1st PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 3 Basic Political Concepts

You can Download Chapter 3 Basic Political Concepts Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Political Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 3 Basic Political Concepts

1st PUC Political Science Basic Political Concepts One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is Sovereignty?
Answer:
Sovereignty is the supreme power of the state.

Question 2.
Which is the most essential element of the state?
Answer:
Sovereignty is the most essential element of the state.

Question 3:
Which is the root word of sovereignty?
Answer:
The word sovereignty has been derived from the Latin word ‘ Superanus’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
What are the two kinds of Sovereignty?
Answer:
Internal and External Sovereignty.

Question 5.
Who introduced (aspects) the sovereignty in the modern sense?
Answer:
Jean Bodin introduced Sovereignty in the modem sense.

Question 6.
Name the book written by Jean Bodin.
Answer:
The book written by Jean Bodin is “Six books on the republic”.

Question 7.
Who was the proponent of internal sovereignty?
Answer:
Badin advocated Internal Sovereignty.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Who was the proponent of external sovereignty?
Answer:
Hugo Grotius was the proponent of external sovereignty.

Question 9.
Define Law.
Answer:
According to Holland ‘Law is a general rule of external human action enforced by sovereign political authority. ’

Question 10.
What is the root word of law?
Answer:
The term law has been derived from the Teutonic root ‘lag’, means something fixed.

Question 11.
What is the basic of moral law?
Answer:
Moral law is based on ethical code of morality of the people.

Question 12.
What is the other name of municipal law?
Answer:
National law is the other name of municipal law.

Question 13.
What is ordinance and who promulgates it?
Answer:
Ordinance are executive orders which promulgates by the president when parliament is not in session.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
What is administrative law?
Answer:
A law which deals with civil service matters is called administrative law.

Question 15.
Who enacts laws in India?
Answer:
Parliament enacts laws in India.

Question 16.
What is meant by Liberty?
Answer:
It means the freedom of the individual.

Question 17.
What is the root word of liberty?
Answer:
The root word of liberty is the Latin word; Liber’ which means free.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Which revolution upheld the ideals of liberty equality and fraternity?
Answer:
France Revolution (1789) uphelds the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity.

Question 19.
What is Equality?
Answer:
It means equalization of opportunities.

Question 20.
What are Economic rights?
Answer: The rights enable every citizens to earn their livelihood.

Question 21.
What is meant by constitutional law.
Answer:
It is the basic law that determines the organization and functions of the government.

Question 22.
What is case law?
Answer:
Case law is a law made by courts.

Question 23.
What are the two aspects of liberty?
Answer:
Negative and Positive aspects.

Question 24.
What is natural liberty?
Answer:
It means unrestricted freedom of the individual to do what he likes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
What is political liberty?
Answer:
Political liberty means the right of the people to participate in the governance of the country.

Question 26.
What is National Liberty?
Answer:
It is the freedom of the nation from outside control.

Question 27.
What is a Civil Liberty?
Answer:
It is liberty available to the citizens inside society or state.

Question 28.
What is Economic Liberty?
Answer:
It is the freedom of the individual to earn his livelihood.

Question 29.
What is Natural Equality?
Answer:
It means by nature all are equal.

Question 30.
What is Civil Equality?
Answer:
It means equality before the law.

Question 31.
What is political equality?
Answer:
It means equal rights to participate in the affairs of the state.

Question 32.
What is Economic Equality?
Answer:
It means the removal of all inequalities and equal distribution of wealth.

Question 33.
What is Social Equality?
Answer:
It means there should be no discrimination on the basis of birth or family background.

Question 34.
What are Rights?
Answer:
Rights are the freedom given to individuals to do and undo certain things with status permission.

Question 35.
What is Moral Right?
Answer:
They are based on an ethical code of morality of the people. It is not enforced by state law.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 36.
What is duty?
Answer:
It is an obligation to do or not to do something.

1st PUC Political Science Basic Political Concepts Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define sovereignty.
Answer:
According to Burgess “Sovereignty is original, absolute and unlimited power over the individual and all associations”.

Question 2.
What are the two aspects of sovereignty?
Answer:

  1. Internal sovereignly.
  2. External sovereignty.

Question 3.
Define law.
Answer:
According to Holland “Law is a general rule of external human action enforced by a sovereign political authority.

Question 4.
Mention different kinds of law.
Answer:
There are different kinds of law the important among them are: National law, International law, constitutional law, common law, ordinary law, and administrative law, etc.,

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
What is the meaning of liberty?
Answer:
Liberty’ is the power of a man to do anything that does not injure others.

Question 6.
Mention any two economic liberties.
Answer:

  1. Right to work
  2.  Right to adequate wages.

Question 7.
What is right?
Answer:
Right is a facility given by the legal authority7 to develop the individual personality of the citizens.

Question 8.
Mention any two political rights.
Answer:

  1. Right to vote.
  2. Right to contest for election.

Question 9.
What is National Law?
Answer:
It is formulated by the state legislature and it is binding on all the people within the territory of the state.

Question 10.
Write the meaning of ordinances.
Answer:
Ordinances are the executive laws which promulgates by the president to meet the unforeseen situations when parliament is not in session.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
What is administrative law?
Answer:
A law which deals with the civil service matter and comes under administrative tribunals is called administrative law.

Question 12.
What is rule of law?
Answer:
A system in which administration carried on in accordance with the law is called rule of law.

Question 13.
What is internal sovereignty?
Answer:
A state is empower to enact, enforce and interpret the laws with in its jurisdiction is called internal sovereignty.

Question 14.
What is external sovereignty?
Answer:
A state is independent from other states and can have foreign policy with its neighbouring states is called external sovereignty.

Question 15.
Define rights.
Answer:
According to Bosanquet “A right is a claim recognised by the society and enforced by the state”.

Question 16.
Name any two political rights.
Answer:

  1. Right to vote.
  2. Right to contest for election.

Question 17.
What is equality?
Answer:
Facilities are provided to all the persons without any discrimination is called equality.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Mention the types of Liberty.
Answer:

  1. Natural Liberty.
  2. Civil Liberty.
  3. Political Liberty.
  4. Economic Liberty.

Question 19.
Describe in brief the natural equality.
Answer:
All men are said to be born equal. This is natural equality. Human beings differ in their natural abilities and faculties.

Question 20.
What are the attributes of sovereignty?
Answer:
Absoultenegs permanence, universality, indivisibility exclusiveness originality are the attributes of sovereignty.

Question 21.
Mention types of Liberty.
Answer:
Natural Liberty, Civil Liberty, Political Liberty, Economic Liberty, National Liberty.

Question 22.
Explain Sovereignty.
Answer:
It is one of the most important elements of the sate. Bodin for the first time discussed sovereignty in the modem sense. It is the supreme power of the state.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 23.
How Sovereignty is absolute?
Answer:
The sovereignty of the state is absolute means it is subject to no legal limitations either internally or externally without this absolute power no state can exist.

Question 24.
What do you mean by sovereignty is indivisible?
Answer:
Indivisible means sovereignty can’t be divided. Division of sovereignty means destruction of sovereignty.

Question 25.
What do you mean by sovereignty is inalienable?
Answer:
It means sovereignty can’t be transferred. It cannot transferred to another, authority.

Question 26.
What is International Law?
Answer:
International law is a law that governs by a sovereign authority. It depends upon the acceptance and obedience of sovereign states.

Question 27.
What are the kinds of equality?
Answer:
Civil equality, Political Equality, Social Equality, National Equality, Economic Equality etc.,

Question 28.
What is Secular State?
Answer:
It is a state where there is religious freedom, and the state does not interfere with individuals’ religious matters.

Question 29.
What is legal sovereignty?
Answer:
Sovereignty according to law is known as legal sovereignty. Legal soveregin is the lawers concept of sovereignty. The authority, a person or body of persons which has power to issue and enforce the laws of state.

Question 30.
What is constitutional law?
Answer:
It is basic and fundamental law of country, it determines the organization and functions of government out in written or unwritten form.

Question 31.
What are Legal Rights?
Answer:
Legal rights are the rights which have a legal binding and are protected and recognised by state.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 32.
Write two fundamental duties of Indian Citizen.
Answer:

  1. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
  2. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

Question 33.
Mention two features of Law.
Answer:

  1. Law mirrors the wishes of the people.
  2. Law is coercive and disobedience of law invites punishment.

Question 34.
What is ordinary law?
Answer:
Laws that are made by the parliament is called ordinary law.

1st PUC Political Science Basic Political Concepts Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the features of sovereignty.
Answer:
Jean Bodin – who was the first to explain the concept of sovereignty said: “Sovereignty is the supreme power over citizens and subjects unrestrained by law.”

According to Hugo Grotius:
“Sovereignty is the supreme power vested in him whose acts are not subjected to any other who will can’t be can overridden.”

Characteristics of Sovereignty:

a. Permanent:
Sovereignty is permanent. Every state is sovereign it is accordingly permanent. The death of the rules or the change in government doesn’t mean any change in sovereign power. It comes to an end when the state is destroyed or is conquered and ruled by some external power.

b. Universality:
Sovereignty embraces each and every person and every association within the territory of the state. No individual or association in the state can disobey the sovereign authority of the state.

c. Sovereignty can’t be transferred:
The state has no right to give away its sovereignty. When a state loses or has to give up a part of the territory and population to another state, that part comes under the control of that state.

d. Indivisible:
Sovereignty can’t be divided. Division of sovereignty leads to the destruction of sovereignty.

e. Absoluteness:
Sovereignty is absolute. There can be no legal power within the state, superior to it. All individuals, associations come under the absolute power of the state. The state is completely independent.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Write a note on economic liberty.
Answer:
Without economic liberty, other liberty, other liberty are meaningless and useless. It means liberty of security and opportunities to find reasonable significance in the livelihood.

Question
3. Discuss kinds of equality.
Answer:
1. Natural Equality:
It implies that nature has created all men equal. It can also be defined that it insists on removing all man-made and artificial inequalities and treat all equally.

2. Civil and legal Equality:
Implies that all are equal before law and all are protected equally irrespective of caste, class, colour, race, etc.,

3. Political Equality:
Implies that all the citizens, irrespective any type of difference are entitled to participate in the affairs of state. All have equal voice in the government. It is based on principle of universal adult Franchise.

4. Economic Equality:
Implies removal of inequalities based on wealth and insists on certain minimum standard of income to all to meet their basic needs.

5. Social Equality:
Implies every individual without any discrimination must be given equal opportunity for the development of their personalities.

Question 4.
Explain the kinds of Law?
Answer
1. Natural Law:
Natural law promotes individualism and contends that there should be no law s to regulate or restrict individual behavior.

2. Constitutional law:
It is the highest and fundamental law of the land, which defines the organization of the state, determines the functions of various departments and establishes the relationship between the governor and the governed.

3. Ordinary law:
It is subordinate to the constitutional law. It is made by the parliament. It determines the relationship between the state and citizens.

4. Administrative law:
It deals with regulating the activities of the government officials in relation to state authority.

5. International Law:
International law is a body of rules and regulations which the sovereign states are expected to follow, observe and honour in their interaction with one another.

6. National Law:
National law is formulated by the sovereign authority of the State applicable to all people and associations living within territorial limits or jurisdiction of the state. It is also known as municipal law.

7. Private law:
It determines the relation between citizens.

8. Public laws:
Regulates the relation between the citizens and the states.

9. Case laws:
It refers to the laws that come into existence as a result of the decisions or verdict given by the court in a particular case. The courts give their own interpretation to apply a legal provision to a particular case. Such are known as case laws.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
What are the kinds of Law? Explain.
Answer:
1. Natural Law:
Natural law promotes individualism and contends that there should be no laws to regulate or restrict individual behavior.

2. Constitutional law:
It is the highest and fundamental law of the land, which defines the organization of the state, determines the functions of various departments and establishes the relationship between the governor and the governed.

3. Ordinary law:
It is subordinate to the constitutional law. It is made by the parliament. It determines the relationship between the state and citizens.

4. Administrative law:
It deals with regulating the activities of the government officials in relation to state authority.

5. International Law:
International law is a body of rules and regulations which the sovereign states are expected to follow, observe and honour in their interaction with one another.

6. National Law:
National law is formulated by the sovereign authority of the state applicable to all people and associations living within territorial limits or jurisdiction of the state. It is also known as municipal law.

7. Private law:
It determines the relation between citizens.

8. Public laws:
Regulates the relation between the citizens and the states.

9. Case laws:
It refers to the laws that come into existence as a result of the decisions or verdict given by the court in a particular case. The courts give their own interpretation to apply a legal provision to a particular case. Such are known as case laws.

Question 6.
Write the relation between liberty and authority.
Answer:
It is sometimes said liberty and authority of the state as opposed to each other. But liberty doesn’t mean that unlimited right of a man to do whatever he likes. The liberty of one should not infringe on the freedom of others.

Freedom is secured through such rules and regulations. Political authority makes and enforces the law. Absolute authority will destroy liberty. Authority is the basis of liberty.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Explain the importance of law.
Answer:
As we live in society, we have to observe certain rules and regulations otherwise living in society will be impossible. Therefore every going out makes rules and regulations to maintain peace and order in society. The law is framed and enforced by the state to regulate the activities of citizens and to keep them within certain limits.

Question 8.
Explain the meaning of equality.
Answer:
In a literal sense, equality means that all human beings are equal. Equality doesn’t mean absolute equality. In a negative sense equality means the absence of special privileges. This means that there shall be no discriminations made on basis of caste, religion, colour, wealth, gender, etc. In a positive sense, equality means availability of adequate opportunities to all for self-development.

Question 9.
Explain characteristics of law.
Answer:

  1. It regulates the external behaviour of a man in an organised society.
  2. Laws are universally applicable.
  3. They are the expressions of the will of the state & laid down in precise & definite language.
  4. Laws are enforced by the state.
  5. Freaking of laws invite punishment. Laws aimed at ensuring and enhancing the individuals and general well being of the people.

Question 10.
Write the feature of liberty.
Answer:

  1. Liberty means the absence of restraint on freedom of thought speech and action.
  2. Liberty without any restraint is a license.
  3. It means political freedom as opposed to political slavery.
  4. In its positive aspect, it is the freedom to do a thing.
  5. In its negative aspect, it means restraints on doing something.
  6. Liberty can be safeguarded only in the state.
  7. Liberty means freedom individual to do what he likes without injuring similar liberty of others.

Question 11.
Explain what is political liberty.
Answer:
Political liberty means to be active in the affairs of the state. It can only be possible when the government is carried on in accordance with the will of the people. Political Liberty can be attained by the exercise of the four main rights.

  1. Right to vote.
  2. Right to contest in the election.
  3. Right to criticize the government.
  4. Right to hold Public office.

Question12.
Write the relationship between liberty and equality.
Answer:
There are two opposite views regarding the relation between equality and liberty.
Lord Action maintained that liberty and equality are opposite to each other. But it is clear that this view is based on an interpretation of liberty as unrestricted freedom and equality as absolute equality. Hence this is wrong view.

Acc to second view, it is important to note that equality and liberty are complementary to each other. Liberty and Equality are just like two faces of same community liberty depends upon the state and laws.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
Explain different kinds of rights.
Answer:

  • Moral Rights
  • Legal Rights.
  • Civil Rights.
  • Political Rights.
  • Economic Rights.

1. Moral Rights: are those which based on the ethical code of morality of people.

2. Legal Rights: are recognised and protected by the state.

3. civil Rights: are those rights which enable the individual to lead a normal life in society.

4. Political Rights: enable a citizen to take part in the affairs of the government.

5. Economic Rights: enable citizens to earn their living.

Question 14.
What is meant by popular sovereign?
Answer:

  1. Popular sovereignty means the ultimate authority or supreme power of the state is vested in the people. In a democracy the sovereignty will be in the hands of people.
  2. Civil, Political and Economic equality is assured in a democracy, all rights are provided to every citizen without any discrimination. It ensures equality before the law.
  3. It gives importance to human personality. It recognise the worth of every individual every citizen has a voice in going out and its policies.

Question 15.
Describe two sources of law.
Answer:
Customs:
It is one of the earliest sources of law. It is the code of conduct. Habits and usage in families clans and tribes must have become well established and thus customs have been the earliest means of social regulation.

Religion:
In premitive societies custom was law was religious. Religious principles were the basis of the formation of most customs. Custom rules based on religion could not be violated. In India, Hindu law is based on the code of Manu. The Muslim law derives itself from the Quran. The influence of Christianity and the Bible in framing the laws of various western countries cannot be denied.

Question 16.
Explain negative and positive equality.
Answer:
The negative aspect, of equality, means the absence of special privileges. All barriers of birth, wealth, caste and sex should be removed in social and political life. Rights should be enjoyed – in common by all.

In its positive aspect equality means the provision of adequate opportunities for self-development to all adequate opportunities that can be given to everyone to develop the personality.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 17.
Distinguish between National and International law.
Answer:
National law is the branch of law that applies within the territory of the state. All persons living within the state shall obey national laws. Its violation is punishable international law is the law which regulates the relations of sovereign states with another.

International law has force only to the extent to which it is recognized and voluntarily accepted by the different states of the world.

Question 18.
What are the different kinds of liberty? Explain briefly.
Answer:
1. National Liberty:
It is associated with french thinker J.J. Rousseau. Acc to this type of man in the state of nature were completely free and there were no restrictions. This doesn’t exist in modem social life.

2. Civil liberty:
It is enjoyed by all the individuals in society. It consists of certain rights and privileges created and protected by the state.

3. Political Liberty:
This liberty is available only to the citizen either directly or indirectly participate in the political activities of the state. In short, a person makes or destroys the government.

4. Economic Liberty:
Without economic liberty, other liberty, other liberties are meaningless and useless. It means liberty of security and opportunities to find reasonable significance in the livelihood.

5. National Liberty:
This liberty implies the political independence of the state. All other liberties can’t be enjoyed unless the country is independent.

Question 19.
Write a note on the general duties of citizen.
Answer:
Duty is an obligation and a responsibility of a citizen. A citizen of a state is directed to discharge some functions and prohibited from certain functions. There are called as duties.
The duties are broadly divided into moral and legal duties.
The important general duties of a citizen are :

1. Loyalty to the state:
Every citizen should be loyal to his state. This includes his duty to defend the state during the war and his involvement in developmental activities, to protect and promote unity and integrity of the state.

2. Obedience to Law:
Every citizen should obey the laws as disobedience leads to confusion and disorder. The laws are made for the welfare of the citizens.

3. Payment of taxes:
Every citizen must honestly pay and promptly taxes for the economic development of the state.

4. Honest Exercise of the Right to Vote:
This enables citizens to elect going out of their choice which works for their development, welfare, security, protection, etc.,

Question 20.
Explain the political rights.
Answer:
1. Right to Vote:
All the citizens who have attained the age of 18 are eligible to vote through adult franchise without any discrimination.

2. Right to contest election:
All the citizens of a country who have attained a particular age are given the chance to contest elections and thus respect the aims and aspirations of various sections of society in government.

3. Right to Enter Government Service:
In a democracy, all the citizens are equally entitled to get government jobs on the basis of their qualifications.

4. Right to petition:
It gives an opportunity to all people to bring their problems to the notice of the government and seek remedies.

5. Right to Criticism:
It is one of the biggest boons of democracy. All citizens have the right to criticise the policies of the government.

Question 21.
What is the importance of liberty?
Answer:
1. Respect for individuals:
Liberty is essential for every individual to be at his best self, subject, to legal limitations.

2. Respect for laws:
Liberty is required to put down any kind of dominance within a civil society where all enjoy equal liberty and invasion of liberty of a person is nothing but a violation of liberty which is visited by penalty or punishment.

3.Respect for fellow being:
The fear of punishment in case of violation of the liberty of others; makes one respect the feelings of others thereby ensuring respect for fellow
beings.

4. Promotes co-operation and understanding:
Liberty ensures individuals to develop harmony, brotherhood, and understanding based on mutual necessity and co-operation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 22.
Answer:
Explain the importance of Equality.
1. Self-respect:
In the absence of discrimination, all can develop as they wish, thus ensuring respect for individual personality.

2. Promotes Co-operation:
When all are treated equal in the eyes of law, people can lead a life based on cooperation and understanding, develop harmony, which will lead to the brotherhood.

3. Prevents revolution:
When all are treated equal, they can pursue what they consider best and it would prevent revolutionary tendencies from taking over the system.

Question 23.
Explain the importance of rights.
Answer:
1. Development of personality: Rights describe the do’s and don’ts of civilized life and this helps an individual to develop his personality.

2. Symbol of national prestige: The quality Of rights in a country symbolizes the quality of its rules and people.

3. Respect for fellow beings:  Rights guarantees respect for fellow citizens.

4. Protection against government: Rights guarantees protection against government action.

Question 24.
Explain the importance of Sovereignty?
Answer:
1. Identifies the nation-state: Sovereignty has contributed to the identity and status of the nation-state.

2. Sovereignty gives freedom to the state: Sovereignty increases the freedom of nation-state, so as to decide on its domestic and foreign policy.

3. Allows progress: Sovereignty provides motivation for each nation to achieve progress.

4. Promotes nationalism: Sovereignty promotes national spirit and allows love for the nation.

5. Allows the state to exercise coercive power: Sovereignty monopolies the state internally and externally.

1st PUC Political Science Basic Political Concepts Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is the law? explain its kinds.
Answer:
1. Natural Law:
Natural law promotes individualism and contends that there should be no laws to regulate or restrict individual behavior.

2. Constitutional law:
It is the highest and fundamental law of the land, which defines the organization of the state, determines the functions of various departments and establishes the relationship between the governor and the governed.

3. Ordinary law:
It is subordinate to the constitutional law. It is made by the parliament. It determines the relationship between the state and citizens.

4. Administrative law:
It deals with regulating the activities of the government officials in relation to state authority.

5. International Law:
International law is a body of rules and regulations which the sovereign states are expected to follow, observe and honour in their interaction with one another.

6. National Law:
National law is formulated by the sovereign authority of the state applicable to all people and associations living within territorial limits or jurisdiction of the state. It is also known as municipal law.

7. Private law:
It determines the relation between citizens.

8. Public laws:
Regulates the relation between the citizens and the states.

9. Case laws:
It refers to the laws that come into existence as a result of the decisions or verdict given by the court in a particular case. The courts give their own interpretation to apply a legal provision to a particular case. Such are known as case laws.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the meaning and kinds of rights.
Answer:

  • Moral Rights
  • Legal Rights.
  • Civil Rights.
  • Political Rights.
  • Economic Rights.

1. Moral Rights: are those based on the ethical code of morality of people.

2. Legal Rights: are recognised and protected by the state.

3. civil Rights: are those rights that enable the individual to lead a normal life in society.

4. Political Rights: enable a citizen to take part in the affairs of the government.

5. Economic Rights: enable citizens to earn their living.

Question 3.
Explain the meaning and kinds of liberty.
Answer:
1. National Liberty:
It is associated with french thinker J.J. Rousseau. Acc to this type of men in the state of nature were completely free and there were no restrictions. This doesn’t exist in modern social life.

2. Civil liberty:
It is enjoyed by all the individuals in society. It consists of certain rights and privileges created and protected by the state.

3. Political Liberty:
This liberty is available only to the citizen either directly or indirectly participate in the political activities of the state. In short, a person makes or destroys the government.

4. Economic Liberty:
Without economic liberty, other liberty, other liberty are maningless and useless. It; means liberty of security and opportunities to find reasonable significance in livelihood.

5. National Liberty:
This liberty implies the political independence of the state. All other liberties can’t be enjoyed unless the country is indepent.

Question 4.
Describe the political rights.
Answer:
a. Right to Vote:
All the citizens who have attained the age of 18 are eligible to vote through adult franchise without any discrimination.

b. Right to contest election:
All the citizens of a country who have attained a particular age are given the chance to contest elections and thus respect the aims and aspirations of various sections of society in government.

c. Right to Enter Government Service:
In a democracy, all the citizens are equally entitled to get government jobs on the basis of their qualifications.

d. Right to petition:
It gives an opportunity to all people to bring their problems to the notice of the government and seek remedies.

e. Right to Criticism:
It is one of the bigget boon of democracy. All citizens have the right to criticise the policies of the government.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Explain economic rights.
Answer:
The rights which enable every citizens to earn their livelihood are called economic rights.

Following are the important economic rights.

  1. Right to work – Every person is free to work at his choice.
  2. Right to property – Every person is free to earn, enjoy and sale the property.
  3. Right to leisure – the persons who are working are permitted to enjoy leisure time during working hours.
  4. Right to material security – All the states have provided material security against old age, sickness, disability, unemployment, etc.
  5. Right to contract – All the individuals are free to enter into agreement with others within the framework of law.

Question 6.
Distinguish between legal sovereignty and political sovereignty.
Answer:
A legal sovereign is a person or body of persons in a state which is the supreme law-making authority disobedience to law result in punishment.

The characteristics are :

  • The legal sovereign is always definite and determinate.
  • It may be in the hands of a single individual or body of individuals.
  • It is legal expression of the will of the state.
  • Legal sovereign grants the rights.
  • Political sovereignty: It is the power behind the legal sovereignty.

The legal sovereign simply makes laws. The wishes of political sovereign who can’t express the will of the state. It is not so easy to define political sovereign. It is unorganized and unknown to law. Political sovereign and legal sovereign concide in direct democracy.

Dejure and Defacts Sovereignty.
Dejure:
Sovereignty means sovereignty by law. In Other words, dejure is the lawful and legitimate sovereign. It is legally constituted and has the basis and authority of law. It has legal right to govern.

Defacto:
Sovereignty is which has no legal basis because it is not recognized by law but exists on fact. Defacto comes to power usually by force. If it manages to stick to power and show that he can rule he becomes dejure sovereign.

Titular Sovereignty and Real Sovereignty.
Titular has the power but he won’t use it but somebody else will use. For eg: King or Queen of England and the President of India. The council of ministers is the real soveregin and occupy a highly dignified and privileged position in the state. In a presidential system, there is no difference because the president himself exercises his powers and functions.

Question 7.
Define Law. Explain its features.
Answer:
The word law is derived from the Teutonic word Tag’ which means something fixed.
Acc to John Austin: “a command given by a superior to an inferior.”
Accordingly to Woodrow Wilson “Law is that position of established thought and habit which . has gained distinct and formal recognition in the shape of uniform rules.”

Characteristics of law:

  • Laws regulate the external behaviour of man in an organized society.
  • Laws are universally applicable to all individuals living in the state.
  • Laws are enforced by the state.
  • Breaking of law invites punishment.
  • Ignorance of laws is accepted as a ground for the exemption from the applicant of laws.

Question 8.
Explain Civil Rights.
Answer:
1. Right to live:
All people born in society have the right to live. The main responsibility of the state is to provide security of life to the people.

2. Right to Liberty:
All the people living in the state have the right to travel freely all over the country. They can reside anywhere as they desire.

3. Right to Religion:
All the citizens have the freedom to practice or propagate any religion they want.

4. Right to Culture and Education:
All the citizens have the right to protect, develop and practice their own culture. The right to education has been granted, to enable a person to develop and improve his or her personality.

5. Right to Association:|
All the citizens have the freedom to form the different types of association as per their needs and aspirations.

6. Right to Family:
Family is an integral part of human existence. Every individual has the right to marriage, to bring up children and to continue his generation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
What are the various sources of law?
Answer:
1. Customs:
Customs is one of the earliest sources of law. It is the code of conduct observed by people in society. When the state was established, these customs received
recognition and became laws.

2. Religion:
In many countries, religion is the basis of the law and it lies as the root of many national legal systems.

3. Equity:
It refers to the principles of equality, fairness, and justice in which judges apply. When existing laws provide no relief in a particular case, judges apply the principle of equity.

4. Judicial decisions:
Judges interpret mould and extend the existing laws. Such decisions of the judges later become precedents judicial precedents supplement the law and are applied in the future cases of a similar kind.

5. Scientific commentaries:
These are scientific discussions by eminent jurists or lawyers. It is an important source of material for lawmakers.

6. Legislation:
It means the enactment and promulgation of laws by the legislature. It forms an important source of law.

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!