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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2014 (North)
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
Who the father of sociology?
Who called the “man is a Social being”?
The term “co-operation” is derived from which language?
Give an example of primary group.
Who introduced the concept “cultural lag”?
Name the informal agent of Socialization?
Mention the function (primary) of family.
Who wrote the book “Origin of species”?
Mention the two types of data collection?
Primary and Secondary!
Mention one of the Environmental protective movement? ‘
Chippko Movement (in 1973-74).
II. Answer any TEN of the following questions in two sentences each: ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Mention any two special branches of Sociology.
Religion and Education.
Mention the Elements of Community.
Locality and Community sentiment.
What is “Division of labour”.
The division of labor depends on peoples interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of Labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modern society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance”.
What is secondary group?
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff say that “Groups which provide experience lacking in intimacy can be called secondary groups”. Ex. Schools and Colleges.
What is Competition?
According to Biesanz and Biesanz: “Competition is the string of two or more persons for the same goal which is limited so that all cannot share”.
What is Folkways?
According to Land burg says that the “Folkways are the typical or habitual beliefs, attitudes and style of conduct observed within a group or community”.
What is Culture?
According to Malinowski: “culture is the handwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”
According to Robert Bierstedt “ Culture is the Complex whole that consists of everything we think and do and have as members of society.
What is “Monogamy”?
Monogamy restricts the individual to one spouse at a time under this system, at any given time a man can have one husband and women can have only one husband.
What is Family?
The basic unit of the social structure in every society is the family. It associated with such emotive issues as love, marriage, home and child bearing.
According to Maciver and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”
Define the Evolution.
According to Morris Ginsberg ”The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed”.
What is Observation?
Refer Page No. 129, Q. No. 2.
P. V. Young defines observation as “a systematic and a deliberated study through the eye of occurrences at the time they occur”.
What is Bio-diversity?
Refer Page No. 144, Q. No. 20.
It is the existence of a wide variety of species plants, animals and micro organisms in a natural
habitatant within a particular environment or of genetic variation with in a species. All living
organism have maintained their specific quality we find air water and temperature on this
. earth including micro organisms birds and butterflies, aquatic plants and animals, wild animals
like dinosaurs etc. all live on the earth
III. Answer any FOUR of the following question in fifteen sentence each: ( 4 × 5 = 20 )
Briefly explain the effects of French Revolution and industrial Revolution.
Influence of the French revolutions (1789): The French Revolution was the most immediate factor in the rise of sociological thinking, the new political climate emphasized liberty, equality, emity, justice, individual right & thinking. The writers and thinkers of the day were particularly I disturbed by the chaos and disorder which the Revolution brought in.
Some of the radical I thinkers sought the need to find out new bases of social order or system which had been disturbed by the political revolutions. This interest in the issue of social order evinced by the social thinkers ultimately supported the cause of the emergence of sociology. The impact of the Industrial Revolution: the Industrial Revolution that began in England 1 in the 18th century swept through many western societies.
The Social effects of Industrial I Revolution were many. The revolution led to a factory system of production which in turn gave, place to mechanisation and industrialization. The simple rural life and domestic industries were replaced by complex urban life and mass production of goods. Industrialization changed the direction of civilisation.
Explain the Four characteristics of Association.
Characteristics of Association.
(a) Association – A Human Group: An association is formed by people. It is basically a social group. Without people there can be no association. However all groups are not associations. Because an association is basically an organized group. An unorganized group like a crowd or a mob cannot be an association.
(b) Specific Interest or Interests: An association is not only collection of individuals. But also consists of those individuals who have more or less the same interests. According those who have political interests may join political parties and those who have sports interest may join sports association and so on.
(c) Co-operative Spirit: An association is based on the co-operative spirit of its members. People work together to achieve common purpose. For example: Workers to work together on a co-operative basis in order to fulfill their objective of getting good working conditions.
(d) Organized Group: Association is not just a collection of individuals. It is an organized collections for some specific ends. Organization gives stability and proper shape to an association. Organization refers to the way in which the status and roles are distributed among its members.
(e) Regulation of Relations: Every association has its own rules and regulation applicable to its members. These are called associational norms. Organization depends on this elements of regulation. Association reports to formal or informal means to regulate the relations of its members. For Example: Family through the institution of marriage controls the sexual behavior of its members, professional organization have formal norms to control members.
(f) Element of Stability: An association may be permanent or temporary. There are some long standing association like the political parties, trade union etc. Some associations may be purely temporary in nature, Example: Association that are established to felicitate some great writers, scientists and religious leaders.
Explain the four characteristics of mores?
According to Maclver and Page “When the folkways have added to them conceptions of groups welfare, standards of right and wrong they are converted into mores”.
Characteristics of Mores are:
More are the regulators of social life: Mores represent the living character of the group or community. They are always considered right by the people who share them. They are morally right and their violation morally wrong. Hence they are more compulsive in nature. They put restrictions on our behavior.
Mores are relatively more persistent: More are relatively long lasting than ordinary folkways. In fact, they even become conservative elements in society. They also put up resistance to change.
Mores vary from group to group or time to time: What is prescribed in one group is prohibited in another Eskimos for example: often practice female infanticide, whereas such a practice is strictly forbidden in the modern societies. Mores not only differ with culture but also with time. What is right at one time may be wrong at another and vice versa. Ex; the practice of “Sati” was “moral” then, but today it is illegal and immoral.
Mores are often backed by values and religion: More normally receive the sanction and backing of values and religion. When this occurs they become still more powerful and binding. Mores backed by religious sanctions are strongly justified people.
Explain the four characteristics of ingroup by W.G Sumner??
Ingroup is a group, to which an individual belongs, He feels that he belongs to a particular group and the rest are other groups or out groups. An out groups is one to which an individual does not belong or feels that he does not belongs in a particular content.
W. G. Sumner in his book ‘Folkways’ differentiates between ‘ingroups and’ ‘outgroups’. An ingroup is simply we-groups and out-groups are ‘they-groups.
The ingroup is one to which an individual belongs or feels that he belongs and the rest of the groups are ‘outgroups.
Briefly explain the types accommodation.
Methods of Accommodations:
Accommodation arrangements between groups or individuals take variety of forms, Gillin and Gillin have mentioned. They are:
1. Yielding to coercion: Coercion involves the use of force or the threat of force for making the weaker party to accept the conditions of agreement. This can take place when the parties are of unequal strength in wars the victorious nation imposes its will on the vanquished. Various political dictatorship are also instances of coercive accommodation in which a strong minority group which seizes political power imposes its will on the masses.
2. Compromise: When the contending parties are almost equal in power they attain accommodation by means of compromise. In compromise each party to the dispute makes some concessions dnd yields to some demand of the other. The “all or nothing” attitudes gives way to willingness to give up certain points in order to gain others. Certain international agreements and management labour agreements on wages, hours of work are example of compromise.
The role of third party in compromise:
1. Arbitration: When the contending parties themselves are not able to resolve their differences they may resort to arbitration. Arbitration is a device for bringing about compromise in which a third party tries to bring about an end to the conflict. Here the decision of the third party is binding on both the parties. Labour management disputes some political disputes are often resolved in this way.
2. Mediation: Mediation is more a kin to arbitration. This involves the introduction into the conflict of a neutral agent whose efforts are directed towards bringing about a peaceful settlements. But the mediator has no power to settle the conflict as but the mediator has no power to settle the conflict as such for his decisions are not binding on the parties.
3. Conciliation: Closely related to compromise is conciliation. This is an attempt to persuade the disputants to develop friendship and come to an agreement. Conciliation has been used in industrial, racial and religious struggles. Conciliation implies a milder response to an opponent than coercion. In the end conciliation, like toleration opens the door to assimilation.
Explain the characteristics of Social change.
According to M. E. Lones “social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of any aspect of social process. Social patterns, social interactions or social organization” The characteristics of social change are:
Social change is Universal and Continuous
The change is true for all societies. Whether it is east or west, urban or Rural societies, for example in rural society change may be slow in urban society change may be rapid. Today in India we find rapid change from north to south. The extent of change may be different but every part of society Changes.
society changes Social Change is Temporal:
Social change never stops. It continues and is continuous. It is also called a process. Social change happens in time period and it is called as temporal. We see in society that many innovations, alterations, modifications take place from time to time regularly. Time is the best yard stick to measure change. We observe two different phenomena in two different time period.
Social change is Inevitable and Environment:
Naturally change is inevitable because it is natural. Natural phenomena are inevitable to society. Hence, social changes are inevitable. Social change does not occur according to the interest of man. Social change does not go according to our interest only. It is changing naturally. Man changes its direction and speed
Social change is Human Change:
The sociological significance of the change consists in the fact that it involves the human aspect. The composition of society is not constant, but changing. The fact that people affect change and are themselves affected by it makes change extremely important.
Factors of Social change:
Social change results from an interaction of a number of factors. A single factor may trigger a particular change, but normally is always associated with a number of factors. The physical, biological, technological cultural and other factors may together bring about social change.
IV. Answer any FOUR of the following questions in 15 sentences each: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )
Explain Herbert Spencer’s contributions to the development of Sociology.
Herbert Spencer is one of pioneers of Sociology and it has been described Herbert Spencer’s Sociology as socially Darwinistic. Herbert Spencer has been called as “Second Father Sociology.”
Being a famous evolutionist, Spencer was very much influenced by Charles Darwin’s book “The origin of the species”. He tried to apply the theory of Biological evolution to Sociology. Spencer used the concept of evolution of animals to explain the evolution of society and he compares the society to human organism. His theory of organic analogy was very much popular earlier even though it has been rejected now. Spencer claimed that man’s mind has evolved in the same way from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the process of reasoning in the thinking of man.
Spencer believed in two kinds of knowledge: knowledge gained by the individual and knowledge gained by the race. He also developed a theory of two types of society. They are (1) militant society (2) Industrial society. These are corresponded to the evolutionary progression. Thus according to him society is changing from simple form to complex form. Spencer stressed that the whole society should be considered as a unit of society.
According to him the different parts of society are interrelated and interdependent, not only the parts influence the whole system, but also the whole system influences the parts. While explaining the stages of the development of society his attitude of comparison draws a special attention. Major works of Herbert Spencer are “Social Statics”, “First Principles”, “Principles of ‘ Ethics”, “The Man Versus State”, “The study of sociology”, Principles of sociology”.
Explain the importance of Co-operation.
The nature of Co-operations are:
1. Co-operation is universal and continuous: It is a form of social process is not only universal but also continuous. Co-operation makes possible same understanding and adjustment between individuals and groups without which social life is impossible, Co-operation is hailed as the very basis of the communication life of men.
2. Perception of common goals: Individual indulging in Co-operative interaction are aware of some goals. The goal may be winning a victory in a battle, winning a hockey match, students making a combined study and soon perception of a common goal often draws people together.
3. Collective work for common rewards: Co-operation involves combined or collective efforts, rewards are normally shared by them, for example the reward may match the victory or profit shared in an Industry.
4. Co-operation is not necessarily unselfish: It is generally believed to be unselfish, but men may also find that their selfish goals are best served by working together with their fellows. Groups may Co-Operate for self-advancement as in the case of a monopoly or mutual protection, or for the welfare of all groups.
5. Essential conditions of Co-operation: According to Young and Marck Co-operation takes under some conditions. They are as follows. Firstly, Co-operation requires a motivation to seek a goal. Secondly, people must have some knowledge of the benefits of Co-operative activity. This requires some kind of education and must have a favorable attitude towards sharing both the work and the rewards involved.
6. Psychological qualities necessary for the developing Co-operative attitudes: Co-operation requires sympathy and identification, Sympathy depends upon the capacity of the individual to imagine himself in the place of another, particular when the other person is in difficulties. Mutual aid is another name for Co-operation. Co-operation is possible only when there is like mindedness. Similarity of purpose, mutual awareness, mutual understanding, mutual helpfulness and selfless attitudes.
Types of Co-operation:
The types of co-operation can be discussed in the following ways:
1. Direct Co-operation: In the direct cooperation action the individual involved to do the identical function. Ex. Playing together worshiping together, tilling the field together, taking out a cut from the mud, etc., people do work in company with other members, performance of a common task with joint efforts brings them social satisfaction.
2. Indirect Co-operation: In this case people work individually for the attainment of a common end. People do tasks towards a similar end. This is based on the principle of division of labor and specialization. For ex. Farmers, spinners, weavers, dyers, tailors are different and engaged in different activities. But their end remains the Same, that of producing clothes. The modem technological age requires specialization of skill and functions, hence it depends on Co-operation.
Sociologist have also spoken of three other types of Co-operation, namely primary Co-operation Secondary Co-operation and tertiary Co-operation. These types are witnessed in primary groups, secondary groups and between two or more groups respectively.
Explain the four characteristics of Culture.
According to Robert Bierstedt “Culture is the Complex whole that consists of everything we think and do and have as members of society.
Characteristics of culture are:
Culture is learnt: Culture is often understood as learned ways of behaviors. Culture is not an inborn tendency. It is acquired or learnt. It includes those learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore what is learned through socialization and are applied in group life is what is called culture.
Culture is Social: Culture is not the property ofanyindividual.lt is the social heritage of man. It is a way of group life. It originates in and develops through social interaction. It consists of a number of behavior patterns that are common to a group of people. It is the inclusive of all expectation of the members of the groups. Thus culture is a social products shared by most of the members of the group.
Culture is Shared: Culture is a social property. It belongs to the group. The elements of culture such as customs beliefs, idea, folkways, mores, and language are all belonges to the people of a group. These are commonly shared by the members of a group. So culture is the product of group’s life. Culture cannot be hidden and used by one individual. According to Robert Bierstadt. “Culture is something adopted, believed, practiced or possessed by more than one person”.
Culture is Transmissive: Culture is the total social heritage. It is linked with the past. The past continues because it lives in culture. Culture is something that can be transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is passed through language. Language is the chief vehicles of culture. Culture is also passed from one generation to another through traditions and customs. It is a product of human experience.
Culture is Relative: All societies are not uniform. Hence all cultures are also not uniform. They varying and differ from time to time and place to place. There may be common elements such as customs, mores, folkways, art forms, dietary habits, value systems, institutions etc, that may be seen everywhere Culture is also related to time. It varies from time to time. History of every society is the history of change in culture from time to time.
Culture is Dynamic: Culture is not a static phenomenon. It is a Dynamic entity. Changes in society imply changes in its culture. Culture simply means a way of life. It is nothing but a total “design for living”. Factors like inventions, problems, plans and policies etc. have a drastic effect on culture. As society changes a new way of life in evolved and adopted to adjust with the changing circumstances. Every factor during changes in society will also bring changes in the culture. Thus, culture is dynamic.
Culture is Gratifying: Culture is the pilot of every human activity. Culture provides the necessary environment for the satisfaction of human wants . It shows the way for getting the work done. Culture determines and guides the activities of men.
Culture is continuous and cumulative: Culture is an growing phenomenon. It includes the glory of the past and the achievements of present. Eg: Bullock carts, train, Aeroplanes etc., achievements. It is always cumulative.
Culture is Ideal in Nature: It is not merely material and non material culture. One cannot confine the culture as objects which satisfy different goals of life. The members of society provide psychological meanings to their own cultural traits. They attach the sentiments to their cultural elements. In this regard Herbert Spencer considers’culture is neither organic, nor inorganic but it is super organic. It is commonly witnessed that people never tolerate any condemnation of their culture.
Explain the primary functions of Family.
The primary functions are;
Member replacement and physical maintenance: In order to survive, every society must replace members who die and keep the survivors alive. The regulations of reproduction is centered in the family as are cooking and eating and care of the sick. Once children are bom, they will be nurtured and protected within the family. It is the family that feeds, clothes and shelters them.
Regulation of sexual behavior:The family regulates sexual behavior. Each member’s sexual behavior is influenced to some extent by what is learnt in the family setting. The sexual attitudes and patterns of behavior in the family reflects societal norms and regulate the sexual behavior,
Socialization of children: The family carries out the responsibility of socializing each child. Children are taught largely by their families to conform to socially approved patterns of behavior. The family as an act of instrument of transmission of culture, it serves the individual as an instrument of socialization.
Status transmission: Individual social identity is initially fixed by family membership being bom to parents of a given status. Children take on the socio-economic class standing of their parents and the culture of the class into which they are born, including its value, behavior patterns, in addition to the internalizing family attitudes and beliefs. Children are treated and defined by others as extensions of the social identity of their parents.
Emotional support: The family as a primary group is an important source of affecting entertainment love and interaction, caring. It is seemingly the nature of human begins to establish social interdependency, not only to meet physical needs, but also to gratify emotional and psychological needs also.
Fulfillment of needs: Family is the most important primary institution that gives moral and emotional support for the members. Providing safety, security, love and affection. Warmth and comfort. It provides defense against Isolation. Family as an health agency provides most of the help for the young, the old and the sick. It is by large responsibility for the Health of its members.
Explain the characteristics of Marriage.
Marriage is more or less a universal institutional: It is found among the pre-literate as well as literate people. It is enforced as a social rule in some of the societies. Example: In Japan celibacy is publicly condemned. In Korea, unmarried individual are called ‘Half’ persons. Among the Hindus, marriage is a sacrament which is regarded as more or less obligatory. The Todas of Nilagiri refuse to perform funeral rites for a girl if she dies before her marriage. But they do perform it after completing some sort of marriage ceremony for the corpse. According to the Chinese philosopher Confucius, an individual who remains unmarried throughout his life commits a crime.
Relationship between Man and Woman: Marriage is a union of man and woman. It indicates a relationship between one or more men to one or more women. Who should marry whom? One should marry how many? Are the questions which represent social rules regarding marriage differing significantly.
Marital bond is relatively durable: Marriage indicates a long lasting bond between the husband and wife. Hence, it is not co-extensive with sex life. It excludes relationships with prostitutes or any other sexual relationship which is viewed as casual and not sanctioned by custom, law or church. Marital relationship between man and women lasts even after the sexual satisfaction is obtained.
Marriage requires social approval: A union of man and woman becomes a marital bond only when the society gives its approval. When marriage is given the hallmark of social approval, it becomes a legal contract.
Marriage is associated with some civil or religious ceremony: Marriage gets its social recognition through some ceremony. This ceremony may have its own rites, rituals, customs, formalities, etc, it means marriage has to be concluded in public and in a solemn manner. Sometimes as s sacrament it receives the blessing of religion. Marriage among the Hindus, for examples, is regarded as a sacrament. It is connected with the sacred rituals such as vagdana, homa, – kanyadana, magalya dharana, saptapadi etc.
Marriage creates mutual obligations: Marriage imposes certain rights and duties on both the husband and wife. Both are required to support each other and their children.
Explain the types if Environment.
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.
Environment which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments
Physical Environment: It consists of earth, water, mountains and hills, forests, planets, stars, lakes, minerals sources etc., This is called Physical or Natural Environment. The Physical Environment is not created by man: hence it is called the Natural environment.
Biological Environment: This category of environment includes all living things on • earth. For the production and growth of all living creatures, environment is complimentary and protecting.
Social Environment: Social Environment is man-made. Social environment is nothing but the collective and cooperative life of human beings. Sociologists feel that “man is a social animal and one cannot live without society”. For the survival of mankind there must be a cordial relationship with environment.
V. Answer any TWO of the following questions in twenty-five sentences each: ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Explain the importance of the study of Sociology.
a. Development of Personality : Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.
b. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the ‘ Social World’, So that, we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.
c. Solutions of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.
d. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.
e. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmes for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.
f. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subj ect to be studied in many colleges and Universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like Education, Social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Development, etc.
g. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.
h. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us. So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.
Explain the characteristics of Society.
Characteristics of society.
(a) Society- The Group of Groups: People collect together to form groups. Such groups combine together to give rise to society. Each society has family, neighbor, village, city, labor association, religious gathering, Political Parties etc, H.M.Johnson – Has thus remarked that “society is the group of groups”, but it is not’just like a crowd. It is a system. It consists of innumerable groups which fulfill the various needs of the people.
(b) Society is a web of Social Relations: Social relation means -’’The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range. For example Teacher – student, Parent-children, patient-doctor, husband-wife and so on. One individual enters into several social relationships at the same time. Maclver and Page- Point out that “society exists only where social beings behave towards one another in ways determined by their recognisation of one another. Thus society is a web of social relations.
(c) Similarity or likeness: The principal of ‘ likeness’ is essential for society. It exists among the people who have similarities with regards to their needs, work, aims, ideals, values and so on. these similarities inspire the people to interact and like each other and live together. Hence mutual intimacy, Co-operation, love and affection, Sympathy, sacrifice and feeling of oneness among people develop. Similarly the people of same nature and behavior live together in society.
(d) Differences in Society: Likeness and differences are two faces of the same coin. Therefore we see natural differences among people in their interest, ability, talent, attitude, intelligence and so on. Thus we find farmers, labors. Teachers, soldiers, businessmen, advocates, doctors, engineers and other working in different capacities, Maclver and page – Said that “Primary likeness and Secondary differences are the chief features of human society.
(e) Co-operation and Division of Labor: Human Society is essentially based on ‘co-operation and division of labour. Due to the feeling of co-operation people share their joys and Sorrows. The division of labour depends on people’s interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance. Thus co-operative and division of labor are reciprocal.
Explain the types of Conflict?
The Characteristics of Conflict :
Conflict is Universal: Conflict or cash of interests is Universal in nature. It is present in almost all the societies. In some societies conflict may be very acute and vigorous while in some others. It may be very mild. Karl Marx, Frederich Engets, Saint Simon and others have emphasized the role of conflict as a fundamental factor in the social life of man.
Karl Marx, the architect of communism, has said that “The history of the hitherto existing human society is nothing but the history of the class struggle.” He has mentioned the capitalists and the laborers as belonging to two distinct social classes which have mutually opposite interests.
Conflict is a conscious action: Individual and group who are involved in Conflict are aware of the fact that they are Conflicting As Park and Burgess have pointed out conflict is always conscious and evokes the deepest emotions and stronger passions.
Conflict is personalized by competition: When competition is personalized it leads to conflict. In the struggle to overcome the other person or group, the goal is temporarily related to a level of secondary importance.
Conflict is not continuous but intermittent: Conflict never takes place continuously. It takes place occasionally. No society can sustain itself in a state of continuous Conflict.
Conflict is conditioned by culture: Conflict is affected by the nature of the group and its particular culture. The objects of Conflicts may be property, power and status, freedom of action and though, or any other highly desired value when the stability of a political order is threatened, political Conflict may be the result. If sectarianism is ripe, we may expect Conflict to occur in region. The culturally determined values of a society will set the stage for this struggles.
Conflict and norms: Not only culture modifies conflict and its forms but also controls and governs it. When conflict is infrequent and when no adequate techniques have been worked out, more violent and unpredictable sorts at Conflict such as race, riots arise.
Frustration and insecurity promote Conflict: Sometimes, factors like frustration and insecurity promote Conflicts within the same society, individual feel frustrated if they are thoroughly disturbed in their attempts to reach their goals. These goals may be desire for power, position, prestige, status, wealth, money ere. Insecurities like economic crisis, unemployment, the fear of deprivation of love and affection may add to the frustration. In 1 extreme case of this sort one may even lose mental balance or even commit suicide. A society marked by widespread insecurity is one in which Conflict is potential.
Types of conflict: George Simmel has distinguished four types of conflict (a) war (b) feud or rational strife (c) litigation (d) conflict of impersonal ideas.
War: according to Simmel war represents a deep seated antagonistic impulse in men. But to bring out this impulse into action some define objectives is needed. The objective may be the desire to gain material interests.
Feud and factional strife: this is an intra-group conflict. It may arise because of injustice alleged to have been done by one group to another.
Litigation: Litigation is a judicial form of conflict. It is a judicial struggle by an individual or group to protect right to possessions. This kind of conflict is more objectives in nature.
Conflict of impersonal ideas: This is a conflict carried on by the individuals not for themselves but for an ideal. In such a conflict each party attempts to justify truthfulness of its own ideas. For ex, the communists and Capitalists carry on conflicts to prove that their own system can bring in a better world order.
Briefly explain the functions of Education.
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously Reformative function Education is of fundamental significance to the development and progress of human society. Although education as a process of socialization.
Education has also the capacity to liberate the human mind from shackles of the past and the present. It has the potential to make men question the ruling values and norms in society, to make them rebel- against the existing social constraints and to solutions to the developed social contradiction and constraints outside the framework of he established system. This we call the transformative, progressive or reformative function of education.
The American sociologists Bowles and Gintis argues that the major role of education in modem world is the reproduction of labor power. The education system helps to achieve these objectives largely through the hidden curriculum. It is not the content of lessons and the examinations that pupils take which are important, but the form that teaching and learning take and the way that schools are organized. The hidden curriculum consists of those things that pupils learn through the experience of attending school, rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions.
According to Bowles and Gintis, the hidden curriculum shapes the future workforce in the following ways:
- it helps to produce a subservient workforce of uncritical, passive and docile workers. Far from living up to liberal ideal of encouraging self-development.
- Bowles and Gintis claim that the hidden curriculum encourages an acceptance of hierarchy. Schools are organized on a hierarchical principle of authority and control.
- At school, pupils learn to be motivated by external rewards, just as the workforce in a capitalist society is motivated by external rewards. Because students have so little control over, and little feeling of involvement in, their schoolwork, they get little satisfaction from studying.
VI. Answer any TWO of the following questions in fifteen sentences each: ( 2 × 5 = 10 )
Explain the characteristics of Community.
Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.
(a) Locality or Geographical area: A Community is ja territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community. Locality Means – “A group of people became a community only when it starts to reside permanently in a definite locality.
In contrast with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, gives fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence peoples social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.
(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “a feeling of belongingness towards, or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common interests, and similar lifestyles awaken community sentiments in people.
Other Characteristics of community:
1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.
2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.
3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.
Mention the difference between Primary and Secondary group?
The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.
Characteristics of Primary Group:
(a) Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary Groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.
(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few
members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate. ‘
(c) Physical proximity or nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.
(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.
(e) Similarity of background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less
the same background. These must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.
(f) Shared interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together, any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.
Secondary group :
In the secondary groups, the relationships secondary, relatively impersonal contractual task oriented, hence limited focus of its activities.
Characteristics of Secondary groups :
(a) Dominance of secondary relations: The relationships that are found with hi secondary groups are formal indirect impersonal and secondary for example the relationship between teacher and students.
(b) Large in size: The secondary groups are generally large in size incomparision to primary groups that may thousands of members. Trade union, corporation, international association, etc. are secondary groups and they have thousands of members.
(c) No physical basis: Secondary groups are not necessarily characterized by physical proximity. Many secondary groups are not limited to any definite area. The members such a groups are scattered over vast area.
(d) Nature of membership: Membership in the case of secondaiy groups in mainly voluntary. Individuals are at liberty to join or go away from the groups, for example : they are at liberty to join political parties.
(e) Specific ends and interest: Secondary groups are formed for the realization of some specific interest’s ends. They are often called ‘Special interest groups’. Members are interested in the groups because they have specific ends to aim at.
(f) Nature of group control: Informal means of social control are loss effective in regulating the relations of members. Moral control is only secondary formal means of social control such as law, legislation, police, court etc. are made use of to control the behavior of members.
Explain the science and technological factors for Social change.
Use of machines and technological tools are common in modem soci ‘ Scientific development and approach towards making life more convenient, help the grow di of society Ogbum and Nimkoff remark that the Most novel phenomena in society is not capitalism but Mechanization. The role of technology can be discovered in the following ways:
Transport and communication: After 18th century, we see big changes in society due to industrialization, communication and transportation. Such development took place only because of growth in technology. As a result now modem technology has changed the joint family system and its relationships. Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as “Global Village”.
Growth of classes: Industrialization leads to growth of urbanization. Industrialization brought opportunities for new professions. Youths are provided new jobs. Along with it new “Class” system developed in society. Society is classified as upper middle and lower class.
Agriculture: Changes in the agricultural technology directly influenced rural community invention of new agricultural tools and techniques’ chemical manures brought increase in agricultural production which influenced standard of living in village.
Explain the importance of Social research.
- Contribution to development knowledge.
- Helps to social progress.
- Develop rational attitude.
- Helps to development of all social science.
- Helps to understand social change.