1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 5 Social Institutions

Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 5 Social Institutions

You can Download Chapter 5 Social Institutions Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Sociology Social Institutions One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is marriage?
Answer:
According to Robert H. Lowie Marriage is a permanent bond between permissible mates.

Question 2.
Mention any one function of marriage.
Answer:

  1. Regulation of sex life
  2. Marriage leads to the establishment of the family.

Question 3.
Define family.
Answer:
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff “ It is a group united by the ties of marriage with or without children.

Question 4.
State any one primary function of the family.
Answer:

  1. Member replacement and physical maintenance
  2. Status transmission.

Question 5.
Who is the author of the book The History of Human Marriage?
Answer:
Edward Westermark was the author of the book, The History of Human Marriage.

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Question 6.
Give a definition of marriage.
Answer:
According to Edward Westermarck defined “The history of human marriage as a relation of ‘ one or more men to more women which is recognized by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of parties entering the union and in the case of the children of it”.

Question 7.
What is monogamy?
Answer:
Monogamy restricts the individual to one spouse at a time under this system, at any given time a man can have one husband and women can have only one husband.

Question 8.
What is polygyny?
Answer:
One husband with two or more wives

Question 9.
What is sororal polygyny?
Answer:
Preferential rules for the choice of wives/ husband are followed in some polygamous societies in certain societies males marry the wife’s sisters such marriages are termed as sororal polygyny.

Question 10.
What is polyandry?
Answer:
Polyandry means one wife with two or more husband

Question 11.
What is Fraternal polyandry?
Answer:
Fraternal polyandry is by for the most common in these societies, a group of brothers, are collectively the husband of a woman.

Question 12.
What is non Fraternal Polyandry?
Answer:
Non- Paternal polyandry the wife spend time with husband who are not related to each other.

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Question 13.
How is the word family derived?
Answer:
The word family is derived from Latin word Famulus which means a servant.

Question 14.
Give a definition of family.
Answer:
According to Ogbum and Nimkoff “It is a group united by the ties of marriage with or without Children.”

Question 15.
What is a joint family?
Answer:
A joint family means an old mand and his wife, their son the Son’s wife and son’s childeren married and unmarried childerens.

Question 16.
What is a nuclear family?
Answer:
Nuclear family is one which consists of the husband, wife or wives and their children.

Question 17.
Define religion?
Answer:
According to Durkheim in his book “The elementary forms of Religious life” defines Religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things that is to say, things set apart and forbidden”

Question 18.
Define Education?
Answer:
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously

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Question 19.
Write any one function of Education.
Answer:
Preservation function, Reformative function.

Question 20.
What is the etymological meaning of Education?
Answer:
The term education derived from the Latin word Educare which means ‘To bring up’.

Question 21.
Write the Durkheim’s definition of Education?
Answer:
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously

Question 22.
State any one function of Education?
Answer:
Allocative function, Reformative funcation.

Question 23.
State any one types of Education?
Answer:
Informal education.

Question 24.
What is informal Education?
Answer:
Family is the first school and the mother is the first teacher is the dictum that sufficiently explains the role of informal education.

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Question 25.
Mention any one agent of Informal Education?
Answer:
Family, is the agent of Informal education.

Question 26.
What is Formal Education?
Answer:
The non- formal stream in the educational system also aims to give relevant information without assessments tests and so on.

Question 27.
State any one agent of formal Education?
Answer:
School is the agent of formal education.

1st PUC Sociology Social Institutions Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is marriage? Give one definition?
Answer:
According to Edward Westermarck defined marriage in his works “The history of human marriage as a relation of one or more men to more women which is recognized by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of parties entering the union and in the case of the children of it”.

Question 2.
Explain any one feature of marriage.
Answer:
Marriage is more or less a universal institution.

Question 3.
Give any two functions of marriage.
Answer:
The two functions of marriage are:

  • Regulation of sex life
  • Marriage regulates sex relations also
  • Marriage leads to the establishment of the family
  • Provides for economic co-operation

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Question 4.
What is marriage? What are its forms?
Answer:
Marriage is an important and universal social institution. As a social institution, it provides a recognized form for entering into a relatively enduring sexual relationship for the bearing and rearing of children. It is thus primarily a way of regulating human reproduction it forms are:
More marriage has mainly three forms :

  • Monogamy
  • Polyguny
  • Polyandry.

Question 5.
What is polygamy? What are its types?
Answer:
Polygamy denotes marriage to more than one mate at one time and takes the form of either Its types are:

  • Polygyny
  • Polyandry

Question 6.
What is polygamy? What are its types?
Answer:
Polygamy denotes marriage to more than one mate at one time and takes the form of either Its types are:

  • Sororal Polygyny
  • Non- sororal Polygyny

Question 7.
What is polyandry? Name two communities who practiced poltandry?
Answer:
Polyandry means one wife with two or more husband:
The two communities who practiced polyandry are:

  • Some tribes in South India, to das are considered
  • A classic example for Polyandrous People.

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Question 8.
What is family? Give one definition?
Answer:
The basic unit of the social structure in every society is the family. It associated with such emotive issues as love, marriage, home and childbearing.

According to Maclver and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”

Question 9.
Explain any one distinctive feature of family?
Answer:
The features of family are:

  • Family is a universal
  • Biological basis of the family
  • Limited size
  • Functions of family

Question 10.
List any two function of family?
Answer:
The two functions of families are:

  • Primary functions
  • Secondary functions

Question 11.
List any two secondary function of family?
Answer:
The two secondary functions of family are:

  • Economic function.
  • Educational function
  • Religious function
  • Recreational function

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Question 12.
Write any two functions of religion?
Answer:
The two functions of religion are:

  • Supernatural and the sacred
  • Beliefs and practice
  • Provides moral prescriptions
  • Methods of salutation

Question 13.
Mention any two functions of religion?
Answer:
The two functions of religion are:

  • Social solidarity
  • Social control
  • Social change

Question 14.
Define education.
Answer:
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously.

Question 15.
State any two Characteristics of Education.
Answer:
The two characteristics of education are:

  • Preservative function
  • A locative function
  • Reformative function

Question 16.
Mention any two function of Education.
Answer:
The two characteristics of education are:

  • Preservative function
  • At locative function
  • Reformative function

Question 17.
Define two types of Education.
Answer:
The two types of education are:

  • Informal education
  • Formal education

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Question 18.
State the role of family in informal Education.
Answer:
Family is the first school and mother is the first teacher is the dictum that sufficiently explains the role of informal education in moulding human nature and personality.

Question 19.
How is the term ‘education ‘derived.
Answer:
The term ‘Education’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Educare’. Which means to bring up, to rear and to bring faith.

1st PUC Sociology Social Institutions Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the characteristics of marriage?
Answer:
The characteristics of marriage are:

Marriage is more or less a universal institutional: It is found among the pre¬literate as well as literate people. It is enforced as a social rule in some of the societies. For example. In Japan celibacy is publicly condemned. In Korea, unmarried individual are called‘Half’persons. Among the Hindus, marriage is a sacrament which is regarded as more or less obligatory.

The Todas ofNilagiri refuse to perform funeral rites for a girl if she dies before her marriage. But they do perform it after completing some sort of marriage ceremony for the corpse. According to the Chinese philosopher Confucius, an individual who remains unmarried throughout his life commits a crime.

Relationship between Man and Woman: Marriage is a union of man and woman. It indicates a relationship between one or more men to one or more women. Who should marry whom? One should marry how many? Are the questions which represent social rules regarding marriage differ significantly.

Marital bond is relatively durable: Marriage indicates a long lasting bond between the husband and wife. Hence, it is not co-extensive with sex life. It excludes relationships with prostitutes or any other sexual relationship which is viewed as casual and not sanctioned by custom, law or church. Marital relationship between man and women lasts even after the sexual satisfaction is obtained.

Marriage requires social approval: A union of man and woman becomes a marital bond only when the society gives its approval. When marriage is given the hallmark of social approval, it becomes a legal contract.

Marriage is associated with some civil or religious ceremony: Marriage gets its social recognition through some ceremony. This ceremony may have its own rites, rituals, customs, formalities, etc, it means marriage has to be concluded in public and in a solemn manner. Sometimes as s sacrament it receives the blessing of religion. Marriage among the Hindus, for examples, is regarded as a sacrament. It is connected with the sacred rituals such as- Vagdana. Homa, Kanyadana, Magalia Dharana, Saptapadi, Ashmarohana, etc

Marriage creates mutual obligations: Marriage imposes certain rights and duties on both the husband and wife. Both are required to support each other and their children.

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Question 2.
Briefly explain the secondary functions of family.
Answer:
The secondary function are:

Economic function: Family an important unit of both production and consumption, but today, modem families mainly earn incomes. Thus, their principles function is that of the consumption of goods and services which they purchase. Because of income the provision of economic support for family members is a major function of the modem family.

Educational function: In the modem world child learns basic skills at formal school and colleges. At the same time child learn its mother tongue and traditions skills and talents at home. Traditions families were associated with vocational education because families were associated with a particular task.

Religious function: Family is the centre for the Religious training of the children who learn various religious virtues from their parents. Rituals, ceremonies and worship are carried out on which made the outlook of children.

Recreational function: Family provides Recreation to its members. It may be day today interaction among the members in several occasion such as feasting, gathering, marriage, festival enhances happiness.

Thus family is a school of civil virtues. The virtues of love, co-operati

Inter-institutional linkage: Each baby is a potential participant in the group life of the society. Family relationship with other institutions like religious, political, economic, recreational and other kinds of organizations typically gives individuals an opportunity to participate in these activities. The family, then, not only prepares the individual to play social roles and occupy a status in the community, but also provides the opportunities for such activity.

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Question 3.
Explain the types of family.
Answer:
On the basis of structure, the family has been classified as (1) nuclear and (2) joint family. Nuclear family is one which consists of the husband, wife or wives and their children. The children leave the parental households as soon as they are married. A nuclear family is an autonomous unit free from the control of the elders. Since the newlyweds creates a separate residence the physical distance between parent and married child parent and grandparent minimized the interdependence between them.

Joint family can be viewed as a merger of several nuclear families. Thus a small joint family may include an old man and his wife, their son, the son’s wife and the son’s children, two nuclear families, the son being a member of both. A large joint family may include the old man and his four wives, their unmarried children and married sons, and the son’s wives, their unmarried children. A joint family may be crammed into a single house, or it may occupy a cluster of houses within an joint family compound, or the houses mat be more widely dispersed than this.

Question 4.
Define Religion.
Answer:
Religion: Religion is an individual as well as group phenomenon. It consists a body of believes, a set of practices,-a range of moral prescriptions covers the entire spear of human life from . birth to death. It helps in spelling out the goals of life and for their realization, exercise powerful influence on the processes of socialization and social control, the sociology of religion studies the social contexts of religion; and the role of religion in shaping and reshaping the social order.

According to Durkheim, in his book “The elementary forms of Religious life” defines Religion “as a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things that is to say, things set apart and forbidden”. James G Frazer considered Religion as a belief in power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and Human life.

Singer: in his book “Religion, Society, and the Individual” Religion, involves a group of people and a shared system of believers and practices. Every religion emphasizes the need for collective worship, festival and rituals are occasions which bring people together.

Durkheim, a pioneering sociologist, equates god with society, so much so that, when you worship God you are worshipping your own society. According to Durkheim God is a human creation and a social at that. God is, in fact, born in the collective experience of coming together, leading to rituals.

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Question 5.
Explain the basic elements of religion.
Answer:
James G Frazer considered Religion as a belief in power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and Human life.

Elements of Religion:

Supernatural and the Sacred: At the centre of almost every religion lies the idea of the supernatural. It is something beyond physical understanding. It is omnipotent infinite or extraordinary. According to E. B. Tylor Belief in supernatural begins is called religion.

Belief in the supernatural begins might also include belief in other kinds of begins like magic forces, angles or soul of dead ancestors, believers might arrange the supernatural begins in a hierarchy according to their power or they may differentiate the supernatural begins in terms of their functions. It should be interesting to note that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the three Hindu Gods, are said to perform the function of creation of the cosmic order, its maintenance and destruction, respectively.

Beliefs and practice: Religious belief is a system of knowledge about the divine and its relationship with the human. It is simply not enough to believe in the existence of a supernatural force. The knowledge of its existence must be explained to people and to generations to come. Belief serves this purpose of revealing the existence of the supernatural or divine or the sacred. Belief explains the nature of the divine.

Provides Moral Prescriptions: Religion is the source of moral values, and religion without moral prescription is virtually not possible. Religion can distinguish between the right and the wrong, more powerful than other social institutions.

Methods of Salvation: Methods of salvation constitutes another elements of Religion. If may be in various forms like attaining moksha, Nirvana, Salvation, and the Christian has a redeemer in Christ, the son of God, who gave his life for man’s Sin. In short religion is the institutionalized set of beliefs men hold about super natural forces belief are formalized and regularized.

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Question 6.
Explain the functions of religion?
Answer:
Singer: in his book “Religion, Society, and the Individual” say that Religion, involves a group of people and a shared system of belives and practices. Every religion emphasizes the need for collective worship, festival and rituals are occasions which bring people together. Functions of Religion: Religion is an important universal institution in human society. It is a part of society, interwoven with all other aspects of human life. It is obvious that religion has an important role in society, it performs a number of important functions:

Social Solidarity:
(a) Emile Durkheim, defines religion as “a unified system of belief and practice related to sacred things”. A thing is sacred not because of a peculiar quality inherent in the thing itself. What makes a thing sacred is an attitude filled with emotion and sentiment a feeling that certain things are above and apart from the ordinary matters of everyday life.

(b) By defining the values and moral beliefs as sacred, religion provides them with greater power to direct human action. Social obligations are transformed into religious duties, in worshipping society men recognize the importance of the group, their dependence upon it.

(c) Collective worship as a means of reinforcing social solidarity in a social group. In collective ceremonials, the members of a group express their faith in common values and belief, a sense of group solidarity is affirmed and frightened.

(d) Malinowski argues that religion promotes social solidarity by dealing with situations pf emotional stress such as birth, puberty, death, accidents and natural disaster which threaten social conension.

(e) Religious beliefs provide the ultimate justification for the values of social system. It provides support for social standard, socially accepted behavior. Thus the doctrines of Karma and Dharma in Hinduism. The Christian society maintains the tradition like Christmas, baptism and monogamous marriage, and tries to encourage conformity to society’s norms.

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Question 7.
What do you mean by A locative function?
Answer:
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous effort to impose on the child ways of seeing, feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously A locative function: The education process, with its different specialization, different levels and certification process which goes along with it, allocates the younger generation to various roles in society according to their possession of or lack of appropriate diplomas and degree, specifying particular skills, abilities and values.

Thus it legitimizes the existing distribution of position of socio-economic gains and power by convincing the losers or relative loss that their failure in life is due to their failure in education, which interim is due to their lack of abilities. Moreover, this a locative function induces greater demands for more and more education and thus contributes to the expansion of education system and increase the common people’s dependence on and subjugation to, it is that some of the so called universal goals of education ‘ in a society articulate the thinking of philosophers and social reformers of the times.

Question 8.
What is Reformative function of Education?
Answer:
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously Reformative function Education is of fundamental significance to the development and progress of human society. Although education as a process of socialization.

Education has also the capacity to liberate the human mind from shackles of the past and the present. It has the potential to make men question the ruling values and norms in society, to make them rebel- against the existing social constraints and to solutions to the developed social contradiction and constraints outside the framework of he established system. This we call the transformative, progressive or reformative function of education.

The American sociologists Bowles and Gintis argues that the major role of education in modem world is the reproduction of labor power. The education system helps to achieve these objectives largely through the hidden curriculum. It is not the content of lessons and the examinations that pupils take which are important, but the form that teaching and learning take and the way that schools are organized. The hidden curriculum consists of those things that pupils learn through the experience of attending school, rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions.

According to Bowles and Gintis, the hidden curriculum shapes the future workforce in the following ways:

  1. it helps to produce a subservient workforce of uncritical, passive and docile workers. Far from living up to liberal ideal of encouraging self-development.
  2. Bowles and Gintis claim that the hidden curriculum encourages an acceptance of hierarchy. Schools are organized on a hierarchical principle of authority and control.
  3. At school, pupils learn to be motivated by external rewards, just as the workforce in a capitalist society is motivated by external rewards. Because students have so little control over, and little feeling of involvement in, their schoolwork, they get little satisfaction from studying.

Question 9.
What do you mean by preservative function?
Answer:
The educational system tries to embrace almost all people where they are young and equip them with at least the minimum skills of literacy and numeracy education. Preservation function: As the transmission of culture is needed for the preservation of social order, it is also called the preservation function of education. Social structure persists only with the aid certain values and these values have to be handed down to the next generation.

When the values and skills become absolute with the passage of time replacing them with new vistas is also a major function of education. With the growth of modern economy and the . complexity of socio-economic structure. This is usually achieved through the political and administrative apparatus. The knowledge, skill and values acquired through education not only meet the economic needs of society but also permeated with a social ‘content corresponding to the existing socio-economic and political structure and the consequent social stratification and distribution of power in society.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Explain the Education and the characteristics of Education.
Answer:
The educational system tries to embrace almost all people where they are young and equip them with at least the minimum skills of literacy and numeracy education.

Preservative function: As the transmission of culture is needed for the preservation of social order, it is also called the preservation function of education. Social structure persists only with the aid certain values and these values have to be handed down to the next generation. When the values and skills become absolute with the passage of time replacing them with new vistas is also a major function of education.

With the growth of modern economy and the complexity of socio-economic structure. This is usually achieved through the political and administrative apparatus. The knowledge, skill and values acquired through education not only meet the economic needs of society, but also permeated with a social ‘content corresponding to the existing socio-economic and political structure and the consequent social stratification and distribution of power in society.

Allocative function: The education process, with its different specialization, different levels and certification process which goes along with it, allocates the younger generation to various roles in society according to their possession of or lack of appropriate diplomas and degree, specifying particular skills, abilities and values.

Thus it legitimizes the existing distribution of position of socio-economic gains and power by convincing the losers or relative loss that their failure in life is due to their failure in education, which interim is due to their lack of abilities. Moreover, this a locative function induces greater demands for more and more education and thus contributes to the expansion of education system and increase the common people’s dependence on and subjugation to, it is that some of the so called universal goals of education in a society articulate the thinking of philosophers and social reformers of the times.

Reformative function: Education is of fundamental significance to the development and progress of human society. Although education as a process of socialization. Education has also the capacity to liberate the human mind from shackles of the past and the present. It has the potential to make men question the ruling values and norms in society, Scrtial to make them rebel-against the existing social constraints and to solutions to the developed social contradiction and constraints outside the framework of he established system.

This we call the transformative, progressive or reformative function of education, The American sociologists Bowles and Gintis argues that the major role of education in modem world is the reproduction of labor power. The education system helps to achieve these objectives largely through the hidden curriculum.

It is not the content of lessons and the examinations that pupils take which are important, but the form that teaching and learning take and the way that schools are organized. The hidden curriculum consists of those things that pupils leam through the experience of attending school, rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions.

According to Bowles and Gintis, the hidden curriculum shapes the future workforce in the following ways:

  1. it helps to produce a subservient workforce of uncritical, passive and docile workers. Far from living up to liberal ideal of encouraging self-development.
  2. Bowles and Gintis claim that the hidden curriculum encourages an acceptance of hierarchy. Schools are organized on a hierarchical principle of authority and control.
  3. At school, pupils leam to be motivated by external rewards, just as the workforce in a capitalist society is motivated by external rewards. Because students have so little control over, and little feeling of involvement in, their school work, they get little satisfaction from studying.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Explain the Allocative function of Education.
Answer:
Allocative function:
The education process, with its different specialization, different levels and certification process which goes along with it, allocates the younger generation to various roles in society according to their possession of or lack of appropriate diplomas and degree, specifying particular skills, abilities and values. Thus it legitimizes the existing distribution of position of socio-economic gains and power by convincing the losers or relative loss that their failure in life is due to their failure in education, which interim is due to their lack of abilities.

Moreover, this allocative function induces greater demands for more and more education and thus conti mutes to the expansion of education system and increase the common people’s dependence on and subjugation to. It is true that some of the so called universal goals of education in a society articulate the thinking of philosophers and social reformers of the times, for instance, Gandij I’s.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
Breifly explain the function of Education.
Answer:
The educational system tries to embrace almost all people where they are young and equip them with at least the minimum skills of literacy and numeracy education.

Preservative function: As the transmission of culture is needed for the preservation of social order, it is also called the preservation function of education. Social structure persists only with the aid certain values and these values have to be handed down to the next generation. When the values and skills become absolute with the passage of time replacing them with new vistas is also a major function of education.

With the growth of modem economy and the complexity of socio-economic structure. This is usually achieved through the political and administrative apparatus. The knowledge, skill and values acquired through education not only meet the economic needs of society, but also permeated with a social ‘content corresponding to the existing socio-economic and political structure and the consequent social stratification and distribution of power in society.

Allocative function: The education process, with its different specialization, different levels and certification process which goes along with it, allocates the younger generation to various roles in society according to their possession of or lack of appropriate diplomas and degree, specifying particular skills, abilities and values.

Thus it legitimizes the existing distribution of position of socio-economic gains and power by convincing the losers or relative loss that their failure in life is due to their failure in education, which interim is due to their lack of abilities. Moreover, this a locative function induces greater demands for more and more education and thus contributes to the expansion of education system and increase the common people’s dependence on and subjugation to, it is that some of the so called universal goals of education in a society articulate the thinking of philosophers and social reformers of the times.

Reformative function: Education is of fundamental significance to the development and progress of human society. Although education as a process of socialization. Education has also the capacity to liberate the human mind from shackles of the pass and the present.

It has the potential to make men question the ruling values and norms in society, to make them rebel- againstthe existing social constraints and to solutions to the developed social contradiction and constraints outside the frame work of he established system. This we call the transformative, progressive or reformative function of education.

The American sociologists Bowles and Gintis argues that the major role of education in modem world is the reproduction of labor power. The education system helps to achieve these objectives largely through the hidden curriculum. It is not the content of lessons and the examinations that pupils take which are important, but the form that teaching and learning take and the way that schools are organized. The hidden curriculum consists of those things that pupils leam through the experience of -attending school, rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions.

According to Bowles and Gintis, the hidden curriculum shapes the future workforce in the following ways:

  1. it helps to produce a Subservient workforce of uncritical, passive and docile workers. Far from living up to liberal ideal of encouraging self-development.
  2. Bowles and Gintis claim that the hidden curriculum encourages an acceptance of hierarchy. Schools are organized on a hierarchical principle of authority and control.
  3. At school, pupils leam to be motivated by external rewards, just as the workforce in a capitalist society is motivated by external rewards. Because students have so little control over, and little feeling of indolent in, their schoolwork, they get little satisfaction from studying.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
Briefly explain the types of Education.
Answer:
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the younger generation and it is a continuous effort to impose on the child ways of seeing, feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously”.

The types of Education: Education is a process, as a process, education is a continuous activity that goes on all through one’s life from birth to death. This process of humanizing man, developing his personality, transmitting culture from one generation to other, a Spontaneous unfolding of human potentialities, is carried on in all social institutions like religion, peer grouped, neighborhood, family and community etc.

On the other hand, what takes place in schools and colleges, the methodical socialization, designed instruction and interaction between socialize and the socializing agent for the education land the educator is what is called formal education.

A brief description of types of education as follows:

Informal education: It simply denotes the in deliberate, spontaneous, life long process of learning continuously and universally emanating from all most all social institutions. The process of informal training begins for every one of us in the family.

Family is the first school and the mother is the first teacher is the dictum that sufficiently explains the role of informal education in molding human nature and personality. “Peer Groups” means those groups made up of the age mates or contemporaries of the child, his associates in playground, neighborhood etc.,

Formal education: On the other hand is designed, consciously and deliberately given with a planned pursuit what takes place within the four walls of the school, strictly officially in accordance with the curriculum is format instruction.

Time table, syllabi, specialized and compartmentalized knowledge, authority pattern, official structure, by laws, disciplines, hierarchy of teachers and class grades, examination system all reflects the formal design of the school and colleges. As it is with the modem social structure characterized by formal institutions and relations in performing economic, industrial, legal and political regulative functions.

Question 14.
Describe the characteristics of family.
Answer:
The basic unit of the social structure in every society is the family. It associated with such emotive issues as love, marriage, home and childbearing.
According to Macular and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”

The characteristics of family are:

Family is an Universal: As stated earlier, the family is the most permanent and pervasive of all social institutions. All societies both large and small, private and civilized, ancient and modern, have institutionalized the process of procreation of the species and the rearing of the young. It is a permanent and universal institution and one of the constants of human life.

Biological Basis of the Family: The institution of the family is to be explained in terms of biological factor-the existence of two sexes and the sexual character of reproduction in the human species. It appears as s natural answer to the human sexual drive, a phenomenon solidly based in the biology of the human organism.

Limited size: Family is defined as a primary group. It may include parents and their unmarried children or parents and their children. The bonds that the together these limited number of members with limited common interests are the outcome of emotional factors such as love, mutual affection and solicitude. This emotional basis of the family makes it an ideally suitable primary social group in every society.

Common Residence and Nomenclature, satisfy basic needs: The family is one of the most durable of all social institutions. Each family has s residence, an address and a name, a family can mean two quite different things depending upon the vantage from which we view it.

Each family has common habitation for its living. Without a dwelling place, place the task of childbearing and rearing cannot be adequately met. however, family has a wider meaning than mere household since a family can be spread out geographically sometimes but yet emotionally, socially and legally be known as a family.

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Question 15.
Briefly analyze the types of family.
Answer:
On the basis of structure, the family has been classified as (1) nuclear and (2) joint family. Nuclear family is one which consists of the husband, wife or wives and their children. The children leave the parental households as soon as they are married. A nuclear family is an autonomous unit free from the control of the elders. Since the newlyweds creates a separate residence the physical distance between parent and married child parent and grandparent minimized the interdependence between them.

Joint family can be viewed as a merger of several nuclear families. Thus a small joint family may include an old man and his wife, their son, the son’s wife and the son’s children, two nuclear families, the son being a member of both. A large joint family may include the old man and his four wives, their unmarried children and married sons, and the son’s wives, their unmarried children. An joint family may be crammed into a single house, or it may occupy a cluster of houses within an joint family compound, or the houses mat be more widely dispersed than this.

Question 16.
Define religion. Mention the elements of religion.
Answer:
James G. Frazer considered Religion as a belief in power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and human life.

Elements of Religion:

Supernatural and the Sacred: At the centre of almost every religion lies the idea of the supernatural. It is something beyond physical understanding. It is omnipotent, infinite or extraordinary. According to E. B. Tylor ‘Belief in supernatural begins is called religion’. Belief in the supernatural begins might also include belief in other kinds of begins like magic forces, angles or soul of dead ancestors, believers might arrange the supernatural begins in a hierarchy according to their power or they may differentiate the supernatural begins in terms of their functions. It should be interesting to note that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the three Hindu Gods, are said to perform the function of creation of the cosmic order, its maintenance and destruction, respectively.

Beliefs and practice: Religious belief is a system of knowledge about the divine and its relationship with the human. It is simply not enough to believe in the existence of a supernatural force. The knowledge of its existence must be explained to people and to generations to come. Belief serves this purpose of revealing the existence of the supernatural or divine or the sacred. Belief explains the nature of the divine.

Provides Moral Prescriptions: Religion is the source of moral values, and religion without moral prescription is virtually not possible. Religion can distinguish between the right and the wrong, more powerful than other social institutions.

Methods of Salvation: Methods of salvation constitutes another elements of Religion.

If maybe in various forms like attaining Moksha, Nirvana, Salvation, and the Christian has a redeemer in Christ, the son of God, who gave his life for man’s Sin. In short religion is the institutionalized set of beliefs. Men hold about supernatural forces belief are formalized and regularized.

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1st PUC Sociology Social Institutions Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the functions of marriage.
Answer:
According to naclver and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”
The functions of marriage are:

Regulation of sex life: Marriage is the powerful instrument of regulating the sex life of man. It is an Instinct, it has to be controlled and regulated through the Institution of marriage. Marriage thus regulative means of sex life marriage often called the license for sex life acts as a

Marriage regulates sex relations also:
It prohibits sex relations between the closest relatives i.e., between father and daughter, mother and son., brother and sister etc., such a kind of prohibition is called “incest taboo” Marriage also puts restrictions on the premarital and extra martial sex relations.

Marriage leads to the establishment of the family: Sexual satisfaction offered by marriage results in self-perpetuation. It is in family the children are bom and brought up. The marriage which determines the descent, inheritance and succession.

Provides for economic co-operation: Marriage makes division of labor possible on the basis of sex age and experience, partners of marriage divide work among themselves and perform them.

Marriage contributes to emotional and intellectual aerstimulation of the partners: Marriage brings life-partners together and helps them to develops intense love and affection towards other. It depends the emotion and strengthens and also helps them to develop intellectual co-operation between them.

Marriage aims at social solidarity: Marriage not only brings two individuals of the opposite sex together but also their respective families and their Kith and Kin, friendship between these groups is reinforced through marriage. It is often suggested that by encouraging marriage between different castes, races, classes, religious, linguistic and other1 communities.

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Question 2.
Briefly explain the general characteristics of family.
Answer:
The basic unit of the social structure in every society is the family. It associated with such emotive issues as love, marriage, home and child bearing.
According to naclver and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”

The characteristics of family are:

Family is an Universal
As stated earlier, the family is the most permanent and pervasive of all social institutions. All societies both large and small, primitive and civilized, ancient and modem, have institutionalized the process of procreation of the species and the rearing of the young. It is a permanent and universal institution and one of the constants of human life.

Biological Basis of the Family: The institution of the family is to be explained in terms of biological factor-the existence of two sexes and the sexual character of reproduction in the human species. It appears as s natural answer to the human sexual drive, a phenomenon solidly based in the biology of the human organism.

Limited size: Family is defined as a primary group. It may include parents and their unmarried children or parents and their children. The bonds that the together these limited number of members with limited common interests are the outcome of emotional factors such as love, mutual affection and solicitude. This emotional basis of the family makes it an ideally suitable primary social group in every society.

Common Residence and Nomenclature, satisfy basic needs: The family is one of the most durable of all social institutions. Each family has s residence, an address and a name, a family can mean two quite different things depending upon the vantage from which we view it.

Each family has common habitation for its living. Without a dwelling place, place the task of childbearing and rearing cannot be adequately met. however, family has a wider meaning than mere household since a family can be spread out geographically sometimes but yet emotionally, socially and legally be known as a family.

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Question 3.
Briefly explain the primary functions of family.
Answer:
The primary functions are;

Member replacement and physical maintenance: In order to survive, every society must replace members who die and keep the survivors alive. The regulations of reproduction is centered in the family as are cooking and eating and care of the sick. Once children are bom, they will be nurtured and protected within the family. It is the family that feeds, clothes and shelters them.

Regulation of sexual behavior:The family regulates sexual behavior. Each member’s sexual behavior is influenced to some extent by what is learnt in the family setting. The sexual attitudes and patterns of behavior in the family reflects societal norms and regulate the sexual behavior,

Socialization of children: The family carries out the responsibility of socializing each child. Children are taught largely by their families to conform to socially approved patterns of behavior. The family as an act of instrument of transmission of culture, it serves the individual as an instrument of socialization.

Status transmission: Individual social identity is initially fixed by family membership being bom to parents of a given status. Children take on the socio-economic class standing of their parents and the culture of the class into which they are born, including its value, behavior patterns, in addition to the internalizing family attitudes and beliefs. Children are treated and defined by others as extensions of the social identity of their parents.

Emotional support: The family as a primary group is an important source of affecting entertainment love and interaction, caring. It is seemingly the nature of human begins to establish social interdependency, not only to meet physical needs, but also to gratify emotional and psychological needs also.

Fulfillment of needs: Family is the most important primary institution that gives moral and emotional support for the members. Providing safety, security, love and affection. Warmth and comfort. It provides defense against Isolation. Family as an health agency provides most of the help for the young, the old and the sick. It is by large responsibility for the Health of its members.

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Question 4.
Define Education and Explain the process of Education.
Answer:
The educational system tries to embrace almost all people where they are young and equip them with at least the minimum skills of literacy and numeracy education.
Following are the important functions of Education.

Preservative function: As the transmission of culture is needed for the preservation of social order, it is also called the preservation function of education. Social structure persists only with the aid certain values and these values have to be handed down to the next generation. When the values and skills become absolute with the passage of time replacing them with new vistas is also a major function of education.

With the growth of modern economy and the complexity of socio-economic structure. This is usually achieved through the political and administrative apparatus. The knowledge, skill and values acquired through education not only meet the economic needs of society, but also permeated with a social ‘content corresponding to the existing socio-economic and political structure and the consequent social stratification and distribution of power in society.

Allocative function:The education process, with its different specialization, different levels and certification process which goes along with it, allocates the younger generation to various roles in society according to their possession of or lack of appropriate diplomas and degree, specifying particular skills, abilities and values. Thus it legitimizes the existing distribution of position of socio-economic gains and power by convincing the losers or relative loss that their failure in life is due to their failure in education, which interim is due to their lack of abilities.

Moreover, this a locative function induces greater demands for more and more education and thus contributes to the expansion of education system and increase the common people’s dependence on and subjugation to, it is that some of the so called universal goals of education in a society articulate the thinking of philosophers and social reformers of the times.

Reformative function: Education is of fundamental significance to the development and progress of human society. Although education as a process of socialization. Education has also the capacity to liberate the human mind from shackles of the pass and the present. It has the potential to make men question the ruling values and norms in society, to make them rebel-against the existing social constraints and to solutions to the developed „ social contradiction and constraints outside the frame work of he established system. This we call the transformative, progressive or reformative function of education.

The American sociologists Bowles and Gintis argues that the major role of education in modem world is the reproduction of labor power. The education system helps to achieve these objectives largely through the hidden curriculum. It is not the content of lessons and the examinations that pupils take which are important, but the form that teaching and learning take and the way that schools are organized. The hidden curriculum consists of those things that pupils learn through the experience of attending school, rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions.

According to Bowles and Gintis, the hidden curriculum shapes the future workforce in the following ways:

  1. it helps to produce a subservient workforce of uncritical, passive and docile workers. Far from living up to liberal ideal of encouraging self-development.
  2. Bowles and Gintis claim that the hidden curriculum encourages an acceptance of hierarchy. Schools are organized on a hierarchical principle of authority and control.
  3. At school, pupils learn to be motivated by external rewards, just as the workforce in a capitalist society is motivated by external rewards. Because students have so little control over, and little feeling of involvement in, their school work, they get little satisfaction from studying.

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Question 5.
Explain the types of Education.
Answer:
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the Younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously.

The types of Education: Education is a process, as a process, education is a continuous activity that goes on all through one’s life-from birth to death. This process of humanizing man, developing his personality, transmitting culture from one generation to other, a Spontaneous unfolding of human potentialities, is carried on in all social institutions like religion, peer grouped, neighborhood, family and community etc. on the other hand, what takes place in Schools and colleges, the methodical socialization, designed instruction and interaction between socialize and the socializing agent for the education and the educator is what is called formal education. A brief description of types of education as follows:

Informal education: It simply denotes the in deliberate, spontaneous, life long process of learning continuously and universally emanating from all most all social institutions. The process of informal training begins for everyone of us in the family.

Family is the first school and the mother is the first teacher is the dictum that sufficiently explains the role of informal education in molding human nature and personality. “Peer Groups” means those groups made up of the age mates or contemporaries of the child, his associates in playground, neighborhood etc.,

Formal education: On the other hand is designed, consciously and deliberately given with a planned pursuit what takes place within the four walls of the school, strictly officially in accordance with the curriculum is format instruction.

Time table, syllabi, specialized and compartmentalized knowledge, authority pattern, official structure, by laws, disciplines, hierarchy of teachers and class grades, examination system all reflects the formal design of the school and colleges. As it is with the modern social structure characterized by formal institutions and relations in performing economic, industrial, legal and political regulative functions.

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Question 6.
Explain the functions of religion.
Answer:
Functions of Religion: Religion is an important universal institution in human society. It is a part of society, interwoven with all other aspects of human life. It is obvious that religion has an important role in society, it performs a number of important, functions:

Social Solidarity:

(a) Emile Durkheim, defines religion as “a unified system of belief and practice related to ‘ sacred things”. A thing is sacred not because of a peculiar quality inherent in the thing itself. What makes a thing sacred is an attitude filled with emotion and sentiment a feeling that certain things are above and apart from the ordinary matters of everyday life.

(b) By defining the values and moral beliefs as sacred, religion provides them with greater power to direct human action. Social obligations are transformed into religious duties, in worshipping society men recognize the importance of the group, their dependence upon it.

(c) Collective worship as a means of reinforcing social solidarity in a social group. In collective ceremonials, the members of a group express their faith in common values and belief, a sense of group solidarity is affirmed and frightened.

(d) Malinowski argues that religion promotes social solidarity by dealing with situations of emotional stress such as birth, puberty, death, accidents and natural disaster which threaten social cohesion-.

(e) Religious beliefs provide the ultimate justification for the values do social system. It provides support for social standard, socially accepted behavior. Thus the doctrines of Karma and Dharma in Hinduism. The Christian society maintains the tradition like Christmas, baptism and monogamous marriage, and tries to encourage conformity to society’s norms.

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