1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 (South)

Students can Download 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 (South), Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 (South)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
In which year the term sociology was introduced?
Answer:
The word Sociology was introduced in the year1839. ,

Question 2.
How is the term SOCIETY derived?
Answer:
The term Society is derived from Latin word ‘Socius’ which means “companionship or friendship’

Question 3.
Hojv wrote the book of SOCIAL CONTROL?
Answer:
E.A. Ross. Written the book of social control.

Question 4.
Mention any one factor that is favourable of Assimilation.
Answer:
Intimate social relationships.

Question 5.
Mention any one elements of Interaction.
Answer:
Contact and communication.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Who introduced the concept “CULTURAL LAG”?
Answer:
Cultural lag was introduced by W. F. Og burn.

Question 7.
State any one function pf Education.
Answer:
Preservation function, Reformative function.

Question 8.
What is ‘Progress’?
Answer:
The progress means to a forward movement of population from one area to another.

Question 9.
What is Social Research?
Answer:
According to William P Scott Social research is any research that focuses on the study of human groups or the processes of social interaction.

Question 10.
Who introduced the concept of Greenhouse effect?
Answer:
Joseph Fourier.

KSEEB Solutions

II. Answer any ten questions in two to three sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
What is Division of Labour?
Answer:
The division of labor depends on peoples interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance”.

Question 12.
Define Association.
Answer:
According to Maclver and Page “An association is an organization deliberately formed for the collective pursuit of some interest or a set of interests, which its members share”.

Question 13.
Mention Two types of Social Control.
Answer:

  1. Informal control
  2. FormaI control.

Question 14.
How is the term Co-Operation derived?
Answer:
The term co-operation is derived from the Latin word ‘co’ meaning ‘together’ and ‘operari’ meaning to work.

Question 15.
Mention any two types of Accommodation.
Answer:

  1. Yielding to coercion
  2. Compromise
  3. The role of third party in compromise
  4. Toleration.

Question 16.
Name the informal agents of Socialization.
Answer:
Formal agencies and Formal education.

Question 17.
Mention any two functions of Religion.
Answer:
The two functions of religion are:

  1. Supernatural and the sacred
  2. Beliefs and practice
  3. Provides moral prescriptions
  4. Methods of salutation

Question 18.
Define Social Change.
Answer:
According to M. E. Lones “social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of any aspect of social process. Social patterns, social interactions or social organization”

Question 19.
Give two differences between Progress and Evolution.
Answer:

Progress Evolution
Progressive is a mobility from inferior to superior which express ideal Evolution is in one direction it is always move from homogeneity to heterogeneity
Progress is change towards definite goal, if progress involves human satisfaction Evolution is a continuous process. It is intrinsic and it continues only within the structure.

Question 20.
State Two types of Observation.
Answer:
The two types of observations are:

  • Structured: In this form of interview, there are definite, concrete and predetmined questions are framed.
  • Unstructured : it includes a set of questions which are not structured in advances and which may be adjusted according to need during the question period.

Question 21.
What is Acid rain?
Answer:
Factories and vehicles excrete sulphuric, Nitrogen oxides. These remain the environment for longtime. By chemical and photo chemical reac tions, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed and combines with water vapors in the environment, This is called ‘Acid Rain’.

Question 22.
What are the types of Environment?
Answer:
They are four types of environment they are:

  • Physical environment
  • Biological environment
  • Social environment
  • The science of ecology

KSEEB Solutions

III. Answer any four following question. ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 23.
Explain Alex inkeles views about the subject matter of sociology.
Answer:
Alex Inkle’s in his book “What is Sociology?” has provided a general outline of the fields of Sociology on which there is considerable agreement among sociologists. It could be presented in the following manner:

1. Providing a sociological analysis of human culture and society: The major concern of sociology is human society and its culture. A sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of human society and culture with Sociological perspective. He evinces interest in the evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the major stages in the evolutionary process. An attempt is also made “to analyses the factors and forces underlying historical transformations of society”. Due importance is given to the scientific method that is adopted in the sociological studies.

2. Analysing the primary units: Sociology has given sufficient attention to the study of primary units of social life. In this area it is concerned with social acts and social relationships, individual personality, groups of all varieties, communities(urban, rural and tribal), association organisations and population.

3. Studying the Nature and Functions of Basic Social Institutions: Social Institutions constitute the basic fabric the society. Any social system is built on the foundation of social institutions. Institutions such as – the family and kinship religions and morality, Economic and political, legal and educational, scientific and aesthetic, recreational and expressive, medical and welfare, etc. Serve the most important needs of man. Sociology develops deep into the study of the origin and development, structure and function, changes and challenges of a wide variety of social institutions.

4. Sociology throws Light on the Fundamental social processes: Human society is neither static nor uniform. It is dynamic and diverse. This dynamic element in society is reflected by what are known as “social processes”. They reveal the way in which human interaction assume different patterns and courses in social life. The social processes such as co-operation and competition, accommodation, and assimilation, social conflict and communication, social differentiation and stratification, socialisation social control and deviance, social integration and social change, etc., assume prominence in sociological studies.

Question 24.
Explain the Elements of Community.
Answer:
Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.

(a) Locality or Geographical area: A community is a territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community. Locality Means – “a group of people became a community only when it starts to reside permanently in a definite locality”.

In contrast with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, provides to fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence people’s social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.

(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “A feeling of belongingness towards, or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common interests, and similar lifestyles awakens community sentiments in pepple.

Other Characteristics of community:

1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.

2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.

3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.

4. Social Control: Every community has its own rules and regulations to control the relationship of its members. The nature of this regulation depends very much on the nature and type of the community. For example. In the rural and tribal communities informal means of regulations such as customs, folkways, mores, beliefs, rites and rituals etc are enough to exercise social pressure on the behavior of the people.

5. A Specific Name: Every community has some particular name, whether community is a village or a city or a tribe it has its own name and identity, on the basis of these one community is distinguished from the other.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
Explain any Five Characteristics of Compettion.
Answer:
(1) Competition is a culturally Patterned Process:
It is present to some degree in all societies but it differs greatly from society to society. The fiercely competitive Kwakiutl society (a tribe of North America) and the relatively non-competitive Zuni (a pubelo Indian group of New Mexico) society offer an example of a striking contrast. American society though competitive, yet this competition is sharply limited.

(2) Competition is Impersonal:
Impersonal means, the competition is usually not directed against any individual or group in particular. Competition may be personal when the competitors know one another but generally its nature is impersonal.

(3) Competition is Unconscious:
Competition takes place on the unconscious level. Competitors at many times are not aware about other competitors and even if they are aware, they do not pay any heed to the activities of their competitors. Candidates, appearing for IAS or any other competitive examination, do not know one another and their whole attention is focused on their studies (reward or goal) rather than on competitors.

(4) Competition is Universal:
Competition, though an important characteristic feature of modem society, is found in all societies primitive, traditional, modem or in pre-historic eras and in every age.

(5) Competition is Continuous:
It is a never ending process. It goes on consciously or unconsciously all the time. It is unstable and frequently yields either to co-operation or to conflict.

(6) Competition is restrained:
It implies that there are rules of the game to which all competitors must follow. When the compet­itors break the rules or when it turns into cut-throat competition (unrestricted), the situation transforms into conflict.

(7) Competition Is For Scarce Goods (Rewards):
If the object of compe­tition is in abundance (unlimited) quantity or sufficient in supply, there would be no competition. There is no competition for sunshine and air, which are unlimited.

Question 26.
Explain the types of Culture.
Answer:
Material culture: according to Ogbum material culture includes all the man made concrete, tangible, visible things. They include for example the house, buildings, furniture, automobiles, machines, dams, locomotives etc. it also includes the printing press, banks, money and the like. Material culture is also referred to as “Civilization”. The material culture is undergoing rapid changes within a short period of time.

Non Material Culture: it includes all the abstracts intangible invisible elements. The beliefs, tradition, habits, values, rituals etc. are the examples for non material culture. Ogburn includes . languages and ideologies, all the contributions such as family, marriage and religion in non¬material culture. It is said that the non material culture changes slowly and does not adjust itself to the changes in material culture.

Question 27.
Explain the Characteristics of Marriage.
Answer:
The characteristics of marriage are:

1. Marriage is more or less a universal institutional: It is found among the pre¬literate as well as literate people. It is enforced as a social rule in some of the societies. For example. In Japan celibacy is publicly condemned. In Korea, unmarried individual are called‘Half’persons. Among the Hindus, marriage is a sacrament which is regarded as more or less obligatory.

2. The Todas ofNilagiri refuse to perform funeral rites for a girl if she dies before her marriage. But they do perform it after completing some sort of marriage ceremony for the corpse. According to the Chinese philosopher Confucius, an individual who remains unmarried throughout his life commits a crime.

3. Relationship between Man and Woman: Marriage is a union of man and woman. It indicates a relationship between one or more men to one or more women. Who should marry whom? One should marry how many? Are the questions which represent social rules regarding marriage differ significantly.

4. Marital bond is relatively durable: Marriage indicates a long lasting bond between the husband and wife. Hence, it is not co-extensive with sex life. It excludes relationships with prostitutes or any other sexual relationship which is viewed as casual and not sanctioned by custom, law or church. Marital relationship between man and women lasts even after the sexual satisfaction is obtained.

5. Marriage requires social approval: A union of man and woman becomes a marital bond only when the society gives its approval. When marriage is given the hallmark of social approval, it becomes a legal contract.

6. Marriage is associated with some civil or religious ceremony: Marriage gets its social recognition through some ceremony. This ceremony may have its own rites, rituals, customs, formalities, etc, it means marriage has to be concluded in public and in a solemn manner. Sometimes as s sacrament it receives the blessing of religion. Marriage among the Hindus, for examples, is regarded as a sacrament. It is connected with the sacred rituals such as- Vagdana. Homa, Kanyadana, Magalia Dharana, Saptapadi, Ashmarohana, etc

7. Marriage creates mutual obligations: Marriage imposes certain rights and duties on both the husband and wife. Both are required to support each other and their children.

Question 28.
Describe the role of Biological factor Social Change.
Answer:
Biological factor: It indicates two types (A) One is non human biological factor and (B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth.

Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves (1)size of population (2) structure of population (3) Heredity (4) race (5) Birth rate (6)Death rate (7) fertility (8)sex ratio

Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.

Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense r blem in nation.

Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration (1) Urban rural migration (2) Rural urban migration.

Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’ One child norm,’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.

KSEEB Solutions

IV. Answer any four following questions in .15 sentences each. ( 4 × 5 = 20 )

Question 29.
Explain the Characteristics of Folkways.
Answer:
The term folkways was introduced to the sociological literature by W.GSummer in his book with the little “Folkways” published in 1906. The word literately means “The ways of the folk or people”. Folkways are the accepted ways of behavior.

(a) Social in Nature: Folkways are the product of man’s group life. They are created by the groups for their sustenance and maintenance. Individuals get social recognition by conforming to the folkways. Every new generation absorbs folkways partly by deliberate teaching but mainly by observing and taking part in life about them.

(b) Unplanned Origin: The origin of folkways are very obscure. Sumner believed that they arise automatically and unconsciously, they are not the result of any advance planning.

(c) Informal Enforcement: Folkways are not as compulsive and obligatory as those of laws or morals. Conformity to the folkways is neither required by law nor enforced by any special agency of the society.

(d) Folkways are Innumerable: It is not possible for anyone to enlist all the folkways. No encyclopedia could contain all the folkways observed by all of the people of history. They are very diverse and numerous.

(e) Folkways are subject to change: Folkways are not static, but dynamic, folkways are change with changing social conditions. Some folkways undergo relatively rapid change, some are resist change very often.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
Describe the classification of Co-Operation.
Answer:
Types of Co-operation:
The types of co-operation can be discussed in the following ways:

1. Direct Co-operation: In the direct cooperation action the individual involved to do the identical function. Ex. Playing together worshiping together, tilling the field together, taking out a cut from the mud, etc., people do work in company with other members, performance of a common task with joint efforts brings them social satisfaction.

2. Indirect Co-operation: In this case people work individually for the attainment of a common end. People do tasks towards a similar end. This is based on the principle of division of labor and specialization. For ex. Farmers, spinners, weavers, dyers, tailors are different and engaged in different activities. But their end remains the same, that of producing clothes. The modem technological age requires specialization of skill and functions, hence it depends on Co-operation.

Sociologi st have also spoken of three other types of Co-operation, namely Primary Co¬operation Secondary Co-operation and tertiary Co-operation. These types are witnessed in primary groups, secondary groups and between two or more groups respectively.

Question 31.
Discuss the family as an agent of Socialization.
Answer:
The family: Family is the first agency of socialization of the child. Physical nearness, close relationship, passiveness of the child, authority of parents over the child etc., all have greater influence in moulding the personality of the child.

In family, parental influence, particularly of the mother, is very great. From the parents the child learns language. It is taught number of civic virtues. The child gets his first lessons in cooperation, tolerance self-sacrifice, love and affection, etc., in the family.

The earliest and the closet ties of an individual are with his parents and siblings. There have authority over the child. Possessiveness of the child and its emotional attachment with parents and siblings make socialization an easy and smooth process. Cultural heritage is passed from one generation to the other in family.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 32.
Briefly analyse the types of Family.
Answer:
On the basis of structure, the family has been classified as (1) nuclear and (2) joint family. Nuclear family is one which consists of the husband, wife or wives and their children. The children leave the parental households as soon as they are married. A nuclear family is an autonomous unit free from the control of the elders. Since the newlyweds creates a separate residence the physical distance between parent and married child parent and grandparent minimized the interdependence between them.

Joint family can be viewed as a merger of several nuclear families. Thus a small joint family may include an old man and his wife, their son, the son’s wife and the son’s children, two nuclear families, the son being a member of both. A large joint family may include the old man and his four wives, their unmarried children and married sons, and the son’s wives, their unmarried children. A joint family may be crammed into a single house, or it may occupy a cluster of houses within an joint family compound, or the houses mat be more widely dispersed than this.

Question 33.
Discuss the Role of interview method in Data collection.
Answer:
Interview: The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.
Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for the generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer.

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview.
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication.
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

Merits of Interview method

  • It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
  • It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
  • There is a high rate of response
  • Interview method can be used with all types of persons.

Demerits of Interview method

  • There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interview
  • There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
  • There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself. Interview is a difficult skill and needs training
  • It is a costly and time-consuming method.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 34.
Write a note on types of Pollution.
Answer:
The types of environment pollution are:
Air PollutionrAir pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compound’s that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human being.-,

Water Pollution: Water is essemial for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by watei, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose Watei pollution occurs in three different forms

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Noise Pollution: Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution: The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “Soil” This soil layer is * formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution. Soil pollution lessens the productive nature of the soil and destroys the living beings in it and also its rejuvinable process.

V. Answer any two questions in 25 sentences. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 35.
Write the uses of sociology.
Answer:
a. Development of Personality : Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.

b. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the ‘ Social World’, So that, we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.

c. Solutions of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.

d. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.

e. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmes for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.

f. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subj ect to be studied in many colleges and Universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like Education, Social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Development, etc.

g. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.

h. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us. So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.

Question 36.
What is Law? Explain its Characteristics.
Answer:
Law is the most powerful formal means of social control in the modern society. It is an l indispensable part of the modem social life. Laws appear only in societies where a political organization called “Government” is found. According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a form of social rule emanating from political agencies”.

Characteristics:

  • Laws are the general condition of human activity prescribed by the state for its members.
  • Law is called law, only if enacted by a proper law making authority. Hence it is a product of conscious thought deliberate attempts and careful planning.
  • Law is written definite, clear, precise and unambiguous.
  • Law applies equally to all without exception in identical circumstances.
  • Violation of law is followed by penalties and punishments determined by the authority of the state.
  • Laws are always written down and recorded.
  • Laws are not the result of voluntary consent of persons against whom they are directed.
  • Laws a dynamic and subject to change. Law. is not a static body of rules handed down from generation to generation. Rather, it reflects continuously changing standards of, what is right and wrong of how violations are to be determined, and of what sanctions are to be applied.
  • Laws differ from country to country. Though the outward pattern of the legal system to be same every where. The content of laws often differ significantly.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 37.
Define Culture and discuss its Characteristics.
Answer:
According to Robert Bierstedt “Culture is the Complex whole that consists of everything we think and do and have as members of society.

Characteristics of culture are:

Culture is learnt: Culture is often understood as learned ways of behaviors. Culture is not an inborn tendency. It is acquired or learnt. It includes those learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore what is learned through socialization and are applied in group life is what is called culture.

Culture is Social: Culture is not the property ofanyindividual.lt is the social heritage of man. It is a way of group life. It originates in and develops through social interaction. It consists of a number of behavior patterns that are common to a group of people. It is the inclusive of all expectation of the members of the groups. Thus culture is a social products shared by most of the members of the group.

Culture is Shared: Culture is a social property. It belongs to the group. The elements of culture such as customs beliefs, idea, folkways, mores, and language are all belonges to the people of a group. These are commonly shared by the members of a group. So culture is the product of group’s life. Culture cannot be hidden and used by one individual. According to Robert Bierstadt. “Culture is something adopted, believed, practiced or possessed by more than one person”.

Culture is Transmissive: Culture is the total social heritage. It is linked with the past. The past continues because it lives in culture. Culture is something that can be transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is passed through language. Language is the chief vehicles of culture. Culture is also passed from one generation to another through traditions and customs. It is a product of human experience.

Culture is Relative: All societies are not uniform. Hence all cultures are also not uniform. They varying and differ from time to time and place to place. There may be common elements such as customs, mores, folkways, art forms, dietary habits, value systems, institutions etc, that may be seen everywhere Culture is also related to time. It varies from time to time. History of every society is the history of change in culture from time to time.

Culture is Dynamic: Culture is not a static phenomenon. It is a Dynamic entity. Changes in society imply changes in its culture. Culture simply means a way of life. It is nothing but a total “design for living”. Factors like inventions, problems, plans and policies etc. have a drastic effect on culture. As society changes a new way of life in evolved and adopted to adjust with the changing circumstances. Every factor during changes in society will also bring changes in the culture. Thus, culture is dynamic.

Culture is Gratifying: Culture is the pilot of every human activity. Culture provides the necessary environment for the satisfaction of human wants . It shows the way for getting the work done. Culture determines and guides the activities of men.

Culture is continuous and cumulative: Culture is an growing phenomenon. It includes the glory of the past and the achievements of present. Eg: Bullock carts, train, Aeroplanes etc., achievements. It is always cumulative.

Culture is Ideal in Nature: It is not merely material and non material culture. One cannot confine the culture as objects which satisfy different goals of life. The members of society provide psychological meanings to their own cultural traits. They attach the sentiments to their cultural elements. In this regard Herbert Spencer considers’culture is neither organic, nor inorganic but it is super organic. It is commonly witnessed that people never tolerate any condemnation of their culture.

Question 38.
Describe the Merits and Demerits of Interview.
Answer:
The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.

Structured Interview : has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for the generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication.
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

Merits of Interview method

  • It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
  • It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
  • There is a high rate of response
  • Interview method can be used with all types of persons.

Demerits of Interview method

  • There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interview
  • There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
  • There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself. Interview is a difficult skill and needs training
  • It is a costly and time-consuming method.

KSEEB Solutions

VI. Answer any two questions in 15 sentences each. ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 39.
Explain the role of Auguste Compte in the development of Sociology.
Answer:
Being one of the pioneers of Sociology, August Comte is the first who introduced the term “Sociology”. Therefore the credit of calling “Father of Sociology” goes to him. August Comte was the first to introduced a new science called “Sociology” and a brief note of his contribution Confirms a new era for the study of sociology. He used the word “Sociology” for the first time in his famous work “positive philosophy” during 1839.

He called sociology as the scientific study of society. He wanted that this science of society should explain the laws of the social world like natural sciences explain the laws of the physical world. August Comte insisted that, study of society needs scientific method with objectivity. He believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behaviour were needed to improve society.

August Comte divided sociology into two parts. They are : (1) social statics and (2) social dynamics. “Social statics” deals with major Institutions such as family, economy, religion, etc. “Social Dynamics” deals with the issue of social change and social progress. Now these words are called in the name of social structure and social change respectively.

According to August Comte, there is a direct relation between intellectuality and social progress. Related to this he explains law of three stages. They are:

(i) The Theological stage: During this stage all human thoughts were guided by religious ideas and faith in the supernatural powers. It emphasizes the belief that everything is attributed to a particular God.

(ii) The metaphysical stage: During this stage, all human thought were guided by “abstract forces” like nature. It is almost like philosophical inquiry into the nature.

(iii) The positive or scientific stage: This is what the stage that everything based on intellectual way of thinking, looking the world. Through this theory Comte tried to establish the fact that man became more and more rational and scientific in his approach. Comte introduced a theory of classification of sciences. Through this theory he emphasized that there is interrelation and interdependence of social sciences.

August Comte as a supporter of the moral order in the society says that sociologists have to taken responsibility of “priesthood of humanity” and should solve the problems of the society. August Comte’s contribution to sociological literature are “Positive Philosophy” and “Positive Polity”.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
Discuss the role of Culture in Socialization.
Answer:
Socialization is an important matter for society. It doesn’t occur accidently. But should be controlled through cultural directions. Social nature is very much influenced by the culture of an individual. It is a known fact that man is bom as a biological animal. He becomes social animal only through the process of socialization. Culture is the content that is length in the process of socialization. Though culture varies from society to society, every society has its own distinct culture. Therefore society, culture and socialization are closely related to each other, Socialization that turns the child in to a useful members of society according to cultural directions.

The role of culture in socialization can be explained in the followings:

  • Culture provides the base to the socialization process was making the individual a normal social being.
  • Culture provides the guidance to the individual to control his various activities.
    Which he learns through the process of socialization.
  • Culture assists socialization in teaching the culture qualities like morality, good behaviors, positive attitude, ideals and values.
  • Culture through the process of socialization helps the individual to decide his career.
  • Cultures through the socialization also provide guidance to the individual to maintain their behavior patterns according to social situation.
  • Culture through the socialization process helps an individual to become an important contributor to society.
  • Culture through the process of socialization helps to work for social welfare and develop a positive attitude towards all.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 41.
Analyse the role of Family in informal Education.
Answer:
According to sociologist Dunkheim, “Education as the socialization of the younger generation, Is a continuous effort to impose on the child. Ways of seeing, feeling and acting, which could not be arrived at on one’s own. “This is a process of continuous activity that goes on all r through one’s life from birth to death.

Formal education is imported at educational institutions with strict adherence to rules and regulations with no width for human personality developments. Informal education is a spontaneous life longprocess of learning continuously and universally for refinement in oneself. This informal education starts for everyone in their family.

Family is the first school and mother is the first teacher is an age old deitum that puts in a nutshell the role of this informal education in moulding human nature and personality. Here one learns how to be part of a group, gained the responsibilities of each and the. benefits there of family gives a sense of belonging and there are always gives a sense of belonging and there are always people around to nudge one along the correct path. Whether big or small each family is an institution in itself. It one’s old age, the roles get reversed and one gets the opportunity to import knowledge to the succeeding generations. The circle is complete.

Question 42.
What you know about acide rain?
Answer:
Acid rain: Factories and vehicles excrete sulphur, Nitrogen oxide. These remain the environment for longtime. By chemical and photo chemical reactions, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed and combines with water vapor in the environment. This is called ‘Acid Rain’.

One country’s waste will be result in another countries acid rain. For example waste from factories and vehicles in India reaches environment and sulphur, corbondioxide will causes acid rain in Pakistan and China.

Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid form the atmosphere is deposited on the earth’s surface. Polluted things like sulphur, oxides and nitrogen oxides, coal, petroleum based coal then bum the smoke contributes to acid rain. Idol/ marbles will be leached because of acid rain. Leaves in the forests will be dropped down. Acid rain when they falls on the leaves destroys it.

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!