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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 4 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following in one sentences each: ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
Mention any one specific literary source of ancient though.
Define theological stage.
Theological stage in this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers.
Name any one Book written by Spencer.
’’Social Static”, “Principles ofEthics” etc.
Who introduced the Man is a social animal.
Aristotle recognized the term man is a social animal.
Give an example of vertical group.
Economic classes, upper, middle and lower classes and caste group.
Write the types of societies.
There are two types 1. Pre-Modern and modern societies.
What is conflict?
It is one of the forms of struggle between individuals or groups.
Who introduced the concept ‘Cultural day’?
Cultural log was introduced by W. F. Ogburn.
State any one primary function of the family.
Member replacement and physical maintenance.
Define Social Ecology.
Social ecology to carryout studies on how living begins continuously adjust themselves to the environment around them.
What is folkways?
According to Land bury says that the “folkways are the typical or habitual beliefs, attitudes and style of conduct observed within a group or community.
II. Answer any ten of the following in two sentences each: ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Mention any two factors that led to the beginning of sociology.
- Sociology is a categorical and not a normative discipline.
- Sociology is a pure and not a Applied science.
What are the two types of society introduced by Spencer?
- Militant Society
- Industrial society.
According to Maclver and page “Society is the web of relationship”.
According to G. D. M. Cole; “society is a complex of organized association and institutions within the community”. ,
What is rural community?
Rural community consist of people living in villages and depending mainly on agriculture and allied occupations. Rural community is homogeneous in nature relatively smaller in size and has a dominance of primary relations.
What is competition?
According to Biesanz: “ competition is the stocking of two or more persons for the same goal which is limited so that all cannot share”.
How is socialization a process?
The concept of socialization is one of the central concepts in sociology. It is a learning process by which an individual develops into a social being and is able to function in society. Child rearing, formal education, acculturation and role learning are all socializing processes that help to mould individuals to the ways of their society & culture.
List any two secondary function of family.
The two functions of secondary family are:
- Economic function
- Educational function
- Religious function
- Recreational function.
State any two types of sources of primary data.
The major sources of primary data are observation, interview, questionnaire, and social survey.
What is accommodation?
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff: “Accommodation is a term used by sociologists to describe the adjustment of hostile individuals or groups”.
Give two examples for Cultural Change.
Education and Family.
What is Bio diversity?
It is the existence of a wide variety of species plants, animals and micro organisms in a natural habitat within a particular environment or of genetic variation with in a species. All living organism have maintained their specific quality all find air water and temperature on this earth including micro organisms birds and butterflies, aquatic plants and animals, wild animals like dinosaurs etc. all live on the earth.
What is meaning of Mores?
The word “mores” is a Latin term and it represented the ancient Roman’s most respected and even sacred customs.
III. Answer any four questions in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )
Explain the role of August Comte in the development of Sociology.
Being one of the pioneers of Sociology, August Comte is the first who introduced the term “Sociology”. Therefore the credit of calling “Father of Sociology” goes to him. August Comte was the first to introduce a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contribution confirms a new era for the study of Sociology.
He used the word “Sociology” for the first time in his famous work “positive Philosophy” during 1839. He called Sociology as the scientific study of society. He wanted that this science of society should explain the laws of the social world like natural sciences explain the laws of the physical world.
August Comte insisted that the study of society needs scientific method with objectivity. He believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behaviour were needed to improve society.
August Comte divided Sociology into two parts. They are : (1) Social statics and (2) social dynamics. Social statics deals with major institutions such as family, economy, religion, etc. Social dynamics deals with the issue of social change and social progress. Now these words are called in the name of social structure and social change respectively.
According to August Comte, there is a direct relation between intellectual ity and social progress. Related to this he explains law of three stages. They are:
1. The Theological stage: During this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers. It emphasises the belief that everything is attributed to a particular God.
2. The metaphysical stage: During this stage, all human thought were guided by “abstract forces” like nature. It is almost like philosophical inquiry into the nature.
3. The positive or scientific stage: This is what the stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking, looking the world. Through this theory Comte tried to establish the fact that man became more and more rational and scientific in his approach. Comte introduced a theory of classification of sciences. Through this theory, he emphasized that there is interrelation and interdependence of social sciences.
August Comte as a supporter of the moral order in the society says that sociologists have taken responsibility of priesthood of humanity and should solve the problems of the society. August Comte’s contribution to literature are “Positive Philosophy” and “Positive Polity”.
Explain the characteristics of community.
Characteristics of community:
1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As along as there is life on the earth, people continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.
2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.
3. Size of the community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.
4. Social Control: Every community has its own rules and regulations to control the relationship of its members. The nature of this regulation depends very much on the nature and type of the community. For example. In the rural and tribal communities informal means of regulations such as customs, folkways, mores, beliefs, rites and rituals etc are enough to exercise social pressure on the behavior of the people.
5. A Specific Name: Every community has some particular name, whether community is – a village or a city or a tribe it has its own name and identity, on the basis of these one community is distinguished from the other.
Co-operation has becomes an inseparable aspects of our modern social life ? Explain
The importance of Co-operation are:
1. Co-operation is Universal and Continuous: It is a form of social process is not only universal but also continuous. Co-operation makes possible same understanding and adjustment between individuals and groups without which social life is impossible. Co-operation is hailed as the very basis of the communication life of men.
2. Perception of common goals: Individual indulging in Co-operative interaction are aware of some goals. The goal may be winning a victory in a battle, winning a hockey match, students making a combined study and so on perception of a common goal often draws people together.
3. Collective work for common rewards: Co-operation involves combined or collective efforts, rewards are normally shared by them, for example the reward may be match victory or profit shared in an industry.
4. Co-operation is not necessarily unselfish: It is generally believed to be unselfish, but men may also find that their selfish goals are best served by working together with their fellows. Groups may Co-Operate for self-advancement as in the case of a monopoly or mutual protection, or for the welfare of all groups.
5. Essential conditions of Co-operation:According to Young and Marck Co-operation takes under some conditions. They are as follows. Firstly, Co-operation requires a motivation to seek a goal. Secondly, people must have some knowledge of the benefits of Co-operative activity. This requires some kind of education and must have a favorable attitude towards sharing both the work and the rewards involved.
6. Psychological qualities necessary for the developing Co-operative attitudes: Co-operation requires sympathy and identification, Sympathy depends upon the capacity of the individual to imagine himself in the place of another, particular when the other person is in difficulties, Mutual aid is another name for Co-operation. Co-operation is possible only when there is like mindedness. Similarity of purpose, mutual awareness, mutual understanding, mutual helpfulness and selfless attitudes.
Explain the meaning of culture.
Culture and human society are the two faces of the same coin. They always go together. Culture is the unique feature that differentiates human society from animals. Man is not only a social animal, but also a cultural animal, every man can be considered as a representative of the culture. Therefore culture can also be considered an important agency of social change.
According to Robert Bierstedt “ Culture is the Complex whole that consists of everything we think and do and have as members of society.
According to Malinowski: “culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”.
According to Edward B.Tylor “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge beliefs, arts, morals, law, custom, language and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society”.
Examine socialization as a process.
The concept of socialization is one of the central concepts in sociology. It is a learning process by which an individual develops into a social being and is able to function in society. Child rearing, formal education, acculturation and role learning are all socializing processes that help to mould individuals to the ways of their society & culture. Socialization begins almost at birth and continues throughout life.
The human infant comes into the world as a biological organism with animal needs. It is gradually moulded into social being and he learns the social ways of acting and feeling. Without this process of moulding the society could not continue itself, nor could culture exists, nor could the individual becomes a person. This process of moulding is called “Socialization”.
According to H. M. Johnson: “Socialization in the learning process that enables the learner to perform social roles”.
According to Ogburn & Nimkoff: “Socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group”.
On the basis of above given definition we can draw the fact that socialization is a learning process by which one acquires the culture of his group. This will help an individual to develop his ‘Self concept. He is converted into an active member of the community.
Explain types of Environment.
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.
Environment which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, . biological and social environments.
1. Physical Environment: It consists of earth, water, mountains and hills, forests, planets, stars, lakes, minerals sources etc., This is called Physical or Natural Environment. The Physical Environment is not created by man: Hence it is called the Natural environment.
2. Biological Environment: This category of environment includes all living things on earth, for the production and growth of all living creatures, environment is complimentary and protecting.
3. Social Environment: Social Environment is man-made. Social environment is nothing but the collective and cooperative life of human begins. Sociologists feel that “man is a social animal and one cannot live without society”. For the survival of mankind there . must be a cordial relationship with environment.
IV. Answer any four questions in fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )
Consider sociology as a pure science.
Pure science is a branch for knowledge, without primary concern for practical use. Knowledge for knowledge sake is the main aim of a pure scientist. Scientists, who seek knowledge for its own sake, no more moved by the question of its, utility like the mother and the father who v protect and.nourish their children without calculating their usefulness. Many students researchers of science feel much the same thing about their work. Pure sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, botany, physiology, psychology, anthropology, political science, sociology, etc) are concerned with the advancement of knowledge.
Their main aim is to investigate the underlined principles of the natural and social world which sustain and change in the natural and social order. They are not concerned with the practical applications of their results or curing the immediate ills of natural or social orders. The goal of each natural science, including Sociology, is the formulation of scientific laws.
Sociology is a pure science, not an applied one. The immediate goal of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge about the human society, not the utilization of that knowledge.
Describe the classification of Co-operation.
Types of Co-operation:
The types of co-operation can be discussed in the following ways:
1. Direct Co-operation: In the direct cooperation action the individual involved to do the identical function. Ex. Playing together worshiping together, tilling the field together, taking out a cut from the mud, etc., people do work in company with other members, performance of a common task with joint efforts brings them social satisfaction. ‘
2. Indirect Co-operation: In this case people work individually for the attainment of a common end. People do tasks towards a similar end. This is based on the principle of division of labor and specialization. For ex. Farmers, spinners, weavers, dyers, tailors are different and engaged in different activities. But their end remains the same, that of producing clothes. The modem technological age requires specialization of skill and functions, hence it depends on Co-operation.
Sociologist have also spoken of three other types of Co-operation, namely primary Co-operation Secondary Co-operation and tertiary Co-operation. These types are witnessed in primary groups, secondary groups and between two or more groups respectively.
Discuss the school as an agent of socialization.
The School : School is also another important agent of socialization. Teachers in school play a decisive role in molding child’s personality. Since the family in itself is not fully equipped to prepare the child for adult roles, school has an important role to play. In the school the child gets his education which moulds his ideas and attitudes, school transmits not only required and knowledge but also important values such as cooperation, discipline, patriotism, friendship etc. it helps further development of intellectual, emotional and social development already begun in the family. It is a formal agency socializing the child authoritatively.
What do you mean by preservation?
The educational system tries to embrace almost all people where they are young and equip them with at least the minimum skills of literacy and numeracy education.
Preservation function: As the transmission of culture is needed for the preservation of social order, it is also called the preservation function of education. Social structure persists only with the aid certain values and these values have to be handed down to the next generation. When the values and skills become absolute with the passage of time replacing them with new vistas is also a major function of education. With the growth of modem economy and the complexity of socio-economic structure.
This is usually achieved through the political and administrative apparatus. The knowledge, skill and values acquired through education not only meet the economic needs of society, but also permeated with a social ‘content corresponding to the existing socio-economic and political structure and the consequent social stratification and distribution of power in society.
Explain how desire for stability resist change.
Desire for stability: Society and its functions go smooth with required stability. Individuals are safe in stable society. Change disturbs the balance in present society. Often change brings insecurity to people in society. Common men feel
- No guarantee in new social system
- New things may bring pain.
- Pleasure and comforts may not exists in new
- Wants to maintain present status
Therefore, members in stable conditions do not accept change. Desire for stability is guard against change.
What are the effects of Global warming?
The effects of Global warming: Mother earth is the essence for the birth and fastening of all living creatures. The earth’s temperature increases when water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, other harmful gases get collected in environment and when these gases do not find, an outlet naturally increase the earth’s temperature.
The whole ecological system is endangered by global warming. Wind movement is affected untimely rains, increase in temperature are the changes that occur.
It is a serious responsibility of the civilized world to control global warming and green house effects. Preventive measures to be under taken to control warming to protect the environment from greenhouse effects should be impose strict laws on the excessive use of fuels. Use of chloro-phoro carbon chemicals should be banned totally.
V. Answer any two of the following in twenty-five sentences each: ( 2× 10 = 20 )
Examine the subject matter of Sociology.
Alex Inkle’s in his book “what is Sociology?”-has provided a general outline of the fields of Sociology on which there is considerable agreement among sociologists. It could be presented in the following manner:
1. Providing a sociological analysis of human culture and society: The major concern of Sociology is human society and its culture. A sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of human society and culture with sociological perspective. He evinces interest in the evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the major stages in the evolutionary process. An attempt is also made to analyse the factors and forces underlying historical transformations of society. Due importance is given to the scientific method that is adopted in the sociological studies.
2. Analysing the primary units of social units of social life: s has given sufficient attention to the study of primary units of social life. In this area it is concerned with social acts and social relationships, individual personality, groups of all varieties, communities(urban, rural and tribal), association organisations and population. –
3. Studying the nature and functions of basic social institutions: Socia institutions constitute the basic fabric the society. Any social system is built on the foundation of social institutions. Institutions such as – the family and kinship religions and morality, economic and political, legal and educational, scientific and aesthetic, recreational and expressive, medical and welfare, etc., serve the most important needs of man. Sociology develops deep into the study of the origin and development, structure and function, changes and challenges of a wide variety of social institutions.
4. Sociology throws light on the fundamental social processes: Human society is neither static nor uniform. It is dynamic and diverse. This dynamic element in society is reflected by what are known as social processes. They reveal the way in which human interaction assume different patterns and courses in social life. The social processes such as co-operation and competition, accommodation, and assimilation, social conflict and communication, social differentiation and stratification, socialisation social control and deviance, social integration and social change, etc., assume prominence in sociological studies.
Define association. Explain its characteristics.
In day to day life, associations and institutions are used very commonly, sometimes these words are used inter changeably to mean one and the same. But in Sociology these words have specific meaning.
Characteristics of association:
(a) Association – A Human Group: An association is formed by people. It is basically a social group. Without people there can be no association. However all groups are not associations. Because an association is basically an organized group. An unorganized group like a crowd or a mob cannot be an association.
(b) Specific Interest or Interests: An association is not only collection of individuals. But also consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. According those who have political interests may join political parties and those who have sports
interest may join sports association and so on.
(c) Co-operative spirit: An association is based on the co-operative spirit of its members, people work together to achieve common purpose. For example: Workers to work together on a co-operative basis in order to fulfill their objective of getting good working conditions.
(d) Organized Group: Association is not just a collection of individuals. It is an organized collections for some specific ends, organization gives stability and proper shape to an association, organization refers to the way in which the. status and roles are distributed among its members.
(e) Regulation of Relations: Every association has its own rules and regulation applicable to its members. These are called associational norms. Organization depends on this elements of regulation. Association reports to formal or informal means to regulate the relations of its members. For Example: Family through the institution of marriage controls the sexual behavior of its members, professional organization have formal norms to control members.
(f) Element of Stability:An association may be permanent or temporary, there are some long standing association like the political parties, trade union etc. some associations may be purely temporary in nature, Example: Association that are established to felicitate some great writers, scientists and religious leaders.
Briefly explain the general characteristics of family.
The basic unit of the social structure in every society is the family. It associated with such
emotive issues as love, marriage, home and child bearing.
According to Macular and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and ‘ wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”.
The characteristics of family are:
1. Family is an Universal: As stated earlier, the family is the most permanent and pervasive of all social institutions. All societies both large and small, primitive and civilized, ancient and modem, have institutionalized the process of procreation of the species and the rearing of the young. It is a permanent and universal institution and one of the constants of human life.
2. Biological Basis of the Family: The institution of the family is to be explained in terms of biological factor-the existence of two sexes and the sexual character of reproduction in the human species. It appears as s natural answer to the human sexual drive, a phenomenon solidly based in the biology of the human organism.
3. Limited size: Family is defined as a primary group. It may include parents and their unmarried children or parents and their children. The bonds that the together these limited number of members with limited common interests are the outcome of emotional factors such as love, mutual affection and solicitude. This emotional basis of the family makes it an ideally suitable primary social group in every society.
4. Common Residence and Nomenclature, satisfy basic needs: The family is one of the most durable of all social institutions. Each family has s residence, an address and a name, a family can mean two quite different things depending upon the vantage from which we view it. Each family has common habitation for its living. Without a dwelling place, place the task of child bearing and rearing cannot be adequately met. however, family has a wider meaning than mere household since a family can be spread out geographically sometimes but yet emotionally, socially and legally be known as a family.
Analyze the nature and importance of Competition.
Competition plays an important role in social life. Competition pe functions in society.
The major types are:
(a) Social Competition: People always compete to get into higher status and position, competition of this kind is mostly observed in open societies. Wherever individual ability, merit, talents and capacities are recognized.
Seticiogy (I FUC) :
(b) Economic competition: the most important and at the same time the most vigorous forms of competition is the economic competition. It is witnessed in the processes of production, distortion and consumption of goods
(c) Political competition: In the modern world competition for political power is always present. Political parties are always engage in Competition to secure power. Such a competition becomes apparent especially during elections.
(d) Cultural competition: Some sociologists have also spoken of cultural competition. It may take place between two or more cultural groups. Human history provides various example of such a competition.
(e) Racial competition: Competition may also take place between racial groups such as the Blacks and the Whites, Aryans and Dravidians etc.
IV. Answer any two of the following in fifteen sentences each: ( 2 × 5 = 10 )
Explain functions of competition.
Importance or function of competition
Competition plays an important role in social life. Competition performs a number of useful functions in society. Some of them may be noted here
1. Source of motivation: Competition is a source of motivation for the individuals. It makes the individual to show his ability and express the talent. It increases individual efficiency.
2. Assigns statuses to the individuals: Competition assigns individuals their respective place in the social system. Social status and competition are always associated.
Some people complete with others to retains their status, other complete to enhance their status.
3. Provides for new experiences: As Ogbum and Nimkoff has pointed the individuals better opportunities to satisfy their desires for new experiences and recognition. As far as the group is concerned competition means experimental charge.
4. Competition contributes to Socio-economic progress: Fair Competition is conductive to economic as well as social progress. It even contributes to general welfare because it spurns individuals and groups on to exert their best efforts. When the Competition is directed to promote the general interests of community as a whole, it can bring about miraculous results.
5. Provides for social mobility: As far as the individual is concerned. Competition implies mobility and freedom. The spirit of Competition helps the individual to improve his social status.
Explain the role of Herbert Spencer in the development of Sociology.
Herbert Spencer is one of pioneers of Sociology and it has been described Herbert Spencer’s. Sociology as socially Darwinistic. Herbert Spencer has been called as “Second Father Sociology”.
Being a famous evolutionist, Spencer was very much influenced by Charles Darwin’s book “The origin of species”. He tried to apply the theory of Biological evolution to Sociology. Spencer used the concept of evolution of animals to explain the evolution of society and he compares the society to human organism. His theory of organic analogy was very much popular earlier even though it has been rejected now. Spencer claimed that man’s mind has evolved in the same way from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the process of reasoning in the thinking of man.
Spencer believed in two kinds of knowledge: knowledge gained by the individual and knowledge – gained by the race. He also developed a theory of two types of society. They are (1) militant society (2) industrial society. These are corresponded to the evolutionary progression. Thus according to him society is changing from simple form to complex form. Spencer stressed that the whole society should be considered as a unit of society.
According to him the different parts of society are interrelated and interdependent, not only the parts influence the whole system, but also the whole system influences the parts. While explaining the stages of the development of society his attitude of comparison draws a special attention.
Major works of Herbert Spencer are “Social Statics”, “First Principles”, “Principles of Ethics”, “The Man Versus State”, “The study of Sociology”, Principles of Sociology”.
Analyze the consequences of social change.
Change is inevitable. Both Man and society must agree to face the changes. Human history, explain the struggle of man and society against the consequences of social change. Social change bring two types of changes one is positive change, which helps human life. Other type is negative in direction for which man show his resistance. Social development, social progress, social reformations can be listed as positive changes. Threat by natural calamity, environmental imbalance Ecological crises, war, pests, famine are the examples for change in negative direction in society.
Change in one aspect bring change in another parts of society. Direct change can be observed immediately but indirect consequences in other part of society is to be studied. Extent of change may be small but its effect is wide, and slowly influences in future. Technological changes created an arena for industrialization urbanization and modernization. Such changes brought new social problems like, slums, housing, rural urban migration. Such new consequences are in India also.
Ogburn explains that material culture changes whereas non material culture changes slow, which bring the consequences like cultural lag society always such a-d by the problems of cultural lag, in simple we always talk about generation gap. After 1947 political changes in India brought many social changes. India accepted democracy.
Conclusion: All changes are not harmful and unjustifiable. Change and resistance to change both are advantageous and disadvantageous. Community should be cautious before it look to change. Specially in adopting new scientific inventions, there is need to study its effect on environment, pollution is a grave problem in modern world. Evaluation is always necessary before adopting artificial change. Change is meaningful and harmful. Society admits or rejects on its need.
Explain the types of Education.
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously. The types of Education Education is a process, as a process, education is a continuous activity that goes on all through one’s life-from birth to death.
This process of humanizing man, developing his personality, transmitting culture from one generation to other, a Spontaneous unfolding of human potentialities, is carried on in all social institutions like religion, peer grouped, neighborhood, family and community etc. on the other hand, what takes place in schools and colleges, the methodical socialization, designed instruction and interaction between socialize and the socializing agent for the education and the educator is what is called formal education. A brief description of types of education as follows:
1. Informal education:
It simply denotes the in deliberate, spontaneous, life long process of learning continuously and universally emanating from all most all social institutions. The process of informal training begins for every one of us in the family.
Family is the first school and the mother is the first teacher is the dictum that sufficiently explains the role of informal education in molding human nature and personality. “Peer Groups” means those groups made up of the age mates or contemporaries of the child, his associates in playground, neighborhood etc.,
2. Formal education:
On the other hand is designed, consciously and deliberately given with a planned pursuit what takes place within the four walls of the school, strictly officially in accordance with the curriculum is format instruction. Time table, syllabi, specialized and compartmentalized knowledge, authority pattern, official structure, by laws, disciplines, hierarchy of teachers and class grades, examination system all reflects the formal design of the school and colleges. As it is with the modem social structure characterized by formal institutions and relations in performing economic, industrial, legal and political regulative functions.