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Karnataka 2nd PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers
Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Animal husbandry is the practice of taking care of and breeding domestic animals by applying scientific principles. Good animal husbandry practices meet the ever-increasing demand for food from animals and animal products both in terms of quality and quantity.
If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds on the farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is very important. For the yield potential to be realized the cattle have to be well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate water, and be maintained disease-free.
The feeding of cattle should be carried out in a scientific manner – with special emphasis on the quality and quantity of fodder. Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking, storage, and transport of the milk and its products. Ensuring these stringent measures would, of course, require regular inspections, with proper record keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be mandatory.
What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?
Breed refers to the group of animals having the same ancestral characters, general appearance, size, etc.
Objectives of animal breeding:
- To increase the quantity of yield.
- To improve the desirable qualities of the produce.
Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why?
What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Apiculture is also known as beekeeping is the management of honey bees for the production of honey and wax.
Apiculture is important in our lives in many ways:
- Honey is sweet and edible and is of high nutritional value containing sugar, water, minerals, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, and pollen.
- It has a great medicinal value and is used in making various medicines. It is used for the treatment of disorders related to digestion, dysentery, vomiting, stomach and liver ailments.
- A drug, prepared from the bodies of honey bees, is used in the treatment of diphtheria and some other dangerous diseases. The venom of honey bees is used in the treatment of arthritis and snake bite.
- The bee wax obtained from the hives is used for preparing cosmetics and polishes in many industries.
Discuss the role of fishery in the enhancement of food production.
The fishery is an industry devoted to the catching, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic animals. A large number of our population is dependent on fish, fish products, and other aquatic animals such as prawns, crab, lobster, edible oyster, etc., for food. Some of the freshwater fishes which are very common include Catla, Rohu, and common carp. Some of the marine fishes that are eaten include – Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel, and Pomfrets. In order to meet the increasing demands on fisheries, different techniques have been employed to increase production. E.g., through aquaculture and pisciculture, we have been able to increase the production of aquatic plants and animals, both freshwater and marine. This has led to the development of Blue Revolution’.
Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of a plant by crossing different varieties in order to create desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better yields, and are disease resistant.
Plant breeding involves the following steps:
1. Collection of germplasm – Collection and preservation of all the different wild varieties, species and relatives of the cultivated species. The entire collection (of plant/seeds) having all the diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection.
2. Evaluation and selection of parents – The germplasm is evaluated so as to identify plants with a desirable combination of characters.
- Selection in self-pollinated crops- There is repeated self-pollination of selected plants till superior homozygous genotypes are obtained. The best one is used as new variety. The self-pollinated progeny of a homozygous plant constitutes a pure line.
- Selection in cross-pollinated crops- The cross-pollinated crops are heterozygous for most of their genes and their population contains plants of several different genotypes. Superior genotype plants are selected and are allowed to cross breed (these plants are not allowed to self breed) so that heterozygosity is maintained
3. Cross hybridisation among the selected parents – Hybridization is crossing of two or more types of plants for bringing their traits together in the progeny. The procedure of hybridisation involves selection of parents with desired characters, selfing, emasculation, bagging, tagging and artificial pollination.
4. Selection and testing of superior recombinants – This is the selection of the plants, from the progeny of hybrids, which have the desired combined character. The selected plants are then self-pollinated for several generations to get a uniformity i.e. homozygosity.
5. Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars – The newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield and other agronomic traits of quality, disease resistance etc. These selected cultivars are then tested with local best cultivar and then are released for commercialisation.
Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Biofortification is breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals, or higher protein and healthier fats to improve public health.
Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?
The apical or axillary meristems are best suited for making virus-free plants because they are generally free from viruses.
What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?
Thousands of plantlets can be produced from a single explant.
Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?
The culture medium used for the propagation of an explant in vitro contains nutrients like inorganic salts, vitamins, 2-4% sucrose, amino acid glycine, and growth regulators like auxin and cytokinin with or without the use of yeast extract or coconut milk, or banana pulp. The culture medium can be kept liquid, made semisolid with gelatin, or solidified with agar. These nutrients are required by the explant for growth and development.
Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants that have been developed in India.
- Himgiri (wheat) – Resistant to leaf and stripe rust, hill bunt
- Pusa Gaurav (mustard) – Resistant to aphids
- Pusa Komal (cowpea) – Resistant to bacterial blight
- Pusa Sadabahar (chilli) – Resistant to chilli mosaic virus, TMV, and leaf curl.
- Jay a and Ratna (rice) – High yielding semi-dwarf varieties
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Additional Questions and Answers
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production One Mark Questions
What is Hissardale?
Hissardale is a breed of sheep.
Name the better yielding semidwarf varieties of wheat developed in India.
Jay a and Ratna
What should be the effect on the plant when honey camp is put in the center of the farm in the time of pollination?
Pollination should be increased in plants.
Some important plant diseases are given. Find out the causative organism.
a. Brown rust of wheat
b. Tobacco mosaic
c. Black rot of crucifers
d. Red rot of sugar cane
e. Turnip mosaic
f. Late blight of potato
Fungi: Brown rust of wheat, Red rot of sugar cane, Late blight of potato
Bacteria: Black rot of crucifers.
Virus: Turnip mosaic, Tobacco mosaic.
What are the benefits of animal reproduction?
Advantages of animal reproduction are good quality animals produce and production level increased it.
Give the name of a crop manipulated by mutation and the character induced in it.
Mung bean – resistance to yellow mosaic virus and powdery mildew.
Name any two plants which is genetically modified.
- Golden Rice
- Flavr Savr.
Give examples of plants developed for the resistance to insect pests.
a. Brassica – Pusa Gaurav
b. Flat bean – Pusa Sem 2
Pusa Sem 3 -Pusa Sawani Pusa A-4
Name the organism which is used in one of the most potent nutrient (Single-cell protein) in industrial production.
Spirulina is used as a single protein in industries.
Inbreeding is necessary to produce pure line generation. Give other merits and demerits of inbreeding.
- Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes, that are eliminated by selection.
- It helps in the accumulation of superior genes and the elimination of less desirable genes.
Close inbreeding usually reduces fertility and even productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.
What do you mean by Animal husbandry?
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fiber, milk and egg.
Controlled breeding experiments in animals are carried out by artificial insemination.
a. How is this done?
b. Explain the merits of this method.
a. The semen is collected from the male that is chosen as a parent and injected into the reproductive tract of the selected female by the breeder.
b. The merits are that the semen may be used immediately or can be frozen and used at a later date. It can also be transported in a frozen form to where the female is housed.
Give an example of a somatic hybrid produced.
Pomato is a somatic hybrid of potato and tomato.
Name a semidwarf verities of wheat which is known for high yielding and disease resistant.
Give the full form of SCP.
Single Cell Protein is the full form of SCP.
Name 2 better yielding semi-dwarf varieties of rice developed in India.
Jaya, Ratna, are the two varieties of rice
What is the economic value of Spirulina?
Spirulina can serve as food rich in protein and decrease pollution.
Write the economic value of spirulina.
- It is used as food rich in protein, carbohydrate vitamins, and minerals.
- Since its culturing uses waste materials like molasses, wastewater from potato processing factories, it reduces environmental pollution.
What is a soma clone?
These are genetically identical plants. developed through tissue culture from one plant.
What is somatic hybridisation.
It is process in which a plant is raised from the product of fusion of isolated protoplasts of two different varieties or species of plants in vitro.
Biofortification refers to breeding of crops to produce varieties with higher levels of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, high protein content or healthier fats.
Name a microorganism which is expected to produce large quantities of proteins (is in tonnes)
Methylophilus methylo trophus
List any two economically important products for humans obtained from Apis India (CBSE 2008)
Honey and beewax.
What is MOET? Write its objectives.
Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology. It used for the successful production of high yielding hybrids.
Write the economic value of Saccharum officinarum.
This sugar cane has thicker stems and higher sugar content and grows well in South India. It is used for hybridisation with Saccharum barberi to improve the variety.
The capacity to generate a whole plant from any cell or explant is called totipotency.
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Two Marks Questions
What is scaling? What is its importance?
Scaling: It is a method of vegetative propagation which is applicable for growing plants having bulbs, (e.g., Onion, Garlic). In this method, all the scales of bulb are separated and planted in the field (Soil) having all the necessary conditions for their growth: Here scales develops to produced small bulblets. About 3 to 5 bulblets developing from one scale. This method is applicable for the plants belonging to the family Liliaceae. e.g., Garlic, Onion, Lilium, etc.
The steps in a programme are
(a) collection of germplasm
(b) crossbreeding the selected parents
(c) selecting superior recombinant progeny
(d) testing, releasing and marketing new cultivars
(i) What is programme related to?
(ii) Name two special qualities as the basis of the selection of the progeny.
(iii) What is the outcome of programme.
(iv) What is the popular term given to this outcome?
Also name the Indian scientist, Who is credited with taking out this programme.
(i) Plant breeding
(ii) Better yield and disease resistance
(iii) Superior improved variety
(iv) Green revolution, M.S. Swaminathan.
Find out what are the various components of the medium used for propagation of explant in vector.
Medium should provide carbon sources such as sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids, and growth regulators like auxins cytokinins etc.
Name any 5 hybrid varieties of Crop plants which have been developed in India.
- Hybrid maize
- Hybrid wheat
- Hybrid Jowar
- Hybrid bajra
- Hybrid Green pea.
What is commonly used to produce virus-resistant plants?
Hybridization with disease-resistant variety, wild relative or related species.
Name and define the two major methods of animal breeding.
Inbreeding and outbreeding are the two major methods of animal breeding.
- Inbreeding:- Inbreeding refers to the mating of more closely related individuals of the same breed.
- Outbreeding:- Outbreeding refers to the mating of the individuals of different breeds or the individuals of same breed having no common ancestors.
Why is beekeeping preferred?
Beekeeping is preferred because
- There is an increased demand for honey and also beeswax
- It can be practiced in any area where there are sufficient bee pastures
- Several species of honey bees can be reared
Write the differences between soma clones and somatic hybrids.
|They are clones produced through tissue culture
They are used in rapid multiplication of the desired variety
|They are hybrids formed through protoplast tissue
Hybrids develop even in those cases where their development is not possible through sexual means.
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Five Marks Questions
Enumerate the points that have to be considered for successful beekeeping.
The following are the points for successful beekeeping
- Knowledge of the nature and habits of the bee
- Selection of suitable location and keeping the beehives.
- Catching and hiving of swarms
- Management of beehives during deficient seasons
- Handling and collecting of honey and bee wax.
(a) Write the scientific names of sugarcane grown in North India and South India respectively Mention their characteristic features.
(b) Mention the characteristic features of hybrid variety produced by crossing these two varieties.
(a) Sugar cane grown in North India is Saccharum Barberi. It has poor yield and poor sugar content. Sugar cane grown in South India is Saccharum officinarum. It has thicker stems and high sugar content but cannot grow well in north Indian conditions.
(b) They were successfully crossed to yield hybrid varieties having the following desirable qualities.
- High yield
- Thick stem
- High sugar content
- Ability to grow in North Indian sugar cane growing region.
What is callus culture? Give its technique.
Callus culture: Callus is the unorganised and undifferentiated mass of tissue. The plant body of higher plants is made of multicellular, well organised differentiated structures like root, stem, leaves etc. Sometimes the cells of these differentiated structures proliferate to form large mass of unorganized and undifferentiated cells which is called as callus and this process is called callus culture. In this method the isolated plant cell, tissue to organs are cultured in nutrient medium in glass culture tubes or in Petri dishes under aseptic conditions. The cultured part is called as explant. The growth responses depends upon the source of the explant, composition of the nutrient medium and the suitable growth conditions.
The technique of Callus culture: Callus culture involves the following steps:
1. First it is necessary to sterilize the plant organ from which an explant is taken. Sterilizing agents commonly used are mercuric chloride solution (0.1 w/v), sodium hypochlorite (1.6 available chlorine) and a solution of bromine in water (1 % w/v).
Explants can be taken from seedlings (cotyledon, hypocotyl or root) or mature organs or from wood stem parts.
2. Wash the explant with distilled water, cut small pieces of it and transfer it on a suitable culture medium. Agar-agar is used for making culture medium. The culture media was supplemented with amino acids, vitamins, kinetin or other growth factors. An auxin and usually a cytokinin promote high growth rate of callus.
Apiculture is good for agricultural crops. Justify.
‘Apiculture’ is the bee-keeping industry. Bees are pollinators of many of our crop species, such as sunflower, brassica, apple and peas. Keeping beehives in crop fields during the flowering period increases pollination efficiency and improves yield.
Biofortification can solve the problem of hidden hunger. Explain.
Biofortification is the breeding of crops to produce varieties with higher levels of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, high protein content and healthier fats.
- It is the most practical means to improve public health.
- Many hybrid varieties of crops have been produced that are enriched with specific nutrients
e.g.: Iron – riched spinach, vitamin C riched tomato, bitter gourd, mustard etc.,
- By eating the normal food made from these nutrient-enriched varieties of crops there can be an end to deficiency diseases.
‘Sharbati sonora’ is a high-yielding variety of wheat produced by treating Sonora 64 with Gamma rays.
a. How can we make a new variety by treating it with gamma rays?
b. Name this method of plant breeding.
c. Give names of other substances that can be used for this type of treatment.
d. What are they generally called?
a. Nowadays plant breeders change the genotype and phenotype of the plants according to their desire. This type of mutation for the production of new superior varieties is known as mutation breeding, e.g. Sharbati Sonora (Wheat) – Gama ray mutant of Sonora 64.
b. Mutation breeding
c. Chemical mutagens and physical mutagens
(a) Differentiate between Inbreeding and Outbreeding.
(b) What is germplasm collection?
|Inbreeding refers to the mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations.
|Outbreeding refers to the mating of unrelated animals of the same breed or different breeds of different species.
(b) Germplasm collection refers to the entire collection of plants and seeds having all different alleles of all the genes in a crop and its closed relatives.
What is meant by single-cell protein? Give example.
Single-cell proteins are microbes grown on an industrial scale as a source of good protein.
e. g. Spirulina
Define the totipotency of a cell. List the requirements of the objective to produce soma clones of a tomato plant on a commercial scale.
Totipotency is defined as the capacity of any plant cell to generate a whole plant. Requirements are
- An explant, i.e. any part/tissues of a tomato plant
- Nutrient medium containing a carbon source like sucrose, inorganic salts, amino acids, vitamins, and growth regulators like auxins and cytokinins.
- Sterile conditions.
Explain the term biofortification. Mention its objectives and give examples.
The breeding of crops for higher levels of nutritional quality is called biofortification.
Objectives are for improving
a. protein content and quality
b. oil content and quality
c. vitamin content
d. micronutrient and mineral content
e. g. Vitamin A enriched carrots, spinaches, etc.
Vitamin C enriched bitter gourd
Iron and calcium-enriched spinach