1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere

Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere

You can Download Chapter 5 Atmosphere Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Geography Atmosphere One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define Atmosphere? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
The thin layer of gaseous matter encircling the earth as an envelope or a blanket is known as Atmosphere

Question 2.
What is the percentage of Nitrogen in the Atmosphere? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
78% of Nitrogen in the Atmosphere.

Question 3.
Why is Carbon dioxide important in the Atmosphere? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
It is needed for plants. It traps heat and acts as an insulating agent, that is why the Earth is warm during night.

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Question 4.
Which layer of Atmosphere is called ‘Weather manufacturer? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Troposphere is called ‘Weather manufacturer’.

Question 5.
In which layer do you find Aurora? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Thermosphere.

Question 6.
What is Stratopause? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Stratopause is the boundary between Stratosphere and Mesosphere.

Question 7.
Which is the coldest layer in the Atmosphere? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Mesosphere extends to a height of 80km from the surface of the Earth. It is the coldest layer of the atmosphere.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Which layer is known as Radio layer?
Answer:
Ionosphere is known as radio layer, because it reflects sound and radio waves back to the earth’s surface.

Question 9.
What is tropopause?
Answer:
The upper part of troposphere is known as “tropopause”.

Question 10.
What is stratosphere?
Answer:
The layer just above the troposphere is called stratosphere. It extends, up to a height of about 50km.

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Question 11.
Which is the lowest layer of the atmosphere?
Answer:
Troposphere

Question 12.
What is stratopause?
Answer:
The upper limit of the stratosphere is known as “stratopause”

Question 13.
What is Ozonosphere?
Answer:
The lower portion of the stratosphere having a greater concentration of ozone is called “Ozonosphere”. It lies between the heights of 30 to 60km.

Question 14.
What is Mesosphere?
Answer:
A layer above the stratosphere, which extends between 50 to 80km, is known as the mesosphere.

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Question 15.
What is Mesopause?
Answer:
A thin layer of air separating mesosphere from other upper layers is named as ‘Mesopause’.

Question 16.
What is ionosphere?
Answer:
The thin layer extends from the ozonosphere form an altitude of about 80 to 640 km above the earth surface.

Question 17.
Which is the isothermal zone?
Answer:
Stratosphere is also known as isothermal zone because in this zone the temperature is almost uniformly distributed.

Question 18.
Which layer is known zone of radio waves?
Answer:
Ionosphere is the zone of radio waves because it reflects sound and radio waves back to the earth’s surface.

Question 19.
Which is the upper most layer of the atmosphere?
Answer:
Exosphere.

Question 20.
In which layer Ozonosphere exists?
Answer:
Stratosphere

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Question 21.
What is Exosphere?
Answer:
The outer-most layer of the earth’s atmosphere lies between 640 and 1000km.

Question 22.
Define Aerosols.
Answer:
The dust and other microscopic solid particles of the atmosphere are known as ‘Aerosols.’

Question 23.
What is condensation?
Answer:
It is a process of Conduct the heat from warmer to colder regions.

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Question 24.
Which layer is known as ‘Magnetosphere.’?
Answer:
Exosphere is also known as‘Magnetosphere’.

Question 25.
Which layer absorbs ultraviolet rays of the sun?
Answer:
Ozonosphere

Question 26.
Which gas is known as green house gas?
Answer:
Carbon Dioxide

Question 26.
Which gas absorbs ultraviolet rays from the sun?
Answer:
Ozone

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Question 27.
Why sky appears blue color?
Answer:
It is because of selective scattering of solar radiation by dust particles. (Atmosphere)

Question 28.
What is Radiation?
Answer:
The process of transfer of heat from one body to the other without the material medium is known as ‘Radiation’.

Question 29.
Define Insolation. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
The small proportion of solar radiation which reaches the earth is called insolation.

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Question 30.
What is convection? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
The transfer of heat through the movement of amass of substances from one place to another is called convection.

Question 31.
What is Thermometer? Mention the types of Thermometer?
Answer:
It is an instrument used to measure the atmospheric temperature. Two types of thermometers are a. Centigrade thermometer and b. Fahrenheit thermometer.

Question 32.
What is Radiation?
Answer:
It s the process by which a body emits radiant energy. Energy received from the sun in the form of heat.

Question 33.
What is conduction?
Answer:
It is a process by which heat is transferred directly though matter fro point of high temperature. Heat passes from warmer to colder substances, as long as temperature difference exists.

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Question 34.
What is the surface temperature of the sun?
Answer:
The surface temperature of the sun is 6000°C or 11,000°F.

Question 35.
What is normal Lapse rate?
Answer:
Temperature decreases with increasing height at the rate of 6.5’C per room. This rate of decrease of temperature is called normal lapse rate (NLR).

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Question 36.
What is Inversion of temperature?
Answer:
The temperature increases with an increase in the height. This state of affairs is called inversion of temperature.

Question 37.
What is isotherm?
Answer:
The lines drawn on maps joining places having the same air temperature are called Isotherms.

Question 38.
Which place records highest temperature in the world?
Answer:
Libya (Aziziya) is a part of Sahara desert records highest temperature in the world.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 39.
What is Radiation?
Answer:
The process of transfer of heat from one body to the other without the material medium is known as ‘Radiation’.

Question 40.
Which place records lowest temperature in the world?
Answer:
Verkhoyansk in N. E. Siberia

Question 41.
What is range of temperature?
Answer:
The difference between the highest and lowest amount of temperature in the particular duration is known as ‘range of temperature.’

Question 42.
What is thermograph?
Answer:
A continuous heat-recording thermometer is called Thermograph.

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Question 43.
What is Terrestrial radiation?
Answer:
The earth surface after receiving the energy from solar radiation radiates energy in the form of long waves known as terrestrial radiation.

Question 44.
What is Advection?
Answer:
Temperature is also transferred by large scale movement of air. When warm air moves to cold regions temperature of the air increases and is contrast cold air reduces heat. This phenomenon is called advection.

Question 45.
What is the average distance between sun and earth?
Answer:
150millionkm.

Question 46.
What is Photosphere?
Answer:
The outer surface of the sun is known as Photosphere

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Question 47.
What are Aurora borealis?
Answer:
It is a phenomenon of coloured light’s seen in the sky in the northern hemisphers 66l/2° North to 90°North

Question 48.
Mention the average atmospheric pressure of the earth. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
The average atmospheric pressure at the sea level is 1013.25mb.

Question 49.
How many pressure belts are there in the globe? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
There are seven pressure belts on the globe.

Question 50.
Define Doldrums. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Equatorial belt of low pressure experiences calm conditions and variable winds so it is known as the belt of doldrums.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 51.
Where do we find ‘Horse Latitudes*? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Subtropical high pressure belt is known as ‘horse Latitudes’.

Question 52.
What is Atmospheric Pressure?
Answer:
The weight of air on a unit area is called air pressure or atmospheric pressure.

Question 53.
Mention the types of Atmospheric Pressure?
Answer:
Low Pressure and High Pressure.

Question 54.
What is pressure gradient?
Answer:
The rate at which the atmospheric pressure changes horizontally is called pressure gradient.

Question 55.
What is Isobar?
Answer:
Lines drawn on a map joining regions of equal air pressure are called isobars.

Question 56.
What is Barometer?
Answer:
The atmospheric pressure is measure by means of an instrument known as ‘Barometer’.

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Question 57.
Mention the types of Barometer?
Answer:
Mercury Barometer and Aneroid barometer.

Question 58.
What is Barograph?
Answer:
It is self recording instrument which continuously records the atmospheric pressure.

Question 59.
What is Altimeter?
Answer:
It is an instrument measures the pressure of atmosphere and denotes corresponding height of the place from the mean sea level.

Question 60.
Which zone is known as ‘Doldrums’?
Answer:
Equatorial low pressure region is known as ‘Doldrums.

Question 61.
Which region is also known as Horse latitudes?
Answer:
Subtropical high pressure belt is known as Horse latitudes.

Question 62.
Define Milibar?
Answer:
A unit of pressure used by meteorologists when preparing their weather charts: 1,000 millibars= labor 29.53inches (750mm) as indicated on a barometer.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 63.
What is Aneroid Barometer?
Answer:
A device to measure air pressure that uses an aneroid, which is a sealed, flexible metal bellow with some air removed that expands and contracts with air pressure changes.

Question 64.
What is Dew?
Answer:
Water that has condensed onto objects near the ground when their temperatures have fallen below the dew point of the surface air.

Question 65.
What do you mean by Convection?
Answer:
The upward flow of air that has been heated by contact with the Earth’s surface. As it warms, it expands and rises. Cold air takes its place at the surface, and is in turn healed and caused to rise.

Question 66.
What do you mean by Torrid Zone?
Answer:
The climate zone lying between the topic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn, where the weather is almost always hot and the sun shines.

Question 67.
What is Charles’s Law?
Answer:
With constant pressure, the temperature of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the density of the gas.

Question 68.
Name the instrument used to measure speed of the wind. (T. B. Qn)
Answer:
‘Anemometer’ is used to measure the speed of winds.

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Question 69.
What is ITCZ? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
This region is the converging zone of trade winds known as ‘Inter-tropical convergent zone’.

Question 70.
Where do we see ‘Roaring Forties’? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
‘Roaring Forties’ found around 40°south latitude.

Question 71.
Why are Tropical cyclones more dangerous? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Tropical cyclones more dangerous because they cause heavy rainfall with high velocity winds.

Question 72.
What are winds?
Answer:
The horizontal movement of air over the earth’s surface is called wind.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 73.
Name any two types of winds?
Answer:
Planetary winds and Periodic winds

Question 74.
Where is Hurricanes exists?
Answer:
U.S.A

Question 75.
Where is a typhoon existing?
Answer:
China

Question 76.
Where is Will-willy blows?
Answer:
Australia

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Question 77.
Where we can find Tornadoes?
Answer:
Southern and eastern USA.

Question 78.
In which climate zone, days and night are equal throughout year?
Answer:
Equatorial type of climate.

Question 79.
What is Air current?
Answer:
The vertical or near vertical moving air is called air current.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 80.
What are the local winds?
Answer:
The regular pattern of planetary and seasonal winds is affected with the local disturbances. Local differences in temperature and pressure leads to the development of movement of winds are called ‘Local winds’.

Question 82.
What type of winds are the monsoons?
Answer:
The monsoons winds are Periodic types of winds. They are extensive and also well developed among the seasonal winds.

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Question 83.
What are the names given to the antitrade winds in the Southern Hemisphere?
Answer:
Antitrade winds in the southern hemisphere are known as Westerlies.

Question 84.
What is meant by ‘Triple point temperature’?
Answer:
The gaseous, liquid and solid states of water are at equilibrium under standard atmospheric pressure.

Question 85.
What is wind vane?
Answer:
An instrument widely used for measuring wind direction is called ‘wind vane’ or ‘weather cock’.

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Question 86.
Which winds are called Tropical Easterlies.
Answer:
Trade winds.

Question 87.
What are Westerlies?
Answer:
The winds blowing from the sub-tropical high pressure belts towards the sub-polar low pressure belts are called Westerlies.

Question 88.
What are ‘Anti trade winds?
Answer:
The winds blow in the opposite direction of the trade winds and were known as “Anti trade winds”.

Question 89.
What is Latent Heat?
Answer:
Energy stored when water evaporates into vapour or ice melts into liquid. It is released as heat when water vapour condenses or water freezes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 90.
What is Rainshadow region? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
In the leeward side of the mountain, as the wind begins to descend, temperature steadily increases resulting in dry air by forming ‘Rain Shadow Region’.

Question 91.
Which instrument is used to measure the amount of Rainfall? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Rain gauge is used to measure the amount of Rainfall.

Question 92.
Mention any two factors-that determine the climate of a place. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Latitude, distance from the sea, altitude, ocean currents.

Question 93.
What is Isohygric line?
Answer:
The line joining the places of equal amount of water vapor is called ‘Isohygric’ line.

Question 94.
What is precipitation?
Answer:
Precipitation is the falling of water in liquid or solid form to the earth’s surface.

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Question 95.
What are the three types of precipitation
Answer:
Rain, snow and Hail stone are the three types of precipitation.

Question 96.
What is convectional rainfall?
Answer:
The rainfall caused with the rising of air upwards due to high temperature is known as convectional rainfall.

Question 97.
Define Hailstone?
Answer:
Hailstone is solid frozen raindrops. The rain droplets when they enter into cold layers of the atmosphere at a higher level get condensed.

Question 98.
Define snow?
Ans.
When the precipitation takes place at below freezing point temperature, it is in the form of ice crystals. Humidity of the air is condensed into hexagonal ice crystal and reach earth’s surface. It is known as‘snow’.

Question 99.
What is Convectional Rainfall?
Answer:
The rainfall caused with the rising of air upwards due to high temperature is known as convectional rainfall.

Question 100.
Define Isohyets?
Answer:
These are the imaginary lines drawn to join the places with the same amount of rainfall.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 101.
What is cloud?
Answer:
When the condensation of water vapour takes place on dust particles on a large scale at higher altitudes, clouds are formed clouds consists of tiny droplets of water which float in the air and are carried by the winds.

Question 102.
What is rain gauge?
Answer:
The amount of rainfall is measured by means of an instrument called rain gauge.

Question 103.
What is Saturation?
Answer:
The air has maximum humidity which it can withhold at the temperature is called saturation.

Question 104.
What is Condensation?
Answer:
Condensation is a reverse process of evaporation. The transformation of gaseous form of water vapour into solid or liquid form is called condensation. This is caused by the loss of heat.

Question 105.
Describe Haze?
Answer:
Acloud of dust, smoke, salt or other particles that reduces visibility close to the Earth’s surface. A haze is said to exist when visibility is less than 1.25 miles but more than 0.6 mile (1km).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 106.
Mention any two factors that determine the climate of a place. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Latitude, distance from the sea, altitude, ocean currents.

Question 107.
What is weather?
Answer:
The atmospheric condition of a place at a given time is known as weather.

Question 108.
What is climate?
Answer:
The average weather condition of a place for a long period like 30-33years is known as climate.

Question 109.
What is Meteorology?
Answer:
The scientific study of the atmosphere and its physical processes is called ‘Meteorology’.

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Question 110.
What is climatology?
Answer:
The scientific study of climatic condition is known as climatology.

Question 111.
What are the elements of weather?
Answer:
Temperature, pressure, winds humidity and precipitation sunshine are the element of weather.

Question 112.
What is Continental climate?
Answer:
The amount of rainfall also decreases from coastal region to the interior Similarly the range of temperature is maximum in the interior regions making it a continental climate.

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1st PUC Geography Atmosphere Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Mention any two components of Atmosphere. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Various gases, water vapour and dust particles

Question 2.
Name any four important gases present in the atmosphere. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen 21%, Argon, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen, Neon.

Question 3.
Why troposphere is called ‘Region of Mixing’? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Troposphere literally means “the region of mixing”. It is derived from the Greek word ‘tropos’ means mixing All changes in weather condition take place in this layer. Temperature, pressure, winds, clouds, thunder, lightning, rainbow and precipitation are common in this layer.

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Question 4.
What is the role of Ionosphere in the Atmosphere? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
These electrically charged particles are known as “Ions” and hence this layer is known as Ionosphere. Radio waves transmitted from the Earth are reflected back to the Earth by this layer. It helps in Radar, Navigator communication. The ionosphere protects us from meteors.

Question 5.
What is the significance of dust particles in the atmosphere?
Answer:
Dust particles are significant I the atmosphere from meteorological standpoint. It acts as a “hygroscopic nuclei” around which water vapor condenses to produce clouds. They also reflect * insolation and besides this smoke and fog are caused due to presence of dust particles.

Question 6.
What is troposphere?
Answer:
The lowermost layer of the atmosphere is known as troposphere and is the most important layer because almost all of the weather phenomena (fog, cloud, dew, frost, rainfall. Hailstorm, storms, cloud, lightning etc) occur in this layer. The word troposphere literally means Zone or region of mixing.

Question 7.
What is Ionosphere?
Answer:
The thin layer extends from the ozonosphere form an altitude of about 80 to 640 km above the earth surface. The process of ionization takes place in this zone, resulting in a dense concentration of positive ions.

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Question 8.
Mention the salient features of troposphere?
Answer:
The important features of the troposphere are:

  • Hydrological cycle
  • Lapse rate
  • Clouds
  • Gaseous mass.

Question 9.
Mention the features of Inversion of Temperature. (T. B. Qn).
Answer:
It is a process of temperature increases with increasing height in troposphere. This feature is common during winter season, less cloudiness, slow movement of winds, and clear sky in the mountain valley.

Question 10.
Why are isotherms more irregular in the northern Hemisphere than in southern hemisphere?
Answer:
The isotherms are more irregular in Northern Hemisphere because of the distribution pattern of land and water and their differential heating.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
What is temperate zone?
Answer:
It extends from 23 XA° to 66 !4° on both hemispheres. The sun is never vertically over head in this zone. It is characterized with warm summers and server winters. There is a general decrease of temperature towards poles and the severity and duration of the winter season also increase towards poles. The ancient Greeks have described this zone as an intermediary zone experiencing both winters and summers

Question 12.
State the difference between tropical and Frigid zone
Answer:
Sun is the chief source of energy. The heat energy radiated by the sun in all directions is called solar radiation.
The amount of radiation reaching the upper layers of the atmosphere is about 1.94 calories per cm2. As it varies little, is known as‘Solar constant

Question 13.
What is the inversion of Temperature?
Answer:
Under certain conditions air temperature increases with increasing height in the troposphere. This is known as inversion of temperature.

Question 14.
What is Albedo?
Answer:
The propagation of solar radiation falling on a non-luminouS body which the latter reflects is usually expressed as percentage. The albedo of the earth is approximately 40% of the solar radiation which is reflected back into space.

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Question 15.
Why do Pressure belts shift? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
The main cause of the pressure belts is the heat from the Sun, the pressure belts follow the annual apparent migration of the sun to the north in summer and to the south in winter. This is known as the shifting of the pressure belts.

Question 16.
What is Doldrums?
Answer:
The doldrums is the equatorial belt of calms and variable wind lying over the equatorial through of low pressure roughly between 5° N to S latitudes. This belt of calm lies between the two trade wind belts. In the late afternoon. There is strong convection which brings about heavy. thunderstorm. Because, of prevailing calm conditions the atmosphere in the doldrums is hot, oppressive and sticky.

Question 17.
State the relation between temperature and atmospheric pressure?
Answer:
There is a close relationship between temperature and pressure conditions of the air. Higher the temperature, lower will be the pressure and vice-versa. When the air is heated, the molecules expand and the air becomes light. The tropical region received almost perpendicular rays of the sun. As a result, the air is heated and rises upwards in the form of convectional currents and has become low pressure belt.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
State the vertical distribution of pressure?
Answer:
Atmospheric pressure is highest at the sea level and decreasing with increasing of height. It is because the lower layer of the atmosphere has the weight of the entire atmosphere extending over several thousand kilometers. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, troposphere which extends up to 10-16km has 75 percent of the total atmosphere. The atmosphere near the earth’s surface up to an height of only 1km contains 1/10 of the total height. At the sea level atmospheric pressure is 1013.25mb

Question 19.
Name the two important Trade winds. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
North East Trade winds: In the northern hemisphere, they blow from north-east to south west. South East trade winds: In the southern hemisphere, they blow from south east to North West.

Question 20.
How is Sea breeze formed? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
During the day, the land gets heated faster than the sea. So the air gets heated and the rise upwards to produce a low pressure region. At the same time the pressure at sea sis comparatively high. The warm are of the land, being light, rises upwards allowing the air from sea to enter in. Such incoming air from the sea is called ‘Sea Breeze’.

Question 21.
Mention the features of a Cyclone. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Cyclone is a small low pressure area in the center surrounded by high pressure. The winds blow spirally towards the low pressure a area and form convergence of winds. In the northern hemisphere the direction of cyclonic winds is anti clock-wise and in the Southern hemisphere it is clockwise.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 22.
What are the planetary winds?
Answer:
The winds which blow from high pressure belts to the low pressure belts in the same direction
throughout the year are called planetary winds.

Question 23.
What is Hurricanes?
Answer:
Tropical cyclones in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean sea and western pacific ocean are known as Hurricanes. To qualify as a hurricane, a storm must produce winds over 119Km/hr. It causes severe damages to life and property.

Question 24.
Define typhoons?
Answer:
Tropical cyclones that originate in the China Sea are known as typhoons. These winds are also very violent and destructive.

Question 25.
What do you mean by tornadoes?
Answer:
These are storms which form vey suddenly on land. The highest wind speeds on Earth occur .in tornadoes, sometimes reaching 500km/hr. They are most common and most violent in the U.S.A.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
What are Anti-cyclones?
Answer:
An anti-cyclone is a high pressure system with winds blowing clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and anticlockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. An anti-cyclone may form wherever air sinks, the condition that creates high pressure. Winds begin to blow outwards form the high pressure area.

Question 27.
What is Coriolis Effect?
Answer:
The apparent curving motion of anything, such as wind, caused by Earth’s rotation. It was first described in 1835 by French scientist Gustavo- gasped Coriolis.

Question 28.
What is Cyclone?
Answer:
A region of low atmospheric pressure in which winds spiral inwards towards the centre of lowest pressure. In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds blow anti-clockwise: in the Southern hemisphere clockwise. In temperate regions cyclones are called depressions: in tropical regions they are more violent, and are called typhoons or hurricanes.

Question 29.
What are the seasonal winds?
Answer:
The winds that change their direction regularly in different seasons are called seasonal or periodic winds.

Question 30.
What is a trade wind?
Answer:
The winds that blow in the tropics from the sub-tropical high pressure belts towards the equatorial low pressure belt are called “trade winds”. They found approximately between 8’ and 30’ latitudes on both sides, blowing from the east. They are also known as “Tropical Easterlies”.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
What is an antitrade wind?
Answer:
The winds blowing from the sub-tropical high pressure belts towards the sub-polar low pressure belts are known as sub-polar low pressure belts are known as anti-trade winds.

Question 32.
What are planetary winds?
Answer: The winds blowing regularly from the high pressure to low pressure belts are known as planetary winds. The velocity and extent of these are however affected with the seasonal migration of the pressure belts

Question 33.
Briefly describe the monsoon winds.
Answer:
The monsoons winds are typical example of seasonal are period winds. They are extensive and also well developed among the seasonal winds. The word ‘Monsoon’ is derived from an Arabic word ‘Mousim’ means seasonal. The Arabs have noticed the character of periodical reversal of winds on the Arabian sea and called them monsoons.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 34.
State the different names of the tropical cyclones.
Answer:
Tornado in the U.S.A, Simoon in Africa and Arabia, Sirocco in Italy and Sicily, Hurricane in West Indies, Typhoon in Japan and China and Willy-willies in Asia.

Question 35.
Stat the difference between winds and air currents.
Answer:
The distribution of atmospheric pressure on the earth’s surfaces most uneven. The horizontal movement of air, parallel to the earth’s surface is knows as ‘winds’.
The vertical movement is called “air current”. The wind and currents are interrelated and forms a system of air circulation through out world and play an important role in the distribution of temperature and humidity in the atmosphere.

Question 36.
What are the three types of planetary winds?
Answer:
There are three major types of planetary winds. They are Trade winds, Anti trade winds and Polar winds.

Question 37.
What are Storm Surge?
Answer:
Quickly rising ocean water levels associated with hurricanes that can cause widespread flooding.

Question 38.
What do you mean by El Nino?
Answer:
Linked ocean and atmospheric events that have worldwide effects, characterized by warming of water in the topical pacific from around the International Date Line to the coast of Peru.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 39.
Distinguish between air currents and wind?
Answer:
Air flows from high pressure to low pressure due to horizontal differences. This horizontal movement of air is called wind whereas the vertical movement of air is called air currents.

Question 40.
What is Ferrell’s law?
Answer:
The result of the earth’s rotation, a body moving in any direction over surface of the earth will tend to be deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. This law is known as “Ferrell’s law”. It mainly concerned with the movement of air.

Question 41.
What are land and sea breeze?
Answer:
The flow of air from land to sea is called land breeze and the flow of air from sea to land is called Sea breeze.

Question 42.
How is Mountain rainfall caused? (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
During this rain the moisture laden winds are forced to ascend over the mountains in their path. As the wind rises, it expands and looses temperature. This results in condensation, leading to rainfall. This rain fall is found in the windward side of the mountain and is heavy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 43.
Mention the forms of condensation?
Answer:
The water produced by condensation may take several forms. It may remain suspended in the air in the form of mist, for or cloud, or it may be deposited on the solid objects on the ground in the form of rain, snow or hailstone. So, there are many forms of condensation. The chief forms of condensation are dew, frost, mist, fog, cloud, rain, snow and hailstone.

Question 44.
What is cyclonic rainfall?
Answer:
Cyclonic rain is associated with a depression or a low pressure. This type of rainfall takes place where air masses of different temperatures and humidity meet. The cyclonic rainfall is most common in the temperate region. The rainfall caused with a cyclone or a depression is known as cyclonic rainfall.

Question 45.
What is rain shadow region?
Answer:
When the ascending air may reach the mountain summit and descends On the leeward side, it is warmed by compression during its descent, and thus becomes drier and drier. The part of land over which this dry wind blows, it known as the rain shadow area. This influence of the mountain barrier is called the rain shadow effect.

Question 46.
State the difference between windward and leeward side?
Answer:
Orographic rainfall occurs due to ascent of air over mountain slopes. Orographic rain is heavy on the windward slope of the mountain. The slope of the mountain facing the wind is called “Wind ward side” while the opposite slope is called “leeward side” After crossing over the mountain, the air begin to descend along the leeward slope. It gets heated and becomes dry.

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Question 47.
Mention the causes of rainfall?
Answer:
The cooling of saturated air mass is an important cause for rainfall. The cooling process takes place in different ways. Major causes are:

  • The warm and moist air rises upward by vertical convection currents.
  • Air is also forced to ascend over mountain ranges.
  • The warm air rises over cold air.
  • There should be sufficient humidity in the air.
  • Condensation should be taken place.

Question 48.
What is Orographic Rainfall?
Answer:
It is the most common and widespread for of rainfall in the world. It is also known as mountain rain or relief rainfall. The moisture laden winds are forced to ascend over the mountains in their path. As the wind rise, it expands and looses temperature adiabatically. As a result, condensation takes place leading to rainfall. The amount of rainfall is heavy and concentrated in the windward side of the mountain.

However highest amount of rainfall is received at the crest of the mountain. In the leeward side of the mountain, the winds begin to descend along the slopes with compression. As the wind move along the slopes the temperature steadily increases. Hence the leeward side remains dry.

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Question 49.
What are hailstones?
Answer:
Hailstones are solid frozen raindrops. The rain droplets when they enters into cold layers of the atmosphere at a higher level gets condensed, grew in size and finally reach earth’s surface. Hailstones are normally associated with

Question 50.
What is Hydrological cycle?
Answer:
The circulation of water in the Earth’s environment between lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere is called hydrological cycle.

Question 51.
Mention any two factors that determine the climate of a place.
Answer:
Latitude, Distance from the sea, Altitude, Prevailing winds, Direction of the mountains, ocean currents are the affecting factors of climate.

Question 52.
State the difference between continental and marine climate?
Answer:
In the costal regions temperature condition is modified by the oceans to large extent and thus experiences warm summers and mild winters. The amount of rainfall also decreases from coastal region to the interior. Similarly the range of temperature is maximum in the interior regions making it a continental climate.

Question 53.
State any two differences between Weather and climate?
Answer:
Weather is the average condition of the atmosphere at a particular place for short period. But climate is the average condition of the atmosphere over an area over a long period of time. Weather is described as sultry, cloudy, stormy, chilly, fine or mild etc. Climate is described as hot, cold, dry, humid and wet.

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1st PUC Geography Atmosphere Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the structure of the atmosphere. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
The distribution of temperature is not uniform at different height of the atmosphere. Along with the variation of temperature there are unique features at different heights. Based on these characteristics atmosphere is divided into four parallel zones.
1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere 1

1. Troposphere: It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere and less closer to the earth. The word ‘Tropos’ means ‘turn’ It extends up to 18km at the equator and 8km at poles. Thus the average height is about 10-12km. The important feature of the troposphere are:

Hydrological cycle: It is confined to troposphere. The water evaporates and raised up, formation of clouds takes place. Later it is precipitated in various forms like rain, snow and hailstone. These processes are known as evaporation, condensation and precipitation.

Lapse rate: In this layer the temperature decreases at the rate of 6,5’ Celsius per every 1000 meters of height which is known as ‘lapse rate’.

Clouds: It is characterized with formation of clouds, thunder storms and lighting.
Gaseous Mass: The troposphere has about 75 percent of the total gaseous mass, The upper part of troposphere is known ‘Tropopause’.

2. Stratosphere: It lies above the tropo-sphere and extends up to 50km from the earth. The temperature is also most uniformly distributed. Hence it also known as isothermal zone. At a height of 22kms. There is a thin layer of ozone which absorbs ultraviolet rays of the sun. So it is called as ozOnosphre. The name staratopause is given to the upper part of the stratosphere.

3. Mesosphere: It extends from 50 to 80kms. It is an intermediary zone between the lower and upper layers of the atmosphere. A thin layer of air separating mesosphere from the other upper layers in named as‘Mesopause’.

4. Ionosphere: It extends from 90 to 500km. It consists of atoms of air ionized due to intensive temperature. So it is also known as‘Ionosphere’or Thermosphere. The radio waves of different length are reflected back from this layer.

5. Exosphere: The region beyond the Thermosphere is called Exosphere. It extends to about 1,000 km and the gravity of the Earth s too weak in this layer. Magnetosphere is found above this layer. Atmospheric layer in between 500-700kms is known as Exosphere and the atmosphere lying beyond is called‘Magnetosphere’.

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Question 2.
Explain the composition of the atmosphere.
Answer:
The atmosphere is a mechanical mixture of several gases. It also contains a number of solid and liquid particles called‘Aerosols’. Some of the gases may be permanent. They remain in fixed proportion but others may vary in quantity from one place to another and from time to time. The different constituents of the atmosphere are gases, water vapor and dust particles.

Gases: The dry air that is around us is a mixture of various gases. The main component gases of dry air are listed in the table. Both nitrogen and oxygen together account for about 99% of the atmosphere. The remaining 1% to make up of other gases. Nitrogen is most plentiful of all the gases in the atmosphere. It is an important constituent of many organic compounds. It is needed to dilute the air and regulated combustion by diluting oxygen. All living organism need oxygen. For respiration. Life is not possible without it. It is essential for combustion. About 21% of the gases in the atmosphere consist of oxygen.

Carbon dioxide is found in small percentage in dry air. It used by green plants for photosynthesis. It absorbs solar energy and earth radiation and then emits a part of it towards the earth. The amount of carbon dioxide is increasing every year which can agent temperature. Another important gas is ozone, which is similar to oxygen molecule. It absorbs most of the ultra-violet rays from the sun and protects us from excessive heat.

Water vapour: This is the gaseous form of water. It is largely formed from the evaporation of water from the water bodies on the earth and transpiration from plants and soils.

Water vapor is one of the most variable gases of the atmosphere, which is representing in the lower layers of the atmosphere. It is capable of absorbing solar energy as the well as energy radiated form the earth. The condensation of water vapour is responsible for several forms ofthe precipitation. Eg: rain, snow, etc. The amount of water vapor mainly depends on temperature. So it. varies from place to place and from time to time. It decreases from the equator to the poles.

Dust particles: The atmosphere is capable of holding solid particles, suspended in the lower layers of the atmosphere. They consist of dust, salt particles, pollen, smoke and soot, volcanic ash etc. These dust particles are very important form the absorption and scattering of some of the solar energy.

Water vapor is one of the most variable gases of the atmosphere, which is representing in the lower layers of the atmosphere. It is capable of absorbing solar energy as the well as energy radiated form the earth. The condensation of water vapour is responsible for several forms ofthe precipitation. Eg: rain, snow, etc. The amount of water vapor mainly depends on temperature. So it.varies from place to place and from time to time. It decreases from the equator to the poles.

Dust particles: The atmosphere is capable of holding solid particles, suspended in the lower layers of the atmosphere. They consist of dust, salt particles, pollen, smoke and soot, volcanic ash etc. These dust particles are very important form the absorption and scattering of some of the solar energy.

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Question 3.
Explain the characteristic features of Atmosphere.
Answer:
Atmosphere has certain characteristics features. They are

  • Atmosphere is the second layer of the earth.
  • Like lithosphere and hydrosphere, the atmosphere also is an integral part of the planet.
  • Atmosphere is a gaseous layer extending upto a height of about 960 kms., but it has no
    distinct outer limit.
  • It is attached to the earth’s surface by gravitational force.
  • The atmosphere is denser near the earth’s surface, and becomes thinner away from the earth’s surface.

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Question 4.
Briefly explain the factors affecting the distribution of temperature. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
The distribution of temperature on the surface of the earth is not uniform. It varies from. region to region due to various factors. The various factors affecting the distribution of atmospheric temperature are:

a. Latitude or distance from the equator: Places close to the equator have higher temperature and are warmer than places awaylfom the equator This is because the Sun rays reach the Earth after passing rays reach the Earth after passing through the layers of the atmosphere. In the low latitudes the Sun rays are direct and have to travel a lesser extent through the atmosphere. Hence, the heat of these rays is more intense. But in high latitudes the Sun rays are slanting and have to passes through a greater extent of atmosphere.

b. Altitude: Temperature decreases with altitude. This is because the heat absorbing elements are found in lower altitude. So the places near the Earth’s surface are warmer than places higher up. This is because air near the surface is denser and contains gases like carbon dioxide, water vapour and other gases. Temperature decreases with increase in height at an average rate of l°C/165m or 6.4°C/1000m.

c. Distance from the sea: this factor also influence on the distribution of temperature and differential heating of land and water. Land gets heated faster compared to water. Water takes longer time to get heated and to cool than land. Hence during the day when the land gets heated quickly, water takes longer time and remains cool. Therefore, during the day time a land gets more heat than the surrounding water bodies.

d. Ocean currents: It increase or decrease the temperature of the Earth’s surface. Warm ocean currents along the coast make the coastal areas warmer and cold currents reduce the temperature and cool the coastal areas.’ Warm currents can be noticed on the eastern margins of the continents in the middle latitude, while .it is the concurrents flow at the western margins of the continents. Gulf stream a warm currents increases the temperature in the eastern coast of U.S.A and California bold current decreases the temperature of the western coast of U.S.A.

e. Winds: Winds that blow from the lower latitudes are warm and make the places warmer. On the other hand, winds that blow from the higher latitudes are cold and make the places cooler. Winds that blow from the sea bring plenty of rain especially if they are warm winds. While off shore winds hardly bring any rain.

f. Clouds: During the day clouds prevent Insolation from reaching the Earth’s surface. Clouds also prevent three escape of terrestrial’s radiation during the night. Clear sky Permits insolation readily during the day time and allow the rapid escape of terrestrial radiation during the night.

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Question 5.
What is solar radiation? Explain the factors controlling solar radiation.
Answer:
The solar radiation is in the form of short waves. These waves strike the outer surface of the atmosphere. About 53% of the energy is lost through scattering by gas molecules, reflection by clouds and absorption by water vapor and other particles. Only about 47 percent of the energy reaches the surface.

Controlling factors: Insolation is not uniform on all parts of the earth’s surface. It differs from one region to another and also from one season to another. The important factors determining the amount of solar radiation are:

a. The angle of incidence of the sun’s rays: The sun rays do not strike the earth surface at an. equal angle. They are almost perpendicular as well as concentrated near the equator and slanting as well as spread over a large area at the poles.

b. Atmosphere: The amount of insolation also depends on the atmosphere through which it passes. The amount of cloud cover, its thickness,, dust, water vapour absorbs temperature.

c. Duration of Day: The duration of sunshine or day varies with the seasons and latitudes. Longer the duration of sunshine, more will be the insulation and vise versa, d. Distance between the earth and the sun: The earth revolves around the sun on its orbit. It is nearest to the sun on January 3 and far away on July Thence the solar radiation is more in January than in the month of July.

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Question 6.
What is Inversion of temperature and explain the conditions of inversion of temperature? ‘
Answer:
Some times air temperature increases with increasing height in troposphere. This is known as ‘Inversion of temperature’ the suitable conditions for inversion of temperature is as follows-
1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere 2

(a) Long Winter Nights: The loss of heat by terrestrial radiation exceeds the amount of insolation received from the sun during long winter nights.

(b) Cloudless and clear sky: A clear sky causes rapid loss of hear through terrestrial radiation.

(c) Dry air: The dry air present near earth’s surface is not capable of absorbing much of the heat. Hence the temperature at lower layer does not rise.

(d) Calm atmosphere: When there is no-movement of air or it is very little, there is no transfer and mixing of hear in the lower layers of the atmosphere.

(e) Snow covered surface: When the ground is covered by snow, and there is a reflection of incoming solar radiation the ground heats very little. Therefore the air close to the ground undergoes rapid cooling and temperature inversion takes place.

There can be two types of inversion of temperature:

1. High-Altitude inversion: The high altitude inversion occurs mainly due to the frontal convergence, when a swarm air-mass is forced from the ground surface by the underlying of a cold air mass at a cold front. Alternatively, a similar inversion can be created when a warm air-mass overrides a colder one along with a warm front.

2. surface inversion: A surface inversion is much more localized and is often dependent on the terrain. It frequently occurs during winter anticyclonic weather when during calm cloudless nights thee is a rapid heat loss from the ground by radiation.

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Question 7.
Explain the process of Heating and cooling of atmosphere?
Answer:
Atmospheres do not get its temperature directly by the short waves of the sun but through the long waves of the earth. The atmosphere is transparent to the solar radiation which is in the form of short waves. It allows them to reach the earth.
The four processes of heating and cooling of atmosphere are radiation, conduction, convection and advection.
1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere 3

Radiation: Radiation is the process of heating an object by the transmission of heat waves. The earth surface gets temperature through solar radiation. It radiates energy in the form of long waves which is absorbed by the atmosphere.
Conduction: Transfer of heat by molecular activity is known as Conduction. The atmospheric layer closer to the surface gets heat in this process with contact.
Convection: Transfer of heat through the movement of mass is called Convection. The lower layer of the atmosphere gets temperature and become lighter. So it moves upwards. The dense air in the upper layer being dense descends downwards. With this cyclic movement temperature is distributed in the lower layers of the atmosphere.
Advection: Temperature is also transferred by large scale movement of air. When warm air moves of cold regions temperature of the air increases and is contrast cold reduces heat. This phenomena is called advection.

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Question 7.
What are the isotherms? State their Characteristics?
Answer:
The line drawn on maps joining places having the same air temperature are called Isotherms. They are drawn after reducing the temperature to mean sea level to eliminate the variation caused by altitude. The horizontal distribution of temperature is shown with the help of isotherms.

  • Isotherms run east-west and are parallel to the latitudes.
  • Isotherms take sudden deviation near coasts indicating contrasting temperature conditions between land and water bodies.
  • Spacing of isotherms indicates latitudinal thermal gradient or steepness of temperature change or intensity of temperature variation.
  • There is a seasonal difference in spacing of isotherms. Generally they are closer in the month of January while they are widely apart in the month of July.
  • The isothermal lines have east-west trend following the latitudes.
  • The ocean currents also influence and deviate the trend of isotherms.

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Question 8.
Explain the temperature zones.
Answer:
The perpendicular rays of the sun strike different latitudes in different seasons. As a result there is marked variations in the amount of solar radiation in different parts of the world. On the basis of solar radiation, the surface of the earth is divided into three zones. They are

(a) Torrid Zone: It is the hottest zone on the earth’s surface. It extends from equator to 23/2° degrees in both the hemispheres. The summers are hot and winter is mild and warm. Summer temperatures are above 27°C and the temperature even during the winter season is more than 18°C. It is thus characterized with lower annual range of temperature. The torrid zone is described by ancient Greeks as ‘Winterless tropics’ as the winter season is less pronounced.

(b) Temperate zone: It extends from 23 14° to 66 !4° on both hemispheres. The sun is never vertically over head in this zone. It is characterized with warm summers and server winters. There is a general decrease of temperature towards poles and the severity and duration of the winter season also increase towards poles. The ancient Greeks have described this zone as an intermediary zone experiencing both winters and summers.

(c) Frigid Zone: Beyond 66 V2 on both hemispheres the zone extends up to 90°. The temperature lies below freezing point for most part of the year. During the summer season snow melts partially. The temperatures never rise above 10°C even during the summers. Summers are.mild and .short, winters are long and severe. The poles remains permanently ice covered. So this polar belt is described by the ancient Greeks as summer less frigid zone’.

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Question 9.
Describe the major pressure belts of the world with a neat diagram. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
The distribution of pressure is not equal on the earth’s surface. It changes from palace to place and time to time on the basis of air temperature and rotation of the earth. Any area in the atmosphere where air pressure is higher than in the surrounding areas is called “ High pressure”/ Thee are 4 high pressure belts and 3 low pressure belts on the earth’s surface.

1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere 4

Equatorial Low pressure belt: This belt lies between latitudes 5° N and 5° S. The Sun’s rays are almost vertical on the equator throughout the year. As a result, the temperature is uniformly high and pressure is low throughout the year. It is also known as “Doldrums”. The air gets warm and rises upward. Horizontal movement of air is absent and convectional currents occur. This is the zone of convergence of the trade winds.

Sub tropical high pressure belts: The air ascended in the form of convectional currents from the equatorial region partly descends in the between 30 to 40’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. The descending air has thus formed two high pressure zones known as subtropics high pressure belts. It is the zone from which trade and anti-trade winds originate. This belt is also known as “ horse altitudes’. It is dry and quite stable. The name horse latitude is given by the ancient sailors who used to transport horses on ships. Due to absence of strong winds, some times the ship could not move with horses. Hence sailors used to dump horses to make the ship move forward.

Sub Polar low pressure belts: In between polar high pressure knd sub-tropical high pressure belt, the sum-tropical low pressure belts are situated. They lies in between 60’ to 70’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. They are formed with spinning action of rotation of the earth and also uprising air as an effect of incoming cold polar winds.

Polar high pressure belts: The Polar Regions are characterized with low temperature. The air raised at the equator descends around the poles causing high pressure belts. The cold polar winds blow outward from this zone.

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Question 10.
What are the characteristics of Isobar?
Answer:
The distribution of pressure over the earth’s surface or part of it is shown by means of isobars.
The term isobar means line ofjoining the places of equal pressure.
Important characteristics of isobars are:

  • If the isobars are far apart, it indicates gentle pressure gradient as well as calm weather characterized with light surface winds.
  • The isobars usually follows east-west trend.
  • The isobars deviate in their trend at the point of their entrance from sea to land as well as from land to sea.
  • The isobars are almost parallel to latitudes in the southern hemisphere due to predominance of oceans.
  • If the isobars are close to earth other it represents steep isobaric gradient. It also indicates more atmospheric disturbances as well as strong winds.

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Question 11.
What factors influences on the atmospheric pressure?
Answer:
Atmospheric pressure is influenced by various factors. Most important among them are:

a. Temperature: There is a close relationship between temperature and pressure conditions of the air. Higher the temperature, lower will be the pressure and vice-versa. When the air is heated, the molecules expand and the air becomes light. The tropical region receives almost perpendicular rays of the sun. As a result, the air is heated and raised upwards in the form of convectional currents and has become a low pressure belt.

b. Altitude: The air pressure is associated with altitude or height. Much of the atmospheric air is concentrated in the lower layers of the atmosphere. With the increase of height pressure decreases but not always at constant level. On the basis of this principle “Altimeter’ is invented. This instrument measures the pressure of Atmosphere and denotes corresponding height of the place from the mean sea level, c. Water Vapor: The amount of water vapour in the air also influence on the atmospheric pressure. Water vapour is lighter than air. So more the vapour lighter will be the air. The dry air is heavier than vapour laden. It is because of this reason the air with more amount of vapour becomes lighter and raised upwards leading to condensation and precipitation.

a) Rotation of the Earth: The spinning of the earth on. its axis also causes variation in the atmospheric pressure. The spinning action also causes spinning of air mass and the cold air near the poles is rarefred to form low pressure belts.

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Question 12.
Explain the characteristics of the winds.
Answer:
Winds have certain characteristic features. They are.

  • Winds blow parallel to the earth’s surface.
  • Winds are named after the direction from which they blow. If they blow from the west, they are called westerlies and if they blow from the easterlies.
  • Winds follow ferrel’s law. As per the ferrel’s law, winds get deflected to the right of their path I the northern hemisphere, and to the left of their path in the southern hemisphere
  • The movement of the wind is due to pressure. That is the movement of the wind is due to the differences in air pressure between two places. Wind always moves from a high pressure area to a low pressure area.
  • The speed and velocity of the wind will depend upon the pressure gradient. The steeper the pressure gradient, the grater is the velocity of the wind.
  • Natural or artificial barriers like mountains, forests, buildings, etc. cause friction and check the force of the wind.

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Question 13.
What are the seasonal winds? Explain the origin of monsoon winds of India.
Answer:
The winds which change their direction with the changer in the season are called periodic or seasonal winds. Monsoon winds are an example of seasonal winds. Period winds, seasonal winds or monsoons winds are the result of vast temperature differences between the hot summer and cold winter, where there are large land masses surrounded by water bodies.

The monsoon winds are typical example of seasonal or periodic winds. They are extensive and also well developed among the seasonal winds. The word ‘Monsoon’ is derived from an Arabic’ word ‘Mousim means seasonal. The Arabs have noticed the character of periodical reversal of winds on the Arabian sea and called them monsoons. The same word is now applied to the seasonal winds of the world.

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Question 14.
Explain the land and sea breezes with a neat diagram?
Answer:
The winds blowing alternatively during day and night from the sea and the land near the coasts are known as ‘Sea Breeze’ and ‘Land Breeze’ respectively. These are the best developed local winds near the coastal regions. They affect only a narrow strip of land along the coast. During the day time, the land gets heated more quickly than the adjacent sea. So the air is heated and raised upwards to produce a low pressure region.

The pressure at sea is comparatively high. The warm air of the land being light rises up allowing the air from sea to enter in. Such incoming air from the sea is called‘Sea breeze’. The sea breezes continue during the day time. At night the land looses its temperature quickly due to rapid radiation and a high pressure is developed. As the seawater is still retaining temperature the air is lighter and rises upward

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Question 15.
What are the cyclones? Explain the types of cyclones.
Answer:
Cyclone is a small low pressure area in the centre surrounded by high pressure. The winds blow spirally towards the low pressure area and form convergence of winds. In the northern hemisphere the direction of cyclonic winds is anti-clockwise and in the Southern hemisphere it is clockwise. The cyclones are classified into two types.
(i) Tropical Cyclones: The origin of tropical cyclones is much related to intensive They cause heavy rainfall with high-velocity winds. Tropical cyclones are highly dangerous and devastating.

1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere 5

(ii) Temperate Cyclones: In the temperate region, cyclones are produced by the meeting of warm air mass of tropical region and cold air mass of the polar region. The tropical. air mass is lighter and it is pushed up by the advancing dense cold air mass. The process of mixing of these two air masses takes palace in the form of cyclones. They are ‘ associated with heavy rainfall.

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Question 16.
Explain the anticyclones.
Answer:
Winds blowing spirally outward from centers of high pressure are known as anti-cyclones. They are just the reverse of cyclones. Their movement is clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and anti clockwise direction in Southern Hemisphere. They are more common in the sub¬tropical high pressure belts and absent in the equatorial belt. They are circular in shape, larger in size and extent and their track is highly variable. The weather is generally associated with anticyclones is find and dry.

The anticyclones are divided into two groups such as permanent and temporary anticyclones. Permanent anti-cyclones are mainly centre in the temperate regions where the meeting of tropical and temperate air mass takes place. In between the two temperate cyclones there will be anti-cyclones. In the interior of continents the high pressure centers are developed during the winter season. It is due to lower amount of temperature

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Question 17.
What is Rainfall? Explain the types of rainfall with neat diagram. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Rainfall is the natural process of condensation through which gaseous form of water is converted into liquid water droplets. It occurs due to cooling of saturated air mass, warm and moist air mass rising upward, warm air rising over cold air, sufficient humidity in the air and condensation. Rain fall is classified on the basis of condition and mechanism of upward rise of air and its cooling. Therefore, there are three types rainfall. They are explained as follows:

1. Convectional Rainfall: Earth surface is heated by the solar radiation. Due to this the warm moisture-laden air becomes light and ascends upwards vertically and quickly. The warm and moist air cools below dew point and condensation takes place rapidly, and dense clouds are formed. This led to the heavy rain fall with thunder and lighting. For convectional rainfall, there is need for local heating which leads to excessive evaporation.

There should not be any strong winds to lesser the heat such a condition of great heat, excessive evaporation and stagnant air is found in the equatorial regions through out the year As such, the convectional rainfall occurs in the daily afternoon in the equatorial region. In other topical countries this type of rainfall occurs only during summer, if sufficient moisture for local evaporation is available.

1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere 6

2. Orographic rainfall: When the moisture laden air from the sea is obstructed by a mountain, it is forced to move up the slope. As it moves up, it expands. Expansions lead to fall in temperature and the air cools. When the cooling takes places below the dew. point, condensation results and clouds are formed. When there is heavy condensation, the droplets of water in the clouds join to find bigger drops and there is rainfall.

Orographic rains are caused by the relief of the land. This type of rainfall is common in region where the mountain ranges are parallel and close to the sea and winds blow on shore. Behind the leeward side of the mountain, there is an area which receives very little rainfall and is called the rain shadow. Orographic rain is important in the monsoon land in summer, when the wind blows from the sea to the land. Thunderstorms also accompany this type of rainfall. It may be noted that the bulk of rainfall received by most parts of the world is of this type.

3. Cyclonic rainfall: The cyclonic rainfall is most common in the temperate region. The rainfall caused with a cyclone or depression is known as cyclonic rainfall. The winds take a circular movement in the regions where warm and cold air masses meet.

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Question 18.
Explain the factors affecting Rainfall.
Answer:
There are various factors affecting the rainfall. They are as follows:

Latitude: Rainfall is influenced by the latitude. If the latitude is low, temperature will be high. Water vapour in the air depends upon the temperature. Rainfall depends upon the amount of water vapour in the air. Evaporating is highest in the equator and least at the poles. Therefore rainfall is more in the equator and less or nil at the poles.

Distance from the sea: Winds blowing from the sea bring rainfall over the coastal lands. But as these winds go further, they become drier. Therefore they do not bring much rainfall in the continents.

Mountains: There is heavy rainfall in the windward side of the mountains because the mountains obstruct the winds carrying moisture. But there is little rainfall on the leeward side of the mountains. This is because, by the time the winds cross the mountains, they lose much of their moisture and become dry.

Type and direction of winds: Winds blowing from the sea contain moisture, and therefore bring rain to the land over which they blow. But winds blowing from the land is dry, and therefore, they do not cause rains. Similarly winds blowing from the cold regions to hot regions cause little rainfall, while the winds blowing from hot regions to cold regions cause more rainfall.

Vegetation: Rainfall is more in a region where there is thick vegetation, i.e., forests, because the forests make the air cool. That is why, Assam and mainland areas get more rainfall than the desert and the malnad areas.

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Question 19.
Explain the factors determining the climate?
Answer:
Climate is the average condition of the atmosphere over an area over long period of time. The changes in the atmospheric conditions or weather elements are caused by several factors of climate. The most important factors of climate are:

a. Latitude: The Latitudinal location is of prime importance as the temperature and humidity decrease from equator to the poles. But the distribution of pressure is contrasting as it decrease from polar regions to equator. Even the amount of rainfall generally decreases from equator to the poles. It indicates the relationship between latitude and climate, Son the isobars, Isotherms and Isohyets run east to west parallel to latitudes. It is clear that the climatic condition is normally almost similar and identical over the places on the same latitude.

b. Distance from the sea: The physical characteristics of land and water are quite different as they are in solid and liquid states. The land masses absorb temperature and loose it quickly than the water bodies. So the distribution of temperature and pressure conditions in different seasons of a year is contrasting. The interior land masses experience hot summers and cold winters.

Thus extremities prevail in the climatic condition. On the other hand in the coastal regions temperature condition is modified by the oceans to a large extent and thus experiences warm summers and mild winters. The amount of the interior. Similarly the range of temperature is maximum in the interior regions making it a continental climate. The coastal regions on the other hand, being much influenced by the oceans are described as Maritime climate or Oceanic climate.

c. Altitude: Climate is influenced by attitude in many ways. Attitude has a great effect on the distribution of heat, pressure, winds and precipitation. Temperature and pressure decreases with attitude. The wind is forced to rise, when they are obstructed by mountain ranges, and they give rainfall to the windward side. Mountain can obstruct the passage of cold or hot winds. In this way, attitude causes c changes in the atmospheric conditions.

d. Ocean currents: The warm ocean currents keep the coastal regions warm, while cold currents lessen the temperature of the costal areas. For instance: North West Europe coast and Western coast of America are washed by the warm Gulf stream and cold Labrador currents respectively. The moisture laden winds blowing over the warm currents also caused changes in the atmospheric conditions.

e. Slope of the land: The slope of the land also causes changes in atmospheric conditions. The slope that faces the ocean is warm. But the slope that does not face the sun is cold. For instance, the southern slopes of the Himalayas are warmer than the northern slopes.

f. Soil: Soil caused changes in atmospheric conditions. Rocky and sandy soil, which is dry, heats and cools faster. The soil which is wet and can retain moisture heats and cools slowly. Dark- colored soil absorbs heat faster than the light coloured soil.

g. Volcanic Activity: At the time of volcanic explosion, carbon dioxide, dust particles and ash are thrown out into the atmosphere, the carbon dioxide layer absorbs both solar and terrestrial energy, it affects the temperature and pressure of a regions.

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Question 20.
Explain the differences between weather and climate.
Answer:
The atmospheric condition of a place at a given time is known as weather.
The average weather condition of a place for a long period like 30-33years is known as climate.
The main differences between weather and climate are:

1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere 7

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1st PUC Geography Atmosphere Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the planetary winds with the help of diagram. (T. B. Qn )
Answer:
Winds which blow from high pressure belts to the low pressure belts in the same direction through out the year are called planetary winds, permanent winds or prevailing winds. Characteristics: The chief characteristics of planetary winds:

a. They are connected with the pressure belts. So they blow from the high pressure belt or area to the low pressure belt or area.

b. They are regular through out the year.
c. They deflect to their right in the northern hemisphere and to their left in the southern hemisphere.

d. As a result of the shifting of the pressure belt northward in summer and southward in winter, the planetary winds also shift northwards in summer and southwards in winter. They are permanent and blow over vast areas of the globe. These winds include trade winds, westerlies and polar winds.

1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 5 Atmosphere 8

1. Trade winds: The winds that blow in the tropics form the sub-tropical high pressure belts towards the equatorial low pressure belt are called “Trade winds”. They found approximately between 8° and 30° latitudes on both sides blowing from the east. They are also known as “Tropical Easterlies”.

The trade winds due to the law of deflection blow from the north-east in the northern hemisphere and from south-east in the southern hemisphere. Trade winds blow from the cooler sub-tropical areas to the hotter area, hence they do not bring rain. However, when they blow over the open sea they gather moisture and bring heavy rainfall to the east coast of the continents.

2. Anti trade winds: The wind blowing from sub-tropical high pressure belts towards sub-polar low pressure belts are known as anti-trade winds. They are south-west to north east in the northern hemisphere and Norwest to south-east in the southern hemisphere.

Hence they are called ‘Westerlies”. They prevail largely between 40° and 650 north and south of the equator. They blow from the north-west in the southern hemisphere and south – west in the northern hemisphere. As they blow from hotter areas to colder areas they bring rain through the year.

3. Polar winds: Winds blowing from polar high pressure belts toward the sub-polar low pressure belts are known as polar winds. They blow from the north east in the northern hemisphere and south east in the southern hemisphere. As they blow form the snow cov4red areas they are very cold winds. They are constant in the southern hemisphere.

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