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Karnataka 1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2018 (South)
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Write SI. No’s of questions correctly
- Visually challenged students need to answer questions No. 31 ‘B’ instead of Map question No. 31 ‘A ’ in Part – D
- Answer the questions according to the instructions given for the questions.
Part – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
Who is called as “The Father of History”?
Herodotus the Greak Historian is regarded as the father of History.
What is the meaning of the term ‘Homo’.
‘Homo’ is a Latin word meaning ‘man’ (inclusive of woman). Its adjective form is ‘humanus’.
Who popularized Buddhism in China?
Buddhism spread to China from India during Kanishka’s period in 1st century. The Buddhist monks and traders from India popularized Buddhism in China.
Whose famous words are Vini. Vidi. Vici?
What is ‘Fief’?
In the European Feudal system, Kings / Greater Lords granted lands to Vassals who had to swear fidelity and loyalty of service to the Lords. These lands were called as fiefs.
Who was called as the Navigator?
Prince Henry of Portugal was called as ‘Navigator’.
Where did the Industrial revolution begin at first?
Industrial Revolution first began in United Kingdom.
Who was the king of France at the time of French Revolution?
Louis XIV was the King of France at the time of French Revolution.
What is Glasnost?
The policy of openness in external relations which was introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev is called Glasnost.
Who is the author of ‘Divine Comedy’?
Dante is the author of ‘Divine Comedy’.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Mention any two theories of origin and evolution of earth.
- The Pulsating theory
- The Big Bang theory
Who built the Great Wall of China? Why?
Shih Hu Wang Ti, the greatest Ruler of Han dynasty of China, built the Great Wall of China to protect the Kingdom from the attack of Mongols.
Who founded the city of Rome?
The city of Rome was founded by the twin brothers, Romulus and Remus in 753 BCE, on the Palatine hill.
Which are the two sects of Islam?
The two sects of Islam are the Sunnis and Shias.
Which was the first ship to Circumnavigate the world and who led this?
The first ship to circumnavigate the world was the ‘Victoria’ and Ferdinand Magellan the Portuguese sailor, led this expedition.
Mention the fields on which changes took place during the Industrial Revolution?
Industrial Revolution brought in changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation and technology.
What are the principles or watch words of the French Revolution?
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity are the watch words of French Revolution.Liberty, Equality and Fraternity are the watch words of French Revolution.
Name the two parties during the Russian Revolution?
Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
Who was called the Sword of Italian unification? Name the army he established.
Garibaldi was called the Sword of Italian Unification. He established the Red Shirt Army.
Name the two alliances formed during the First World War.
Triple Alliance and Triple Entente were the two rival alliances formed during the First World War.
Name any two member countries of CENTO.
Central Treaty Organisation or Baghdad Pact members are Iraq, Turkey, Iran, England and Pakistan.
Who were the human rights activists of Russia?
Andrei Sakharov and Boris Yeltsin were the human rights activists of Russia.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each. ( 6 × 5 = 30 )
Write the definitions of History.
According to Herodotus, “History is a record of great heroes and unique events to be remembered by the future generations”. St. Augustine says that “History is the story of the struggle between God and Satan, which would ultimately end in the victory of God (good) over Satan (evil)”. According to the German Philosopher and Economist Karl Marx, “History is a story of the struggle between the have’s and have not’s”.
According to J.B. Bury, “History is a science; no less and no more”. Thomas Carlyle says “Great personalities are no more, but, history and autobiography of such personalities are still there”. According to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, “Those who forget history cannot create history”. In general, history is understood as a record of past events.
How was food and shelter responsible for Human Evolution?
Hominoids lived on tress. The trees provided them protection from the predators. The Hominoids were food gatherers. They procured food by gathering seeds, nuts, fruits, berries, tubers, etc. They were not meat eaters. Hominids adapted to land dwelling. They began to use caves and extended stone boulders as shelters. These shelters on land provided them with considerable safety from the predators and from rain, wind and the sun. The Neanderthal man was the earliest cave dweller.
The shortage of food made them to scavenge for food. They covered long distances to forage or scavenge for naturally dead animals or leftovers of animals killed by predators. The above activities made them gradually develop an upright posture and consequently the bipedal motion. This was required for survival. Hominines and the archaic human species added planned hunting and fishing to the already existing gathering, foraging and scavenging techniques. Planned hunting and making tools stimulated the growth in the brain size. The growth in brain size in turn helped them to plan and make better tools.
Explain the Teaching of Jesus Christ.
The teachings of Jesus Christ are founded in the holy book of Christians, the Bible. Some of the important ones are:
- The existence of one God. We are his Children. God is omnipotent, the King of Heaven. He is all merciful.
- Jesus preached fatherhood of God and brotherhood of men. Men should live like brothers and be devoted to God.
- Jesus believed in forgiveness and love towards mankind. He insisted on justice, humility and duty. He said “Love your neighbours, love your enemies, bless them who curse you and do good to those who hate you and pray for them”.
- According to Jesus, humility, purity of heart, sincerity and fulfillment of duty were the gateway to heaven.
- Jesus said “Service to people is service to God” and such service is a tool for spiritual achievements.
- Forgiveness is a great virtue, and such persons are close to God.
Thus Jesus preached simple principles which are helpful to mankind, to achieve salvation.
What were the causes for the decline of feudalism?
There were several reasons for the decline of feudalism. The major ones are given here under.
1. Rise of strong Monarchies: Europe saw the growth of many strong monarchies, where the Kings suppressed the feudal Lords which led to the decline of feudalism.
2. Shifting of loyalty: Common people and serfs were unhappy as they were heavily taxed and felt neglected. They shifted their faith and loyalty to the Kings, which further weakened the hold of the feudal Lords.
3. Growth of commerce and industry: With the growth in commerce arid industry, people found new ways for livelihood and left their lands. The rise of the independent middle class took place, which was a lethal blow to the feudal Lords.
4. Dominance of money economy: Payment in the form of services was replaced by money. Commoners and serfs stopped giving military services to Lords, which further depleted their power and dominance.
5. Building of strong armies by the Kings: The use of gun powder and well organised armies resulted in the weakening of feudalism. Commoners and serfs under the protection of Kings felt more secure.
6. Scarcity of labourers: The growth of industries and commerce provided alternate employment and depleted the labour strength. Spread of epidemics like plague reduced the number of workers. Demand for workers and their increased wages brought down the importance of the feudal Lords.
7. Struggle between the feudal Lords: The feudal Lords were troublesome to the serfs and commoners and fighting among themselves for control. These internal wars further decreased their number and the Church also put many restrictions on their functioning.
Describe the results of the Renaissance.
Results of Renaissance:
- Renaissance brought about a transition from blind faith to reason and science.
- Renaissance created a new outlook on life. It stimulated the spirit of enquiry, criticism and experimentation.
- Renaissance Scholars and Writers boldly and openly expressed their new ideas, which went against the teachings of the Church. The secular outlook and individualism began to spread.
- By the Renaissance influence, medieval superstitions were shattered and men became bold and adventurous, thus becoming interested in geographical explorations.
- The ideas of individualism gained due importance during Renaissance. New learning emphasis was laid upon the freedom and dignity of man as an individual, allowing him to develop his talents and faculties.
- Renaissance gave a marked stimulus to the growth of vernacular literature.
- One other important feature of Renaissance was the growth of Humanism.
- The new spirit of Renaissance was responsible for the remarkable scientific progress.
- Renaissance brought about great changes in life of the people in different fields like political, intellectual, economic and religious fields.
- People also started questioning some of the doctrines of Christianity and the corrupt practices. This new outlook resulted in a religious revolution in the Catholic Church that is known as the Reformation.
- Monarchy was strengthened due to the dawn of Renaissance. It led to the rise of the Spirit of National Consciousness in several countries.
Discuss the role of Bismark in the Unification of Germany,
Edward Leopold Ottovon Bismarck was born in 1815 in an aristocratic Prussian family. He was well educated and when he was appointed as the Prussian Ambassador to Russia and later to France, he gained first-hand knowledge and experience about the European politics.
He was appointed as Chancellor of Prussia in 1862 by King William I. He made up his mind to unify Germany under the monarchy of Prussia as he believed that Prussia alone had the ability to lead the German States. He also knew that Austria was to be defeated to achieve this goal. So-he began to re-organize the Purssian military with the help of General Roon and General Moltke. Very soon, the Prussian army was among the best in Europe.
German provinces ofScheleswig and Holstein were declared to be part of Denmark by Christian IX of Denmark. In 1864, Bismarck made an alliance with Austria, attacked and defeated Denmark and captured these provinces back. Prussia and Austria split the administration of these two. Later, Prussia proposed a National Constitution and a National Diet for the German fjtates for which some of the States were reluctant to be part.
The Prussian troop movements near the Austrian borders arranged by Bismarck, made Austria declare war on Prussia and, appear as the aggressor. The hitherto reluctant States joined Prussia and the well prepared Prussian army with the support of Italy and the States won over Austria and in 1866 annexed Scheleswig and Holstein. The formation of the North German Confederation resulted in a partial Unification of Germany.
Bismarck wanted a war with France, the remaining big power in Europe to complete the German Unification. He diplomatically managed the situation in such a way that Napoleon III of France declared war on Prussia. France was alone and the South German States also joined hands with Prussia and the French forces were defeated at different fronts and even Paris was captured. The Prussian King William was crowned as the Emperor of United Germany with the title ‘Kaiser’. The unification of Germany was complete and Bismarck rightfully was hailed as the‘Architect of German Unification’.
Explain the provisions of the Treaty of Versailies.
After the First World War the Allied Powers met at Paris for the first time to arrange the terms of Peace. In the Paris Peace Conference the victorious Allies dictated the peace treaties.
The main participants in the conference were Woodrow Wilson, the President of America, Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, Clemenceau, the Prime Minister of France and Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy. Five separate treaties were signed by the Allied countries with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. Of them, the most important was the Treaty of Versailles signed between the Allies and Germany on 28th June, 1919.
The date was the fifth anniversary of the murder of Archduke, Francis Ferdinand of Austria. The Allied Powers strongly held Germany responsible for the destruction and suffering caused by the war. Germany was forced to sign the Treaty. It was humiliated and hurt by this Treaty.
Provisions of the Treaty:
1. Alsace and Loraine provinces of Germany were given back to France. France also acquired the Saar coal basin of Germany for a period of 15 years as a compensation for the destruction of the coal mines in the north of France.
2. Schleswig and Holstein were given to Denmark by Germany. Danzig was snatched away from Germany and declared a free port.
3. Rhineland area was completely demilitarized. All existing forts in the area were demolished and instructions were given not to build any more forts.
4. The independence of Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia was recognized by Germany.
5. Germany gave up all its colonies to the Allies. These were divided between England, France, Japan and others. Germany was made responsible for the losses of First World War. So, Germany was made to pay a huge war indemnity of 6,600 million Pounds.
6. Germany was disarmed. The sizes of its army and navy were reduced. German army „ was cut down to 1,00,000 soldiers. The import and export of weapons were prohibited. It also imposed restriction on the manufacture of machine guns and rifles. German warships were converted into commercial ships. Germany was not allowed to maintain Tanks, Submarines and Military aircrafts.
Describe the features of non-Aligned movement.
The features of Non-Aligned Countries are as given below.
1. Economic Backwardness: Non-Aligned Countries are economically backward. These countries have primitive Agriculture and weak industries. Hence the national production and per capita income of these countries are very low.
2. Dependence on others: Non-Aligned Countries are too backward in the field of Science, Technology and Military and are dependent on developed countries for assistance.
3. Rural Structure: Non-Aligned Countries comprise of more number of villages. Many villages are deprived of basic necessities. These countries are lagging behind since they are far away from urbanization.
4. Over population: Population is increasing because of poverty, illiteracy, superstitions etc., The Governments have failed in checking the growth of population. Programmes relating to population control introduced by the Governments have not realised the expected level of exposure and enlightenment, due to the disinterest of the people and improper strategies. Increasing population is the cause of economic backwardness.
5. Poverty and Hunger: Poverty is a serious problem among the Non-Aligned Countries. There is a shortage of food grains in these countries. They are dependent on the developed countries for food grains. Majority of Africa lives in poverty. Non-Aligned countries are victims of poverty because of natural calamities, migration, internal clashes, unscientific utilization of natural resources etc. countries like Nigeria, Somalia, Uganda, Haiti, Angola, and Ethiopia are unable to provide nutritious food.
6. Spread of Epidemics: Negligence of Health is evident in the Non-Aligned Countries. Hence epidemics are spreading in these countries. There is scarcity of health services. The most dreaded disease AIDS is on the rise in these countries.
7. Illiteracy: The Educational development policies of Non-Aligned Countries have failed. The number of illiterates has increased. Literacy is very low in the African countries and that among women is almost negligible. Asian countries are only slightly better in this respect.
8. Burden of Debt: Most of the Non-Aligned Countries are reeling under foreign debt. It is inevitable for them to borrow loans from world economic institutions for their internal development plans. They have been forced to borrow new loans to repay the old loans and interests on them. This has a spiralling effect and these countries go bankrupt.
9. Migration: From most of the third world countries, especially Africa, people move out to safer places in the developed countries for better employment, food and self protection. This depletes the countries’effective work force.
10. Water scarcity, unstable Governments and lack of modern military force are common in Non-Aligned countries.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. ( 5 + 5 = 10 )
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of the world provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
(d) Cape of Good Hope
(a) Babylonia: It is in present Iraq. It was the capital of Mesopotamian Civilization. The famous law-giver Hammurabi ruled from here. Nebuchadnezzar built the ‘ Hanging Gardens’, which was one of the Wonders of the Ancient World.
(b) Rome: It is the capital of Italy. It was also the capital of the Roman Empire. Vatican City in Rome is the centre of Pope, who is the religious head of the Catholics. According to a Roman legend, Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus in 8th century B.C.E. According to another version the name is derived from the Greek word Rome which means ‘strength’.
(c) Mecca: It is in Saudi Arabia. Prophet Mohammad, the founder of Islam was born here. It is regarded as the holiest city of Islam.
(d) Cape of Good Hope: It is at the southern tip of South Africa. Bartholomew Diaz called it ‘Cape of Storms’. Later, Vasco-da- Gama renamed it as ‘Cape of Good Hope’ under the direction of King John of Portugal, since it gave hope for further explorations to reach India.
(e) London: It is the capital of U.K located on the banks of the river Thames. It was the main centre of Industrial Revolution. It is the famous centre of learning.
According to one origin, London meant the place belonging to a man called ‘Londinos’. As per another view, it is derived from the word ‘Lowonida’ meaning ‘river too wide to ford’ referring to river Thames, which flows through London.
(f) Nagasaki: It is in Japan. Nagasaki means ‘Long Cape’. On 9th August 1945, US Air force dropped the second Atomic bomb called ‘Fat Man’ on Nagasaki. As a result of this, more than 70,000 people died. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in 16th Century.
(g) Moscow: It is the capital city of Russia, located on the banks of river Moskva and named after the river. It was one of the centres of Russian Revolution of 1917 and was made the capital of USSR.
(h) Berlin: It is the present capital city of Germany. It is located on the banks of River Spree. After World War II, it was divided into East and West Berlin and a dividing wall was built. In 1990, both East and West Germanys were reunited and the Berlin wall was demolished.
B. (For Visually Challenged Students only) ( 1 × 10 =10 )
Describe the contributions of Egyptian civilization.
Nile River flowing northward has formed the most fertile plains of 15-20 kms on either side of it. Because of Nile, plenty of food, fodder and uninterrupted supply of water was possible. The food security provided sufficient leisure for the growth of civilization. But for the Nile, Egyptian civilization would not have developed. Therefore Egypt is called ‘The Gift of Nile’.
The early people settled into villages, which developed into cities and later City States were formed. They were ruled by Kings in this pre- dynastic period. The inter City- State quarrels made way to the birth of Kingdoms. About 30 dynasties have ruled Egypt for more than 3000 years but none could survive for more than 6-7 generations.
The rule of dynasties can be divided into 3 parts: The Period of Old Kingdom, the Period of . Middle Kingdom and the Period of New Kingdom. Old Kingdom is also known as the Period of Pyramids. The Pharaohs of this period were very strong. They had a good administrative system. There was a council of elders to advise the King, which was not binding on him. Pharaohs appointed Vizirs, the Prime Ministers who headed the Administration, Justice and Treasury.
The Local officers maintained the records and the accounts. Middle Kingdom is known as the Period of Feudal Lords. During this period, Lords became more powerful than the Pharaohs. It led to many internal wars and Anarchy. During the new Kingdom, the Kings raised powerful armies and built a very strong Empire and conquered new territories and expanded the Empire.
Egypt had a well organised society. There were three strata of people. The Upper class included the Royal family, Priests, Nobles and Military Officers who led a life of comfort and luxury. The Middle class included Physicians, Scribes, Craftsmen, Merchants and Farmers. Slaves formed the Lower class or the last strata of the society and lived a very hard and toiling life. It was an agrarian economy. They built Canals and Shadoofs for efficient irrigation purpose. They redesigned the hoe and fixed it to the yoke of oxen and transformed the hoe culture into plough culture for better yield.
They developed a variety of crafts and manufacturing. Brass, bronze, gold and iron were the metals used for making tools, utensils, ornaments and weapons. They had developed both internal and external trade. They had perfected the art of ship building to navigate the seas and smaller boats and vessels to sail the rivers. Collection of taxes on agriculturists, traders and craftsmen were introduced to augment the state’s income.
Egyptians developed pictographic writing called Hieroglyphics. These signs represented both sounds and some complete words. Papyrus was used for writing. They had a fair knowledge of Medicine, Geometry, Calendars, Astronomy and Mathematics. The construction of huge Pyramids and the Sphinx are fine examples of their outstanding technical knowledge and sound administrative ability. They had invented the Shadow clock to mark the time of the day. Their education was controlled by the State.
Describe the political and non political achievements of the U.N.O.
Achievements of U.N.O are manifold:
The U.N.O. has carried out several successful programs and operations. The achievements of the U.N.O may be grouped under two headings, namely, political and non-political.
Political: In the political field, the U.N.O has notable achievements. The foremost achievement of the U.N.O is that there has not been a global war and the use Of nuclear weapons since 1945.
- The first issue that was solved by the U.N.O was the case of Iran. Russian Troops were stationed on the Northern borders of Iran during the Second World War. After the war, Iran complained to the U.N.O. So, U.N.O intervened and made the Russian Troops to withdraw from Iran in 1946.
- In 1947, a quarrel started in Indonesia between Holland and Indonesia. It was settled by the U.N. in 1948.
- In September .1948, France, England and U.S.A. complained to the Security Council about the blockade of Berlin by the U.S.S.R. Later, an agreement was reached due to the efforts of U.N.O.
- U.N.O. was able to stop the fighting between the Israeli Jews and Arabs in Palestine in 1948.
- The U.N.O ordered cease-fire in Kashmir in 1948.
- In the Korean crisis when war broke out between North and South Korea, the U.N.O used armed forces to settle the dispute.
- The Suez Canal and Vietnam problems were solved with the mediation of the U.N.O.
- It also put an end to the fighting between Iraq and Iran in 1989.
- Iraq occupied Kuwait in 1990. Immediately, Kuwait approached U.N.O for help. So, the U.N. made Iraq vacate Kuwait in 1991.
- It has worked to maintain peace in several countries of the world. It has carried out peace keeping missions in Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus, Congo, Cambodia, Korea, Kosovo, etc.,
- South Africa was following the Apartheid policy. U.N.O. set up a special committee and imposed sanctions against South Africa in 1954. Ultimately the Apartheid regime came end in 1991.
Non-political: A notable achievement of the U.N.O was the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the General Assembly on 10th December 1948. The . Declaration included articles like the right to life, liberty and security of person, freedom from slavery, freedom of thought, the right to vote, to work, etc.
- U.N.O has done excellent work through its specialized agencies. The ILO has made the member nations to improve the conditions of the labourers.
- FAO has assisted the nations to increase the food production in farms, forests, fisheries and increase nutrition levels. It has also helped to feed millions of hungry children in the third world countries.
- IMF and IBRD are giving funds for the economic development of different backward countries.
- UNESCO has done much work in many backward countries in the social, educational, economic, technological and other fields. U.N.O. helped the refugees of war, earthquake, tsunami etc. It had arranged for food, shelter and rehabilitation of war victims throughout the world. The U.N.O has helped preserve many cultural sites throughout the world as World Heritage Sites like Hampi, Pattadakal, Konark etc.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Discuss the contribution of Greeks.
Cultural Contributions: The Greeks contributed to human civilization immensely. They believed in the principles of a sound mind in a sound body. They imagined the human body as a thing of beauty and had great curiosity and thirst for knowledge. They made great contributions to Literature, Sports, Philosophy, Politics, Ethics, Science, Music, Drama, . Religion, Art and Architecture. Greek ideology so completely dominated European culture that, the western culture today is predominantly Hellenic in its inspiration and ideals. So the legacy of Greece is vital and universal.
Literature: In the field of literature, Greeks contributed to Epics, Poetry, Drama and History. ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ are the two works of Homer. These epics give us a fairly faithful account of the social, economic and political conditions of early Greek culture. The shorter Greek poems were called Lyrics, as they were primarily sung to the music of lyres. Pindar and Sappo the poetess were two great lyric poets of Greek Civilization.
The drama is the most familiar of the Greek forms of literature. The founder of Greek tragedy – was Aeschylus, author of ‘Prometheus Bound’ and ‘Agamemnon’. Sophocles, the greatest of the Greek tragedians, wrote ‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’. These plays are admired all over the world even today. Euripides the third of the great tragic poets, believed that, in life people were more important than Gods. Hence he concerned himself with the passions and emotions of human beings.
One of his best known plays is the ‘Trojan women’. Aristophanes was the greatest comic poet. Famous historians of the period were Herodotus, Thucydides and Plutarch. Demosthenes was famous for his oratory skills, the art of making public speeches.
Science: Greek philosophers furnished the impetus for the beginning of the study of science. Aristotle laid the foundation for the study of natural science. Theophrastus, established Botany as a recognized science. Hippocrates known as the ‘Father of Medicine’ laid the foundations . of modern medicine. He taught that diseases have a natural origin and not caused by evil spirits. Herophilus is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’.
Ptolemy believed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. But Aristarchus propounded the theory that Earth and other Planets, revolved around the Sun. Eratosthenes calculated the approximate circumference of earth within a small error of 320 Kilometres. He also prepared a fairly accurate map of the world and he was the first to suggest that one could reach India from Europe by sailing westwards. Pythagoras and Euclid made many contributions to mathematics, especially to Geometry. Archimedes was also a famous scientist of ancient Greece.
Art and architecture: In the early times, the Greeks used wood, and later they used sun dried bricks and marbles to build their temples. The Greek architecture consists of three styles viz., Doric, Ionic and the Corinthian styles. The Parthenon is said to be the most beautiful temple ever built out of the coloured marble stones.
A tall marble statue of Goddess Athena carved by Phidias is inside the temple. The temple consists of 46 Doric columns, each 34 feet high. Actinus, the famous architect of this temple blended Doric, Ionian and Corinthian styles to make this temple a wonder of the world. It was built by King Pericles. Alexander’s conquest 1 initiated several centuries of cultural exchange between Greece and Central Asia.
The Gandhara art in Ancient India developed due to the Greek influence. The Greeks expressed the human values like beauty and courage in their sculptures. They portrayed naked, well built and muscular bodies. Even Gods were portrayed as human beings. Myron and Philidias were the best known sculptors. Greeks also excelled in Paintings on vases.
Describe the role of Martin Luther in the Reformation movement.
Reformation began in Germany and its leader Martin Luther was born at Eiselben in 1483 A.D in a poor German peasant family. Luther studied theology, law and humanism at the University of Erfurt in 1508 A.D. He was always haunted with the question, “how to please God?”. He seriously studied the Bible and the works of St. Paul and St. Augustine. He became a Professor of Theology in the University of Wittenberg. Luther strongly believed that man could get salvation only through God’s mercy but the Church preached that it possessed the means of salvation. He rejected the doctrine of good work.
He visited Rome in 1511 A.D and was shocked at the worldliness of the Pope and the corrupt and immoral life led by the clergy. He did not to tolerate the corrupt practices of the Church. In 1517, Pope Leo-X sent out several agents to dispense indulgences in order to collect funds to complete St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. They spread the belief that indulgences were passports to heaven. One of these agents, John Tetzel was selling indulgences as passports to Heaven.
Luther’s opposition: Luther wrote his objection against the Church practices and Pope’s authority in Latin. He prepared his objections in the form of ‘95 Theses’ and posted them on the door of the Church in Wittenberg. Thereupon Luther started a rebellious Movement against the abuses of the Church. This popular revolt came to be known as Protestant Movement. Luther questioned the authority of Pope and challenged the concept of infallibility. As a result of these activities, the Pope ordered Emperor Charles-V to take action against Luther.
In 1521 Charles-V summoned the Diet of Worms and ordered Luther to appear before the Diet to justify the charges made against the Pope. In the Diet of Worms, Luther was excommunicated by the Pope. He was expelled from the Church and was branded a heretic. Martin Luther established the ‘Lutheran National Church’ which rejected indulgences and worship of Saints. Bible was regarded as the sole source of religion. The struggle between Catholics and Protestants ended with the ‘Peace of Augsburg’ treaty in 1555. Lutheranism spread to many countries of Europe and Calvinism and Anglicanism also rose against Roman catholic Church.
Spread of Protestant (Lutheranism) faith.
1. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531): He was an eminent Protestant Reformer and leader of the movement in Switzerland. He was called as the Swiss Luther. He also denied Papal authority and insisted that the Bible was the only guide to faith and morals, he popularized Protestantism in Switzerland.
2. John Calvin (1509-1564) and Calvinism: John Calvin was a French reformer. His teachings are to be found in his book ‘Institutes of the Christian Religion’. He popularized the ideas of Luther. In Geneva, he set up the Calvinist Church and insisted on the strict enforcement of moral discipline. He advocated that the Church and the State must be separated. His followers in France came to be called Huguenots.
3. King Henry-Vin (1509-1547) and Anglicanism: He established an independent Church in England. He became the head of both the Church and the State. He proclaimed himself as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
Explain the causes of American war of Independence.
The main causes for the American Revolution or war of Independence were the following.
- Commercial policy of England
- Seven years War
- Intellectual Causes
- British taxation Policy
- Coercive Act
- Quebec Act
Commercial policy of England: British Parliament thought that the colonies were for the benefit of the motherland. So they levied heavy taxes and to further restrict the trade of the colonies, they introduced the Navigation act.
The main features of this act-were:
- The raw materials produced in America (coffee, cotton, tobacco, etc) should be exported to England only.
- The essential goods like cotton, linen, cloth, glass, sugar, etc. that America needed should be imported from England only.
- Americans should use only the British ships for trade to keep away competition of other ^European nations.
- Iron, blue, paper, cotton, linen, cloth, etc. that were produced by England should not be produced in America.
- England’s merchant-agents should be kept and be given security.
Seven years War: England could not tolerate the progress of France, and did not want her to establish settlements in their neighborhood. The colonies also wanted British protection against the French. England declared war in 1756, which lasted till 1763. It is called the ‘Seven years war’. England won the war. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, and France had to give away Canada to England. Thus the American colonies were freed from the fear of the French attack.
Intellectual Causes: The colonists set up their own social and political institutions. Their enlightenment was due to their own heritage. John Adams, a philosopher remarked, “The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of Americans and it had started even before the American war of Independence”. Roger Williams, a symbol of American enlightenment, preached Religious Tolerance and separation of State from the Church.
‘Two Treatises of Government’ by John Locke is considered as the Bible of American war Of Independence. Thus the American enlightened class and philosophers laid the strong foundation for the American Revolution.
British taxation Policy: The seven years war with France was a big financial burden on England. To recover these expenses, England levied taxes on goods imported into the colonies. The Sugar and Molasses Act was passed in 1764 which levied taxes on sugar and molasses. This was a hindrance to the production of wine. It led to the increase of smuggling activities and the colonies faced many problems. The public outcry made the British Parliament to decrease the same.
The stamp Act was passed in 1764, which declared that stamp duties were to be paid on all legal documents. The colonists opposed this Act. They said that the British Parliament did not have the right to tax the colonists when they were not given representation in the Parliament. Their slogan was ‘No Taxation without Representation’. The colonists showed their anger by burning the stamps. British Parliament was forced to withdraw this act.
In 1767, the Townsend Act was passed which imposed heavy taxes on Glass, Paper and Tea. Troops were sent to help the officers in collecting the taxes. When the colonists protested and revolted, troops were sent to put down the same. British troops occupied Boston and in a fight with them, five people lost their lives and many were injured. After this ‘Boston Massacre’, taxes on glass and paper were withdrawn and to show their power and control, tax on tea was retained.
Boston Tea Party: British Parliament passed an Act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company. Colonists resented it. Cheaper Tea powder was available in the black market. When the first consignment came to New York and Philadelphia they were forced to go back to England. But again when another ship loaded with Tea packets arrived at Boston in 1773, the colonists disguised themselves as ‘Red Indians’ under the leadership of Paul Revere, entered the ship and threw the Tea boxes into the ocean marking the ‘Boston Tea Party’.
Describe the administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte:
Napoleon centralised the entire system of local Government in France. The entire country was divided into Provinces, Arrondisments and Communes. The powers were vested in Prefects and Sub-Prefects who were responsible to only Napoleon. It assured that the decrees of the Central Government should promptly and uniformly be carried out. He developed and i empowered the office of the ‘Secretariat of the State’.
His major reforms were as follows:
1. Code Napoleon: The most durable of Napoleon’s work was the introduction of the a legal code which is the base for the French Law. This was known as‘Code Napoleon’ and came into effect in 1804 A.D. He appointed two committees to draft the legal codes and the committees were presided over by Napoleon. He had a good commonsense and a legislative vision.
The 5 codes were:
- French Civil Code
- Code of Civil Procedure
- Code of Criminal Procedure
- Penal Code
- Commercial Code
The basic demands of the Revolution like Civil equality, religious toleration, emancipation of land etc., were taken care of with these codes. He was hailed as the second Justinian.
2. Education: He introduced a national scheme of education managed by the State which was organized into four types- Elementary, Secondary, Higher and Special Schools. This was to maintain uniformity of standard in Schools and Colleges. He also established the University of France.
3. Religious reforms or the Concordat: He made a code of laws for the Clergy also and to heal up the mistrust with the Papacy, entered into a religious understanding with Pope Pius-VII in 1802 known as the Concordat. He regained the sympathy of the Catholics by improving his relations with the Pope and with this treaty, Catholicism became the State religion.
4. Public works: He built new highways connecting Paris with the other major cities and improved the means of communication. Bridges and Canals were constructed. These helped in solving the unemployment problem also to a great extent. He. encouraged trade and commerce and Paris and other cities were beautified and transformed to modern cities.
5. Economy: Bank of France was established. It supervised the entire financial setup and stimulated trade and industry. Careful collection of taxes and rigid economic measures were carried out. Revenue boards were set up. The national loan was reduced and the Stock Exchanges were regulated. He took stern-measures to root out corruption and gambling.
6. Legion of honour: To honour those who had rendered meritorious Military and Civil services to the State, Napoleon started an award called ‘Legion of Honour’. It was based on principles of equality, without distinction of class and religion.
Part – F
VI. 36. Match the following: (05 )
37. Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. ( 05 )
- Disintegration of Soviet Union
- Hejira Era
- Origin of Earth
- Unification of Italy
- The first Olympic Games
- The first Olympic Games
- Origin of Earth
- Disintegration of Soviet Union
- Unification of Italy
- Hejira Era