You can Download Chapter 11 Contemporary World Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC History Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 11 Contemporary World
1st PUC History Contemporary World One Mark Questions and Answers
When was the term ‘Cold War’ used for the first time?
The term ‘Cold War’ came to be used after World War II and George Orwell used it as a general term in his essay.
What is Cold War?
Cold War was a sustained state of political and military tension between the western world and the communist world. It was a situation of no war and no peace.
Who wrote an essay ‘You and the Atomic Bomb’?
George Orwell the English author and journalist wrote ‘You and the Atomic Bomb’ in 1945.
Name the American statesman to use the term ‘Cold war’ specifically.
Bernard Baruch in 1947 used the term ‘Cold War’.
When did Greece secure independence from the Nazi rule?
Greece secured independence from the Nazi rule in 1944.
Who was Truman?
Harny S. Truman was the President of America at the time of the ending of the second world war.
What was the aim of Marshall Plan?
The main aim of the Marshall Plan was to contain communism in Europe.
In response to Marshall plan, which plan was introduced by the Soviet Union?
In response to Marshall Plan, Molotov plan was introduced by the Soviet Union.
When did USSR and China sign a defence treaty?
USSR and China signed a defence Treaty in 1950.
NATO: North American Treaty Organization.
SEATO: South East Asia Treaty Organization.
CENTO: Central Treaty Organization.
When did U.S.S.R form the Warsaw Pact?
USSR formed the Warsaw Pact with the East European countries in 1955.
In which year was the Berlin Wall constructed?
Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961.
Name the Russian Intelligence Agency.
KGB- Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti in Russian, or Committee for State Security.
Name the American Intelligence Agency.
CIA: Central Intelligence Agency.
When was Nuclear Test Ban Treaty signed?
The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963.
Name the American President to blockade Cuba.
The American President to blockade Cuba was John. F. Kennedy.
When did the Vietnam War come to an end?
Vietnam War came to an end in 1975.
In which year was Vietnam united?
Vietnam was united in 1975.
SALT: Strategic Arms Limitations Talks.
In which year did the ‘Cold War’ end?
The Cold War ended in 1992.
Where is the Headquarters of NATO?
The Headquarters of NATO is in Paris.
What was the main aim of SEATO?
The main aim of SEATO was to forestall the communist aggression in South East Asia and Pacific regions.
When was CENTO agreement dissolved?
CENTO agreement was dissolved in 1958.
When did Soviet Union disintegrate?
Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991.
What is ‘Glasnost’?
The policy of openness in external relations which was introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev is called Glasnost.
What is ‘Perestroika’?
Reconstruction of the Society and Economy of Russia through liberalisation is called Perestroika.
Who headed C.I.S after the disintegration of the Soviet Union?
The Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine founded the CIS.
Where is the Headquarters of C.I.S.?
The Headquarters of C.I.S. is at Minsk.
1st PUC History Contemporary World Two Mark Questions and Answers
Name any four member countries of NATO.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation members are America, Britain, France, Belgium, Canada, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, and others.
Name any four member countries of SEATO.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation members were England, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, America, Philippines, Pakistan, France, and others.
Name any four member countries of CENTO.
Central Treaty Organisation or Baghdad Pact members are Iraq, Turkey, Iran, England, and Pakistan.
Name the anti-American military organization. When did it come into existence?
The Warsaw Pact between USSR and the East European countries was the anti-American military organization. It came into existence in 1955.
Name any four member countries of Warsaw Pact.
USSR, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Rumania are some of the member countries of Warsaw Pact.
Name any four Independent Republics which broke away from the Soviet Union.
Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, and Uzbekistan are some of the Independent Republics which broke away from the Soviet Union.
Name the Presidents of America and Russia who ended the Cold War.
George Bush (Sr.) and Boris Yeltsin were the Presidents of America and Russia respectively who ended the cold war.
When was NATO established and where?
NATO was established in 1949 in Washington.
Who Were the Human rights activists of Russia?
Andrei Sakharov and Boris Yeltsin were the human rights activists of Russia.
Which is West Asia?
The term West Asia is used to denote the Arab Countries extending from Syria to Egypt and also Israel.
What are the Words of Freidman?
Freidman said that “A world divided into two camps is still a world living under the shadow of wars”.
Who withdrew their forces from Iran after World War II?
Britain and the USA withdrew their forces from Iran after World War II.
Whose support did the British Government seek to suppress the communist uprising in Greece?
Both the British Government and the Greek Government sought the support of America to check the rising communist influence in Greece.
Expand KGB and CIA.
KGB: Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti.
CIA: Central Intelligence Agency.
1st PUC History Contemporary World Five Mark Questions and Answers
Explain the causes for Cold War.
Causes for Cold War:
During World War II, Soviet Union and the Western powers consisting of U.K. France and USA fought together against Germany and its allies. But just after the War, distrust, and suspicion loomed over Soviet Union and the Western powers.
1. Russia’s refusal to evacuate from Iran:
After World War II, Britain and USA withdrew their forces from Iran, but the Soviet Union refused to do so. Finally, only after the UN intervention, Russia withdrew its forces. It embittered the relations between the Western Powers and Soviet Union.
2. Sovietization of Eastern Europe:
Soviet Union was accused of not honouring the pledges of the Yalta and the Balkan agreements. At Yalta, the Western powers recognized the military authority of Russia over Eastern and Central Europe. But it was agreed that, in all the liberated countries of Europe, democratic institutions would be established and free elections are held. But communist supported Governments were established in the entire Balkan region through the intervention of Russia. Western powers resented this and united to check the spread of communism and Russian influence.
3. Soviet influence in Greece:
In 1944, Greece secured its independence from the Nazi rule with the support of Britain. When the German forces left Greece, the British entered Greece. According to a treaty concluded between Soviet Union and British, Russia recognized the British sphere of influence in Greece. At the same time there was a clash between the communists and royalists in Greece. Soviet Union was believed to be instigating a communist revolution in Greece. Both the British and the Greek Governments sought the support of America, and President Truman announced both military and economic assistance to Greece.
4. Soviet influence in Turkey:
Just after World War II, Soviet Union exerted pressure on Turkey to cede some of its territories. But Turkey refused to oblige and secured American assistance. USA followed the policy of defending Turkey and Greece against the possible attack of the Soviet Union. U.S .Congress approved to extend economic and military aid to Turkey.
5.Problems relating to Germany:
Soviet Union had suffered heavily during World War II. At the Yalta conference Stalin demanded 10,000 million dollars as reparations from Germany. After the war, Soviet Union destroyed German Industries and transferred costly German machines to Russia, because of which the German economy was shattered. Britain and America had to give huge economic aid to reconstruct the German economy.
6. The secrecy of the Atom Bomb:
USA kept the technology of the atom bomb a secret from USSR, though Soviet Union was an ally of United States during the war. Stalin considered it as a betrayal of trust and confidence in Russia. Moreover Soviet Union was also concerned about its own security.
7. Communist activities in the USA:
The Soviet Union began to encourage communist activities and espionage in the United States of America. In 1945, it was discovered by the American strategic services that some of the secret documents had been spuriously passed on to the communist Agency.
Write a note on Berlin Blockade.
The Cold War tensions between Soviet Union and Western powers increased due to the German problem. After World War II, Germany was put under the occupancy of the victorious allies. It was divided into East and West Germany. East Germany was under Russian control. So the Russian President Stalin blocked Berlin and cut off all land and sea contacts between West Germany and Berlin. The Berlin Blockade was not a complete blockade as it allowed permitted access and exit through three air corridors. The Blockade was withdrawn after eleven months. This was the first Berlin crisis. America started anti-communist propaganda all over the world.
Write a note on the Second Berlin Crisis.
With respect to the problem of Germany, there was no significant progress in the relations between the Western powers and the Soviet Union. A second Berlin Crisis began in 1958 with the Russian President Khrushchev’s ultimatum that West Berlin must be evacuated within six months. But this crisis was averted and Khrushchev agreed to meet the American President Eisenhower. Khrushchev was also invited to the USA. By 1959, there was an improvement in Soviet-American relations.
In 1961, John F. Kennedy became the President of the USA. He tried to seek ‘Areas of Co-operation’ with the Soviet Union. But the circumstances were not favourable. Both were secretly spying on each other. In 1961, a 25 mile long Berlin partition wall was constructed to check the fleeing of people from East Berlin to West Berlin.
Write a note on SEATO and the Warsaw Pact.
The South East Asia Treaty Organization was born due to the fear created by the spread of communism. The establishment of communist rule in China further enhanced the fear of the spread of communism in South East Asia and Pacific regions. The United States and Western Powers decided to establish a regional collective defence system. After many discussions in various places, England, America, Franee, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines and Pakistan met at Manila-the capital of Philippines in 1954 and signed a pact, in the interest of South East Asia.The chief purpose of the SEATO was to forestall communist aggression. This was put to test in the Vietnam War. After a prolonged war, America lost her prestige and consequently the SEATO agreement was dissolved in 1975.
In 1955, USSR formed the Warsaw pact with the East European countries like Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Poland against NATO. This intensified the rivalry between USA and USSR. The Pact came to an end in 1991 with the disintegration of USSR.
What were the effects of Cold War?
The effects of the Cold War are:
- Both the United States of America and the Soviet Union built up huge arsenals of atomic weapons and ballistic missiles.
- The military blocs NATO and the Warsaw Pact were formed.
- It led to destructive conflicts like the Vietnam War and the Korean War.
- Soviet Union collapsed due to economic weaknesses.
- The demolition of the Berlin Wall unified East Germany and West Germany.
- The Warsaw Pact was dissolved.
- The Baltic States and some former Soviet Republics achieved independence.
- America became the sole super power of the world.
- Communism received a setback worldwide.
What are the factors responsible for the disintegration of Russia?
The factors responsible for the disintegration of U.S.S.R are:
- Too much restriction on individual liberty.
- Failure to establish equality among people.
- Excessive importance to defence industry.
- Negligence of agriculture.
- Iron curtain policy.
- Liberal policies introduced by Gorbachev.
- Conflicting cultural and ethnic groups.
What are the aims and objectives of C.I.S?
The aims and objectives of CIS are:
- All the members are Sovereign and Independent Nations.
- The existing borders of each Republic were recognized.
- To establish a free market Rouble zone embracing all the Republics.
- To establish a joint Defence Force of the participating Republics.
- To promote co-operation on cross-border crime prevention
- To prevent armed conflicts on the territory of the member States.
- To co-ordinate the foreign and economic policies of member States.
Give a note on the Civil war in Korea.
There was a civil war in Korea between 1950 and 1953 over political ideologies and there were armed conflicts and killings along with property loss. Korea divided itself into South Korea following the Capitalist principles and North Korea owing allegiance to Communist ideals. The USA helped South Korea, and China extended help to North Korea and as a result, the Cold War intensified. The civil war ended with the division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea. In 1953, an armistice was concluded between the two Koreas and war came to an end and peace was restored.
Write a note on NATO.
NATO was established in 1949 at Washington. This was a military pact formed by 15 European countries under the leadership of America against Russia. The members were America, Britain, France, Belgium, Canada, Portugal, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Later, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Turkey joined this group. Hungary and Poland joined NATO in 1999. At present NATO has 27 members. NATO members passed a resolution to help the members if attacked by any foreign power and to fight the enemy united. NATO has a contributory military unit and its Headquarters is in Paris.
Write a note on Boris Yeltsin.
In 1989 the Soviet Union proceeded towards a democratic setup. The first-ever multi-candidate elections for a new super parliament were held. Boris Yeltsin, an opponent of Gorbachev emerged victorious. USSR faced a downward trend in the economic situation. Political stability was disturbed due to ethnic violence at Azerbaijan and Armenia. Gorbachev was unable to prevent the states from declaring their sovereignty and Independence one after the other.
Boris Yeltsin, the President of Russia emerged as the Centre of power. The Baltic States and other republics broke away and claimed their sovereignty. On December 25th 1991, USSR was officially dissolved. Later in 1992, George Bush (Sr.), the President of America and Boris Yeltsin met and ended the cold war.
1st PUC History Contemporary World Ten Mark Questions and Answers
How was Gorbachev responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union? Explain.
Mikhail Gorbachev was the most gifted and dynamic leader of the Soviet Union, after the end of World War II. He. led the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 and gained worldwide fame for his domestic and foreign policies. In 1990, he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his contribution to world peace.
Born in 1931, Gorbachev’s parents were peasant farmers. He graduated in Law from the Moscow state university in 1955. During his student days, he joined the communist party and rose through the ranks of the party. In 1980, he became a member of the Politburo, the Chief policy-making body of Russia. Andropov, a friend of Gorbachev, became the communist party head in 1982. He was the most powerful leader at that time. Andropov promoted Gorbachev and put him in charge of the country’s economic policy. Finally, in 1985 Gorbachev was chosen as the Head of the Communist party and in 1988 as the President of the USSR.
He introduced two novel measures – Glasnost and Perestroika to restructure Soviet society and economy and shed the ‘Iron Curtain’ image.
Glasnost in the Russian language means openness. It refers to the liberalizing of the various aspects of Soviet life. The glasnost introduced greater freedom of expression and information.
- Gorbachev took several steps to make the Soviet society more open. Bans on books, plays, and films were lifted.
- Political dissidents were released.
- Freedom of religious worship was granted.
- Soviet history came to be rewritten more objectively.
- Investigative journalism was encouraged to uncover political corruption.
- Under the legislation introduced in 1990, censorship of mass media was abolished.
Perestroika in the Russian language means restructuring. It refers to the wide-ranging economic and political reforms introduced in the Soviet Union.
3. Market Socialism:
n order to restructure the economy, Gorbachev allowed the ‘Market forces’ i.e. the forces of demand and supply to operate in his country’s socialist economy. This is known as market socialism. The new economic policy offered more and more market incentives. Small – scale private enterprises were allowed. One motive behind this economic reform was to provide competition which is characteristic of a market economy and the other motive was to provide alternative employment.
- Gorbachev began to free the farmers and factory Managers from bureaucratic interference.
- He invited foreign investments into the Soviet Union.
- Besides, he began to restructure CPSV and State bureaucracies.
4. Foreign Policy:
Gorbachev made skilful use of the-foreign media to put the case against space weapons and nuclear testing. He concluded a treaty in 1988 with the Western Powers to eliminate medium-range Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) from the European soil. He withdrew the Soviet troops from Afghanistan in 1989. He reduced the size of the Soviet conventional forces. In 1991 he ended the cold war with the West. In the same year, Gorbachev and U.S. President Bush signed a Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). This treaty was designed to reduce U.S. and Soviet long-range missiles by about a third.
5. Breakup of the Soviet Union:
On 19th August 1991, a group of hardliners overthrew the Soviet Government and deposed Gorbachev when he was on a holiday. The coup was a failure and it collapsed on 21stst August. Gorbachev was reinstated. The failure of the coup strengthened the separatist tendencies among the Republics of the U SSR. Within a very short period, eleven Soviet republics out of 15 declared their decision to come out of the Soviet Union.
As a result, confusion, anarchy, and violence followed. Finally, the break-up of the Soviet Union was complete. However, the eleven republics agreed to form themselves into a Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Gorbachev confirmed the belief that a communist cannot become democratic. When democracy triumphs, communism has to depart. Economic failure was the key reason for the collapse of the USSR.
Explain in detail the Regional Military Pacts.
1. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization):
NATO was established in 1949 at Washington. This was a military pact formed by 15. European countries under the leadership of America against Russia. The initial members were America, Britain, France, Belgium, Canada, Portugal, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Italy, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland. Later, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, and Turkey also became members. Hungary and Poland joined NATO in 1999. NATO members passed a resolution to help the members if attacked by any foreign power and fight the enemy together. NATO has a contributory military unit and its Headquarters is in Paris.
2. SEATO (The South East Asia Treaty Organization):
SEATO was born due to the fear created by the spread of communism. The establishment of communist rule in China further enhanced the fear of the spread of communism in South East Asia and the Pacific regions. The United States and Western Powers decided to establish a regional collective defence system.
After many discussions at various places, England, America, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines, and Pakistan met at Manila, the capital of Philippines in 1954 and signed a pact, in the interest of South East Asia. The chief purpose of the SEATO was to forestall communist aggression. This was put to test in the Vietnam War. After a prolonged war, America lost her prestige and consequently, the SEATO agreement was dissolved in 1975.
3. ANZUS Pact:
It was established in 1951. It was a military pact between Australia, New Zealand and America. By this pact, the signatory nations agreed to help each other in case of aggression on any member in the Pacific region.
4. CENTO or the Baghdad Pact:
CENTO was signed in 1955. England took the initiative in organising this but it did not join initially. It was an Anti Soviet Military Bloc in the Middle East. England joined later along with Pakistan and Iran. In 1958, Karim Kaseem, the President of Iraq flouted the Baghdad Pact, and CENTO failed to contain communist expansion in the Middle East.
5. WARSAW Pact:
In 1955, USSR formed the Warsaw pact with the East European countries like Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Poland against NATO. This intensified the rivalry between the USA and USSR. The Pact came to an end in 1991 with the disintegration of the USSR.