1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South)

   

Students can Download 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South), Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
Who is called the ‘Father of Sociology’?
Answer:
August Comte.

Question 2.
What is Co-operation?
Answer:
Co-operation is one of the basic pervasive and continuous social process.

Question 3.
What is law?
Answer:
According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a form of social rule emanating political agencies”.

Question 4.
Mention any one feature of competition.
Answer:

  1. Scarcity as a condition of competition.
  2. Competition and affluence.

Question 5.
State any one importance of competition.
Answer:
Social competition.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
What is monogamy?
Answer:
Monogamy restricts the individual to one spouse at a time under this system, at any given time a man can have one husband and women can have only one husband.

Question 7.
Who introduced the concept ‘cultural lag’?
Answer:
Cultural lag was introduced by W.F. Ogburn.

Question 8.
What is migration?
Answer:
Migration is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in the society.

Question 9.
What is observation?
Answer:
P.V. Young defines observation as “a systematic and a deliberated study through the eye of occurrences at the time they occur”.

Question 10.
What is water pollution?
Answer:
Any activity of human beings resulting in variations in the water quality is known as water pollution.

II. Answer any ten questions. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
Name the two books of August Compte.
Answer:
Positive Philosophy and Positive polity.

Question 12.
Mention any two characteristics of society.
Answer:

  1. Society is the group of groups.
  2. Society is a web of social relations.

Question 13.
Mention any two types of Social Processes.
Answer:
Co-operation, competition, conflict, accommodation and assimilation.

Question 14.
Mention any two features of assimilation.
Answer:

  1. Assimilation is not confined to single field only.
  2. Assimilation is a slow and gradual process.

Question 15.
What is peer groups?
Answer:
The peer group consists of his age mates, play mates, status maters, those who form the inner circle of friends, class mates, work mates etc.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
Mention any two functions of religion.
Answer:
The two functions of religion are :

  1. Supernatural and sacred
  2. Provides moral prescriptions
  3. Beliefs and practice
  4. Methods of salutation.

Question 17.
Mention any two types of social control.
Answer:

  1. Informal social control
  2. Formal social control

Question 18.
Define development.
Answer:
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, development means a gradual unfolding a fallen working out of details of anything, it is in this sense that we often speak of the development of a child or of a disease, but the case of social development it is difficult to speak in the same way.

Question 19.
Give any two examples for technological change.
Answer:
Mobile phone, computers.

Question 20.
State two types of sources of primary data. ,
Answer:
The major sources of primary data are observation, interview, questionnaire, social survey.

Question 21.
What is greenhouse effect?
Answer:
Deforestation is one of the main reasons for this global warming. C02, Methane, carbon Monoxide, Nitric acid etc. results in increase in temperature of the globe. Joseph Fourier found out this fact and called it as Green House effect.

Question 22.
What is ‘Electra complex?
Answer:
If a girl develops the ‘Electra complex’ that is a feeling of jealousy towards her mother and love towards her father.

III. Answer any four following question. ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 23.
Explain the difference between Physical science and Social science.
Answer:
1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South) - 1
1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South) - 2
1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South) - 3

Question 24.
Explain the characteristics of secondary groups.
Answer:
In the secondary groups the relationships secondary, relatively impersonal contractual task – oriented, hence I limited focus of its activities.

(a) Dominance of Secondary Relations: The relationships that are found within secondary groups are formal indirect impersonal and secondary for example the relationship between the teachers and the students.

(b) Large in size: The secondary groups are generally large in size in comparision to primary groups that may contain thousands of members. Trade union, corporation, international associations, etc. are secondary groups and they have thousands of members.

(c) No physical basis: Secondary groups are not necessarily characterized by physical proximity. Many secondary groups are not limited to any definite area. The members such a groups are scattered over vast area.

(d) Nature of Membership: Membership is the case of secondary groups in mainly voluntary. Individuals are at liberty to join or go away from the groups, for example: they are at liberty to join political parties.

(e) Specific Ends and interest: Secondary groups are formed for the realization of some specific interests ends. They are often called ‘Special interest groups’. Members are interested in the groups because they have specific ends to aim at.

(f) Nature of Group control: Informal means of social control are loss effective in regulating the relations of members. Moral control is only secondary formal means of social control such as law, legislation, police, court, etc. are made use of to control the behavior of members.

Question 25.
Explain the characteristics of law.
Answer:
Law is the most powerful formal means of social control in the modern society. It is an l indispensable part of the modem social life. Laws appear only in societies where a political organization called “Government” is found. According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a form of social rule emanating from political agencies”.

Characteristics:

  • Laws are the general condition of human activity prescribed by the state for its members.
  • Law is called law, only if enacted by a proper law making authority. Hence it is a product of conscious thought deliberate attempts and careful planning.
  • Law is written definite, clear, precise and unambiguous.
  • Law applies equally to all without exception in identical circumstances.
  • Violation of law is followed by penalties and punishments determined by the authority of the state.
  • Laws are always written down and recorded.
  • Laws are not the result of voluntary consent of persons against whom they are directed.
  • Laws a dynamic and subject to change. Law. is not a static body of rules handed down from generation to generation. Rather, it reflects continuously changing standards of, what is right and wrong of how violations are to be determined, and of what sanctions are to be applied.
  • Laws differ from country to country. Though the outward pattern of the legal system to be same every where. The content of laws often differ significantly.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
Describe the two types classification of Co-operation.
Answer:
Types of Co-operation:
The types of co-operation can be discussed in the following ways:

1. Direct Co-operation: In the direct cooperation action the individual involved to do the identical function. Ex. Playing together worshiping together, tilling the field together, taking out a cut from the mud, etc., people do work in company with other members, performance of a common task with joint efforts brings them social satisfaction.

2. Indirect Co-operation: In this case people work individually for the attainment of a common end. People do tasks towards a similar end. This is based on the principle of division of labor and specialization. For ex. Farmers, spinners, weavers, dyers, tailors are different and engaged in different activities. But their end remains the same, that of producing clothes. The modem technological age requires specialization of skill and functions, hence it depends on Co-operation.

Sociologi st have also spoken of three other types of Co-operation, namely Primary Co¬operation Secondary Co-operation and tertiary Co-operation. These types are witnessed in primary groups, secondary groups and between two or more groups respectively.

Question 27.
What is competition? Explain its major types:
Answer:
Competition plays an important role in social life. Competition performs a number of useful functions in society.
The major types are:

(a) Social Competition: People always compete to get into higher status and position, Competition of this kind is mostly observed in ‘open’ societies. Wherever individual ability, merit, talents and capacities are recognized.

(b) Economic Competition: The most important and at the same time the most vigorous forms of Competition is the economic Competition. It is witnessed in the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods

(c) Political Competition: In the modern world Competition for political power is always present. Political parties are always engage in Competition to secure power. Such a Competition becomes apparent especially during elections.

(d) Cultural competition: Some sociologists have also spoken of cultural competition. It may take place between two or more cultural groups. Human history provides various example of such a Competition.

(e) Racial competition: Competition may also take place between racial groups such as the Blacks and the Whites, Aryans and Dravidians etc.

Question 28.
Describe briefly different stages of socialisation.
Answer:
H.M. Johnson, in his treatise “Sociology-A Systematic Introduction” has listed four stages of socialization. These stages are

  1. The oral stage
  2. The anal stage
  3. The oedipal stage
  4. Stage of Adolescence.

1. The oral stage: The oral stage commences at birth arid continues till the completion of first year. At birth the child faced the first crisis that is he must breath, exert himself to fed, exposed to conditions of wet and other discomforts. Here the child cries a lot for everything, by this the child establishes oral dependency and also learns to signal his needs for care.

In this stage the child is founding sub system consisting of two persons himself and his mother. For others the child is little more than a possession. The child cannot differentiate the role of others from the mother. Thus in this stage in the personality of the child, his role and that of the mother are not probably clearly distinguished. Hence the infant and mother are merged. Sigmund Freud called the stage as the stage of a “primary identification”.

2. The Anal stage: According to Sigmond Freud the Anal Stage normally begins after first year. Completed during the third year. The crisis of this period is called anal crisis and is caused by imposition of new demands. In this stage the child is asked to take over some degree of care for himself. Anal disciplines are learned through what in ordinary termed as “Toilet Training”.

In this stage the child internalizes to clearly separated roles- his own and that of the mother. The child now apart from receiving love and care also starts giving love in return. In this stage the child becomes capable of discriminating between correct and incorrect performances in two ways. Firstly by the training from the socializing agent and secondly by being rewarded for correct actions and punished for incorrect or wrong actions.

3. The Oedipal stage: The third stage begins from the fourth year of the child and lasts up to puberty, that is the age of twelve or thirteen years. At this stage he starts taking himself as the member of the family. He also becomes familiar with his or her roles. Sigmund Freud has suggested that at this stage the boy develops “Oedipus complex”. That is a feeling of Jealousy towards his father and love towards his mother.

Likewise a girl develops the “Electra complex” that is a feeling of jealousy towards her mother and love towards her father. These feeling in both the cases are believed to be sexual. Moreover indentifying different role models is an important thing to be observed in this stage.

In this stage the child joins the group of his playmates. Interest in the opposite sex in this period in relatively content. In this stage the boy makes three kinds of identification. They are.

  • Sex role identification that is identification with the father and brother.
  • Role of the child in the family that is identification with his siblings.
  • Identification with the family as a member.

4. The Stage of Adolescence: The fourth stage begins roughly at puberty. This is an important stage of socialization because of changes like physiological and psychological start taking place within the individual. In this stage the young ones would like to free themselves from parental control. This stage is said to be very sensitive for boys and girls because they pass through various types of emotional crisis. Sex instinct which was latent till now is aroused and an interest in the opposite sex is heightened. But the sexual norms prevailing in the society will not allow them to satisfy it as and when they wish.

KSEEB Solutions

IV. Answer any four following questions in 15 sentences each. ( 4 × 5 = 20 )

Question 29.
Explain any four features of culture.
Answer:
According to Malinowski: “culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”

Characteristics of culture are:

Culture is learnt: Culture is often understood as learned ways of behaviors. Culture is not an inborn tendency. It is acquired or learnt. It includes those learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore what is learned through socialization and are acquired in group life are what is called culture.

Culture is Social: Culture is not the property of any individual. It is the social heritage of man. It is a way of group life. It originates in and develops through social interaction. It consists of a number of behavior patterns that are common to a group of people. It is the inclusive of all expectation of the members of the groups. Thus culture is a social products shared by most of the members of the group.

Culture is Shared: Culture is a social property. It belongs to the group. The elements of culture such as customs beliefs, idea, folkways, mores, and language are all belonged to the people of a group. These are commonly shared by the members of a group. So culture is the product of groups life. Culture cannot be hidden and used by one individual. According to Robert Bierstadt. “Culture is something adopted, used believed, practiced or possessed by more than one person”.

Culture is Transmissive: Culture is the total social heritage. It is linked with the past. The past continues because it lives in culture. Culture is something that can be transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is passed through language. Language is the chief vehicles of culture. Culture is also passed from one generation to another through traditions and customs. It is a product of human experience.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
Briefly explain the types of marriage.
Answer:
Marriage is an important and universal social institution. As a social institution, it provides a recognized form for entering into a relatively enduring sexual relationship for the bearing and rearing of children. It is thus primarily a way of regulating human reproduction it forms are:
More marriage has mainly three forms :

  • Monogamy
  • Polyguny
  • Polyandry.

Polygamy denotes marriage to more than one mate at one time and takes the form of either Its types are:

  • Polygyny
  • Polyandry

Polygamy denotes marriage to more than one mate at one time and takes the form of either Its types are:

  • Sororal Polygyny
  • Non- sororal Polygyny

Polyandry means one wife with two or more husband:
The two communities who practiced polyandry are:

  • Some tribes in South India, to das are considered
  • A classic example for Polyandrous People.

Question 31.
How is the term ‘Education’ derived.
Answer:
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously

According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously

Family is the first school and the mother is the first teacher is the dictum that sufficiently explains the role of informal education.

Question 32.
Explain the role of cultural factor social change.
Answer:
Cultural factor: Man is a social human being. Also man is a cultural being, the term society itself express that, it is a cultural phenomenon. Without culture it is difficult to understand social life.
Mainly three process can be observed which bring change:

  • Discovery, discovery is the perception which unfold a reality that already exists, for egg. Vasco- D-Gama discovered way to India by sea.
  • Invention: invention is use of existing knowledge to produce something that did not exist before
  • Diffusion: diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another. For egg. Western culture is spreading in east. Buddhism and its culture spread in China and Shri Lanka.

Question 33.
Explain the role of biological factor social change.
Answer:
Biological factor: It indicates two types (A) One is non human biological factor and (B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth.

Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves (1)size of population (2) structure of population (3) Heredity (4) race (5) Birth rate (6)Death rate (7) fertility (8)sex ratio

Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.

Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense r blem in nation.

Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration (1) Urban rural migration (2) Rural urban migration.

Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’ One child norm,’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 34.
Discuss the types of interview.
Answer:
Interview: The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.

Structured Interview : has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number * of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for the generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance . than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes sei ve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

KSEEB Solutions

V. Answer any two of the following in 25 sentences. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 35.
What is sociology? Describe its characteristics.
Answer:
Sociology is the youngest among the Social Sciences. The term “Sociology” is derived from Latin word “Socius” means ‘Companion’ or ‘Associate’ and Greek word “LOGOS” means ‘Science’ or ‘Study of Society’. Thus the etymological meaning of the term Sociology is “Study of Society”.

The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :

1. Sociology is an independent science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science, it has its own field of study, boundary and method of approach.

2. Sociology is a Social Science and not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to Physical Science. As a social science, it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behavior, Social Activities, and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like Anthropology, Political Science, Economics, Psychology, etc.

3. Sociology is a categorical and not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and not “as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go.

4. Sociology is a pure science and not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure Science because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge. On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, social workers, and citizens.

5. Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science: Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events. But it studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit itself to the study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary, it deals with them in a general or abstract manner, as social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.

6. Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalizations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a sociologist make generalizations on the following:

  • Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
  • Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.

7. Sociology is a General Social science and not a Special Social Science: The area of inquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.

8. Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because, it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses that role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modern science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.

Question 36.
What is primary group? Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
C.H. Cooley classified groups into primary group refers to a “social groups characterized by fact-to-face relationship, mutual aid and companionship” example family neighborhood, friends, club, peer groups etc.

The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.
Characteristics of primary groups.

(a) Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.

(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate.

(c) Physical Proximity or Nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.

(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other
things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.

(e) Similarity of Background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less the same background, these must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.

(f) Shared Interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together. Any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 37.
Briefly explain the general characteristics of family.
Answer:
The basic unit of the social structure in every society is the family. It associated with such emotive issues as love, marriage, home and childbearing.
According to Macular and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”

The characteristics of family are:

Family is an Universal: As stated earlier, the family is the most permanent and pervasive of all social institutions. All societies both large and small, private and civilized, ancient and modern, have institutionalized the process of procreation of the species and the rearing of the young. It is a permanent and universal institution and one of the constants of human life.

Biological Basis of the Family: The institution of the family is to be explained in terms of biological factor-the existence of two sexes and the sexual character of reproduction in the human species. It appears as s natural answer to the human sexual drive, a phenomenon solidly based in the biology of the human organism.

Limited size: Family is defined as a primary group. It may include parents and their unmarried children or parents and their children. The bonds that the together these limited number of members with limited common interests are the outcome of emotional factors such as love, mutual affection and solicitude. This emotional basis of the family makes it an ideally suitable primary social group in every society.

Common Residence and Nomenclature, satisfy basic needs: The family is one of the most durable of all social institutions. Each family has s residence, an address and a name, a family can mean two quite different things depending upon the vantage from which we view it.

Each family has common habitation for its living. Without a dwelling place, place the task of childbearing and rearing cannot be adequately met. however, family has a wider meaning than mere household since a family can be spread out geographically sometimes but yet emotionally, socially and legally be known as a family.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 38.
Describe the merit and demerit of interview.
Answer:
Interview
The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.

Structured Interview : has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for th&generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication.
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

Merits of Interview method

  • It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
  • It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
  • There is a high rate of response
  • Interview method can be used with all types of persons.

Demerits of Interview method

  • There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interview
  • There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
  • There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself. Interview is a difficult skill and needs training
  • It is a costly and time-consuming method.

KSEEB Solutions

VI. Answer any two of the following in 15 sentences. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 39.
Explain the role of Herbet Spencer in the development of sociology.
Answer:
Herbert Spencer is one of pioneers of Sociology and it has been described Herbert Spencer’s Sociology as socially Darwinistic. Herbert Spencer has been called as “Second Father Sociology.”

Being a famous evolutionist, Spencer was very much influenced by Charles Darwin’s book “The origin of the species”. He tried to apply the theory of Biological evolution to Sociology. Spencer used the concept of evolution of animals to explain the evolution of society and he compares the society to human organism. His theory of organic analogy was very much popular earlier even though it has been rejected now. Spencer claimed that man’s mind has evolved in the same way from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the process of reasoning in the thinking of man.

Spencer believed in two kinds of knowledge: knowledge gained by the individual and knowledge gained by the race. He also developed a theory of two types of society. They are (1) militant society (2) Industrial society. These are corresponded to the evolutionary progression. Thus according to him society is changing from simple form to complex form. Spencer stressed that the whole society should be considered as a unit of society.

According to him the different parts of society are interrelated and interdependent, not only the parts influence the whole system, but also the whole system influences the parts. While explaining the stages of the development of society his attitude of comparison draws a special attention. Major works of Herbert Spencer are “Social Statics”, “First Principles”, “Principles of ‘ Ethics”, “The Man Versus State”, “The study of sociology”, Principles of sociology”.

Question 40.
What do you know about acid rain?
Answer:
Acid rain: Factories and vehicles excrete sulphur, Nitrogen oxide. These remain the environment for longtime. By chemical and photo chemical reactions, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed and combines with water vapor in the environment. This is called ‘Acid Rain’.

One country’s waste will be result in another countries acid rain. For example waste from factories and vehicles in India reaches environment and sulphur, corbondioxide will causes acid rain in Pakistan and China.

Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid form the atmosphere is deposited on the earth’s surface. Polluted things like sulphur, oxides and nitrogen oxides, coal, petroleum based coal then bum the smoke contributes to acid rain. Idol/ marbles will be leached because of acid rain. Leaves in the forests will be dropped down. Acid rain when they falls on the leaves destroys it.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 41.
Explain the types of environment.
Answer:
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.
Environment which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments

Physical Environment: It consists of earth, water, mountains and hills, forests, planets, stars, lakes, minerals sources etc., This is called Physical or Natural Environment. The Physical Environment is not created by man: hence it is called the Natural environment.

Biological Environment: This category of environment includes all living things on • earth. For the production and growth of all living creatures, environment is complimentary and protecting.

Social Environment: Social Environment is man-made. Social environment is nothing but the collective and cooperative life of human beings. Sociologists feel that “man is a social animal and one cannot live without society”. For the survival of mankind there must be a cordial relationship with environment.

error: Content is protected !!