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Karnataka 1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2017 (North)
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Write SI. No’s of questions correctly
- Visually challenged students need to answer questions No. 31 ‘B’ instead of Map question No. 31 ‘A ’ in Part – D
- Answer the questions according to the instructions given for the questions.
Part – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
To which country did Herodotus belong?
Herodotus belonged to Greece.
From which language is the term of ‘Human’ derived?
The term ‘human’ is derived from the Latin word ‘humanus’.
On which River banks did the Egyptian civilization develop?
Egyptian civilization developed on the banks of River Nile.
In which year did the Olympic Games begin?
The Olympic Games began in 776 BC.
Where the Jesus born?
Jesus was born at Bethlehem in Judea.
Who was the leader of the Reformation?
Martin Luther was the leader of the Reformation Movement.
Who invented Water Frame?
Richard Arkwright invented the Water Frame.
In which year was the Battle of Waterloo fought?
Battle of Waterloo was fought in 1815.
Who was the founder of Nazism?
Adolf Hitler was the founder of Nazism.
Who was the Indian Prime Minister who participated in the Bandung Conference?
Jawaharlal Nehru was the Indian Prime minister who participated in the Bandung Conference.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Which were the two theories proposed by Charles Darwin?
‘The theory of Natural Selection’ and ‘Survival of the fittest’ were his theories.
Name any two important philosophers of Ancient China.
Mencius, Confucius and Lao-tse were the important philosophers of ancient China.
Which are the two works of Homer?
‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ were two of the works of Homer.
Which are the two sects of Islam.
The two sects of Islam are the Sunnis and Shias.
From which word is feudalism derived? What its meaning?
The word Feudalism is derived from the German word ‘Feud’, which means a piece of land.
We drafted the Declaration of American Independence? When?
Thomas Jefferson drafted the declaration of American Independence in 4th July 1776 A.D.
What were the Principles of watch – word of the French Revolution?
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity are the watch words of French Revolution.
Name the two classes of the Russian Society.
Privileged Class and Unprivileged Class.
Name the architects of Italian Unification.
Count De Cavour, Garibaldi, Joseph Mazzini.
Name the presidents of America and Russia who ended the cold war.
George Bush (Sr.) and Boris Yeltsin were the Presidents of America and Russia respectively who ended the cold war.
When was NATO established and where?
NATO was established on 1949 in Washington.
Who used the world ‘Non-Aligned’ for the first time? When?
The word Non-Alignment was first used by V.K. Krishna Menon in his speech at the U.N.O in 1953.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each. ( 6 × 5 = 30 )
Explain the importance of Study of History.
1. History is the memory of the past events: The study of history gives us information about the biographies of great men and a record of major events of the world. According to Will Durant, “A country’s past is like an individual’s memory. If memory goes, sanity goes with it”. Hayes and Moon wrote “As memory is to man, History is to mankind”.
2. History helps to broaden our outlook: The study of history helps us to get knowledge about the people of different countries, traditions, customs, cultures and civilizations. Thus it broadens the outlook of mankind. The details recorded in history relating to Art, Architecture, Literature and Religion expands one’s horizon of knowledge.
3. History promotes international peace: The world has already witnessed the misgivings of the two World Wars. If another war takes place in the future, it would destroy the whole world. History has pointed out that unawareness of the culture of other countries and narrow nationalism has lead to such wars.
Today, there is a great deal of competition among different countries in possessing nuclear weapons and war equipments. For the development of cordial relations between nations, the study of world history is the need of the hour.
4. History has Professional uses: It is a competitive world. History is the main core subject for the competitive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS, etc. Historical knowledge is a matter of necessity for Students, Teachers, Lawyers, Journalists, Administrators and Statesmen. Thousands of historians are working in the Department of Archaeological Survey of India under Central and State Governments.
New job opportunities have opened up for the students of history at Museums, Archives, Tourism development and related fields. Thus, history has professional uses.
What role did bipedalism and Stone tools play in Human evolution?
The Hominoids were quadrupeds. They walked on all four limbs, but, their forelimbs were flexible. The Hominids gradually adapted an upright posture. Hominines further adapted to bipedalism. The skeletal structure and the muscles also adjusted over a period of time to the upright posture and the bipedal motion, which freed the forelimbs.
The forelimbs developed precision grip and power grip and evolved into hands. This greatly helped in hunting and defending from predators as hands could be used to make tools and also use them. Walking on two legs also provided a greater long distance vision and helped them to cover long distances without spending much energy.
The use of tools is not confined to only humans. For e.g. some monkeys and apes use stones as tools to break nuts. But use of tools by humans is far more advanced compared to the monkeys and apes. Wood, bones and stones were used to make tools. They were mainly used for hunting or defending from predators. The use of stone tools is studied as the Stone Age in history. The making and use of stones tools were responsible td the evolution of forelimbs into hands and also the growth in brain size.
The oldest known stone tools are the ‘Oldowan stone tools’ from Ethiopia which are dated to a period 2.6 million years ago. The skill and advancement in making stone tools have made historians to classify the Stone Age as Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic stone ages. In course of time, humans began to produce metals from ores and make copper, bronze and iron tools which are studied in history as the respective metal ages.
The Australopithecus species is said to have first used the naturally available stones as tools. But, the making of stone tools from naturally available stones and using them is positively identified to have begun with Homo habilis.
Explain the teachings of Jesus Christ.
The teachings of Jesus Christ are founded in the holy book of Christians, the Bible. Some of the important ones are:
- The existence of one God. We are his Children. God is omnipotent, the King of Heaven. He is all merciful.
- Jesus preached fatherhood of God and brotherhood of men. Men should live like brothers and be devoted to God.
- Jesus believed in forgiveness and love towards mankind. He insisted on justice, humility and duty. He said “Love your neighbours, love your enemies, bless them who curse you and do good to those who hate you and pray for them”.
- According to Jesus, humility, purity of heart, sincerity and fulfillment of duty were the gateway to heaven.
- Jesus said “Service to people is service to God” and such service is a tool for spiritual achievements.
- Forgiveness is a great virtue, and such persons are close to God.
Thus Jesus preached simple principles which are helpful to mankind, to achieve salvation.
What were the causes for the decline of feudalism?
There were several reasons for the decline of feudalism. The major ones are given here under.
1. Rise of strong Monarchies: Europe saw the growth of many strong monarchies, where the Kings suppressed the feudal Lords which led to the decline of feudalism.
2. Shifting of loyalty: Common people and serfs were unhappy as they were heavily taxed and felt neglected. They shifted their faith and loyalty to the Kings, which further weakened the hold of the feudal Lords.
3. Growth of commerce and industry: With the growth in commerce arid industry, people found new ways for livelihood and left their lands. The rise of the independent middle class took place, which was a lethal blow to the feudal Lords.
4. Dominance of money economy: Payment in the form of services was replaced by money. Commoners and serfs stopped giving military services to Lords, which further depleted their power and dominance.
5. Building of strong armies by the Kings: The use of gun powder and well organised armies resulted in the weakening of feudalism. Commoners and serfs under the protection of Kings felt more secure.
6. Scarcity of labourers: The growth of industries and commerce provided alternate employment and depleted the labour strength. Spread of epidemics like plague reduced the number of workers. Demand for workers and their increased wages brought down the importance of the feudal Lords.
7. Struggle between the feudal Lords: The feudal Lords were troublesome to the serfs and commoners and fighting among themselves for control. These internal wars further decreased their number and the Church also put many restrictions on their functioning.
What were the causes for Renaissance?
1. Renaissance scholars or rise of new ideas: The teachings of the medieval age were not progressive as the Church controlled all activities of the people. Religious beliefs, political principles and social standards were all stagnant in this period. There were all round discontentment and the time was ripe for a major upheaval and people started questioning the authority of the Church.
2. The capture of Constantinople in 1453: In 1453, Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and forced the Greek and Latin Scholars to flee to Italy. The encouraging and peaceful conditions in Italy helped the study of classical literature and birth of Renaissance.
3. Geographical exploration: Medieval age Europeans came out off religious restrictions and superstitious ideas were shattered. People became bold and adventurous. The geographical discoveries not only brought great wealth but also expanded their knowledge. Coming in contact with other cultures brought them new ideas, thoughts and knowledge. Thinkers began to give importance to Reason, Observation and Experimentation. This prepared the ground for a great cultural revolution.
4. Patronage of Kings, Popes and Nobles: When the Greek and Latin scholars fled to Italy and other European countries along with their books and manuscripts, King, Popes, Nobles and the rich Merchants patronized these scholars. European people got exposed to Classical Art, Architecture and Learning and interest in these grew all over.
5. Nation-State idea: In the age of new learning, emphasis was laid upon the freedom and dignity of man as an individual. With the dawn of the new spirit, City-States lost their significance and the idea of Nation States took shape. As feudalism collapsed, the Monarchs were interested in the welfare of their subjects and gave importance to Classical literature and Education in general.
6. The invention of Printing Press: This was the chief factor in spreading new ideas and thoughts across the multitude. Printing helped the tremendous development of European civilization and culture. Production of books on varied subjects stimulated a general desire
Explain the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?
After the First World War the Allied Powers met at Paris for the first time to arrange the terms of Peace. In the Paris Peace Conference the victorious Allies dictated the peace treaties. The main participants in the conference were Woodrow Wilson, the President of America, Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, Clemenceau, the Prime Minister of France and Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy.
Five separate treaties were signed by the Allied countries with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. Of them, the most important was the Treaty of Versailles signed between the Allies and Germany on 28th June, 1919. The date was the fifth anniversary of the murder of Archduke, Francis Ferdinand of Austria.
The Allied Powers strongly held Germany responsible for the destruction and suffering caused by the war. Germany was forced to sign the Treaty. It was humiliated and hurt by this Treaty.
Provisions of the Treaty:
- Alsace and Loraine provinces of Germany were given back to France. France also acquired the Saar coal basin of Germany for a period of 15 years as a compensation for the destruction of the coal mines in the north of France.
- Schleswig and Holstein were given to Denmark by Germany. Danzig was snatched away from Germany and declared a free port.
- Rhineland area was completely demilitarized. All existing forts in the area were demolished and instructions were given not to build any more forts.
- The independence of Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia was recognized by Germany.
- Germany gave up all its colonies to the Allies. These were divided between England, France, Japan and others.
- Germany was made responsible for the losses of First World War. So, Germany was made to pay a huge war indemnity of 6,600 million Pounds.
Germany was disarmed. The sizes of its army and navy were reduced. German army was cut down to 1,00,000 soldiers. The import and export of weapons were prohibited. It also imposed restriction on the manufacture of machine guns and rifles. German warships were converted into commercial ships. Germany was not allowed to maintain Tanks, Submarines and Military aircrafts.
What are the aims and objectives of C.I.S.?
The aims and objectives of CIS are:
- All the members are Sovereign and Independent Nations.
- The existing borders of each Republic were recognized.
- To establish a free market Ruble zone embracing all the Republics.
- To establish a joint Defense Force of the participating Republics.
- To promote co-operation on cross-border crime prevention
- To prevent armed conflicts on the territory of the member States.
- To co-ordinate the foreign and economic policies of member States.
Describe the achievements of Non-Aligned movement?
Achievements of NAM are manifold. Along with the United Nations Organization, NAM is trying to solve international problems peacefully. It has its role in the achievements of U.N.O.
The major Achievements of Non-Aligned Movement are as follows:
- It has helped to decrease the intensity of Cold War.
- Helped U.N.O. in resolving the issues pertaining to Korea, Vietnam, Cuba and Kuwait.
- Worked hard to end Apartheid in South Africa.
- Inspired treaties to reduce Atomic weapons.
- Worked to resist the dominance of power blocs.
- Popularized democratic principles.
- It is working hard to establish international peace.
- It is trying to find solutions to the problems faced by member nations.
- It is fighting for the self reliance of member countries.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions as Indicated: ( 5 + 5 = 10 )
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of the world provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences each.
(g) New York
(a) Babylonia: It is in present Iraq. It was the capital of Mesopotamian Civilization. The famous law-giver Hammurabi ruled from here. Nebuchadnezzar built the ‘ Hanging Gardens’, which was one of the Wonders of the Ancient World.
(b) Rome: It is the capital of Italy. It was also the capital of the Roman Empire. Vatican City in Rome is the centre of Pope, who is the religious head of the Catholics. According to a Roman legend, Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus in 8th century B.C.E. According to another version the name is derived from the Greek word Rome which means ‘strength’.
(c) Mecca: It is in Saudi Arabia. Prophet Mohammad, the founder of Islam was born here. It is regarded as the holiest city of Islam.
(d) Venice: It is in Italy. It was one of the centres of Trade and Commerce during Medieval Period. Famous travellers Marco Polo and Nicolo Polo belonged to this city. It is called as ‘The City of Canals’, as this beautiful city is basically a group of a lot of islands connected by bridges.
(e) Paris: It is the capital of France. The Bourbon family ruled over France from here, till the French Revolution of 1789. In modern times, many historical treaties have been signed here.
The name Paris is derived from that of its earliest inhabitants, known as the ‘Parissi’ meaning ‘The working People’ or ‘The Craftsmen’. Paris is also known as ‘The City of Light’, due to its fame as a centre of education and ‘Paradise of Travellers’. The famous Eiffel Tower is here.
(f) Waterloo: It is in Belgium. In 1815. Napoleon after escaping from the Island of Elba, fought his last battle here against the Allied armies of Europe and was defeated.
(g) New York: It is located on the Western coast of USA. It was one of the colonies of British. The Head Quarters of UNO is located here. Both the State and the City were named after the 17th Century Duke of York, James Stuart of England and Scotland. Originally it was a Dutch Colony. In 17th Century it was called as New Amsterdam. Later on, the English captured it and renamed it as New York.
(h) Geneva: It is in Switzerland. It was one of the centres of Protestant movement. International organizations like ILO, WHO, WTO and GATT are located here.
For Visually Challenged Students only
(B) Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences. ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
Describe the various effects of the Industrial Revolution.
Effects of Socialism: Socialism was an economic theory that sprang almost directly from the Industrial Revolution. It was a reaction against the unregulated capitalism of the time. Socialism r proposed that society as a whole should control the means of production. It advocated that the Government exists only to oversee its initial phases and then to become nonexistent, leaving the people to govern themselves cooperatively.
This contradicted the tenets of laissez-faire capitalism, which stated that the best total result for the society was achieved if competition 1 took its natural course. This movement was inspired by the problem that the Industrial Revolution presented for the common workers like unsafe working conditions, long hours, and low pay. This made the workers to come together and unite for a common socialist system.
Effects on Capitalism: Industrialization depends largely on capital-wealth available for investment in order to speed up development and make more wealth. This capital was one of the leading reasons as to why the British industrial economy prospered.
Factories and Urbanization: Industrialization led to the creation of the factories. The Cotton Spinning activity was first to be mechanized. Later factory system developed. A large number of workers migrated to cities in search of employment. Many cotton mills were established at Manchester which is the first Industrial City of the World. The factory system speeded up urbanization.
Child Labour: Industrial Revolution led to the increase in population. In fact mortality rates reduced remarkably. Still there was only a limited scope for education. Children were expected to work at a less pay even though their efficiency was comparable with adults. There was no need of strength to operate machines but skilled labours were needed. Since skilled adults 5 were not available child labour was the preferred choice in manufacturing industries.
Conclusion: Thus the Industrial Revolution has brought drastic changes in the life of nations. It gives rise to urban centres requiring vast municipal services. It created a specialized and interdependent economic life. It made the urban worker completely dependent and at the mercy of the employer. Relations between capitalist and labour were aggravated, and Marxism was the result of this unrest. The revolution also brought a need for a new type of state intervention to protect the labourer and to provide necessary services.
Explain the causes and results of Second Wold War.
The causes of the Second World War are:
1. Treaty of Versailles: The Treaty of Versailles 1919 was too severe, and’it humiliated the Germans. The Allied Powers treated Germany as they liked and the Germans could not tolerate it any longer. The entire responsibility for the losses of the First World War was put on Germany. The Treaty itself was based on revenge. Germany was waiting for a chance to avenge its humiliation and the seeds for another war were sown by this treaty.
2. Expansionist Policy of Japan and Italy: Japan and Italy were not satisfied with the ‘Peace Settlement’. They did not get a proper share of the war spoils. Later, these were the countries, hit hard, as they had limited sources. So, with a view to solve their economic problems, they turned to the policy of aggression and expansion. Japan separated from Allied powers and joined Germany. It wanted to liberate Asia from the western yoke.
3. Rise of Dictators: The rise of dictatorships in Italy under Benito Mussolini, Germany under Adolf Hitler and Japan under the Government of Tojo was another cause for the war. They glorified the war. Mussolini advocated the martial virtues of Italians and reviving the glories of old Roman Empire. Hitler spoke of the Aryan supremacy and wanted rearmament, revenge and German domination. Japan wanted its own Empire and supremacy. In Russia, Stalin established a totalitarian dictatorship.
4. Colonial and Commercial Rivalry: Another cause for the war was the colonial and commercial rivalry. It was a sort of Economic Nationalism. It was a struggle for raw materials, markets for their products and colonies for their excess population. After the First World War, Italy, Germany and Japan were not satisfied. All these countries were program natural resources.
5. Failure of the League of Nations: The League of Nations became too weak and incompetent. The league did not have its own army. It was dominated by few countries like England and France. U.S.A remained out of the league. As a result, the League totally failed in preserving peace in Europe.
6. Immediate cause: On 1st September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland which became the immediate cause for the Second World War. Poland was an ally of England and France. Hence Britain and France declared war on Germany.
The results of the Second World War are:
1. The Second World War was the most destructive of all the wars fought until then. About 25 million people were killed and 50 Million were disabled. Millions of people later died of starvation and diseases. There was a large scale destruction of houses, industries and communication and transport systems. The destruction of agricultural land led to shortage of food. After the war, most of the countries faced the problems of post war reconstructions.
2. The World War II ended the dictatorships in Italy and Germany. Italy was declared a Republic under Badogli, and Germany was divided into four zones under U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Britain and France. A Tribunal was set up at Nuremberg to conduct trials of the leading Nazis. Japan gave up all its rights on China. Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers.
3. European domination of the world ended after this war. After the Second World War, U.S.A, and U.S.S.R emerged as two super powers. The mutual distrust between U.S.A and U.S.S.R increased after the war. This led to what is known as the ‘Cold War’.
4. The rivalry of these two super powers had been the most important feature of international relations since 1945. As a result, world peace was constantly under threat.
5. The World War resulted in the victory of the principle of Nationalism and the liquidation of Colonialism. The colonial Empires of the European powers in Asia, Africa and Latin America came to an end. India, Ceylon, Indonesia and other countries became independent after the war.
6. The Jews had become homeless during the Nazi regime in Germany. About six Million Jews perished in the concentration camps. After the war, with the help of U.S.A., a new home land (Israel) for the Jews was created in 1948.
7. Japan experienced the disastrous effects of atomic weapons. Its entire atmosphere became poisonous. Most of the new born children suffered from serve deformities.
8. The most important result of the World War Second was the birth of United Nations Organization with the object of preventing further wars and maintaining peace in future.
Part – E
V. Answer any “TWO” of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Describe the contributions of Mesopotamian civilization.
Agriculture was the main occupation of the Mesopotamian followed by cattle rearing and dairy farming. To that end, they developed erection of binds to lands and artificial irrigation. They gave to the world the know how about digging of canals, construction of dykes, embankments and storage basins to regulate water consumption and usage throughout the year. It is believed that the Shadow was developed by them for artificial irrigation.
They had a barter system in the beginning, but later started using metal coins. Weaving, dyeing, wood works, pottery, jewelry and metallurgy were the important crafts. They exported wooden articles and fibre clothes and had trade relations with India and Egypt.
As stone was not available in Mesopotamia, we do not find sculpture and architecture as we find in Egypt. Most of the buildings were built with brick and mud and only very few of them have survived.
King Nebuchadnezzar constructed a Palace with a variety of gardens on the roof known as the Hanging Garden of Babylon which was considered as one of the Seven wonders of the Ancient World. Mesopotamian were excellent artisans and sculptors. They carved beautiful images of eagles and other animals. Student copybooks and a library of clay books of 4,000 years old were found at excavations. They used flat bricks for writing which was known as ‘cuneiform’ writing. They composed many myths, legends and poems. Their Epic of Gilgamesh is a rich poetry.
They knew about the Planets and believed that Sun and Moon influenced the life of men. They had faith in Astrology which was based on Astronomy. They divided the year into 12 months with 354 days. They followed the lunar Calendar. Their hour had 60 minutes and a minute had 60 seconds.
They had made good progress in the field of medicine. Their book ‘Matoria Medica’ mentions of 550 medicines prepared from vegetables, minerals and animal products. That book also gives details of various diseases and their symptoms.
Mesopotamia’s worshipped Nature along with innumerable Gods and Goddesses. They built Ziggurats – Temples with tall towers. The Temples were also centres of education. They had streamlined Central and Provincial administrations. Governors were appointed to look after the provincial administration. They had a horse borne postal system for communication.
The greatest contribution of the Mesopotamian civilization was the ‘Code of Hammurabi’. King Hammurabi was a great Conqueror and an able Administrator. He collected all the existing laws, classified them, improved them, added new ones and codified all into one body of laws. It covered all aspects of human life and was a mixture of enlightened laws and barbarous punishments. It was an everlasting and monumental legal achievement of Hammurabi, which has made him immortal.
Discuss the cultural contributions of Greeks.
Cultural Contributions: The Greeks contributed to human civilization immensely. They believed in the principles of a sound mind in a sound body. They imagined the human body as a thing of beauty and had great curiosity and thirst for knowledge. They made great contributions to Literature, Sports, Philosophy, Politics, Ethics, Science, Music, Drama, Religion, Art and Architecture. Greek ideology so completely dominated European culture that, the western culture today is predominantly Hellenic in its inspiration and ideals. So the legacy of Greece is vital and universal.
Literature: In the field of literature, Greeks contributed to Epics, Poetry, Drama and History. ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ are the two works of Homer. These epics give us a fairly faithful account of the social, economic and political conditions of early Greek culture. The shorter Greek poems were called Lyrics, as they were primarily sung to the music of lyres. Pindar and Sappo the poetess were two great lyric poets of Greek Civilization.
The drama is the most familiar of the Greek forms of literature. The founder of Greek tragedy – was Aeschylus, author of ‘Prometheus Bound’ and ‘Agamemnon’. Sophocles, the greatest of the Greek tragedians, wrote ‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’. These plays are admired all over the world even today. Euripides the third of the great tragic poets, believed that in life people were more important than Gods.
Hence the concerned himself with the passions and. emotions of human beings. One of his best known plays is the ‘Trojan women’. Aristophanes was the greatest comic poet. Famous historians of the period were Herodotus, Thucydides and Plutarch. Demosthenes was famous for his oratory skills, the art of making public speeches.
Science: Greek philosophers furnished the impetus for the beginning of the study of science. Aristotle laid the foundation for the study of natural science. Theophrastus, established Botany as a recognized science. Hippocrates known as the ‘Father of Medicine’ laid the foundations . of modern medicine. He taught that diseases have a natural origin and not caused by evil spirits. Herophilus is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’.
Ptolemy believed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. But Aristarchus propounded the theory that Earth and other Planets, revolved around the Sun. Eratosthenes calculated the approximate circumference of earth within a small error of 320 Kilometres.
He also prepared a fairly accurate map of the world and he was the first to suggest that one could reach India from Europe by sailing westwards. Pythagoras and Euclid made many contributions to mathematics, especially to Geometry. Archimedes was also a famous scientist of ancient Greece.
Art and architecture: In the early times, the Greeks used wood, and later they used sun dried bricks and marbles to build their temples. The Greek architecture consists of three styles viz., Doric, Ionic and the Corinthian styles. The Parthenon is said to be the most beautiful temple ever built out of the coloured marble stones. A tall marble statue of Goddess Athena carved by Phidias is inside the temple.
The temple consists of 46 Doric columns, each 34 feet high., Actinus, the famous architect of this temple blended Doric, Ionian and Corinthian styles to make this temple a wonder of the world. It was built by King Pericles. Alexander’s conquest 1 initiated several centuries of cultural exchange between Greece and Central Asia. The Gandhara art in Ancient India developed due to the Greek influence.
The Greeks expressed the human values like beauty and courage in their sculptures. They portrayed naked, well built and muscular bodies. Even Gods were portrayed as human beings. Myron and Philidias were the best known sculptors. Greeks also excelled in Paintings on vases.
Explain the causes and results of Reformation.
Causes for the reformation are as follows:
1. Religious causes or existence or abuses: Reformation began with the rebellion against the abuses of the church. The Popes, who claimed to be representatives of God, neglected their religious duties. The Church was ready to sacrifice moral and spiritual values for the sake of money. The clergy became corrupt and idle and naturally the Church lost its early purity. The principles like simplicity and forgiveness preached by Jesus were completely forgotten. The anger against such evils was one of the chief causes for the Reformation.
2. Intellectual causes: The spirit of inquiry and criticism generated by the Renaissance intellectuals like John Wycliffe and others resulted in protests against the abuses by the Church and corrupt practices of the Clergy. They demanded the purification of the Church organization. They challenged the supremacy of the Pope and declared that the Pope was not the representative of God and every Christian should be guided by the Bible.
3. Political causes: The Roman Catholic Church claimed the spiritual and temporal power over the States of Europe. Kings and people opposed the political power enjoyed by the Church. The growth of nationalism led to the establishment of National Churches with Kings as their heads. They felt that the Church should take interest only in the religious, spiritual and moral domains. They wanted to restrict the power of the Church and these political circumstances prompted reformation.
4. Economic causes: The Roman Church owned vast lands, money and property. Church properly was exempted from all taxes, but the common people were burdened with various taxes, fees and fines. The Church claimed that the wealth of the Church was the wealth of God and Kings had no rights to tax on church property.
5. Sale of indulgences: The immediate cause of the Reformation was the sale of indulgences by Pope Leo-X, who was badly in need of money for the rebuilding of the St. Peters Church at Rome. Church regardless of all the criticism leveled against it, continued to collect money in various ways. Pope Leo-X sent his agent, John Tetzel to Germany to sell indulgences.
Indulgences were certificates issued by the Pope for money, exempting the people from receiving punishment for their sins. Brokers and Bankers were appointed to sell them and were paid commissions. Martin Luther opposed this sale in his famous 95 points and nailed them to the Church door at Wittenberg. He began to question the Pope and the doctrines.
Reformation produced far reaching results. The following ones are noteworthy.
- Reformation destroyed the unity of the Christian Church by the establishment of the protestent church.
- The medieval religious tradition and superstitious beliefs were rejected. The leaders of this movement also rejected the supreme authority of the church accepted the authority of the true bible.
- Reformation freed the Kings of Europe from the control of Pope. It gave birth to secular states.
- Reformation led to reforms in the Catholic Church and also much clearer statement of Christian doctrines.
- It had a great economic effect. The properties of the Church were confiscated by the Protestant Nobles and Princes, making them powerful. This wealth was utilized for the economic development and as a result, money lenders, bankers and financiers earned a high status.
- It had a great effect on the development of national literature. The translation of Bible into the vernacular languages spread the knowledge of scriptures among the common people.
- The religious clashes between the Catholics and the Protestants caused much bloodshed, death and destruction. It finally gave birth to secular States as the only way for national integration. European Kings adopted religious tolerance.
- It had further stimulus to the growth of spirit of nationalism.
Describe the administrative Reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte:
Napoleon centralized the entire system of local Government in France. The entire country was divided into Provinces, Arrondisments and Communes. The powers were vested in Prefects and Sub-Prefects who were responsible to only Napoleon. It assured that the decrees of the Central Government should promptly and uniformly be carried out. He developed and i empowered the office of the ‘Secretariat of the State’.
His major reforms were as follows:
1. Code Napoleon: The most durable of Napoleon’s work was the introduction of the a legal code which is the base for the French Law. This was known as‘Code Napoleon’ and came into effect in 1804 A.D. He appointed two committees to draft the legal codes and the committees were presided over by Napoleon. He had a good commonsense and a legislative vision.
The 5 codes were:
- French Civil Code
- Code of Civil Procedure
- Code of Criminal Procedure
- Penal Code
- Commercial Code.
The basic demands of the Revolution like Civil equality, religious toleration, emancipation of land etc., were taken care of with these codes. He was hailed as the second Justinian.
2. Education: He introduced a national scheme of education managed by the State which was organized into four types- Elementary, Secondary, Higher and Special Schools. This was to maintain uniformity of standard in Schools and Colleges. He also established the University of France.
3. Religious reforms or the Concordat: He made a code of laws for the Clergy also and to heal up the mistrust with the Papacy, entered into a religious understanding with Pope Pius-VII in 1802 known as the Concordat. He regained the sympathy of the Catholics by improving his relations with the Pope and with this treaty, Catholicism became the State religion.
4. Public works: He built new highways connecting Paris with the other major cities and improved the means of communication. Bridges and Canals were constructed. These helped in solving the unemployment problem also to a great extent. He. encouraged trade and commerce and Paris and other cities were beautified and transformed to modern cities.
5. Economy: Bank of France was established. It supervised the entire financial setup and stimulated trade and industry. Careful collection of taxes and rigid economic measures were carried out. Revenue boards were set up. The national loan was reduced and the Stock Exchanges were regulated. He took stern-measures to root out corruption and gambling.
6. Legion of honour: To honour those who had rendered meritorious Military and Civil services to the State, Napoleon started an award called ‘Legion of Honour’. It was based on principles of equality, without distinction of class and religion.
Part – F
VI. 36. Match the following. (05)
37. Arrange the following in Chronological Order. (05)
- U.N.O. Established
- Vascoda Gama
- Julius caesar
- Julius caesar
- Vascoda Gama
- U.N.O. Established