1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 7 Beginning of Modern Age

You can Download Chapter 7 Beginning of Modern Age Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC History Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 7 Beginning of Modern Age

1st PUC History Beginning of Modern Age One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Who was called as the ‘Navigator’?
Answer:
Prince Henry of Portugal was called as ‘Navigator’.

Question 2.
Who explored the mainland of ‘South America’?
Answer:
Christopher Columbus discovered the landmass of South America.

Question 3.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Renaissance’?
Answer:
Renaissance means rebirth or revival or new learning.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
From which word is the term ‘Renaissance’ derived?
Answer:
The word Renaissance is derived from the Latin word ‘Renasaree’, which means rebirth or revival or new learning.

Question 5.
Which country was called as the Motherland of Renaissance?
Answer:
Italy was called as the Motherland of Renaissance.

Question 6.
Who invented the printing press?
Answer:
John Guttenberg invented the printing press.

Question 7.
Who was known as the Father of Renaissance?
Answer:
Petrarch was known as the Father of renaissance.

Question 8.
Who was called the Father of Humanism?
Answer:
Petrarch the great humanist was called as the Father of Humanism.

Question 9.
Who is the author of ‘Divine comedy’?
Answer:
Dante is the author of ‘Divine comedy’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Name the author of ‘Utopia’.
Answer:
Sir Thomas More wrote ‘Utopia’.

Question 11.
Who wrote ‘Paradise Lost’?
Answer:
John Milton wrote ‘Paradise Lost’.

Question 12.
Who painted the ‘Mona Lisa’?
Answer:
Leonardo da Vinci painted the ‘Mona Lisa’.

Question 13.
Who propounded the Laws of Gravitation?
Answer:
Sir Isaac Newton propounded the Laws of Gravitation.

Question 14.
Who was the leader of the Reformation?
Answer:
Martin Luther was the leader of the Reformation Movement.

Question 15.
Who published the 95 theses against the Catholic Church?
Answer:
Martin Luther published the 95 theses against the Catholic Church.

Question 16.
Who is called the Morning Star of Reformation?
Answer:
John Wycliffe is called the Morning Star of Reformation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 17.
What is ‘Counter-Reformation’?
Answer:
The advent of the various radical sects within Christianity and the rapid spread of Protestantism prompted the Catholics to conduct reforms within their Church organization and its practices, in order to check further damage, which was called ‘Counter-Reformation’.

Question 18.
What is Inquisition?
Answer:
Inquisition (Church Court) was part of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation, pertaining to conducting inquiry into cases of heresy and meting out severe punishments to the guilty. It was established in 1542 in Spain.

Question 19.
Who founded the Society of Jesus?
Answer:
Ignatius Loyola founded the Society of Jesus, in 1534.

Question 20.
Who was the Pope during the Reformation Movement?
Answer:
Pope Leo X was the Pope at the time of the Reformation Movement.

Question 21.
What were Indulgences?
Answer:
Indulgences were certificates issued by Pope Leo X, for monetary consideration, exempting the people from receiving punishments, for the specific purpose of raising funds for rebuilding the great Basilica of St. Peters at Rome.

Question 22.
What were the followers of Ignatius Loyola called as?
Answer:
The followers of Ignatius Loyola were called as ‘Jesuits’.

1st PUC History Beginning of Modem Age Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Who occupied the City of Constantinople and when?
Answer:
The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453.

Question 2.
Why was Prince Henry called as the ‘Navigator’?
Answer:
Prince Henry opened the School of Navigation to train sailors to venture out in search of new lands. He engaged the services of enterprising Italian sailors, geographers, map makers, and ship-builders. During his lifetime, Portuguese sailors explored the African coast. All such efforts made him to be called as the ‘Navigator’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Who discovered the sea route to India and when?
Answer:
Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498.

Question 4.
Name any two ships of Magellan.
Answer:

  1. Victoria
  2. Santa Maria.

Question 5.
Which was the first ship to circumnavigate the world and who led this?
Answer:
The first ship to circumnavigate the world was the ‘Victoria’ and Ferdinand Magellan the Portuguese sailor, led this expedition.

Question 6.
Name any two Geographical Explorers?
Answer:
Vasco da Gama and Ferdinand Magellan.

Question 7.
Name any two Humanists of the Renaissance.
Answer:
Dante and Petrarch.

Question 8.
Mention any two works of William Shakespeare.
Answer:
Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Name any two Painters of the Renaissance period.
Answer:
Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo.

Question 10.
Name any two paintings of Leonardo da Vinci.
Answer:
The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, Virgin of the Rocks, Adoration of the Magi.

Question 11.
Name any two paintings of Michael Angelo.
Answer:
The Last Judgment, Day and Night, Birth of Adam.

Question 12.
Name any two Scientists of the Renaissance period.
Answer:
Sir Isaac Newton and Galileo.

Question 13.
Where and in which year was Martin Luther born?
Answer:
Martin Luther was born in 1483, in Eiselben (Germany).

Question 14.
Who was John Wycliffe and to which country did he belong?
Answer:
John Wycliffe was an early leader of the Reformation. He belonged to England.

Question 15.
Name the two Sects of Christianity.
Answer:
Roman Catholics and Protestants.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
Who led the Counter-Reformation? Name the Organization he founded.
Answer:
Ignatius Loyola led the Counter-Reformation. The Organization was the Society of Jesus.

Question 17.
Who was Machiavelli? Name any of his works?
Answer:
Machiavelli was an Italian politician, historian, and writer of the Renaissance period. ‘The Prince’ and ‘The History of Florence’ were his noteworthy writings.

Question 18.
Name some of the famous scientists of the Renaissance period.
Answer:
Nicholas Copernicus, John Kepler, Galileo, Sir Isaac Newton, William Harvey, John Guttenberg.

Question 19.
Who were the famous sculptors of the Renaissance period?
Answer:
Michael Angelo, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello, Luca della Robbia, Albrecht Durer.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 20.
Who were the trinity of Italian literature?
Answer:
Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio were the trinity of Italian Literature.

Question 21.
What is meant by Renaissance? Where did it begin?
Answer:
The literary term ‘Renaissance’ means rebirth or revival. It means the revival of interest in the classical culture of ancient Greek and Rome. (Classical learning) It began in Italy.

Question 22.
What is humanism? Who were the humanists at the time of Renaissance?
Answer:
Humanism is an approach to life which emphasizes the importance of human affairs in this world. Petrarch, Dante, Cicero, Boccaccio, and Cervantes were the humanists.

Question 23.
Write any two features of Renaissance in Europe.
Answer:
Growth of vernaculars, Humanism, New approach, scientific progress, development of art and architecture etc. are some of the features.

Question 24.
Which country is called as the homeland of Reformation?
Answer:
Germany is known as the homeland of Reformation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
Who was the Father of the Protestant movement?
Answer:
Martin Luther.

Question 26.
Name the Pope who sold indulgences.
Answer:
Pope Leo X started the sale of indulgences.

1st PUC History Beginning of Modem Age Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What were the causes for the Geographical explorations?
Answer:
1. Fall of Constantinople:
The trade route between the. East and the West was through Constantinople and when in 1453 A.D. the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople, they closed the land route to the East and also indulged in looting the merchants. As the Europeans depended entirely upon the East for the supply of spices and other luxury goods, it necessitated them to discover a new trade route, possibly through the Sea.

2. The travelers’ accounts or romantic writings:
The accounts of travellers who Ventured into the East, aroused the curiosity of the Europeans. Italian travellers like Nicola Polo and Marco Polo (1254-1324A.D) were successful in reaching China. Marco polo wrote a vivid account of his travels to Mongolia, India, and China. Friar John of Plano Carpini, a Franciscan Monk reached Mongolia and had written about the Mongols in the thirteenth century. William Bubruquis and others in their accounts have narrated their thrilling experiences. Since then, the curiosity and spirit of adventure enabled the Europeans to reach far off lands not only by land but also by sea.

3. Demand for commodities:
There was a great demand in Europe for Asian commodities like spices-pepper, ginger, clove, cardamom, etc. Muslin, Silk, Pearls, Ivory and Precious stones were also in demand. It was a lucrative trade. Europeans were eager to improve, their standard of living by earning more. This was possible by enlarging commercial contacts with the Eastern countries. The discovery of new lands and sea routes opened them avenues for earning huge profits. Many adventurous sailors and traders too risked their lives to fulfill their ambitions.

4. Geographical knowledge:
This also led to the discovery of new sea routes and lands. In the 14th century, travellers and sailors had the advantage of access to several books on travel, like ‘A merchant’s Handbook’ by Francesco Balducci, ‘Secrets of the faithful crusader’ by Marino Sanudo. Myths like the earth being flat, seas filled with terrible monsters, the tropical portion of Africa being blazing hot and surrounded by boiling water, etc., were proved false with the new knowledge on Geography. This made people less wary of travelling to these new places.

5. Spread of Christianity:
Kings, Nobles, and Missionaries were very enthusiastic to spread Christianity in the new lands. Hence the Kings of Spain and Portugal encouraged explorations and the Missionaries took up the cause to spread Christianity.

6. Efforts of Prince Henry :
The training school of navigation started by Prince Henry of Portugal gave the necessary training to sailors, geographers, map makers, and shipbuilders.

7. Other causes:
The invention of the printing press, mariner’s compass, new maps, and Establishment of Banks and Joint Stock Companies also encouraged the navigators. Patronage by Kings also went far in the field of geographical discoveries.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
What was the role of Columbus and Vasco da Gama in Geographical explorations?
Answer:
1. Christopher Columbus:
He was a sailor from Genoa in Italy. He believed that the earth was round in shape and thought of reaching India by crossing the Atlantic Ocean. He secured the help of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. They patronized Columbus with ships, men and money. Columbus and his men reached San Salvador, one of the Islands in the Bahamas (West Indies) in 1492.

He believed that he had reached India. Hence he called the natives as ‘Red Indians’, as they were red in colour. Columbus made more voyages and discovered the landmass of South America, Cuba, and Haiti. It may be noted here, that Columbus did not discover the mainland of America.

2. Vasco da Gama:
He was a Portuguese sailor, who discovered the sea route to India. He was patronized by Emmanuel II, the Portuguese King. He sailed along the Western coast of Africa and reached the Cape of Storms, which&was calm and pleasant. It gave a definite hope of discovering the sea route to the East. Hence he renamed it as ‘The Cape of Good Hope’. Then he sailed straight across the Indian Ocean and reached Calicut in the Malabar Coast in 1498. His voyage opened the gate for Europeans to enter India.

Question 3.
Describe the results of the Geographical explorations.
Answer:
The geographical discoveries had a great impact on the political, economic, social, religious and cultural history of the world.

1. The circumnavigation of the earth by Magellan proved that the earth is round.

2. The explorations increased the European contact with the East. Now, a large number of Europeans came to the East for trade, to spread Christianity, to establish colonies, etc. This had an impact on both the East and the West.

3. Venice, Genoa, Florence, etc were important trading centres of Europe. But now, they lost their importance because of the emergence of new cities like London, Lisbon, Amsterdam, etc. This was mainly due to the discovery of new trade routes.

4. The Kings sent missionaries into the newly explored territories to spread Christianity. Hence Christianity entered into Asia, Africa, and America. The Geographical discoveries gave a large scope for the spread of the Christian religion by converting the natives.

5. The explorations brought the support of the rich merchants and the middle classes to monarchy. This Support enabled stable monarchies at England, Spain, France, etc.

6. The Geographical discoveries ensured competition among the European nations. The competition was mainly to have trade contacts with the newly discovered lands and subsequently have trade Monopoly. They became aggressive and ruthless to realize these goals.

7. Discoveiyofnew lands encouraged Slave trading, Shipbuilding, Banking, and Commerce. It also helped Renaissance and Reformation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
What were the causes for Renaissance?
Answer:
1. Renaissance scholars or the rise of new ideas:
The teachings of the medieval age were not progressive as the Church controlled all activities of the people. Religious beliefs, political principles, and social standards were all stagnant in this period. There were all round discontentment and the time was ripe for a major upheaval and people started questioning the authority of the Church.

2. The capture of Constantinople in 1453:
In 1453, Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and forced the Greek and Latin Scholars to flee to Italy. The encouraging and peaceful conditions in Italy helped the study of classical literature and the birth of Renaissance.

3. Geographical exploration:
Medieval age Europeans came out off religious restrictions and superstitious ideas were shattered. People became bold and adventurous. The geographical discoveries not only brought great wealth but also expanded their knowledge. Coming in contact with other cultures brought them new ideas, thoughts, and knowledge. Thinkers began to give importance to Reason, Observation and Experimentation. This prepared the ground for a great cultural revolution.

4. Patronage of Kings, Popes, and Nobles:
When the Greek and Latin scholars fled to Italy and other European countries along with their books and manuscripts, King, Popes, Nobles and the rich Merchants patronised these scholars. European people got exposed to Classical Art, Architecture and Learning and interest in these grew all over.

5. Nation-State idea:
In the age of new learning, emphasis was laid upon the freedom and dignity of man as an individual. With the dawn of the new spirit, City-States lost their significance and the idea of Nation States took shape. As feudalism collapsed, the Monarchs were interested in the welfare of their subjects and gave importance to Classical literature and Education in general.

6. The invention of Printing Press:
This was the chief factor in spreading new ideas and thoughts across the multitude. Printing helped the tremendous development of European civilization and culture. Production of books on varied subjects stimulated a general desire for literacy.

Question 5.
Describe the important features of Renaissance.
Answer:
1. Humanism:
The Renaissance scholars began to take deep interest in Humanism, a sympathetic study of man and his achievements. Humanists promoted a rational and humanistic approach in their studies. They tried to bring learning into a close relationship with life as such. The main idea of this movement was the cultivation of the human personality. Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Cicero, Martin Luther, Nicholas-II and others were noted humanists.

2. New approach:
In the medieval age, religious belief, political principles and social standards were all stagnant. Enlightened thinkers like Peter Abelard, Roger Bacon, John Wycliffe, and others challenged those views, and boldly and openly expressed their new ideas.

3. Renaissance Art and Architecture:
Renaissance Art and Architecture were humanistic and realistic. They came out of the clutches of the Church and became secular and closer to human life. The ‘Gothic Architecture’ developed during Renaissance was a  mixture of Greek, Roman, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian styles. It consists of large arches and domes, tall pillars and beautiful decorations.

4. Scientific progress:
Renaissance spread the spirit of enquiry, investigation, and criticism. The rise of Nation – States helped the progress of Science. The discovery of new lands, new knowledge about the shape of the earth and observations of Astronomers disproved f certain age-old beliefs. Renaissance made its great impact resulting in scientific revolution in Europe.

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Question 6.
What were the contributions of Renaissance to literature?
Answer:
1. Humanism:
The renaissance scholars began to take deep interest in the study of man and his achievements. The humanists promoted rational and humanistic approach. They tried to bring learning into close relation with life. The main idea of this movement was the cultivation of the human personality. Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Cicero, Cervantes, and other humanists promoted classical literature. They were called the ‘Morning Stars’.

2. Classicism:
A very important feature in Europe during Renaissance was the revival of interest in ancient Greek and Latin classics. This manifested as an expression of classism in Literature along with Art and Architecture. A classical culture developed in Europe.

3. Vernacular languages:
Renaissance in Europe resulted in the development of vernacular languages like English, German, Spanish and Italian as well. Classical literature in Latin and Greek were translated or written in the vernacular languages. This activity popularised classical literature and developed the vernacular languages also.

4. Renaissance scholars or Rise of new ideas:
The teachings of the medieval age were not progressive and the Church controlled all the activities of the people. Religious beliefs, political principles, and social standards were all stagnant in this period. The invention of the printing press made it very convenient and easy to spread the new ideas and thoughts to all the nooks and comers of the world. People became enlightened and progressive.

5. The major literary works of this period were the following:
Dante’s Divine Comedy. Machiavelli’s The Prince, Sir Thomas More’s Utopia, John Milton’s Paradise Lost, and Paradise Regained, Shakespeare’s numerous Comedies, Tragedies, and Plays, Cervantes’ Don Quixote, etc.

Question 7.
What were the contributions of renaissance to Art and Architecture?
Answer:
The Renaissance art and architecture was humanistic and realistic. It had a new and independent outlook, came out of the clutches of the Church and became secular. Art, in particular, came closer to human life. The ‘Gothic Architecture’ which was a mixture of Greek, Roman, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian styles developed during the Renaissance. It consisted of large arches and domes, tall pillars and beautiful decorations. The structures were generally built in stone. Large Palaces, Churches, Monasteries and Public buildings were built. The famous Architects of the period were Alberti, Monetti, Brumeleschi, Brumante and Michael Angelo.

The important architectural and sculptural examples of Renaissance period are as follows,

  1. Rome – The Medici and the Farnese Palaces
  2. London – The Palace of Pope Julius III
  3. Florence – The Pitti Palace
  4. London-The Banquet House in Whitehall
  5. London – St. Paul’s Cathedral
  6. Rome – St. Peter’s Cathedral
  7. Venice – St. Mark’s Cathedral
  8. Spain – Piccolomini Palace
  9. Venice – Doyage Palace
  10. Vatican – Sistine Chapel.

Sculpture :
During Renaissance, sculpture was much encouraged. The famous Sculptors of the Renaissance period were Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello, Michael Angelo, and Albrecht Durer.

The following are their contributions.

  1. Lorenzo Ghiberti- the carvings of the doors of the Baptistery at Florence.
  2. Donatello- ‘Statue of St. George’ in Florence, ‘Statue of St. Mark’ in Venice.
  3. Michael Angelo- The statues of‘The David’, ‘The Moses’, ‘ThePieta’and ‘JheBounded Slave’. He also designed the Dome of the Church of St. Peter at Rome.
  4. Albrecht Durer- ‘The Knight and Death’and‘St. Jerome in his study’.

Paintings :
The greatest glory of the Renaissance were its paintings. They were made on canvas, glass, wood or other materials. The technique of oil painting was mastered. Titian was. Popular for using bright colours. Popes, Kings and rich Merchants gave generous patronage to painting. The Florentine School to which Leonardo da Vinci, Michel Angelo, and Raphael belonged, became a great centre of painting. They were able to develop their genius fully. without being restricted or controlled by the rigid rules of the Church. They made a humanistic and secular approach and produced highly artistic and life-like paintings.

The important painters and their works were as follows

  1. Leonardo da Vinci- ‘The Last Supper’,‘The Mona Lisa’, ‘Virgin of the Rocks’, ‘The Virgin and Child’, ‘Head of the woman’, ‘Madonna Litta’, etc.
  2. Michael Angelo- ‘The Last Judgement’, ‘The Creation of Adam’, ‘Day and Night’, ‘Dawn and Sunset’ etc.
  3. Sanzio Raphael- ‘Sistine Madonna’.
  4. Titian- ‘The Assumption of the virgin’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Give an account to the Scientific progress during the Renaissance.
Answer:
Renaissance encouraged the development of science. Especially in science, observation and experimentations were included. Several great Scientists contributed much to the progress of L Science in several fields – Physics, Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography, and Chemistry.

In 1500, Jackot Nufer (Swiss) carried out the first successful caesarean operation. Roger Bacon succeeded in discovering many uses for gun powder and the magnifying lens. Leonardo, da Vinci (Italy) invented the ‘Parachute’ in 1480. He produced the diagram of a ‘Flying machine’, which inspired the invention of the Aeroplane later.

Nicholas Copernicus (Poland) made progress in the study of Astronomy. He propounded the ‘Helio-Centric Theory’ as opposed r to the Ptolemaic ‘Geo-Centric theory’. He affirmed the principle that “The earth is round and it moves round the Sun, which is the centre of our planetary system”.

John Kepler (Germany) improved upon the theory of Copernicus. He proved that “The planets including the Earth revolve around the Sun in Elliptical orbits and not in Circles as indicated by Copernicus”. Hans Lipperhey (Germany) invented the ‘Telescope’ in 1608. Galileo (Italy) r explained the Copernicus theory. He improved the Telescope. He observed mountains on the Moon surface and rings around the Saturn through the Telescope.

He declared that the world is controlled by natural laws. He discovered ‘Thermometer’, ‘Barometer’ and ‘Pendulum’. Sir Isaac Newton (England) proposed the ‘Laws of Gravitation’ govern ing the motions of the Planets around the Sun and the Moon around the Earth. William Harvey (England) elucidated the ‘Blood circulation’.

He explained how blood circulates from the heart through arteries to the various parts of the body and comes back to the heart through veins. John Gutenberg (Germany) set up the first Printing press on a large scale in Germany in 1440.

Question 9.
Describe the results of the Renaissance.
Answer:
Results of Renaissance:

  1. Renaissance brought about a transition from blind faith to reason and science.
  2. Renaissance created a new outlook on life. It stimulated the spirit of enquiry, criticism, and experimentation.
  3. Renaissance Scholars and Writers boldly and openly expressed their new ideas, which went against the teachings of the Church. The secular outlook and individualism began to spread.
  4. By the Renaissance influence, medieval superstitions were shattered and men became bold and adventurous, thus becoming interested in geographical explorations.
  5. The ideas of individualism gained due importance during Renaissance. New learning emphasis was laid upon the freedom and dignity of man as an individual, allowing him to develop his talents and faculties.
  6. Renaissance gave a marked stimulus to the growth of vernacular literature.
  7. One other important feature of Renaissance was the growth of Humanism.
  8. The new spirit of Renaissance was responsible for the remarkable scientific progress.
  9. Renaissance brought about great changes in life of the people in different fields like political, intellectual, economic and religious fields.
  10. People also started questioning some of the doctrines of Christianity and the corrupt practices. This new outlook resulted in a religious revolution in the Catholic Church that is known as the Reformation.
  11. Monarchy was strengthened due to the dawn of Renaissance. It led to the rise of the Spirit of National Consciousness in several countries.

Question 10.
What were the causes for Reformation?
Answer:
The main causes for the Reformation are as follows:

1. Religious causes or existence of abuses:
Reformation began with the rebellion against the abuses of the Church. The Popes, who claimed to be the representatives of God, neglected their religious duties. The Church was ready to sacrifice moral and spiritual values for the sake of money. The Clergy became corrupt and idle and naturally, the Church lost its early purity. The principles like simplicity and forgiveness preached by Jesus were completely forgotten. The anger against such evils was one of the chief causes for the Reformation.

2. Intellectual causes:
The spirit of enquiry and criticism generated by the Renaissance intellectuals like John Wycliffe and others resulted in protests against the abuses by the Church and the corrupt practices of the Clergy. They demanded the purification of the Church organization. They challenged the supremacy of the Pope and declared that the Pope was not the representative of God and every Christian’ should be guided only by the Bible.

3. Political causes:
The Roman Catholic Church claimed the spiritual and temporal power over the States of Europe. Kings and people opposed the political power enjoyed by the Church. The growth of nationalism led to the establishment of National Churches with Kings as their heads. They felt that the Church should take interest only in the religious, spiritual and moral domains. They wanted to restrict the power of the Church and these political circumstances prompted reformation.

4. Economic causes:
The Roman Church-owned vast lands, money and property. Church property was exempted from all taxes, but the common people were burdened with various taxes, fees, and fines. The Church claimed that the wealth of the Church was the wealth of God and Kings had no rights to tax on Church property.

5. Sale of indulgences:
The immediate cause of the Reformation was the sale of indulgences by Pope Leo-X, who was badly in need of money for the rebuilding of the St. Peter’s Church at Rome. Church regardless of all the criticism levelled against it continued to collect money in various ways. Pope Leo-X sent his agent, John Tetzel to Germany to sell indulgences.

Indulgences were certificates issued by the Pope for money, exempting the people from receiving punishment for their sins. Brokers and Bankers were appointed to sell them and were paid commissions. Martin Luther opposed this sale in his famous 95 points and nailed them to the Church door at Wittenberg. He began to question the Pope and the doctrines.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Write about Counter-Reformation.
Answer:
The religious upheaval in the 16th century gave rise to Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism and the radical sects. The rapid spread of Protestantism alarmed the Catholics and they felt the urgency to check further damage to the Catholic Church. They demanded Reformation from within and the movement came to be known as Counter-Reformation.

The attitude of the Popes changed. They took firm steps to check the spread of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic Church made efforts to win back the Protestant-dominated countries, to the Roman obedience. A concerted Counter-Reformation Movement was launched with the four-fold purpose of punishing, reforming, converting and rendering social service. The inquisition was to punish, the Council of Trent was to introduce reforms and the Society of Jesus was to render service to God and Society.

1. The inquisition:
was a Roman Catholic Court formed for conducting inquiry into cases of heresy and meting out punishments to those who were found guilty? The guilty were excommunicated and given over to the civil arm for punishment, which included torturing and execution by burning. They issued a strict code of conduct to be followed by the Church officials. The inquisition was first established in Spain and they were set up to deal with the non-Catholics and to put down heresy.

2. The Council of Trent:(1545 – 1563 A.D).
The Catholic Church held a General Council at Trent in north Italy, convened by Charles V in 1545 A.D. Its main purpose as clearly defined by the doctrines of the Church, was to remove some of the abuses and to restore unity in the Catholic Church. The Council condemned the sale of Church offices and bade the clergy to strictly adhere to clerical duties. It also banned the sale of indulgences.

3. Society of Jesus in 1540:
The Counter-Reformation Movement was bolstered by the formation of several new religious orders. The most popular of these was the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish knight of Noble descent. He inspired a large team of selfless, educated and disciplined priests to serve God and Christianity. They were known as Jesuits. They took the vows of simplicity, chastity, obedience, service and spreading Catholicism.

Question 12.
Describe the results of Reformation.
Answer:
The results of the Reformation are as follows:

1. Reformation destroyed the unity of the Christian Church by the establishment of the Protestant Church.

2. The medieval religious tradition and superstitious beliefs were rejected. The leaders of this Movement also rejected the supreme authority of the Church and accepted the authorities of the true Bible.

3. Reformation freed the Kings of Europe from the control of the Pope. It gave birth to secular states.

4. Reformation led to reforms within the Catholic Church and also a much clearer statement of Christian doctrines.

5. It had a great economic effect. The properties of the Church were confiscated by the Protestant Nobles and Princes, which made them powerful. This wealth was utilised for the economic development and as a result, money lenders, bankers, and financiers secured a high status.

6. It had a great effect on the development of national literature. The translation of the Bible into the vernacular languages spread the knowledge of scriptures among the common people.

7. The religious clashes between the Catholics and the Protestants caused much bloodshed, death, and destruction. It finally gave birth to secular States as the only way for national integration. European Kings adopted religious tolerance.

8. It gave further stimulus to the growth of the spirit of nationalism.

1st PUC History Beginning of Modem Age Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Describe the causes and results of Geographical explorations.
Answer:
The causes of geographical exploration are as follows:

1. Fall of Constantinople:
The trade route between the East and the West was through Constantinople and when in 1453 A.D. the Ottoman Turks captured it, they closed the land route to the East and also indulged in looting the merchants. As the Europeans depended entirely upon the East for the supply of spices and other luxury goods, it necessitated them to discover a new trade route, possibly through the Sea.

2. The travellers’ accounts or romantic writings:
The accounts of travellers, who ventured into the East, aroused the curiosity of the Europeans. Italian travellers like Nicola Polo and Marco Polo (1254-1324A.D) were successful in reaching China. Marco Polo wrote a vivid account of his travels to Mongolia, India, and China. Friar John of Plano Carpini, a Franciscan Monk reached Mongolia and had written about the Mongols in the thirteenth century. William Bubruquis and others in their accounts have narrated their thrilling experiences. Since then, the curiosity and spirit of adventure enabled the Europeans to reach far off lands not only by land but also by sea.

3. Demand for commodities:
There was a great demand in Europe for Asian commodities like spices – pepper, ginger, clove, cardamom, etc. Muslin, Silk,.Pearls, Ivory and Precious stones were also in demand. It was a lucrative trade. Europeans were eager to improve their standard of living by earning more. This was possible by enlarging commercial contacts with the Eastern countries. The discovery of new lands and sea routes opened them avenues for earning huge profits. Many adventurous sailors and traders too risked their lives to fulfill their ambitions.

4. Geographical knowledge:
This also led to the discovery of new sea routes and lands. In the 14th century, travellers and sailors had the advantage of access to several books on travel, like ‘A Merchant’s Handbook’ by Francesco Balducci, and ‘Secrets of the Faithful Crusader by Marino Sanudo. Myths like the earth being flat, seas filled with terrible monsters, the tropical portion of Africa being blazing hot and surrounded by boiling water, etc. were proved false with the new knowledge on Geography. This made people less wary of travelling to these new places.

5. Spread of Christianity:
Kings, Nobles, and Missionaries were very enthusiastic to spread Christianity in the new lands. Hence the Kings of Spain and Portugal encouraged explorations and the Missionaries took up the cause to spread Christianity.

6. Efforts of Prince Henry:
The training school of Navigation started by Prince Henry of Portugal gave the necessary training to sailors, geographers, map makers, and shipbuilders.

7. Other causes:
The invention of the printing press, mariner’s compass, new maps, and Establishment of Banks and Joint Stock Companies also encouraged the navigators. Patronage by Kings also went far in the field of geographical discoveries.

Results of the Geographical discoveries:

The geographical discoveries had a great impact on the political, economic, social, religious f and cultural history of the world. The circumnavigation of the earth by Magellan proved that the earth is round.

Venice, Genoa, Florence, etc were important trading centres of Europe. But now, they lost their importance because of the emergence of new cities like London, Lisbon, Amsterdam, etc. This was mainly due to the discovery of new trade routes.

The Kings sent missionaries into the explored territories to spread Christianity. Hence newly Christianity entered into Asia, Africa, and America and became a world religion. The Geographical discoveries gave a large scope for the spread of the Christian religion by converting the natives.

The explorations brought the support of the rich merchants and the middle classes to monarchy. This support enabled stable monarchies at England, Spain, France, etc.

The Geographical discoveries ensured competition among the European nations. The competition was mainly to have trade contacts with the newly discovered lands and subsequently have trade Monopoly. They became aggressive and ruthless to realize these goals. Commercial revolution took place by promoting trade and industry. Commerce underwent a remarkable change as regards to quality, quantity, and kind of goods carried, routes, newer markets, and methods. Joint Stock Companies and Banks were established and insurance of ships and goods was introduced, to safeguard against losses.

Discovery of new lands encouraged Slave trading, Shipbuilding, Banking, and Commerce. It also helped Renaissance and Reformation. The discoveries increased men’s knowledge about the world and this, in turn, led to the expansion of their mind. Exposure to the new worlds, interaction with new people and new modes of life, dispelled the funny and blind notions of medieval ignorance. This gave a tremendous impact to the intellectual revolution introduced by Renaissance.

As a result of these discoveries, Europe came in touch with the rest of the world and European culture spread to those lands. This contact helped them to enrich their knowledge. The discovery of new worlds offered a good opportunity for the freedom-loving people of different countries to migrate and improve their social, economic and political status. It encouraged scientific exploration and research and overall the living standards of people rose.

One of the ugliest effects of geographical discoveries was the birth of imperialism by the European powers. Europeans reached the coasts of the countries of Asia, Africa, America and Australia for establishing trade links. Eventually, they stayed there as masters and these countries were turned into colonies.

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Question 2.
Explain the causes and results of Renaissance.
Answer:
Causes of the Renaissance:

1. Renaissance scholars or the rise of new ideas:
The teachings of the medieval age were not ‘progressive as the Church controlled all activities of the people. Religious beliefs, political principles, and social standards were all stagnant in this period. There were all round discontentments and the time was ripe for a major upheaval and people started questioning the authority of the Church.

2. The capture of Constantinople in 1453:
In 1453, Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and forced the Greek and Latin Scholars to flee to Italy. The encouraging and peaceful conditions in Italy helped the study of classical literature and the birth of Renaissance.

3. Geographical exploration:
Medieval age Europeans came out off religious restrictions ” and superstitious ideas were shattered. People became bold and adventurous. The geographical discoveries not only brought great wealth but also expanded their knowledge. Coming in contact with other cultures brought them new ideas, thoughts, and knowledge. Thinkers began to give importance to Reason, Observation and Experimentation. This prepared the ground for a great cultural revolution.

4. Patronage of Kings, Popes, and Nobles:
When the Greek and Latin scholars fled to Italy and other European countries along with their books and manuscripts, King, Popes, Nobles and the rich Merchants patronised these scholars. European people got exposed to Classical Art, Architecture and Learning and interest in these grew all over.

5. Nation-state idea:
In the age of new learning, emphasis was laid upon the freedom and dignity of man as an individual. With the dawn of the new spirit, City-States lost their significance and the idea of Nation States took shape. As feudalism collapsed, the Monarchs were interested in the welfare of their subjects and gave importance to Classical literature and Education in general.

6. The invention of Printing Press:
This was the chief factor in spreading new ideas and thoughts across the multitude. Printing helped the tremendous development of European civilization and culture. Production of books on varied subjects stimulated a general desire for literacy.

Results of Renaissance:

  1. Renaissance brought about a transition from blind faith to reason and science.
  2. Renaissance created a new outlook on life. It stimulated the spirit of enquiry, criticism, and experimentation.
  3. Renaissance Scholars and Writers boldly and openly expressed their new ideas, which went against the teachings of the Church. The secular outlook and individualism began to spread.
  4. By the Renaissance influence, medieval superstitions were shattered and men became bold and adventurous, thus becoming interested in geographical explorations,
  5. The ideas of individualism gained due importance during Renaissance. New learning emphasis was laid upon the freedom and dignity of man as an individual, allowing him to develop his talents and faculties.
  6. Renaissance gave a marked stimulus to the growth of vernacular literature.
  7. One other important feature Of Renaissance was the growth of Humanism.
  8. The new spirit of Renaissance was responsible for the remarkable scientific progress.
  9. Renaissance brought about great changes in the life of the people in different fields like political, intellectual, economic and religious fields.
  10. People also started questioning some of the doctrines of Christianity and the corrupt practices. This new outlook resulted in a religious revolution in the Catholic Church that ’ is known as the Reformation.
  11. Monarchy was strengthened due to the dawn of Renaissance. It led to the rise of the Spirit of National Consciousness in several countries.

Question 3.
Describe the Cultural contributions of Renaissance.
Answer:
The Renaissance Architecture was humanistic and realistic. The ‘Gothic Architecture’ which was a mixture of Greek, Roman, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian styles developed during the Renaissance. It consisted of large arches and domes, tall pillars and beautiful decorations. During the medieval ages, art was dominated by the Christian Church. The Renaissance spirit affected all forms of art. Artists of that age displayed more courage and what distinguished their creations was more freedom of expression; simplicity, realism, and love Of nature. Renaissance spread the spirit of enquiry, investigation, and criticism.

The discovery of new lands, new routes and new knowledge about the shape of earth and investigation of astronomers, etc. disproved certain long-held erroneous beliefs. Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), Astronomer of Poland proposed the Heliocentric theory. John Kepler (1570-1630) a German Scientist supported the hypothesis of Copernicus and laid the foundation of mathematical astronomy. He stated that “The Planets revolved round the Sun not in circles, but in elliptical orbits”.

1. Humanism :
The Renaissance Scholars began to take deep interest in the study of humans and their achievements. The humanists promoted rational and humanistic approach. They tried to bring learning into close relation with life. The main idea of this movement was the cultivation of the human personality. Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Cicero, Martin Luther, and Nicholas-II were noted, humanists.

2. Renaissance Art and Architecture:
The Renaissance Architecture was humanistic and realistic. The ‘Gothic Architecture’ which was a mixture of Greek, Roman, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian styles developed during the Renaissance. It consisted of large arches and domes, tall pillars and beautiful decorations.

3. New approach:
In the medieval age, religious belief, political principles and social standards were all stagnant. Enlightened thinkers like Peter Abelard, Roger Bacon, John Wycliffe, and others challenged those views, and boldly and openly expressed their new ideas.

4. Renaissance scholars or the rise of new ideas:
The teachings of the medieval age were not progressive. The Church controlled all the activities of the people. Religious beliefs, ‘ political principles and social standards were all stagnant in this period. The Renaissance scholars came up with rational thinking and revolutionary ideas which completely changed the way of people’s approach to situations and expanded their narrow vision.

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Question 4.
Explain the causes and results of Reformation.
Answer:
Causes for the reformation are as follows:

1. Religious causes or existence or abuses:
Reformation began with the rebellion against the abuses of the church. The Popes, who claimed to be representatives of God, neglected their religious duties. The Church was ready to sacrifice moral and spiritual values for the sake of money. The clergy became corrupt and idle and naturally, the Church lost its early purity. The principles like simplicity and forgiveness preached by Jesus were completely forgotten. The anger against such evils was one of the chief causes for the Reformation.

2. Intellectual causes:
The spirit of enquiry and criticism generated by the Renaissance intellectuals like John Wycliffe and others resulted in protests against the abuses by the Church and corrupt practices of the Clergy. They demanded the purification of the Church organization. They challenged the supremacy of the Pope and declared that the Pope was not the representative of God and every Christian should be guided by the Bible.

3. Political causes:
The Roman Catholic Church claimed the spiritual and temporal power over the States of Europe. Kings and people opposed the political power enjoyed by the Church. The growth of nationalism led to the establishment of National Churches with Kings as their heads. They felt that the Church should take interest only in the religious, spiritual and moral domains. They wanted to restrict the power of the Church and these political circumstances prompted reformation.

4. Economic causes:
The Roman Church-owned vast lands, money and property. Church property was exempted from all taxes, but the common people were burdened with various taxes, fees, and fines. The Church claimed that the wealth of the Church was the wealth of God and Kings had no rights to tax on church property.

5. Sale of indulgences:
The immediate cause of the Reformation was the sale of indulgences by Pope Leo-X, who was badly in need of money for the rebuilding of the St. Peters Church at Rome. Church regardless of all the criticism levelled against it continued to collect money in various ways. Pope Leo-X sent his agent, John Tetzel to Germany to sell indulgences. Indulgences were certificates issued by the Pope for money, exempting the people from receiving punishment for their sins. Brokers and Bankers were appointed to sell them and were paid commissions. Martin Luther opposed this sale in his famous 95 points and nailed them to the Church door at Wittenberg. He began to question the Pope and the doctrines.

Reformation produced far-reaching results. The following ones are noteworthy.

  1. Reformation destroyed the unity of the Christian Church by the establishment of the Protestant Church.
  2. The medieval religious tradition and superstitious beliefs were rejected. The leaders of this movement also rejected the supreme authority of the church accepted the authorities of the true Bible.
  3. Reformation freed the Kings of Europe from the control of pope. It gave birth to secular states.
  4. Reformation led to reforms in the Catholic Church and also a much clearer statement of Christian doctrines.
  5. It had a great economic effect. The properties of the Church were confiscated by the Protestant Nobles and Princes, making them powerful. This wealth was utilised for the economic development and as a result, money lenders, bankers, and financiers earned a high status.
  6. It had a great effect on the development of national literature. The translation of the Bible into the vernacular languages spread the knowledge of scriptures among the common people.
  7. The religious clashes between the Catholics and the Protestants caused much bloodshed, death, and destruction. It finally gave birth to secular States as the only way for national integration. European Kings adopted religious tolerance.
  8. It had further stimulus to the growth of the spirit of nationalism.

Question 5.
Describe the role of Martin Luther in the Reformation movement.
Answer:
Reformation began in Germany and its leader Martin Luther was born atEiselben in 1483A.D in a poor German peasant family. Luther studied theology, law, and humanism at the University of Erfurt in 1508 A.D. He was always haunted with the question, “how to please God?” He seriously studied the Bible and the works of St. Paul and St. Augustine. He became a Professor of Theology in the University of Wittenberg. Luther strongly believed that man could get salvation only through God’s mercy but the Church preached that it possessed the means of salvation. He rejected the doctrine of good work.

He visited Rome in 1511 A.D and was shocked at the worldliness of the Pope and the corrupt and immoral life led by the clergy. He did not to tolerate the corrupt practices of the Church. In 1517, Pope Leo-X sent out several agents to dispense indulgences in order to collect funds to complete St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. They spread the belief that indulgences were passports to heaven. One of these agents, John Tetzel was selling indulgences as passports to Heaven.

1. Luther’s opposition:
Luther wrote his objection against the Church practices and Pope’s authority in Latin. He prepared his objections in the form of ‘95 Theses’ and posted them on the door of the Church in Wittenberg. Thereupon Luther started a rebellious Movement against the abuses of the Church. This popular revolt came to be known as the Protestant Movement. Luther questioned the authority of Pope and challenged the concept of infallibility. As a result of these activities, the Pope ordered Emperor Charles-V to take action against Luther. In 1521 Charles-V summoned the Diet of Worms and ordered Luther to appear before the Diet to justify the charges made against the Pope. In the Diet of Worms, Luther was excommunicated by the Pope.

He was expelled from the Church and was branded a heretic. Martin Luther established the ‘Lutheran National Church’ which rejected indulgences and worship of Saints. Bible was regarded as the sole source of religion. The struggle between Catholics and Protestants ended with the ‘Peace of Augsburg’ treaty in 1555. Lutheranism spread to many countries of Europe and Calvinism and Anglicanism also rose against the Roman Catholic Church.

Spread of Protestant (Lutheranism) faith.

1. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531):
He was an eminent Protestant Reformer and leader of the movement in Switzerland. He was called as the Swiss Luther. He also denied Papal authority and insisted that the Bible was the only guide to faith and morals, he popularized Protestantism in Switzerland.

2. John Calvin (1509-1564) and Calvinism:
John Calvin was a French reformer. His teachings are to be found in his book ‘Institutes of the Christian Religion’. He popularized the ideas of Luther. In Geneva, he set up the Calvinist Church and insisted on the strict enforcement of moral discipline. He advocated that the Church and the State must be separated. His followers in France came to be called Huguenots.

3. King Henry-Vin (1509-1547) and Anglicanism:
He established an independent Church in England. He became the head of both the Church and the State. He proclaimed himself as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

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