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Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Model Question Paper 2 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs
Max. Marks: 100
- Answer all questions.
- Draw maps and diagrams wherever necessary
- Questions No.V is on Cartography.
I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each. ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
Who conducted Bed ford level experiment?
Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace conducted Bed ford level experiment in 1956, along the Bed ford level canal area in Britain.
What is the total geographical area of the Earth?
Give an example for Plutonic Rock.
The rocks which are formed due to cooling of magma at a great deapth inside the earth called Plutonic igneous rocks.
The scientific study of rocks is called ‘Petrology’.
What is weathering?
The process of disintegration and decomposition of rocks is known as weathering.
A small proportion of solar radiation which reaches the earth is called Insolation.
What is Salinity?
It refers to the amount of dissolve solifds in the ocean water. In other words , the amount of salts in the ocean water.
What is the total geographical area of India?
Total geographical area of India is 32,87,263 sq.km.
Name the longest and the largest glacier of India.
The scientific study of soil is known as Pedology.
II. Answer any ten of the following in two or three sentence each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
What is Oceanography?
The scientific study of water bodies (Sea, Oceans) is called ‘Oceanography’.
What is inclination of the Earth?
The Earth’s axis is not at right angle (perpendicular) to the plane of the elliptical orbit. The axis is inclined at an angle of 66 1/2° to the plane of the orbit. This is known as ‘Inclination of the Earth’s axis’.
State the difference between Focus and Epicentre.
The point in the interior of the Earth from where the earthquake tremors originate is called the seismic focus. Earthquake tremors move from the focus in all directions.
The point o the Earth’s surface vertically above the focus is called the epicenter. The Earthquake is felt first at the epicenter.
What is canyon? Give example.
Deep valleys with step, almost vertical walls are called canyons
Waterfall: A vertical drop of water from a great height along the course of a river is called a waterfall.
Name the two important Trade winds.
North East Trade winds: In the northern hemisphere, they blow from north-east to south west. South East trade winds: In the southern hemisphere, they blow from south east to North West.
Mention any four uses of tides.
Tides are useful to man and a society in various ways. They are:
- Tides increase the depth of water in shallow harbours and help navigation during high ties.
- Tides clean the entrance of ports, harbours and river mouths.
- Tides help fishing and other aquaculture activities.
- Tides promote salt and foam production in the coastal areas.
- Tides promote the generation of tidal energy
What is Ecological Balance?
It refers to the proper balance between the different organisms and their physical environment in the biosphere.
Name the four tributaries of river Indus.
The Sutlej, Ravi, Jhelum, Chenab and the Beas are the major tributaries of Indus river.
Name any four factors that affect Soil erosion.
High Temperature, Rainfall wind and waves are the natural agents. Deforestation, over grazing, shifting cultivation, unscientific methods of agriculture cause soil erosion.
State two important flood prone areas of the country.
The Ganga Basin: The badly affected states of the Ganga basin area Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
The Brahmaputra basin: the Brahmaputra along with its tributaries floods the areas of Assam • and North West Bengal regions.
Mention any four causes of Earthquakes.
An earthquake is a sudden release of energy accumulated in rocks causing the ground to tremble or shake. .
The main causes of earthquake are natural and man – made factors.
- Tectonic forces
- Volcanic activity
- Landslides and Landslips
- Collapse of underground cave roofs
Mention the important regions of land slides in India.
There are three important region.
- Himalayan zone
- Western Ghats
- Southern Plateau.
III. Answer any eight of the following in 25 to 30 sentences each. ( 5 × 8 = 40 )
Why is Geography called as the ‘Science of Earth’?
The word Geography is derived from the two Greek word ‘Geo’ which means earth and Graphic which means writing or study. Thus literally Geography means writing or study about the earth. Geography not only deals with a description of the earth, but it also deals with its inhabitants. So, Geography is the study of the earth and its people.
Describe the size of the Earth.
The ancient people made attempts to determine the size of the Earth. About 2,000 years ago a Greek astronomer, Eratosthenes, who lived In Alexandria in Egypt succeeded in calculating the size of the earth almost accurately, according to him, the earth’s circumference at the equator was 41,140kms. It was very close to the actual circumference of the earth, as known today.
The actual equatorial circumference of the earth is 40,076km, where as the polar circumference is 40,006km. The difference between the two is 70km. The earth’s equatorial diameter is 12,757km and the polar diameter is 12,714km. The difference is 43km. The geoids shape of the earth makes the circumference through the poles little less than that along the equator. The total surface area of the earth is 510. 9 million sq kms of the surface area, 71 % is covered by water mass and 29% is covered by landmass. The water mass is 361 million sq.kms and the land area is 149 million sq.kms. The land area is divided into seven continents and many island. The continents are Asia, Africa, and North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia.
The water area consist of five ocean, namely, the pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Antarctic ocean and the Arctic Ocean and many gulfs, bays and seas. The globe is divided into two hemispheres, namely the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere, by the equator. The northern hemisphere contains 2/3 of the land and the southern hemisphere contains 1/3 of the land. The zero degree meridians decide the globe into two hemispheres, namely, the eastern hemisphere and the western hemisphere.
What is an Earthquake? Describe the causes and effects of earthquake.
An Earthquake is a sudden vibration or oscillation in the Crust of the Earth. It is a form of energy of wave motion transmitted through the surface layer of the Earth. The place of origin of an Earthquake in the Earth’s crust is called ‘Focus’. The point on the Earth surface which is perpendicular to the focus, receiving seismic waves is called ‘Epicentre’.
Causes of Earthquake: On the basis of occurrence earthquakes can be classified into three types. They occur due to several causes such as tectonic forces, folding, faulting, volcanic eruptions landslides, avalanches, man-made factor.
Tectonic Earthquakes: These are caused due to folding, faulting and displacement of blocks of rocks in the Earth’s crust. They are highly intensive and destructive seismic activities.
Volcanic Earthquakes: These are associated with the volcanic activities and are usually caused at great depths. They are with low intensity and magnitude. The destruction and damage are slightly lesser than earthquakes caused by Tectonic forces.
c. Earthquakes caused by man-made factors: Over interaction of man underground nuclear explosion etc, are causing great change in the crustal formation leading to seismic activity. E.g. Koyna dam (India)-1967, Hoover dam (U.S.A)-l 935, Mangladam (Pakistan). Effects of Earthquakes: Earthquakes cause violent disturbances and widespread damage and destruction, especially on the epicentre region.
- Earthquakes cause changes in the earth’s surface. Cracks and fissures develop in the earth’s crust.
- Vibrations, caused by earthquakes, lead to landslides in mountainous regions, damming the rivers.
- vertical or horizontal cracks are formed, and the land is elevated or lowered, forming lakes.
- Deep cracks may be developed in dams after the earthquake. For instance, deep cracks were developed in the Koyna dam after the earthquake.
- The beds of rivers may be raised by the earthquakes. For example, the bed of the river Brahmaputra was raised during the Assam earthquakes.
- here is the greatest danger of falling of houses, roads railway lines factories, bridges, dams, aerodromes, and other man-made structures, resulting in loss of life and property.
- The underground water system is disturbed.
What is a rock? Describe the different types of rocks.
Rock refers to the hard and resistant materials of the earth’s crust. But scientifically rock includes even soft and loose materials like chalk, clay, etc. So, rock refers to any solid materials, hard or soft of which the crust of the earth is formed. All rocks do not have the same chemical composition. But minerals have their own chemical compost in and physical prosperities. .The earth’s crust is made up of various types of rocks
Types of Rocks: Rocks can be classified into three major groups on the basis of their origin or mode of formation. They are:
A. Igneous rocks: The term Igneous is derived from the Latin word “Ignis”, means lire. Thus the igneous rocks are formed by the cooling and solidification of molten material which is called magma. Igneous rocks are also called primary rocks, because they were the firs to be formed. As they are the rocks from which all other types of rocks are derived, they are also called parent rocks.
Igneous rocks are commonly classified on the basis of mode of formation into two major types.
i. Intrusive rocks
ii. Extrusive rocks.
I. Intrusive rocks: The magma cannpt escape out to the earth’s surface, it cols slowly inside the earth’s crust and hardens into rock. This type of rock is known as Intrusive Igneous rock. E.g. Granite and dolerite. These rocks can be divided into two type’s a. Plutonic rocks and b. Hybabyssal rocks.
a. Plutonic rocks: The rocks which are formed due to cooling of magma at great depth inside the earth are called Plutonic igneous rocks.
b. Hybabyssal rocks: These are intermediate rocks between the extruded volcanic rocks and the deep plutonic rocks. They are formed due to cooling and solidification of magma in cracks, pores, crevices etc.
II. Extrusive rocks: Rocks formed by cooling and solidification of lava on the surface of the Earth is called extrusive igneous rocks. E.g. Basalt.
B. Sedimentary Rocks: These rocks which are formed due to aggregation and compactness
of sediments are known as sedimentary. In other words, sedimentary rocks are formed bye day the deposition of sediments derived form older rocks, planets and animals remains by river, winds, glaciers etc and these sediments are hardened into rocks by pressure. As they are formed by the consolidation of sediments. They are called sedimentary rocks. They are also called stratified rocks,
a. Mechanically-formed rocks: The rock which have been formed form the accumulation of rock materials, derived form other rocks and have been cemented together are known as “ Mechanically formed rocks.” The mechanically formed rocks consist of sediments which have been carried and deposited by rivers, glaciers, winds or waves and cemented together with clay or line. On the basis of rock materials. These rocks can be divided into three main categories. They are: Rudaceous rocks, Arernaceous rocks and Argilious rocks.
b. Chemically formed rocks: The chemical often settle down and hardened to form rocks known as chemically formed rocks. For example: Gypsum and rock salt, running water dissolves and carries chemicals and where evaporation takes place, these chemicals are deposited at the mouth of springs, caves or caverns or in lakes. Rock salt and gypsum are formed form deposit of salt in strata on the beds of lakes.
c. Organically formed rocks: Organic rocks are formed form the remains of organisms, i.e. of animals and plants. Examples: coal, limestone etc. On the basis of lime and carbon content, organically formed rocks can be divided into two kinds, namely.
(i) Calcareous rocks: Calcareous rocks are formed mostly from the remains of living organisms. These rocks contain calcium carbonate or lime. They include limestoneand chalk. They are porous and soluble.
(ii) Carbonaceous rocks: These are formed due to the transformation of vegetative matter. Under the impact of heat and pressure the remains of plants are turned into hard layers. E.g. coal.
C. Metamorphic rocks: Rock which has been changes either in form or in composition without disintegration is called metamorphic rocks. These rocks are metamorphosed from igneous sedimentary rocks. Igneous and sedimentary rocks may undergo chemical and physical changes because of pressure and heat and form metamorphic rocks. The intense heat and pressure in the earth’s curst alters the composition and appearance of rocks completely or partially to produce a new type of rocks. In this manner metamorphic. rocks are formed. Marble, Diamond, Quartzite, Ruby, Emerald are the examples of metamorphic rock.
What is landform? Explain the different types of geomorphic processes.
A land form is any natural formation of rock and dirt, found on the earth. A landform can be as. large as a mountain range or as small as a hill. Landforms are natural features of the landscape, natural physical features of the earth’s surface eg. Valleys, plateaus, Mountains, plains, hills loess plains. The minor landforms include hills, ridges, valleys, basin etc. According to Geo-scientist the landforms are formed by the forces acting from the interior and on the surface of the Earth.
The processes carried out by Endogenic and Exogenic forces are called geomorphic processes. Endogenic forces: The internal forces are also known as endogenic forces. These are mainly the land building forces. Diastrophism includes all these processes; that move, elevate or build portions of the earth’s crust.
The internal forces are also known as endogenic forces. Exogenic Forces: The external forces are also known as Exogenic forces. These forces are found on the surface of the Earth, Which bring changes through degradation and aggradations process. River, glacier, wind, sea waves are the major sources of external forces.
Explain Biological weathering with examples.
The disintegration of rocks caused by plants, animals and human beings is called “Biological Weathering”.
(a) Plants: The roots of the plant grow through soil and in the cracks of rocks to find water and minerals. As the roots grow deep in the rock they widen and disintegrate the rocks. This process is rn’ost prominent in thick forests and vegetative regions.
(b) Animals: The burrowing animals like rats, rabbits, ants, earthworms and termites influence in the breaking up of rocks and make passages below the ground. The seepage of air and water through these passage results in rapid weathering of rocks.
(c) Human beings: Human beings play an important role weathering of rocks, through activities like agriculture, mining quarrying, oil drilling, deforestation etc.
Briefly explain the factors affecting the distribution of temperature.
The distribution of temperature on the surface of the earth is not uniform. It varies from. region to region due to various factors. The various factors affecting the distribution of atmospheric temperature are:
a. Latitude or distance from the equator: Places close to the equator have higher temperature and are warmer than places awaylfom the equator This is because the Sun rays reach the Earth after passing rays reach the Earth after passing through the layers of the atmosphere. In the low latitudes the Sun rays are direct and have to travel a lesser extent through the atmosphere. Hence, the heat of these rays is more intense. But in high latitudes the Sun rays are slanting and have to passes through a greater extent of atmosphere.
b. Altitude: Temperature decreases with altitude. This is because the heat absorbing elements are found in lower altitude. So the places near the Earth’s surface are warmer than places higher up. This is because air near the surface is denser and contains gases like carbon dioxide, water vapour and other gases. Temperature decreases with increase in height at an average rate of l°C/165m or 6.4°C/1000m.
c. Distance from the sea: this factor also influence on the distribution of temperature and differential heating of land and water. Land gets heated faster compared to water. Water takes longer time to get heated and to cool than land. Hence during the day when the land gets heated quickly, water takes longer time and remains cool. Therefore, during the day time a land gets more heat than the surrounding water bodies.
d. Ocean currents: It increase or decrease the temperature of the Earth’s surface. Warm ocean currents along the coast make the coastal areas warmer and cold currents reduce the temperature and cool the coastal areas.’ Warm currents can be noticed on the eastern margins of the continents in the middle latitude, while .it is the concurrents flow at the western margins of the continents. Gulf stream a warm currents increases the temperature in the eastern coast of U.S.A and California bold current decreases the temperature of the western coast of U.S.A.
e. Winds: Winds that blow from the lower latitudes are warm and make the places warmer. On the other hand, winds that blow from the higher latitudes are cold and make the places cooler. Winds that blow from the sea bring plenty of rain especially if they are warm winds. While off shore winds hardly bring any rain.
f. Clouds: During the day clouds prevent Insolation from reaching the Earth’s surface. Clouds also prevent three escape of terrestrial’s radiation during the night. Clear sky Permits insolation readily during the day time and allow the rapid escape of terrestrial radiation during the night.
Briefly explain the biomes.
A distinct group of life forms and the environment in which they are found is called ‘Biomes’. In other words, Biome is a plant and animal community that covers a large geographical area. On the basis of the dominant life form, six major biomes are identified.
a. Forest biomes: Trees are the dominant life form of forest biome. High temperature, humid climate and soil moisture help for thick tree cover. Equatorial region is dominant with forest biome.
b. Savanna biome: It is the transitional biome between the forest biome and grassland biome. Savanna biome comprises of trees with grasses and herbs. It occupies areas of low and seasonal rainfall.
c. Grassland biome: in this biome grasses constitute the dominant vegetation. It is dominant in the moderate soil water deficit regions, semi-arid areas of dry tropical, sub-tropical and mid-latitude regions.
d. Desert biome: It includes organisms capable of surviving in moderate to severe water deficit for most of the year. In this region temperature may range from hot to cool. Most common plants found in this belt are xerophytes.
e. Tundra biome: It includes small plants that can grow quickly during a short warm to cool summer season, in the low temperature and high latitudinal areas.
f. Aquatic biome: Aquatic regions house numerous species of plants and animals, both large and small. This is where life began billions of years ago. Without water, most life forms would be unable to sustain themselves and the Earth would be a barren, desert-like place. Ponds, lakes, rivers, wetlands and oceans are sources of aquatic biomes.
Explain the location, size and frontiers of India.
Location: The main land oflndia extends between 8°4’ N to 37°6’N latitude and 68° 7’ Eto 97°23 E longitude. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent oflndia is around 30° The country stretches to 3214 km from North to South and 2933 km from West to East. The northern tip of India is recognized as ‘Indira Col’ in Jammu & Kashmir while, the southern tip (main land) is ‘Kanyakumari’ or ‘Cape Camorin’ in Tamilnadu. In the same way the western and eastern tips of the country are ‘Rann of Kutch’ in Gujarat and ‘Luhit’ in Arunachal Pradesh respectively.
The territorial limit oflndia extends up to 6° 45’ N latitude. ‘Indira point’ situated at this latitude in Great Nicobar Islands. As a peninsular country India has both land and water frontiers. The total length of land frontier of the country is 15,200 km. The mainland of the country has a coast line of 6,100km including the islands. The total length of the coast line of the country is about 7516km. The territorial water extends into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (22.2km) from the coastal baseline.
India is a peninsula, located at the north tip of the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by the Arabian Sea in the west, Indian Ocean in the south and Bay of Bengal in the east and covered by land in the north – China, Nepal, Bhutan etc.
The Tropic of Caner 23 1/2° N latitude passes through the middle of lndia and divides the country into almost two equal halves. Indian Standard Time – 82 1/2° E longitude passes through the middle of India (through Allahabad) is recognized as standard longitude of the country two keep standard time.
Size: India is the 7th largest country in the world next to Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil and Australia. It has a total geographical area of 32, 87,263 sq.km. This constitutes about 2.4% of the total land area of the Earth. India is the second most populous country in the world next to China. According to 2011 census the total population of the country was 121.6 crore which accounts for about 17.45% of the total world’s population. India has 28 states, 6 union territories and one national capital region (New Delhi).
Frontiers: India has 15,200km long land frontier extending from west to east running from Gujarat in the west to West Bengal in the east. The Himalayas for a natural boundary in the north, between India and China. Similarly, Thar Desert in the west & northwest and eastern hills acts as boundary between India & Pakistan and India & Myanmar respectively. India share land frontier with seven countries, they are Pakistan and Afghanistan to the northwest, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the-East.
The important international boundary lines demarcated between India and neighbouring countries are:
The Durand line- India and Afghanistan (80Km) by Mortimer Durand The Me Mahon line- India and China (PRC) (3488Km) by Henry Me Mahon.
The Radcliff line – India and Pakistan (2910km) by Sir Cyril Radcliff.
India and Bangladesh (4097km).
Sri Lanka, an island country, situated to the southeast, is separated by Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar.
Describe the significance of Northern Plains.
- The Northern Plain plays a very significant role in the life of the people and economy of the country.
- The Northern plains have high concentration of population 45% of India’s population.
- They are helpful for agro-based industries and urbanization.
- The northern plains have fertile soil, uniform surface and perennial rivers-suitable for agriculture.
- The plains have encouraged the development of transport and communication.
- The rivers in the plain help in the development of inland water transportation.
- It has rich underground water, useful for irrigation and other activities.
- It has cultural and traditional importance.
- They have great social, religious and political significance.
What is soil? Explain the major types of soils.
Soil is the minute or finer rock particles found on the surface of the Earth. It is formed naturally, due to the weathering of rocks, under the influence of climate.
The main types of soil in India are:
1. Alluvial soil: This soil is formed by depositional work of rivers and they are mainly found in the flood plains and deltas. Alluvial soil covers largest geographical are in the country. They are mainly distributed in the river plains of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and the Indus. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under alluvial soil. It is also found in the deltas of east flowing rivers. Alluvial soils are classified into two types.
- Bhangar: Older alluvium, coarse and pebble like in nature, found at the lower depths of the plain.
- Khadar: New alluvium, finer in nature, found in the low lying flood plains and rich in fertility
2. Black soil: The black soils covered more area in peninsular plateau. This soil is also called ‘Cotton soil’ or “Regur soil”. It is derived from the weathered basalt rocks. This soil holds water from long period and become hard whenever it is dry. It is light-black to dark-black in colour. Maharashtra and Gujarat Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Black soils are good for Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Pulses, Millets, Citrus fruits, etc.
3. Red soil: This soil is formed by the weathered granite rocks. It is red in colour and rich in ferrous content. Red soil covers the second largest area in the country. Largest parts of peninsular region are covered with red soil. TamilNadu has the largest distribution of this soil in the country. Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Groundnut, Tobacco, Millets are the major crops cultivated in this soil.
4. Laterite soil: The hot and humid tropical regions of India are rich in laterite soil. This soil is derived from the fragmentation and disintegration of rocks in the mountain ranges. It is mainly found in the Western Ghats, parts of Eastern Ghats and Northeastern hills of India. Plantation crops like Tea, coffee, Rubber, Cashew nut are cultivated in this soil.
5. Desert soil: This soil is also called arid soil. They are mainly found in the desert and semi-desert regions of Western and North western parts of India. This soil has the least water holding capacity and humus content. Generally it is not suitable for cultivation of crops. This soil is mainly found in Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat and Haryana. With water facility crops like Bajra, Pulses and Guar ar cultivated in this soil.
6. Mountain Soil: The Himalayan mountain valleys and hill slopes are covered with Mountain or Forest soil. It is found in the mountain slopes of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Utarkhand regions, Crops like Tea, Almond, saffron are cultivated in this soil.
What are Biosphere reserves? Mention the important biosphere reserves of India.
A biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas .The regions surrounding the biosphere reserves would be utilized for the research and experimentation in developing forest and other products.
The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) of UNESCO was established in 1971 to promote interdisciplinary approaches to management, research and education in ecosystem conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Eight of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the world network of Biosphere reserves, based on the UNESCO man and the Biosphere Programme list.
The objectives of Biosphere reserves:
- Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem.
- Association of environment with development.
- International network for research and monitoring.
|Name of the Biosphere reserve
|Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
|Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka
|Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve
|Sunder bans Biosphere Reserve
|Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve
|Nokrek Biosphere Reserve
|Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve
|Simlipal Biosphere reserve
IV. Answer any one of the following. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
Briefly explain the distribution of flood prone areas of India.
a. The Ganga basin: The badly affected states of the Ganga basin are U.P, Bihar and West Bengal. Besides the Ganga River, Sarada, Gandak and Ghagra cause flood in Eastern part of U.P. The Yamuna is famous for flooding Haryana, U.P and Delhi. Bihar experiences massive and dangerous flood every year by the Kosi. Rivers like the Mahanadi, Bhagirathi and Damodar also cause floods.
b. The Brahmaputra basin: The Brahmaputra along with its tributaries floods the areas of Assam and North West Bengal regions.
c. The Central India and Peninsular river basin: In odisha spilling over of river banks by the Mahanadi, Baitarnika and Brahmani causes havoc. Southern and central India experiences floods caused by the Narmada, Godavari, Tapti and Krishna during heavy rainfall. Cyclonic storms in the deltaic regions of the Godavari, Mahanadi and the Krishna flood the coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh.
On the basis of severity of droughts, India can be divided into three drought prone areas.
a. The Extreme drought prone areas: This is the most important drought prone areas of the country which has been recording continuous drought for many years. The regions are western parts of Rajasthan, Kutch regions of Gujarat and semi-arid regions of Western and North western parts of India.
b. The Severe drought prone areas: This is the second important drought prone areas of the county. The eastern parts of Rajasthan, western parts of Madhya Pradesh, Parts of Maharashtra, interior parts of Andhra Pradesh. North and northeastern parts of Karnataka and Tamil nadu.
c. The Moderate drought prone areas: This region is mainly found in regions of U.P, parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu and interior parts of Karnataka.
Explain the topography of the Ocean floor with a diagram.
On the basis of the depth, the ocean floor can be divided into four zones, parts or relief features. They are.
1. The continental Shelf: The gently sloping portion of the continent or land that lies submerged below other sea is called the continental shelf. The continental shelf has a very gentle slope. It extends form the shore line to depths between 180 and 200 meters. Average width of the continental shelves is about 48km. The extent of the continental shelf depends on the relief of the broadening land masses.
If the coastal area is a plateau area, the continental shelf will be very broad. On the other hand, if the coastal region is hilly or mountainous, the continental shelf will be very narrow or even absent for example the Atlantic Ocean has 2.3%, the Pacific Ocean has 5.7% and the India Ocean has 4.2%.
2. The continental slope: The zone of steep slope that descends from the edge of the continental shelf to the deep sea plains is called “continental slope”. It is the transitional zone lying between the continental shelf and the deep sea plains. The continental slope is very steep. It extends from 182 meters to 3.600 meters. The angle of the continental slope is 2 to 5 degre3es or even more. It occupies only 8.5% of the total area of the ocean floor. But it varies from ocean to ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has broader continental slopes and accounts for 12.4%. But it is 7% of the Pacific Ocean and 6.5% of the Indian Ocean.
3. The deep sea plains: The level and rolling areas of the ocean floor are generally called deep sea plains or abyssal plains or the ocean plains. They lie between 3,000 and 6,000 meters below other surface of the ocean. They occupy vast area of the ocean floor and account for about 82.7% of the total sea floor. They cover about 90% in the Indian Ocean. Their depth ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 meters. They are covered by oozes, which are the remains of deep sea creatures and plants, and of red volcanic dust.
4. The Ocean Deeps: The long narrow and deep troughs on the ocean floor are known as ‘ocean deep’ or ‘trough’. They cover only 1% of the ocean floor. They are most common neat the coasts where young fold mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes abound. Some they are tectonic in origin. They are the deepest portions of the ocean. Deeps may be caused due to tectonic forces, i.e. faulting earthquakes etc. There are 57known deeps. Of these 32 are found in Pacific Ocean, 19in the Atlantic Ocean and 6 in the Indian Ocean. The deepest trench in the world is Challenger deep located in Mariana Trench to the west of Philippines in the North Pacific Ocean.
V. (A) Answer the following in a sentence each. ( 1 × 5 = 5 )
Name any two features of a map?
Title, Scale, Direction are essential features of a Map.
A map is defined as a symbolical and conventional representation of the earth or a portion f it drawn to scale on a flat surface and bounded by the geographical coordinates as viewed from above.
The features show on a map is indicated by a guide called map index.
What is Weather Map?
They show the weather conditions at fixed time. Average atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction, cloudiness, rainfall, drizzle; know fall, sea conditions and other weather phenomena are shown on these maps. These maps are published daily by the meteorological department.
i.e. Indian Daily Weather Report.
What is GIS?
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system build to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and display all kinds of spatial or geographical data.
Give an example for Large scale map.
The distribution maps, where the dot method is applied to show the distribution of economic phenomena e.g. population, agricultural crops, industries etc. Dots of uniform size are used where each dot represents a certain number or quantity.
(B) Identify the latitudes and longitudes for the given places. ( 1 × 5 = 5 )
Latitude and Longitude Map of Karnataka
(C) Draw diagrams to the following. ( 2 × 2 = 4 )
Volcanic land forms
Various types of landforms are produced by the volcanoes. They can be grouped into
- Extrusive landforms
- Intrusive landforms
1. Extrusive landforms: The landforms which have been formed due to the accumulation and solidification of lava and other materials given out by volcanoes are known as extrusive landforms. The important extrusive land forms are:
a. Volcanic cones: volcanic cones are the most typical form of extrusive features or landforms.
The lava and other ejected materials that reach the surface of the earth are accumulated around the crater, and cones are formed. The formation of cones depends jupon the nature of explosion and the materials emitted out of it. There fore, cones are various types. They are:
- Cinder cones: A volcanic cone formed by volcanic cinder accumulated around the crates is called cinder cone.
- Ash cone: A cone shaped hill formed by of volcanic ash that is built up around a volcanic ent is called ash cone.
- Composite cone: A volcanic cone composed of alternative layers of ash, cinder and lava is called composite cone.
- Parasite cone: Some times, many smaller cones are developed in the neighborhood of the main cone. They are called parasite cone.
b. Crater: A crater is pit at the top of volcanic vent, during volcanic eruption, materials form the top of the cone are blown off and a bowl- shaped depression is formed. It is known as crater.
Caldera: Sometime a violent explosion blow away the original cone and forms a large basin-shaped depression called caldera
Volcanic spine: The acid lava, which is vicious, solidifies quickly and blocks the vent. This stands up as a steep-sided cone called spine or plug.
Lava dome: The shape of lava dome is determined by the nature of lava. The highly fluid basic lava builds up shield dome with gently rising slopes, and flattened top. The basic lava, which is highly viscous, builds up dome with a great height and steep slope
Lava plateau: An extensive elevated land made up of depositional lava called lava plateau.
2. Intrusive land forms: Intrusive landforms occur when lava solidifies with the earth’s. crust and gives rise to various shapes or forms. Intrusive landforms are formed along the bedding planes of sedimentary rocks. There are various forms of intrusive landforms. They are:
Dyke: The Magma from the interior of the earth finds its way towards the surface through a passage. When it is able to reach the surface, it cools and solidifies, and a vertical or highly inclined feature is formed, and such a features is called dyke.
Sill: A sheet of magma which lies along the bedding plan is called sill.
Laccolith: Laccolith is a large mound of igneous rock formed along a bedding plane in the sedimentary rock layers.
Batholith: Batholith is a very large dome – shaped intrusion of igneous rock. It is exposed to the surface only after considerable erosion.
Hot springs or thermal spring’s are more common. The water sinks deep inside where the rocks are heated. The heated water rises to the surface without any explosion. Such springs contain dissolved minerals which are of medicinal value. They can be also used to generate electricity. Iceland has thousands of hot springs. A Geyser is a hot spring form which a column of hot water and stream are alternatively ejected to a great height.
Pressure belts of the globe
(D) Draw the outline map of India, mark and name the following
Map drawing (2)
Physical divisions of India (2)
1. Physical divisions of India
Nilgiri and great Nicobar (2)
- Nanda Devi Saikhawa
- Dehang Debang
- Gulf of Mannar
- Great Nicobar
- Achanakmari – Amar Kantak