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Karnataka 1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 (North)
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Write SI. No’s of questions correctly
- Visually challenged students need to answer questions No. 31 ‘B’ instead of Map question No. 31 ‘A ’ in Part – D
- Answer the questions according to the instructions given for the questions.
Part – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
Who is called as “The Father of History”?
Herodotus the Greek Historian is regarded as the father of History.
Which is the biggest pyramid in the world?
The pyramid of Giza is the biggest pyramid in the world.
Whose period is popularly called as the “Golden age of Athens”?
Periceles period is popularly called as the “Golden age” of Athens.
Which is the emblem of Christianity.
Cross is the emblem of Christianity.
Who was called as the Navigator?
Prince Henry of Portugal was called as the Navigator.
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin as First?
Industrial Revolution First begin in United Kingdom.
Who said Pen is mighter than sword?
Joseph Mazzii said that Pen is mighter than sword.
When did the treaty of Versailles Took place?
June 28, 1919.
World Health Organization.
Who was the Indian Prime Minister who participated in Bandung Conference?
Jawaharlal Nehru was the Indian Prime Minister who participated in Bandung Conference.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Mention any two theories of origin and evolution of Earth?
1. The Pulsating theory
2. The Big Bang theory
Name any two ancient Civilizations.
Egyptian and Indus valley civilizations were two ancient civilizations.
Who founded the city of Rome?.
The city of Rome was founded by the twin brothers, Romulus and Remus in 753 BCE, on the Palatine hill.
Who were the parents of Mohammad.
Abdullah and Ameena were Mohammed’s parents.
From which word is Feudalism derived? What is the meaning?
The word Feudalism is derived from the German word ‘Feud’, which means a piece of land.
What is Boston tea party?
British Parliament passed an act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company, which was resented by the colonists. When a ship loaded with tea packets arrived at Boston, the colonists disguised as Red Indians raided the ship and threw all the tea packets into the sea. This incident is called‘Boston Tea Party’.
Name any two important philosophers of France.
2. J. J. Rousseau
Mention two works of Kari Marx.
Karl Marx was German Philosopher. His famous works were ‘Das Capital’ arid ‘Communist Manifesto’.
Name the architects of Italian Unification?
Count De Cavour, Garibaldi, Joseph Mazzini.
Name any two member countries of Warsaw pact.
USSR, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Rumania are some of the member countries of Warsaw Pact.
Who were the human rights activists of Russia?
Andrei Sakharov and Boris Yeltsin were the human rights activists of Russia.
Who used the word ‘Non Aligned’ for first time? When?
The word Non-Alignment was first used by V.K. Krishna Menon in his speech at the U.N.O in 1953.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each. ( 6 × 5 = 30 )
Write the definitions of History.
According to Herodotus, “History is a record of great heroes and unique events to be remembered by the future generations”. St. Augustine says that “History is the story of the struggle between God and Satan, which would ultimately end in the victory of God (good) over Satan (evil)”. According to the German Philosopher and Economist Karl Marx, “History is a story of the struggle between the have’s and have not’s”.
According to J.B. Bury, “History ‘ is a science; no less and no more”. Thomas Carlyle says “Great personalities are no more, but, history and autobiography of such personalities are still there”. According to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, “Those who forget history cannot create history”. In general, history is understood as a record of past events.
What was the Role of Domestication of animals and Agriculture in Human evolution.
Domestication of animals was followed by the commencement of agriculture. Humans who were food gatherers and hunters till then, now became food growers or food producers. They were prepared to overcome the effects of the climate changes like the ice age by adapting to domestication of animals and agriculture.
Dogs are believed to be the first animals to be domesticated as they were continuously hanging around the hunters’ camps to pick up bones and scrapes of meat. They developed a bond and dogs were domesticated. This was followed by sheep, goat, cow, cat, camel, and horse. Dogs helped humans in hunting and guarding their shelters. The rearing of animals made humans, nomads. Commencement of agriculture is considered as a revolutionary change in the history of human evolution.
This was an important aspect of the Neolithic age. Humans began to grow various crops like wheat, rice, millets etc. The practice of agriculture is not more than 13,000 years old. It made them lead a settled life. This resulted in the formation of human settlements termed villages and later towns. Villages and towns were the foundations of civilizations.
Write about the life history of Jesus.
Jesus Christ was born on 25th December 4 B.C.E at Bethlehem in Judea. Joseph and Virgin Mary were his parents. His father was a carpenter by profession at Nazareth. The birth of Jesus and the simultaneous appearance of the Easter star made the priests to believe that Jesus was a Divine Entity.
He led a simple life and was associated with the poor. Jesus, at the age of 12 went to a Jewish synagogue and surprised the people by expounding the meaning of _ the Jewish religious texts. He was profoundly influenced by John the Baptist and at the age of 30 was baptized by him.
He became a wandering preacher and his simple teachings gathered people around him. He travelled in and around Judea with his 12 disciples and conveyed his messages in the form of parables. His disciples recognized him as the Messiah. Jesus called himself as ‘Son of God’, which enraged the orthodox Jews. He was crucified on Friday the 3rd April 30 C.E at Mount Calvary at Golgotha, a hill near Jerusalem. His resurrection took place on the third day and he remained with his disciples for 40 days and then ascended into heaven.
What were the causes for decline of Feudalism.
There were several reasons for the decline of feudalism. The major ones are given hereunder.
1. Rise of strong Monarchies: Europe saw the growth of many strong monarchies, where the Kings suppressed the feudal Lords which led to the decline of feudalism.
2. Shifting of loyalty: Common people and serfs were unhappy as they were heavily taxed and felt neglected. They shifted their faith and loyalty to the Kings, which further weakened the hold of the feudal Lords.
3. Growth of commerce and industry: With the growth in commerce arid industry, people found new ways for livelihood and left their lands. The rise of the independent middle class took place, which was a lethal blow to the feudal Lords.
4. Dominance of money economy: Payment in the form of services was replaced by money. Commoners and serfs stopped giving military services to Lords, which further depleted their power and dominance.
5. Building of strong armies by the Kings: The use of gun powder and well organised armies resulted in the weakening of feudalism. Commoners and serfs under the protection of Kings felt more secure.
6. Scarcity of labourers: The growth of industries and commerce provided alternate employment and depleted the labour strength. Spread of epidemics like plague reduced the number of workers. Demand for workers and their increased wages brought down the importance of the feudal Lords.
7. Struggle between the feudal Lords: The feudal Lords were troublesome to the serfs and commoners and fighting among themselves for control. These internal wars further decreased their number and the Church also put many restrictions on their functioning.
Write about counter Reformation.
The religious upheaval in the 16th century gave rise to Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism and the radical sects. The rapid spread of Protestantism alarmed the Catholics and they felt the urgency to check further damage to the Catholic Church. They demanded Reformation from within and the movement came to be known as Counter Reformation.
The attitude of the Popes changed. They took firm steps to check the spread of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic Church made efforts to win back the Protestant dominated countries, to the Roman obedience.
A concerted Counter Reformation Movement was launched with the four fold purpose of punishing, reforming, converting and rendering social service. The inquisition was to punish, the Council of Trent was to introduce reforms and the Society of Jesus was to render service to God and Society.
The inquisition was a Roman Catholic Court formed for conducting inquiry into cases of heresy and meting out punishments to those who were found guilty. The guilty were excommunicated and given over to the civil arm for punishment, which included torturing and execution by burning. They issued a strict code of conduct to be followed by the Church officials. The inquisition was first established in Spain and they were set up to deal with the , non-Catholics and to put down heresy.
The Council of Trent: (1545 – 1563 A.D). The Catholic Church held a General Council at Trent in north Italy, convened by Charles V in 1545 A.D. Its main purpose as clearly defined by the doctrines of the Church, was to remove some of the abuses and to restore unity in the Catholic Church. The Council condemned the sale of Church offices and bade the clergy to strictly adhere to clerical duties. It also banned the sale of indulgences.
Society of Jesus in 1540: The Counter Reformation Movement was bolstered by the formation of several new religious orders. The most popular of these was the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish knight of Noble descent. He inspired a large team of selfless, educated and disciplined priests to serve God and Christianity. They were known as Jesuits. They took the vows of simplicity, chastity, obedience, service and spreading Catholicism.
Write a note on the organs of the U.N.O
The U.N.O. consists of six principal organs. They are General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat.
General Assembly: It is a consultative body of U.N.O. It consists of representatives of all member nations. Each member nation has one vote, but may send five representatives. It is empowered to discuss any matter relating to the maintenance of international peace and security.
1. The Assembly meets once in a year in September. But special sessions can be held at the request of majority of the members of the Security Council. Its resolutions require 2/3 majority. It elects the Secretaiy General, non permanent members of the Security Council, members of Economic and Social Council and Judges of International Court of Justice, and also discusses budgetary questions. Entry of any new members requires 2/3 majority of the General Assembly.
2. Security Council: The Security Council is the executive body. It consists of 15 members- 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent. The permanent members are U.S.A., England, France, Russia and China. The non-permanent members are elected for a term of two years. Any measure to be carried out in the Security Council has to be accepted by 9 members including all the 5 permanent members.
3. Any permanent member can ‘Veto’ any decision of the Security Council.‘Veto’is a special power given to the five permanent members to negate any resolution of the United Nations. The Security Council is responsible for the prevention of aggression * and to the maintenance of international peace and security.
4. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 members, who are elected by the General Assembly for 3 years, i/3 of them retire every year. The Council meets at least twice in a year. Its main function is to promote welfare around the world, and to improve the economic, social, cultural, educational, health and other related matters.
5. Trusteeship Council: The Trusteeship Council consists of 14 members. All permanent members of the Security Council are the members of Trusteeship Council. Its duty is to investigate the conditions of Trust Territories and to advice the General Assembly. In 1994 all the Trust territories were detached from Japan and Italy and became independent. Since then, its operations are formally suspended and will meet as and when required.
6. International Court of Justice: The International Court of Justice is located at The Hague in Netherlands. It consists of 15 Judges, who are elected by the General Assembly. Its main function is to settle the international disputes and to act as an advisory body. The tenure is 9 years and no country can have more than one representative at a time.
7. Secretariat: It is headed by the Secretary-General. It carries on the day-to-day administration of the U.N.O. Its headquarters is in New York. The term of the Secretary-general is five years. It is the duty of the Secretary General to ensure that all the branches function properly, and to submit annual reports.
Explain the causes for cold war?
During World War II, Soviet Union and the Western powers consisting of U.K. France and USA fought together against Germany and its allies. But just after the War, distrust and suspicion loomed over Soviet Union and the Western powers.
1. Russia’s refusal to evacuate from Iran: After World War II, Britain and USA withdrew their forces from Iran, but the Soviet Union refused to do so. Finally, only after the UN intervention Russia withdrew its forces. It embittered the relations between the Western Powers and Soviet Union.
2. Sovietization of Eastern Europe: Soviet Union was accused of not honouring the pledges of the Yalta and the Balkan agreements. At Yalta, the Western powers recognized the military authority of Russia over Eastern and Central Europe. But it was agreed that, in all the liberated countries of Europe, democratic institutions would be established and free elections be held. But communist supported Governments were established in the entire Balkan region through the intervention of Russia. Western powers resented this and united to check the spread of communism and Russian influence.
3. Soviet influence in Greece: In 1944, Greece secured its independence from the Nazi rule with the support of Britain. When the German forces left Greece, the British entered Greece. According to a treaty concluded between Soviet Union and British, Russia recognized the British sphere of influence in Greece. At the same time there was a clash between the communists and royalists in Greece. Soviet Union was believed to be instigating a communist revolution in Greece. Both the British and the Greek Governments sought the support of America, and President Truman announced both military and economic assistance to Greece.
4. Soviet influence in Turkey: Just after World War II, Soviet Union exerted pressure on Turkey to cede some of its territories. But Turkey refused to oblige and secured American assistance. USA followed the policy of defending Turkey and Greece against the possible attack of the Soviet Union. U.S .Congress approved to extend economic and military aid to Turkey.
5. Problems relating to Germany: Soviet Union had suffered heavily during World War II. At the Yalta conference Stalin demanded 10,000 million dollars as reparations from Germany. After the war, Soviet Union destroyed German Industries and transferred costly German machines to Russia, because of which the German economy was shattered. Britain and America had to give huge economic aid to reconstruct the German economy.
6. The secrecy of the Atom Bomb: USA kept the technology of the atom bomb a secret from USSR, though Soviet Union was an ally of United States during the war. Stalin considered it as a betrayal of trust and confidence in Russia. Moreover Soviet Union was also concerned about its own security.
7. Communist activities in the USA: Soviet Union began to encourage communist activities and espionage in United States of America. In 1945, it was discovered by the American strategic services that some of the secret documents had been spuriously passed on to the communist Agency.
Write about the relationship between India and NAM.
India has played an important role in the formation of Non-Aligned Movement. Jawaharlal, Nehru, the Prime Minister of India is called the Architect of Non-Aligned Movement. His ‘Panchasheela’ formed the important principles of Non-Aligned Movement. India has not only coined the word‘Non-Aligned’, but has inspired others about it.
The following facts show the relationship between India and NAM.
1. India has good relations with the other Non-Aligned countries. Nehru’s principles got world recognition in the Bandung conference, which officially declared the Non-Aligned policy.
2. The 7th summit of Non-Aligned countries was held at Delhi and India’s Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi presided.over the conference. She said we should become a united voice in the international organizations. Disarmament, Economic development, technical help were some of the issues that were discussed in this summit. India insisted Israel to withdraw her troops from Palestine.
3. At the 8th summit of Non-Aligned countries in Harare, the then Indian Prime Minister Rajeev Gandhi demanded the release of Nelson Mandela of South Africa. He also established the ‘African Fund’ to support the blacks who were fighting for their Rights and Freedom.
4. The 9th summit of Non-Aligned countries was held at Belgrade the capital of Yugoslavia. In this summit, Rajeev Gandhi gave a call for establishing ‘Global Protection Fund’ for the protection of the Environment.
5. At the 12th and 13th summits of Non-Aligned countries, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee gave a call to take a firm decision to combat international Terrorism. India also supported nuclear disarmament.
6. At the 14th summit, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh spoke about international terrorism and nuclear disarmament. At the 15th summit he brought to the notice of Non- Aligned countries, the Mumbai attacks and terrorism.
7. At the 16th summit held in Iran, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh advocated the need for international action against the spread of nuclear armaments and terrorism. He also gave a call to find a solution to the Syrian problem acceptable to all.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. ( 5 + 5 = 10 )
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of the world provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
(b) Cape of Good hope
(a) Babylonia: It is in present Iraq. It was the capital of Mesopotamian Civilization. The famous law-giver Hammurabi ruled from here. Nebuchadnezzar built the ‘ Hanging Gardens’, which was one of the Wonders of the Ancient World.
(b) Cape of Good Hope: It is at the southern tip of South Africa. Bartholomew Diaz called it ‘Cape of Storms’. Later, Vasco-da-Gama renamed it as ‘Cape of Good Hope’ under the direction of King John of Portugal, since it gave hope for further explorations to reach India.
(c) Constantinople: Presently called as Istanbul is in Turkey. Its original name was Byzantium, which was founded in 7th Century B.C.E. by a Greek King Byzas. Constantine the Great, made it the new capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 4th century C.E. Then it came to be known as Constantinople which means ‘The City of Constantine’. Ottoman Turks captured it in 1453, which led to the need to discover new sea routes to India.
(d) Venice: It is in Italy. It was one of the centres of Trade and Commerce during Medieval Period. Famous travellers Marco Polo and Nicolo Polo belonged to this city. It is called as ‘The City of Canals’, as this beautiful city is basically a group of a lot of islands connected by bridges.
(e) Lisbon: It is the capital of Portugal. Most of the Portuguese navigators, including Vasco-da- , Gama of the Age of discovery started their voyages from this city.
(f) Moscow: It is the capital city of Russia, located on the banks of river Moskva and named after the river. It was one of the centres of Russian Revolution of 1917 and was made the capital of USSR.
(g) Rome: It is the capital of Italy. It was also the capital of the Roman Empire. Vatican City in Rome is the centre of Pope, who is the religious head of the Catholics. According to a Roman legend, Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus in 8th century B.C.E. According to another version the name is derived from the Greek word Rome which means ‘strength’.
(h) Hiroshima: It is in Japan. Hiroshima means ‘Wide Island’. During World War II, it had large depots of military supplies. As retaliation for the Pearl Harbour attack, on Monday the 6^ August 1945 at 8.15 a.m., the first Atomic Bomb called ‘Little Boy’was dropped on Hiroshima by the US Air force. As a result of this, an estimated 80,000 people were killed.
B. (For Visually Challenged Students only) ( 1 × 10 =10 )
Describe the contributions of Chinese Civilization.
Art of painting: Chinese had developed wonderful painting. They painted on silk cloth, tomb walls, pots and papers. They believed that tomb painting were means to protect the dead and help their souls to go to heaven.
Sculpture: Chinese developed the art of casting bronze statues of animals and monsters. This art developed during Shangs and Chous. Buddhism influenced their sculpture and the statues of Bodhisatwa carved in stone are found in large numbers. The Terracotta army assembled in the tomb of the first Kin Emperor consists of life size images of more than 8000 – warriors and horses. Chinese were massive builders.
The Great Wall of China is one of their most impressive and everlasting architectural accomplishment. It was purely built for the utilitarian purpose of protecting the country from Mongolian invasions. They also built Buddhist temples called Pagodas, important among them are the ‘Giant Wild Goose Pagoda’, ‘Jade Pagoda’, ‘Flask Pagoda’ and the ‘Temple of Sleeping Buddha’ outside Peking, the present Beijing.
Writing and Literature: Chinese had developed the art of writing during Shang period. Chinese script was standardized during Chin Rulers. They have no alphabets and parts of speech. It consists of only characters which are more than 40,000. It started as pictograph and later they developed Characters or Logograms. Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used systems of writing in the world. Their writing played an important role in cultural unification. Chinese script also influenced Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese scripts. It is written from top to bottom.
The invention of paper, silk and ink for writing helped the growth of writing and literature. The practice of writing history was also popular in China. The Chinese literature comprised of prose, poetry, philosophy and history. During Han and Tong dynasties, Chinese poetry reached great heights. Chinese had developed Geography, Geometry, Arithmetic, Calendars, Astronomy and they could predict eclipses accurately.
The important inventions of the Chinese are the following. Silk, Tea, Ink, Brushes for painting and writing, Abacus, Acupuncture, Rudder, Gun powder, Glass, Pottery, Porcelain, Rockets, Umbrella, Seismograph and Mariner Compass.
Philosophy and Religion: Lao tse, Confucius and Mencius were three great Philosophers who influenced the religious ideas of Chinese to a great extent. Lao tse’s philosophy is known as Taoism. He preached non violence, not to be conservative, to respect the wise, do one’s duty with sincerity and honesty etc., The philosophy of Confucius is known as ‘Confucianism’. The principles of Confucius had basis in common Chinese traditions and beliefs. He taught loyalty towards family, worship of ancestors, respect to elders and unity among the people of China.
Describe the administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte:
Napoleon centralised the entire system of local Government in France. The entire country was divided into Provinces, Arrondisments and Communes. The powers were vested in Prefects and Sub-Prefects who were responsible to only Napoleon. It assured that the decrees of the Central Government should promptly and uniformly be carried out. He developed and i empowered the office of the ‘Secretariat of the State’.
His major reforms were as follows.
1. Code Napoleon: The most durable of Napoleon’s work was the introduction of the a legal code which is the base for the French Law. This was known as ‘Code Napoleon’ and came into effect in 1804 A.D. He appointed two committees to draft the legal codes and the committees were presided over by Napoleon. He had a good commonsense and a legislative vision.
The 5 codes were:
- French Civil Code
- Code of Civil Procedure
- Code of Criminal Procedure
- Penal Code
- Commercial Code
The basic demands of the Revolution like Civil equality, religious toleration, emancipation of land etc., were taken care of with these codes. He was hailed as the second Justinian.
2. Education: He introduced a national scheme of education managed by the State which was organized into four types- Elementary, Secondary, Higher and Special Schools. This was to maintain uniformity of standard in Schools and Colleges. He also established the University of France.
3. Religious reforms or the Concordat: He made a code of laws for the Clergy also and to heal up the mistrust with the Papacy, entered into a religious understanding with Pope Pius-VII in 1802 known as the Concordat. He regained the sympathy of the Catholics by improving his relations with the Pope and with this treaty, Catholicism became the State religion.
4. Public works: He built new highways connecting Paris with the other major cities and improved the means of communication. Bridges and Canals were constructed. These helped in solving the unemployment problem also to a great extent. He. encouraged trade and commerce and Paris and other cities were beautified and transformed to modern cities.
5. Economy: Bank of France was established. It supervised the entire financial setup and stimulated trade and industry. Careful collection of taxes and rigid economic measures were carried out. Revenue boards were set up. The national loan was reduced and the Stock Exchanges were regulated. He took stern-measures to root out corruption and gambling.
6. Legion of honour: To honour those who had rendered meritorious Military and Civil services to the State, Napoleon started an award called ‘Legion of Honour’. It was based on principles of equality, without distinction of class and religion.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Explain the life and achievement of Augustus Caesar.
He was a great Ruler and a wise Statesman. After several years of political turmoil, Rome enjoyed more than three decades of peace. He not only built an Empire but also was a great patron of Art and Literature. His reign is called as the ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Rome. Julius Caesar’s assassination by the Brutus led Liberators, caused great political and social turmoil in Rome. The power passed into the hands of Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian who formed the ‘Second Triumvirate’. The conspirators were defeated in the battle of Philippi and Brutus and Cassius were killed.
The Triumvirate divided the Empire amongst themselves- Lepidus was in charge of Africa, Antony ruled in the Eastern Province and Octavian remained in Italy and controlled Gaul (France and Belgium). However, the relationship between Octavian and Antony deteriorated. Lepidus was forced to retire (after betraying Octavian in Sicily). Antony was living in Egypt and in the battle of ‘Actium’ was defeated by Octavian.With the conquest of Egypt, anew Era began for Romans. By 27 BCE, Octavian was the sole Roman leader.
His leadership brought the Zenith to Roman civilization that lasted for two centuries. He ruled the Roman Empire for 44 years with the titles ‘Augustus’, ‘Imperator’ and ‘Princeps’. The Government established by him was known as the ‘Principate’- ‘Government by the Princeps – The first citizen.
Augustus introduced many reforms which had far reaching consequences in Rome. He gave, ‘A centre to the System, a Chief to the Civil service, a Head to the Army, a Sovereign to the Subjects, a Protector to the Provinces and Peace to the Empire’.
He recognized the Governments of the conquered territories, stopped plunder and corruption and strengthened law and order. New Courts, and Postal Services were established. Augustus continued the calendar promoted by Julius Caesar and the month ‘August’ is named after him. The Emperor kept the poor people happy by supplying food grains. He spent money lavishly on the construction of public buildings, roads, bridges, amphitheatres and fountains.
The most important Amphitheatre was the Coliseum built at Rome. This could accommodate about 50000 people. Due to the construction of well paved inter linking system of roads, Rome became the nerve centre of trade and commerce in the Mediterranean world.
He maintained diplomatic and commercial contacts with a number of countries including India and China. There were the Generals Agrippa and Maecenas, and Writers, Poets and Historians like Livy, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Pliny and Tacitus in his time. Jesus Christ was born during his reign.
Augustan age is popularly called as ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Rome. It was known for peace and prosperity. This period is known as ‘Pax Romana’ or Roman peace. He gave the idea of the ‘World State’. His imperial system lasted for nearly 500 years and saved the great treasures of Greco-Roman civilization.
Describe the causes and results of geographical explorations.
The causes of geographical exploration are as follows:
1. Fall of Constantinople: The trade route between the East and the West was through Constantinople and when in 1453 A.D. the Ottoman Turks captured it, they closed the land route to the East and also indulged in looting the merchants. As the Europeans depended entirely upon the East for the supply of spices and other luxury goods, it necessitated them to discover a new trade route, possibly through the Sea.
2. The traveller’s accounts or romantic writings: The accounts of traveller’s, who ventured into the East, aroused the curiosity of the Europeans. Italian traveller’s like Nicola Polo and Marco Polo (1254-1324 A.D) were successful in reaching China. Marco Polo wrote a vivid account of his travels to Mongolia, India and China. Friar John of Plano Carpini, a Fransiscan Monk reached Mongolia and had written about the Mongols in the Thirteenth century. William Bubruquis and others in their accounts have narrated their thrilling experiences. Since then, the curiosity and spirit of adventure enabled the Europeans to reach far off lands not only by land but also by sea of Matter Ages
3. Demand for commodities: There was a great demand in Europe for Asian commodities like spices, pepper, ginger, clove, cardamom, etc. Muslin, Silk, Pearls, Ivory and Precious stones were also in demand. It was a lucrative trade. Europeans were eager to improve their standard of living by earning more. This was possible by enlarging commercial contacts with the Eastern countries. The discovery of new lands and sea routes opened them avenues for earning huge profits. Many adventurous sailors and traders too risked their lives to fulfill their ambitions.
4. Geographical knowledge: This also led to the discovery of new sea routes and lands. In the 14th century, travellers and sailors had the advantage of access to several books on travel, like ‘A Merchant’s Hand book’ by Francesco Balducci, and ‘Secrets of the Faithful Crusader’ by Marino Sanudo. Myths like earth being flat, seas filled with terrible monsters, the tropical portion of Africa being blazing hot and surrounded by boiling water etc., were proved false with the new knowledge on Geography. This made people less wary of travelling to these new places.
5. Spread of Christianity: Kings, Nobles and Missionaries were very enthusiastic to spread Christianity in the new lands. Hence the Kings of Spain and Portugal encouraged explorations and the Missionaries took up the cause to spread Christianity.
6. Efforts of Prince Henry: The training school of Navigation started by Prince Henry of Portugal gave the necessary training to sailors, geographers, map makers, and ship builders.
7. Other causes: The invention of printing press, mariner’s compass, new maps, and Establishment of Banks and Joint Stock Companies also encouraged the navigators. Patronage by Kings also went far in the field of geographical discoveries.
Results of the Geographical discoveries:
The geographical discoveries had a great impact on the political, economic, social, religious f and cultural history of the world. The circumnavigation of the earth by Magellan proved that, the earth is round.
Venice, Genoa, Florence, etc were important trading centres of Europe. But now, they lost their importance because of the emergence of new cities like London, Lisbon, Amsterdam etc., This was mainly due to the discovery of new trade routes.
The Kings sent missionaries into the explored territories to spread Christianity. Hence newly Christianity entered into Asia, Africa and America and became a world religion. The Geographical discoveries gave a large scope for the spread of Christian religion by converting the natives.
The explorations brought the support of the rich merchants and the middle classes to monarchy. This support enabled stable monarchies at England, Spain, France etc.
The Geographical discoveries ensured competition among the European nations. The competition was mainly to have trade contacts with the newly discovered lands and subsequently have trade Monopoly. They became aggressive and ruthless to realize these goals. Commercial revolution took place by promoting trade and industry. Commerce underwent a remarkable change as regards to quality, quantity and kind of goods carried, routes, newer markets and methods. Joint Stock Companies and Banks were established and insurance of ships and goods was introduced, to safeguard against losses.
Discovery of new lands encouraged Slave trading, Ship building, Banking and Commerce. It also helped Renaissance and Reformation. The discoveries increased men’s knowledge about the world and this in turn led to the expansion of their mind. Exposure to the new worlds, interaction with new people and new modes of life, dispelled the funny and blind notions of medieval ignorance. This gave a tremendous impact to the intellectual revolution introduced by Renaissance.
As a result of these discoveries, Europe came in touch with the rest of the world and European culture spread to those lands. This contact helped them to enrich their knowledge. The discovery of new worlds offered good opportunity for the freedom loving people of different countries to migrate and improve their social, economic and political status. It encouraged scientific exploration and research and overall the living standards of people rose.
One of the ugliest effects of geographical discoveries was the birth of imperialism by the European powers. Europeans reached the coasts of the countries of Asia, Africa, America and Australia for establishing trade links. Eventually, they stayed there as masters and these countries were turned into colonies.
Explain the causes for American war of Independence.
The punitive and oppressive laws passed by the British Parliament and the heavy taxes were disapproved by the Colonists. Alarmed by the repressive policy of the British, all the Colonies united together in their opposition. On 5th September 1774, delegates of 12 Colonies except Georgia met at Philadelphia to decide the future plan of action. This is known as the First Continental (Philadelphia) Congress.
The Congress drew up a ‘Declaration of rights’ and sent a petition to George III requesting him to intervene and redress their grievances. But George- III turned a deaf ear to their plea and branded the members of the Congress as revolutionaries. Moreover, he ordered his troops to crush them.
This action of the King was not tolerated by the Colonists. The Congress appointed George Washington as the Commander in Chief of the Colonial army to fight the British troops and on 4th July 1776 proclaimed their Independence from the control of England. A Declaration of Independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson was unanimously adopted by the Colonies. Infuriated with the colonist’s attitude, Britain declared war on America. In the early stages of the war, the British had an upper hand. Americans lost the Bunker Hill battle but won at Trenton and Prinistine.
Washington crushed the British in the battle of Saratoga and on 17th October 1777 the British Commander-in-Chief surrendered to him. This was the turning point in the war. The war continued and Lord Cornwallis and the British army under him were routed at York Town in 1781. The war came to an end with the. Treaty of Paris in 1783. England recognized the Independence of the 13 Colonies. 4th of July was a great day of Americans and is their Independence day.
Explain the causes and results of Second World War
The causes of the Second World War are:
1. Treaty of Versailles: The Treaty of Versailles 1919 was too severe, and’it humiliated the Germans. The Allied Powers treated Germany as they liked and the Germans could not tolerate it any longer. The entire responsibility for the losses of the First World War was put on Germany. The Treaty itself was based on revenge. Germany was waiting for a chance to avenge its humiliation and the seeds for another war were sown by this treaty.
2. Expansionist Policy of Japan and Italy: Japan and Italy were not satisfied with the ‘Peace Settlement’. They did not get a proper share of the war spoils. Later, these were the countries, hit hard, as they had limited sources. So, with a view to solve their economic problems, they turned to the policy of aggression and expansion. Japan separated from Allied powers and joined Germany. It wanted to liberate Asia from the western yoke.
3. Rise of Dictators: The rise of dictatorships in Italy under Benito Mussolini, Germany under Adolf Hitler and Japan under the Government of Tojo was another cause for the war. They glorified the war. Mussolini advocated the martial virtues of Italians and reviving the glories of old Roman Empire. Hitler spoke of the Aryan supremacy and wanted rearmament, revenge and German domination. Japan wanted its own Empire and supremacy. In Russia, Stalin established a totalitarian dictatorship.
4. Colonial and Commercial Rivalry: Another cause for the war was the colonial and commercial rivalry. It was a sort of Economic Nationalism. It was a struggle for raw materials, markets for their products and colonies for their excess population. After the First World War, Italy, Germany and Japan were not satisfied. All these countries were pogr in natural resources.
5. Failure of the League of Nations: The League of Nations became too weak and incompetent. The league did not have its own army. It was dominated by few countries like England and France. U.S.A remained out of the league. As a result, the League totally failed in preserving peace in Europe.
6. Immediate cause: On 1st September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland which became the immediate cause for the Second World War. Poland was an ally of England and France. Hence Britain and France declared war on Germany.
The results of the Second World War are:
1. The Second World War was the most destructive of all the wars fought until then. About 25 million people were killed and 50 Million were disabled. Millions of people later died of starvation and diseases. There was a large scale destruction of houses, industries and
communication and transport systems. The destruction of agricultural land led to shortage I of food. After the war, most of the countries faced the problems of post war reconstructions.
2. The World War II ended the dictatorships in Italy and Germany. Italy was declared a Republic under Badogli, and Germany was divided into four zones under U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Britain and France. A Tribunal was set up at Nuremberg to conduct trials of the leading Nazis. Japan gave up all its rights on China. Japan was occupied by the I Allied Powers.( U.S.A)
3. European domination of the world ended after this war. After the Second World War, U.S.A, and U.S.S.R emerged as two super powers. The mutual distrust between U.S.A and U.S.S.R increased after the war. This led to what is known as the ‘Cold War’.
4. The rivalry of these two super powers had been the most important feature of international relations since 1945. As a result, world peace was constantly under threat.
5. The World War resulted in the victory of the principle of Nationalism and the liquidation of Colonialism. The colonial Empires of the European powers in Asia, Africa and Latin America came to an end. India, Ceylon, Indonesia and other countries became independent after the war.
6. The Jews had become homeless during the Nazi regime in Germany. About six Million Jews perished in the concentration camps. After the war, with the help of U.S.A., a new home land (Israel) for the Jews was created in 1948.
7. Japan experienced the disastrous effects of atomic weapons. Its entire atmosphere became poisonous. Most of the new born children suffered from serve deformities.
8. The most important result of the World War Second was the birth of United Nations Organization with the object of preventing further wars and maintaining peace in future,
Part – F
VI. 36. Match the following: ( 05 )
37. Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. ( 05 )
- Battle of Waterloo
- The origin of Earth
- Bandung Conferences
- Discovered Sea route of India
- NAZI party
- The origin of Earth
- Discovered Sea route of India
- Battle of Waterloo
- NAZI party
- Bandung Conferences