrialing the country on a massive scale. People were encouraged to set up industries, in their backyards. In rural areas commune system, people collectively cultivated lands. In 1958, there were 26,000 communes covering almost all the farm population.
China’s rapid industrial growth can be traced back to its reforms in 1978. Do you agree? Elucidate.
Yes, China’s rapid industrial growth can be traced back to its reforms in agriculture and establishment of infrastructure in the areas of education and health, land reforms etc had been taking place with the introduction of “Great proletarian cultural Revolutionary” Mao during the year (1966 -67). China introduced reforms in phases after 1978.
In initial phase, reforms were initiated in agriculture, foreign trade and investment sectors, In later phase/reforms were initiated in the industrial sector. Private sector firms and township and village enterprises were allowed to produce goods. The reforms process also involve dual pricing.
Describe the path of developmental initiatives taken by Pakistan for its economic development
The service sector is emerging as a major player of development in Pakistan. It contributes more to GDP and at the same time emerges as a prospective employer. Pakistan had been able to reduce the proportion of people below the poverty line and also its performance in education, sanitation and access to water, is better.
Pakistan has also provided improved water sources as compared to China. Pakistan has economy has been witnesssing GDP, growth at about 8% for three consecutive years. All the three sectors, agriculture, manufacturing and service has contributed this trend.
What is the important implication of the ‘One Child Norm’ in China?
‘One child norm’ introduced in China the late 1970’s as the major reason for the population growth. This measure led to decline in the sex ratio, ie. the proporation of females, for 1000 males. For instance, after a few decades in China, there will be more elderly people in propotion to young people. This will force China to take steps to provide social security measure with fewer workers.
Mention the salient demographic indicators of China, Pakistan and India?
The Salient Demographic indicators of China, Pakistan and India are
- Estimated population
- Annual growth of population
- Sex Ratio
- Fertility rate
Compare and contrast India and China’s sectoral contribution towards GDP in 2003. What does it indicate?
China has the second-largest GDP of $7.2 trillion whereas India’s GDP$ 3.3 trillion.
In China, the manufacturing contributes the highest GDP at 53% whereas, in India, it is the service sector which contributes the highest ie it accounts for more than 50% of GDP.
Mention the various indicators of human development?
Various indicators of human development are human development index, life expectancy at birth, Adult literacy rate, GDP percapita. People below poverty line. Infant Mortality Rate, maternal mortality rate etc.
Define the liberty indicator. Give some examples of liberty indicators.
In dealing with or making judgements on questions with human development indicators. We need another indicator called liberty indicator. Some examples of liberty indicator are the extant of democratic participation in social and political decision making, the extent of constitutional protection of the independence of the judiariy and the rule of law etc.
Evaluate the various factors that led to the rapid growth in economic development in China.
The various factors that led to the rapid growth in economic development in China are:
- The establishment of infrastructure in the areas of education and health,
- Land reforms
- Long existence of small enterprises and.
- Decentralised planning.
These had helped positively in improving the social and income indicators in the post reform period. In agriculture, by handling over plots of land, to individuals for cultivation, has brought property to a vast number of poor people. It created conditions for the subsequent phenomenal growth in rural industries and built up a strong base for more reforms.
Group the following features pertaining to the economies of India, China and Pakistan under three heads.
- One Child norm
- Low fertility rate
- High degree of urbanisate
- Mixed economy
- Very high fertility rate
- Large population
- High density of population
- Growth due to manufacturing sector
- Growth due to service sector.
1. Economies of India:
High density of population, Growth due to service sector.
2. Economies of China:
One child norm, low fertility rate, High degree of urbanisation, Large population growth due to manufacturing sector.
3. Economies of Pakistan:
Very high fertility rate, Mixed economy.
Give reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan.
The reasons for the slow growth and re – emergence of poverty in Pakistan.
1. Agricultural growth and food supply situation were based not on institutionalised process of technical change but on good harvest. When there was a good harvest, the economy was in good condition. When it was not, the economic indicators showed stagnation negative trends.
2. In Pakistan most foreign exchange earnings come from, remittances from Pakistan workers working in the middle east and the exports of highly volatile agricultural produce there was also growing dependence on foreign loans on the one hand and increasing difficulties in paying back the loans on the other.
Compare and contrast the development of India, China and Pakistan with respect to some salient human development indicators.
From the above table, we can see that China is moving ahead of India and Pakistan. This is true for many indicators, Income indicator such as GDP per capita, health indicator such as mortality rate, literacy, life expectancy in China for one lakh births, only 50 women die whereas in India and Pakistan more than 500 women die.
Comment on the growth rate trends witnessed in China and India in the last two decades. China has the second largest GDP (PPP) of $ 10.1 trillion whereas India’s GDP (PPP) is $ 4.2 trillion. When many developed countries were finding it difficult to maintain a growth rate of even 5%, China was able to maintain near double – digit growth for more than two decades as can be seen from table. Growth of Gross Domestic Products (%) 2000-2010.
Source Key indicators for Asia and Pacific 2011, Asian Development Bank, Philippines in the 1980s, China was having double – digit growth and India was stuck at 5.7% decadal growth rate. In 2000-10, there was a marginal decline if lndia’s growth rate while China maintained its growth path. As far as sector wise contribution to growth is concerned, in 2008, contribution of agriculture to GDP in China was 10% while in India it was 19%.
On the other hand manufacturing contributes the highest to GDP in China at 47%, whereas in India service sector contributes the highest at around 55%. In the last two decades, the growth of agriculture sector has declined – in both the countries. In the industrial sector, China has maintained a double – digit growth rate, whereas for India industrial growth rate has declined.
In the case of service sector, China has been able to raise its rate of growth in 2008-10 while service sector growth in India has stagnated. China’s growth is mainly contributed by the manufacturing sector and India’s growth by service sector.
Fill in the blanks.
- First Five Year Plan of Pakistan commenced in the year 1956. (Pakistan/China)
- Maternal mortality rate is high in Pakistan. (India / Pakistan)
- Proportion of people below poverty line is more in India. (India / Pakistan)
- Reforms in China were introduced in 1978. (China / Pakistan)
1st PUC Economics Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours Additional Questions and Answers
1st PUC Economics Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours Very Short Answer Type Questions
Mention some examples of regional and economic groupings?
Some of the regional and economic grouping are SAARC, European Union, ASEAN, G – 8, G – 20 etc.
Comment on the role of “Green Revolution in Pakistan”?
The introduction of “Green Revolution” to mechanisation and increase in public, investment in infrastructure in select areas, which finally led to a rise in the production of food grains. This changed the agrarian structure dramatically.
Explain the areas where Pakistan has surpased India.
Name the two areas of development where Pakistan has trapped India.
Pakistan has performed better than India in the field of economic growth, rate, per capita income, better living standards and consumption levels etc.
Explain the areas where India, has surpased Pakistan?
Name the areas of development where India has trapped Pakistan?
The areas where India has surpased Pakistan are scientific and technological development, exports of software, defence technology, space research, electronics, genetics, telecommunications, education and health etc.
What is the type of Indian economy?
India seems like two separate countries.
- Milage India: Supported by Primitive agriculture.
- Urban India: Supported by Industrial areas.
Give the proporation of agriculture in the Indian Economy.
Agriculture accounts for 25% of the gross domestic product and employes almost 70% of the Indian population.
Give the types of Indian Crops.
Wheat, Sugarcane, rice, cotton, tobacco, oilseeds, jute, bajra, com tea etc are the crops of lndia.
Write down the full form of SEZ?
Special Economic Zone.
Give the full form of SAARC?
Full form of SAARC is South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.
What is urbanisation?
Urbanisation is the expansion of a metropolitian area namely the proportion of total area.
What is worker-population ratio?
Worker population ratio is total number of workers divided by the population it is expressed in percentage.
What is national product Income?
National income is the total value of final goods and serivces produced in a country plus. income from abroad.
Give the policial power setup in India, Pakistan and China.
There is democracy in India, authoritarian militarist political power structure in Pakistan and Command economy in China.
When did India start its first five-year plan?
When did China announces its first five-year plan?
China announced its first five-year plan in 1953.
What is one of the much-talked issues around the world about China?
One of the much-talked issues around the world about China is its growth of gross domestic product.
What was India’s population in 2005?
It was 108.7 crores in 2005.
What is the rank of India according to Human development Index 2005?
It was 127.
What is the contribution of agriculture to the total GDP in India and Pakistan?
The Contribution of agriculture to the total GDP in India and Pakistan is the same 23%.
How many people in India and Pakistan were dependent on agriculture in 2002.
The people depended on agriculture were 60% in India and 49% in Pakistan.
What was the share at manufacturing activity in the GDP in China in 2003?
The share of manufacturing activity in the GDP in China in 2003 was 53%.
Name the programme which was started with the aim of industralisation in China.
The Great Leap Forward (GLF) Programme.
Write down anyone similiarity in the economic policies of India and Pakistan.
Both countries have mixed economy.
Which of the following countries is moving ahead in the indicators of human development index
Which country is the biggest in area out of the three countries India, China and Pakistan?
China is the biggest country in area.
In which fields is Pakistan ahead in India?
Pakistan is ahead of India in reducing proportion of people below the poverty line, its performance in education sanitation and access to water.
Write down the HDI ranks of India and Pakistan according to Human Development Index 2003.
India ranked 127 and Pakistan ranked 135 according to HDI 2003.
Which of the following countries were forced to introduce structural reforms by international agencies?
India and Pakistan.
In which country one child norm has been introduced?
1st PUC Economics Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours Short Answer Type Questions
Comment on Pakistan’s economy in brief.
Agriculture is the main occupation in Pakistan employing almost 50% of the population. Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco are the chief crops and cattle and sheeps are raised.
The country is self sufficient in food grains Pakistan’s industrial base is able to supply many of the country’s need in consumer goods, although production has slowed in recent years. Remittances from Pakistan is working abroad constitute the second largest, source of foreign exchange.
Compare the growth of Domestic product (%) of India, China and Pakistan during 1980 – 2003?
Growth of Gross Domestic Product(%) of India and China and Pakistan during 1980 – 2003
Give the comparison of India, China and Pakistan in respect of Sex ratio and fertility rate.
Show the contribution of agriculture to GDP in percentage (2003) of the following countries with the help of bar – diagram.
Show the percentage of people engaged in service sector in India, China and Pakistan with the help of bar diagram.
1st PUC Economics Comparative Development Experience of India with its Neighbours Long Answer Type Questions
Comment on the growth rate trends witnessed in China and India in the last two decades.
The growth of agriculture sectors, which employes largest proportion of workforce in two countries, has declined. In industrial sector China has maintained, double digit number rate whereas for India growth rate has declines. In the case of service sector. India has been able to raise its rate of growth in the 1990s while China reduced their service sector growth.
Give reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan?
Reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan:
1. Political instability:
Scholars are of opinion that one of the reasons of slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan is political instability, there is more expenditure in maintaining’law and order.
2. Dependence on foreign loan:
There is growing dependence or foreign loan. It faces much difficulty in the repayment of loan and interest thereon.
3. Fall in foreign exchange earnings:
In Pakistan, most foreign exchange earnings came from remittances from Pakistani workers in the middle East and the exports of highly volatile agricultural products. Now there was fall in foreign exchange remittances.
4. Agricultural growth based on good harvest:
In Pakistan agricultural growth and food – supply situation were based on good harvest. They were not based on an institutional process of technical change. So when there was a good harvest, the economy was in good condition, but when it was not in good condition, the economic indicators showed stagnation or negative trends.
5. Too many expenses on defence:
In order to alleviate poverty, more Public expenditure should be incurred for the development of a country. But Pakistan spends a huge amount on defence.
Explain the factors responsible for accelerated growth in China?
Factors responsible for accelerated growth in China:
1. Government Control:
People’s Republic of China was established in 1949 under one-party rule. All the critical sectors of the economy, land and enterprises owned and operated by individuals were brought under government control. There was monopoly of government. The government of China undertook many measures to develop the country.
2. Great Leap Forward (GLF):
This campaign was initiated in 1959 to industrialise the country on a massive scale. People were encouraged to set up industries in their backyards.
Communes were started in rural areas. Under commune system land was collectively cultivated. In 1958, there were 26,000 communes covering almost all formers.
3. Great proletarian Cultural Revolution (1996 – 76):
In 1965, Mao introduced the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Under this revolution, students and professionals were sent to work and learn from the country side.
4. Economic Reforms in 1978:
China introduced many economic reforms in 1978. These reforms resulted in fast economic growth. These reforms resulted in fast economic growth. These reforms were introduced in phases. In the initial phase, reforms were initiated in agriculture, foreign trade and investment.
Foreign agriculture, commune lands were divided into small plots which were allocated to individual households for use and not for ownership. They were allowed to keep all income from the land after paying stipulated taxes.
In the later phase, reforms were initiated in the industrial sector.
Private sector firms, in general and township and village enterprises ie those enterprises which were owned and operated by local authorities, in particular, were allowed to produce goods. At this stage, enterprises owned by the government were made to face competition. The reform process also involved dual pricing.
Give some indicators showing that China is moving head of India and Pakistan. Indicators showing that China is moving head of India and Pakistan.
1. Value of Human Development Index:
The value of human developement Index in China is 0.755, whereas in India it is 0.602 and in Pakistan it in 0.527. The rate of Human development shown that China occupies 81 ranks, whereas India and Pakistan rank 128 and 136 respectively as regards human development.
2. Life expectancy:
Life expectancy at birth is highest in China. It is 71.6 in China, whereas in India and Pakistan it is 64 years.
3. Growth of GDP (%):
China’s growth of GDP was 9.7% in 1990-2002 whereas it was 5.8 and 3.6 of India and Pakistan respectively during that period.
4. Infant and maternal mortality rate:
China has the least infant and maternal mortality rate at 30 and 50 respectively, whereas infant mortality rate in India and Pakistan is 63 and 81 per thousand.
China has the second largest GDP (PPP) of $ 7.2 trillion whereas India’s GDP (PPP) is $ 3.3 trillion and Pakistan’s GDP is roughly about 10% of India’s GDP.
6. Undernourished population:
The undernourished population is the least in China at only 11 % of the total population, whereas India and Pakistan have almost the same ie 21 % and 20% respectively.