1st PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 1 with Answers

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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 1 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following in one sentences each: ( 1 x 10 = 10 )

Question 1.
Name any one Indian sociologist.
M.N. Srinivas and A.R.Desai

Question 2.
How is the term society derived?
The term Society is derived from Latin word ‘ Socius’ which means “companionship or friendship’

Question 3.
What is culture?
Culture is an important agency of social change

Question 4.
How the word “Co-operation” is derived?
Co-operation is one of the basic pervasive and continuous Social Process.

Question 5.
What is meant by progress?
As a concept, social progress can be analyzed comparing with social change and social evolution is called progress.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
What is Social science?
Social science is general and not a specialized.

Question 7.
What is observation?
According to P. V. Young defines observation as “A systematic and a deliberated study through the eye of occurrences at the time they occur”

Question 8.
Define education.
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously.

Question 9.
What do you mean by pollution?
According to P. H. Collin “pollution refers centralization of polluting things, created by man”.

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Question 10.
Write one feature of good report writing.
Helps to social progress and develop rational attitude.

II. Answer any ten of the following question in two sentences each: ( 2 x 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
Give two classifications of social groups.
Primary Groups and Secondary Groups.

Question 12.
What is institution?
Kingsley Devis says “Institution is a set of interwoven of folkways, mores and laws built around one or more functions”.

Question 13.
What is informal Education?
Family is the first school and the mother is the first teacher is the dictum that sufficiently explains the role of informal education.

Question 14.
Define family.
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff “It is a group united by the ties of marriage with or without Children.”

Question 15.
Mention any two uses of Sociology.
Sociology helps become a good citizen and getting more job opportunities in Mass media.

Question 16.
Define competition.
Competition is the most fundamental form of social struggle

Question 17.
Name any two differences between social change and social Progress.
Social change in agricultural technology directly we can use.
Social Progress we can see in man and nature ‘

Question 18.
State two stages of scientific method.
Interview, Questionaire are the two stages of scientific method.

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Question 19.
Define Questionnaire.
A Questionnaire is a tool for data collection. It consists of number of questions printed or typed in definite order on a form or sheet or a set of forms.

Question 20.
Give the meaning Soil Pollution?
Soil Pollution: The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “Soil” This soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

Question 21.
Name any two actions taken by government to control the environment pollution.
In 1991 rule of public security Act.
In 1972 rule of wild protection provided Act.

Question 22.
Give two types of observations.
The types of observations are:

  • Structured: In this form of interview, there are definite, concrete and predetmined questions are framed
  • Unstructured: It includes a set of questions which are not structured in advances and which may be adjusted according to need during the question period

III. Answer any four of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 x 4 = 20 )

Question 23.
Briefly explain the role of mass media in socializing child.
The Mass Media: The printing and audio-visual means of communication have a great role to play in child’s socialization. Newspaper, magazine, text books, television etc., play a lucid role in transmitting culture from one generation to the other. The state may also use them deliberately to educate the mass. They may be used purposively to change the value system.

In tradition and simple societies the agencies of socialization are limited and harmonious in influencing the personality of the individual. In complex societies, however, they are many and diverse agencies, at time working at cross purposes.

Question 24.
Examine the nature and type of conflict.
The characteristics of Conflict
Conflict is Universal: Conflict or cash of interests is Universal in nature. It is present in almost all the societies. In some societies conflict may be very acute and vigorous while in some others. It may be very mild. Karl Marx, Frederich Engets, Saint Simon and others have emphasized the role of conflict as a fundamental factor in the social life of man.

Karl Marx, the architect of communism, has said that “The history of the hitherto existing human society is nothing but the history of the class struggle.” He has mentioned the capitalists and the laborers as belonging to two distinct social classes which have mutually opposite interests.

Conflict is a conscious action: Individual and group who are involved in Conflict are aware of the fact that they are Conflicting As Park and Burgess have pointed out conflict is always conscious and evokes the deepest emotions and stronger passions.

Conflict is personalized by competition: When competition is personalized it leads to conflict. In the struggle to overcome the other person or group, the goal is temporarily related to a level of secondary importance.

Conflict is not continuous but intermittent: Conflict never takes place continuously. It takes > place occasionally. No society can sustain itself in a state of continuous Conflict.

Conflict is conditioned by culture: Conflict is affected by the nature of the group and its particular culture. The objects of Conflicts may be property, power and status, freedom of action and though, or any other highly desired value when the stability of a political order is threatened, political Conflict may be the result. If sectarianism is ripe, we may expect Conflict to occur in region. The culturally determined values of a society will set the stage for this struggles.

Conflict and norms: Not only culture modifies conflict and its forms but also controls and governs it. When conflict is infrequent and when no adequate techniques have been worked out, more violent and unpredictable sorts at Conflict such as race, riots arise.

Frustration and insecurity promote Conflict: Sometimes, factors like frustration and insecurity promote Conflicts within the same society, individual feel frustrated if they are thoroughly disturbed in their attempts to reach their goals. These goals may be desire for power, position, prestige, status, wealth, money ere. Insecurities like economic crisis, unemployment, the fear of deprivation of love and affection may add to the frustration. In 1 extreme case of this sort one may even lose mental balance or even commit suicide. A society marked by widespread insecurity is one in which Conflict is potential.

Types of conflict: George Simmel has distinguished four types of conflict (a) war (b) feud or rational strife (c) litigation (d) conflict of impersonal ideas.

War: according to Simmel war represents a deep seated antagonistic impulse in men. But to bring out this impulse into action some define objectives is needed. The objective may be the desire to gain material interests.

Feud and factional strife: this is an intra-group conflict. It may arise because of injustice alleged to have been done by one group to another.

Litigation: Litigation is a judicial form of conflict. It is a judicial struggle by an individual or group to protect right to possessions. This kind of conflict is more objectives in nature.

Conflict of impersonal ideas: This is a conflict carried on by the individuals not for themselves but for an ideal. In such a conflict each party attempts to justify truthfulness of its own ideas. For ex, the communists and Capitalists carry on conflicts to prove that their own system can bring in a better world order.

Question 25.
Explain the meaning of culture.
Culture and human society are the two faces of the same coin. They always go together. Culture is the unique feature that differentiates human society from animals. Man is not only a social animal, but also a cultural animal, every man can be considered as a representative of the culture. Therefore culture can also be considered an important agency of social change.

According to Robert Bierstedt “ Culture is the Complex whole that consists of everything we think and do and have as members of society.

According to Malinowski: “culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”
According to Edward B.Tylor “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge beliefs, arts, morals, law, custom, language and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society”.

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Question 26.
What is primary data? Discuss its sources of data.
Primary Data is the information related to research collected by the researcher for the first time. This data is drawn from field study or from laborities. According for the specific purpose of solving a particular research problem”.

Primary data is original data collected by the researcher from field study. Primary or secondary ‘ data are collected through various tools or means. The major sources of primary data are: Observation., Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule and Social Survey.

Question 27.
Explain the characteristics of secondary groups.
In the secondary groups the relationships secondary, relatively impersonal contractual task oriented, hence limited focus of its activities.

a. Dominance of Secondary relations: The relationships that are found within secondary groups are formal indirect impersonal and secondary for example the relationship between teacher and students.

b. Large in size: The secondary groups are generally large in size that may thousands of members. Trade union, corporation, international association, etc. are secondary groups and they have thousands of members.

c. No physical basis: Secondary groups are not necessarily characterized by physical proximity. Many secondary groups are not limited to any definite area, the members such a groups are scattered over vast area.

d. Nature of Membership: Membership in the case of secondary groups in mainly voluntary. Individuals are at liberty to join or go away from the groups, for example : they are at liberty to join political parties!

e. Specific Ends and Interest: Secondary groups are formed for the realization of some specific interest’s ends. They are often called ‘Special interest groups’. Members are interested in the groups because they have specific ends to aim at.

f. Nature of Group Control: Informal means of social control are less effective in regulating the relations of members. Moral control is only secondary formal means of social control such as law, legislation; police, court etc. are made use of to control the behavior of members.

Question 28.
How does environmental imbalance affect the social life? Explain.
Air Pollution: Air pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compounds that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human begins

Water Pollution: Water is essential for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by water, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose. Water pollution occurs in three different forms.

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Noise Pollution:Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution: The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “soil” This soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution. Soil pollution lessens the productivity nature of the soil and destroys the living things.

III. Answer any four of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 x 4 = 20 )

Question 29.
Explain the nature of Sociology.
Alex Inkle’s in his book “what is Sociology?” has provided a general outline of the fields of Sociology on which there is considerable agreement among sociologists. It could be presented in the following manner:

(1) Providing a sociological analysis of human culture and society: The major concern of Sociology is human society and its culture. A sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of human society and culture with a Sociological perspective. He evinces interest in the evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the major stages in the evolutionary process. An attempt is also made to “analyse the factors and forces underlying historical Transformations of society”. Due importance is given to the scientific method that is adopted in the sociological studies.

(2) Analysing the primary units of social life: Sociology has given sufficient attention to the study Of primary units of social life. In this area it is concerned with social acts and social relationships, individual personality, groups of all varieties, communities(urban, rural and tribal), association organisations and population.

(3) Studying the Nature and Functions of Basic Social Institutions: Social Institutions constitute the basic fabric the society. Any social system is built on the foundation of social institutions. Institutions such as – the family and kinship religions and morality, Economic and political, legal and educational, scientific and aesthetic, recreational and expressive, medical and welfare, etc. Serve the most important needs of man. Sociology develops deep into the study of the origin and development, structure and function, changes and challenges of a wide variety of social institutions.

(4) Sociology throws Light on the Fundamental social processes: Human society is neither static nor uniform, it is dynamic and diverse. This dynamic element in society is reflected by what are known as “social processes”. They reveal the way in which human interaction assume different patterns and courses in social life. The social processes such as co-operation and competition, accommodation, and assimilation, social conflict and communication, social differentiation and stratification, socialisation social control and deviance, social integration and social change, etc., assume prominence in sociological studies. In the present era of explosion of knowledge, sociologists have ventured to make specialisations also, thus, today good number of specialised fields of inquiry are emerging ‘ out. Sociology of knowledge, Sociology of history, Sociology of culture, Sociology of
religion, Sociology of family, etc., represent such specialised fields.

Question 30.
What are the Primary groups and its characteristics? Explain.
The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.

Characteristics of Primary groups :

a. Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary Groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.,

b. Small in Size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate.

c. Physical Proximity or Nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.

d. Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.

e. Similarity of Background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less the same background, these must be some approximations in their levels of experience, each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.

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Question 31.
Explain the functions of Religion.
Singer: in his book “Religion, Society, and the Individual” Religion, involves a group of people and a shared system of believers and practices. Every religion emphasizes the need for collective worship, festival and rituals are occasions which bring people together.

Functions of Religion: Religion is an important universal institution in human society. It is a part of society, interwoven with all other aspects of human life. It is obvious that religion has an important role in society, it performs a number of important functions:

Social Solidarity:
1. Emile Durkheim, defines religion as “a unified system of belief and practice related to sacred things”. A thing is sacred not because of a peculiar quality inherent in the thing itself. What makes a thing sacred is an attitude filled with emotion and sentiment a feeling that certain things are above and apart from the ordinary matters of everyday life.

2. By defining the values and moral beliefs as sacred, religion provides them with greater power to direct human action. Social obligations are transformed into religious duties, in worshipping society men recognize the importance of the group, their dependence upon it.

3. Collective worship as a means of reinforcing social solidarity in a social group. In collective ceremonials, the members of a group express their faith in common values and belief, a sense of group solidarity is affirmed and frightened.

4. Malinowski argues that religion promotes social solidarity by dealing with situations of emotional stress such as birth, puberty, death, accidents and natural disaster which threaten social cohesion.

5. Religious beliefs provide the ultimate justification for the values do social system. It provides support for social standard, socially accepted behavior. Thus the doctrines of Karma and Dharma in Hinduism. The Christian society maintains the tradition like Christmas, baptism and monogamous marriage, and tries to encourage conformity to society’s norms.

Question 32.
Describe the characteristics of marriage.
Marriage is more or less a universal institutional: It is found among the pre-literate as well as literate people. It is enforced as a social rule in some of the societies. Example: In Japan celibacy is publicly condemned. In Korea, unmarried individual are called ‘Half’ persons. Among the Hindus, marriage is a sacrament which is regarded as more or less obligatory. The Todas of Nilagiri refuse to perform funeral rites for a girl if she dies before her marriage. But they do perform it after completing some sort of marriage ceremony for the corpse. According to the Chinese philosopher Confucius, an individual who remains unmarried throughout his life commits a crime.

Relationship between Man and Woman: Marriage is a union of man and woman. It indicates a relationship between one or more men to one or more women. Who should marry whom? One should marry how many? Are the questions which represent social rules regarding marriage differing significantly.

Marital bond is relatively durable: Marriage indicates a long lasting bond between the husband and wife. Hence, it is not co-extensive with sex life. It excludes relationships with prostitutes or any other sexual relationship which is viewed as casual and not sanctioned by custom, law or church. Marital relationship between man and women lasts even after the sexual satisfaction is obtained.

Marriage requires social approval: A union of man and woman becomes a marital bond only when the society gives its approval. When marriage is given the hallmark of social approval, it becomes a legal contract.

Marriage is associated with some civil or religious ceremony: Marriage gets its social recognition through some ceremony. This ceremony may have its own rites, rituals, customs, formalities, etc, it means marriage has to be concluded in public and in a solemn manner. Sometimes as s sacrament it receives the blessing of religion. Marriage among the Hindus, for examples, is regarded as a sacrament. It is connected with the sacred rituals such as vagdana, homa, – kanyadana, magalya dharana, saptapadi etc.

Marriage creates mutual obligations: Marriage imposes certain rights and duties on both the husband and wife. Both are required to support each other and their children.

Question 33.
Explain the concept of cultural lag with examples.
The concept of cultural lag was first introduced by W. F. Ogbum published in his book entitled ‘Social change’ in 1922. In his book he had delineated the two aspects of culture-material and non material. In that context he introduced the concept of cultural lag. By the very natural of it the material aspects changes quickly but the non material changes but slowly. The change between material and non material culture is called gap or lag. The word lag denotes crippled movement of one part of culture as compared with the other. Culture has two parts, material and nonmaterial. Both be changed by human begins.

In the process of change Ogbum believes that both the material culture and nonmaterial culture undergoes change. But the non-material culture according to Ogbum is often slow to respond to the rapid changes in material culture. When non material culture cannot adjust itself to the material culture it falls behind the two. According to Ogbum this gap between the material culture and nonmaterial culture is called “cultural lag”

In the words of Ogbum “the strain that exists between two correlated parts of culture that change at unequal rates of speed may be interpreted as a lag in the part that is changing at the slowest rate for the one lags behind the other”. For example a lag is seen when people change method of cultivation without change in the land owning system. Thus according to Ogbum one of the main problems of adjustment in modem society is due to problem of uneven speed of change in material and non material culture.

Question 34.
Discuss the characteristics of Accommodation.
According to Young and Mack “Assimilation is the fusion or blendir :- ftwo previously distinct groups into one”.

Characteristics of Accommodation:

Accommodation is pot confined to single field only: The term assimilation is generally applied to explain the fusion of two distinct cultural group. Thus, it is an universal process. The process occur in every walks of Human life ex: social, economic, political, art, music, agriculture, food and dress, habit etc. but this process is by no means limited to any single field. In the religious field, assimilation may take place when an individual or a group of individuals or a particular religious background gets converted into some other religious sect or group. As a process assimilation encompasses life in general.

Accommodation is a slow and gradual process: Assimilation cannot take place all of a sudden it takes. Fusion of personalities and groups usually takes time. It occurs only when there is relatively continuous and direct contact. The speed of the process of assimilation depends on the nature of contacts. If the contacts are primary then assimilation occurs naturally and rapid. Op the contrary, if the contracts are.

Secondary assimilation takes place very slowly. The formation of American Culture due to the assimilation of British, Scottish, German and other European Cultures also has taken several decades and centuries.

Accommodation is an unconscious process: In the process of assimilation the individual or group is usually unconscious of what is taking place. Mostly it occurs in an unconscious manner individual and groups discard cultural heritage and substitute it with the new one.

Accommodation is a two-way process: Assimilation involves the principle of give and take. It is normally preceded by another process called ‘acculturation’ Acculturation is a preliminary and necessary step towards assimilation. It takes place when one cultural group which is in contact with another borrows from it certain cultural elements and incorporate them into its own culture. Contact between two groups essentially affects into its own culture. Contact between two groups essentially affects both. Usually the culturally ‘weaker’ group borrows must of the trails from the culturally ‘ stronger’ group.

Factors Favoring Assimilation: Toleration: Assimilation is possible only when individual and groups are tolerated towards cultural differences of others. Tolerance helps people to come together, to develop contacts and to participate in common social and cultural activities. When the majority group or the dominant group itself is secure.

Intimate social relationships: assimilation is the final product of social contacts. The relative speed in which it is achieved depends on the nature of the contacts. It takes place naturally in primary groups such as family and friendship groups.

Amalgamation or intermarriage: It is an effective favoring assimilation process. It does not combine two opposite sexes but also two different families, castes, religious and regional groups together. A factor which helps complete assimilation is amalgamation which refers to the intermarriage of different groups without biological amalgamation complete assimilation is not possible. Mere inter mixture of the groups to a limited degree does not guarantee assimilation but intermarriage or amalgamation must be accepted in the mores and become a part of the institutional; structure, before assimilation exists.

Cultural similarity: If there are striking similarities between them an constituents of cultures of groups assimilation is quick to take place. In America, for example English-speaking protestants are assimilated with greater aped than non-Christians who do not speak English.

Education: Education is another conductive factor for assimilation. For immigrant people public education has played a prominent role in providing culture contact. Maurice R Davis has pointed out in his “world immigration” that in American public schools has been playing the vital role in the process of Americanizing the children of foreign born parents.

Equal Social and economic opportunity: Public education alone is not enough. People of all groups must have equal access to socio-economic opportunities. Only then, they can come closer and establish relations among themselves with mutual trust. As it has been observed in the case of America, full assimilation is possible only when full participation in social, cultural and economic life is allowed.
Assimilation is a two way process when it happens between two vulture groups. Each group contributing varying proportions of the eventual blend.

Forms of assimilation
The process of assimilation takes place mainly at three levels:

  1. Individual level
  2. Group level
  3. Culture level.

1. Individual level: A social individual when enters or joins a new patterns of different cultural patterns, he or she has to adopt new patterns of values, habits, customs and beliefs of the other group in order to be fully accepted by new group. In course of time, he or she becomes assimilated into the second group. An Indian woman after marriage starts with dissimilar backgrounds and develops a surprising unity of inrests and identifies herself with the family of her husband. The tendency is to conform to other’s behaviors pattern and differences in the time may largely disappear.

2. Group level: When two groups with dissimilar patterns of behavior come in close contact, they inevitably affect each other. In this process, it is generally seen that the weaker group would do more of the borrowing from and would give very little to stronger group. For instance, when we came in contact with Britishers, being a weaker group, we have adopted many cultural elements of Britishers but they have adopted many cultural elements from Indian society. The adoption of elements of dominant cultural paves the way for total absorption. If not checked, of the new culture group with the dominant culture.

3. Cultural level: When two cultures merge to produce a third culture which, while somewhat distinct, has features of both merging cultures. In western countries to some extent, rural and urban cultures which were radically different are, with rapidly increasing communication, merging as differences continue to disappear although they still exist.

V. Answer any Two of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 10 x 2 = 20 )

Question 35.
Describe the contributions of Auguste Comte.
August Comte: Being one of the pioneers of Sociology, August Comte is the first who introduced the term “Sociology”. Therefore the credit of calling “Father of Sociology” goes to him. August Comte was the first to introduce a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contribution confirms a new era for the study of Sociology. He used the word “Sociology” for the first time in his famous work “Positive Philosophy” during 1839. He called Sociology as the scientific study of society. He wanted that this science of society – should explain the laws of the social world like natural sciences explain the laws of the physical world.

August Comte insisted that the study of society needs scientific method with objectivity. He believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behaviour were needed to improve society.

August Comte divided Sociology into two parts. They are : (1) Social statics and (2) social dynamics. “Social statics” deals with major institutions such as family, economy, religion, etc. “Social Dynamics” deals with the issue of social change and social progress. Now these words are called in the name of social structure and social change respectively.

According to August Comte, there is a direct relation between intellectuality and social progress. Related to this he explains law of three stages. They are:

1. The Theological stage: During this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious – ideas and faith in the supernatural powers. It emphasizes the belief that everything is
attributed to a particular God.

2. The metaphysical stage: During this stage, all human thought were guided by “abstract forces” like nature. It is almost like philosophical inquiry into the nature.

3. The positive or scientific stage: This is what the stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking, looking the world. Through this theory Comte tried to establish the fact that man became more and more rational and scientific in his approach. Comte introduced a theory of classification of sciences. Through this theory he emphasized that there is interrelation and interdependence of social sciences.

August Comte as a supporter of the moral order in the society says that sociologists have taken responsibility of “priesthood of humanity” and should solve the problems of the society. August Comte’s contribution to sociological literature are “Positive Philosophy” and “Positive Polity”.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 36.
Define community and explain its features.
E.A. Bogardus Identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.

(a) Locality or geographical area: A community is a territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community, locality Means- “a group of people of people became a community only when it starts to reside permanently in a definite locality.

In contract with society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, gives fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence peoples social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.

(b) Community sentiment: Community sentiment: “a feeli9ng of belongingness towards, or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes . the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common interests and similar life styles awaken community sentiments in people.

Other Characteristics of community:

1. Stability or relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As a along as there is life on the earth, people continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.

2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are bom in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.

3. Size of the community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc

Question 37.
Explain the difference between ingroup and outgroup.
Refer Lesson No 2 Textbook.

Question 38.
Explain the role of government and NGO’s to protect the environmnet:
As per 1948 rule it’s a mandatory to get permission from the granting commissions for establishment and extension of the factories. From this policy which directs the factories will have the full information about the chemical that can spill out from the factories.

1. The Atomic energy rule (1962). Each and every matter relating to the atomic energy will be directly affiliated to the Central government. This rule controls and directs the atomic energy related matters.

2. The 1972 rule of Wild life protection provided complete protection to the wild life and birds. As per the directed of this rule every state government and centralized states must create a committee for wild life suggestion. This law restricts the hunting of wild animals violates of this law will be punished

3. Control and prevention of Water pollution act (1974) has enforced and the water pollution is prohibited through this law and for prevention of water pollution a special rule in 1981 is introduced( prevention on control of air pollution)

4. Environment protection act (1986) have intended to protect and improve the environment; it implements nationwide programs on environment pollution and encourages the researches on Environment Pollution.

5. The Motor vehicles act 1988 control the air pollution caused by the vehicle traffic.

6. The noise pollution act of 1989: This law controls the decibels of the sounds residential places, schools and colleges, hospitals, courts premises are declared as silent zones and prohibits using mikes crackers etc. in these areas.

7. 1991 rule of Public Security: the Government of India has introduced this law in 1991 . this law suggested to establish a environment solution fund and provided security to the
citizen, it enables to lodge a criminal cases on the law breakers.

8. State pollution control board is active in state level and with the co-ordination of central pollution control board is engaged in the environment protection. Environment department will implement many works regarding environment protection.

VI. Answer any two of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 x 2 = 10 )

Question 39.
Write a report on marriage rituals which you have attended.
Do it your self as a Project report

Question 40.
Explain the role of T.V in the development of culture.
Do it your self as a Project report report

KSEEB Solutions

Question 41.
Prepare a report on co operative proceses in self help group.
Do it your self as a Project report

Question 42.
List out the changes in agricultural activites in rural area.
Do it your self as a Project report

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