## 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016

Students can Download 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016, Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
Who is called the Father of Human Geography?
Friedrich Ratzel

Question 2.
What is industry?
The activities which are related to manufacturing are called Industry.

Question 3.
Expand ISRO.
Ans.
ISRO: Indian Space Research Orgainsation

Question 4.
Name the First Megacity of the World.
Newyork is the First Megacity of the World.

Question 5.
Which State of India has highest female population?
Kerala (1084 females for every 1000 males) according 2011 census.

Question 6.
Name the reservoir formed by Bhakra-Nangal project.
Govind Sagar

Question 7.
Mention the State which produces highest paddy in India.
‘West Bengal’ It contributes 14.24% under total production of rice in India

Question 8.
What is called ‘Liquid gold.’
‘Petroleum’

Question 9.
Which industry is called knowledge based industry?
Utilization of skilled man power through the set of programmes is known as Knowledge based industry.

Question 10.
Which harbour is called the Gate Way of India?
“Mumbai port” is known as Gate Way of India.

II. Answer any 10 of the following questions in 2 to 3 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
Write the different human economic activities.

• Primary activities
• secondary activites
• Teritary activities
• Quaternary activities

Question 12.
Mention the types of fishing.
the different types of fishing are

• Fresh water fishing
• Coastal water fishing
• Open sea fishing

Question 13.
Name any two administrative cities of the world.

• Mysore

Question 14.
Name the States recorded highest and lowest literacy in India.
The state recorded as highest literacy rate of India is Kerala with 93.91% and Bihar with 63.83% is the lowest Literacy State.

Question 15.
Mention the different types of Tea.

• Bohea or Chinese variety: It grows at an elevation of more than 1500 meters
• Assamica: It can be grown at higher elevation about 2400 meters.

Question 16.
Name any two atomic power stations of India.

• Tarapur near Bombay.
• Ranapratap Sagar plant near Kota in Rajasthan.

Question 17.
Mention the superior quality of coal type.
The types of coal are:

• Anthracite
• lignite
• Bituminous
• Peat

Question 18.
Write the raw materials essential for cement industry.
Lime stone, sea shalls, slag, silica alumina, clay and gypsum are the raw materials used in the cement industry.

Question 19.
Mention any two International Airports in India.

• Sahara – Mumbai
• Indira Gandhi International – Delhi
• Subash Chandra Bose – Kolkata
• Anna – Chennai
• Kempegowda international airport – Bangalore
• Rajiv Gandhi international airport – Hyderabad.

Question 20.
Write the different types of trade.
Export trade of India: Refers to the sale of goods and services by India to other countries of the world.
Import trade of India: Refers to the buying goods from foreign countries and bringing them to home country.

Question 21.
Mention the causes for sound pollution.

• It causes stress and high blood pressure nervous.
• Uneasiness among the people living close to the source of Noise Pollution.
• It has adverse effect on animal life also.

Question 22.
Write the two types of planning.
1. Planning is the process by which an individual or organization decides in advance on some future course of action.

2. It involves the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal.
There are two approaches to planning, sectorial planning and regional planning.

1. The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at Development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.
2. Some areas are more developed and some lag behind.
3. This uneven pattern of developed over space necessitates that the Planners should have spatial perspective and draws the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development. This type of Planning is termed as regional planning.

III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each: (5 × 8 = 40)

Question 23.
Explain the branches of human geography.

1. Economic Geography: It deals with the study of influence of Geographical factors on the economic activities man like agriculture, industries, transport etc.

2. Political Geography: It deals with the influences of geographical environment on political aspects such as states nations & boundaries etc.

3. Urban Geography: the study of urban location, development, morphology interaction and movement of urban population.

4. Cultural and Social Geography: It helps us to study the cultural evolution, distribution, age, structure and social life of the world.

5. Population Geography: It deals with geographical environment on population growth, density, distribution & migration etc.

6. Settlement Geography: The study of location of settlements, distribution, density, form, function & morphologes.

Question 24.
Discuss the units of population growth.
The growth of population refers to the increases in the number of inhabitants of a country during specific period.

• It is estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804.
• Due to the impact of the industrial revolution & improvement in living standards, the rate of population growth increased two billion in 1927.
• At present estimate of 2013 the globe is inhabited by 7121 million population.
• During the begining of 20th century the world population was only 2 billion and centum ended with 6 billion. It continues to grow even in the 21st century.

Stages of Population growth:

• Three billion – July 1959
• Four billion – April 1974
• Five billion – July 1987
• Six billion – October 1999
• Seven billion – 12th March 2012.

Question 25.
Explain the stages of demographic, cycle.
Demographic cycle is the process of population transformation from the countries of high birth rate and high death rates to low birth rate & low death rate countries.
Stages of Demographic cycle:
1. First stage: High birth rate and high death is found when the country is economically most backward, so the population remains stationary. India was in the stage till 1920.

2. Second stage (Early expanding): It begins with the declining of death rate while the birth rate ramins unchanged. These changes due to the advancement of science & technology, basic healthcare and education etc. At present many developing countries of Asia & Africa are in this stage.

3. Third stage (Late expanding): Death rate declines and birth rate begins to fall due to access of contraceptives, urbanization, an increase in the status and w’omen education etc India appears to be this stage.

4. Fourth stage (Low stationary): It is characterized with low birth rate and low death rate. Growth is stationary due to changing life style, high obesity and many diseases are caused in this stage. Japan, Sweden, Belgium Denmark & Switzerland are in this stage.

5. Fifth stage(DecIining): Population begins to decline or birth rate is lower than deathrate. East European countries like Germany and Hungary and North European countries like Sweden, Norway are now in this stage.

Question 26.
Explain the four types of Indian roads.

1. National highways,
2. State highways,

Besides these, there are border roads and International highways linking major Indian cities with the capitals of other neighbouring countries.

National highways:

• They connect the capitals of the states, industrial centres and major ports.
• They are well planned wide roads with two-lane, four-lane, and six-fane roads. Both construction and maintenance are carried out by the Central Government and National Highway Authority of India [NHAI],
• The total length of the national highways is about 71,772 km as per 2011.
2. The North South and East West corridors,
3. Port connectivity with industries are all parfbf this network.

1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway: The Government of India has implemented a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai by six-lane super high-ways. It has a total length of 5846 kms and it is called as Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway.

2. North – South and East-West corridors: This project connects Srinagar (JK) in the North with Kanyakumari (TN) in the South and Silcher (Assam) in the East with Porbandar (Gujarat) in the West covering major cities along the way. The project has a total length of 7300 km.

3. Port connectivity project: This is also included in the programmes of NHAI. This project connects the Golden Quadrilateral roads with the 13 major ports (380 km) and other projects (962 km). This is still in progress.

4. State Highways: The State Highways connect the important cities of the state with its capital, with the national highways and link with other state capitals. The State Government is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the State Highways. Now there are about 1.54, 522 km length of the state highways in the country.

5. District roads: These roads connect the production and marketing centres with the highways, railways, towns and larger villages with the district headquarters. The Zilla Parishad takes the responsibility of the development and maintenance of these roads.

6. Village roads: Roads which link the taluk headquarters with villages and the district highways are called village roads. They are mostly untarred or metalled. They are constructed and maintained by Taluk Panchayats and Village Panchayats.

7. Border roads: Border roads are constructed in the border areas of the country. They are constructed in the North and North eastern border areas adjoining Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. These are mainly for army movement in the defence of the country.

8. International highways: Some of the national highways of the country have been linked with the international highways of the neighbouring countries.

27.
What are the problems caused with rapid growth of population?
The Rapid growth of population has led to a number of problems as follows:-

1. Unemployment and Underemployment : It has been increasing from year to year. It has badly affected on young educated people both in rural and urban areas.

2. Shortage of food & Malnutrition: A large number of people are poorly fed. Malnutrition is prevailing throughout the country. It is fatal for the development of the country.

3. Burden on Civic & Social Amenities : Education, health and medical, housing, drinking water, electricity and problems increases.

4. Low per capita income: The increase in per capita income is only 15% annually. Low per capita income has a direct impact on the economic condition of the people.

5. Increase of Unproductive population : Below 15 years (Infants) and above 60 years (old age) are unproductive. They are dependent on earning persons. Thus rapid growth has increased dependents rather than producers. ‘

6. Others : Slow in economic development, mass poverty, low standard of living, political unrest and the social problems like theft robbery, immortality, corruption and the growth of slums, environment pollution are also directly related to the population explosion.

Question 28.
Explain the different types of migrations.

1. Internal Migration :
Movement of people from one region to another within the same country’ is called internal migration. In India there are four streams of internal migration. They are
(a) Rural to Rural
(b) Rural to urban
(c) Urban to Urban
(d) Urban to Rural.

(a) Rural to Rural: This is estimated that about 65.2% of total migration is of this category’.

• Female migrants dominated in this stream. Thus it is an important example for matrimonal migration and it is called women migration.

(b) Rural to Urban: Rural to Urban migration (17.6%) is second important type of migration. Rural-Urban migration is caused by both push of the rural areas as well as pull of the urban areas.

(c) Urban to Urban: Generally, people like to move from small town with less facility to large cities with more facilities.

(d) Urban to Rural: Urban areas are usually affected by the pollution.

• The retired and aged people prefer to spend their old age life in nearby villages. Thus people move from Urban to Rural.

2. International Migration: Movement of people from one country to another across international borders is called International migration.

Question 29.
Write a note on Damodar project.
The main aims of the project are flood control, Promotion of irrigation, Generating Hydro-Electricity, Navigation, Afforestation, Prevents Soil erosion, Inland fishing and recreation facilities.

Its features are as follows :
Damodar and its tributaries

• It comprises four Dams, three Hydel Power stations one barrage and three thermal power stations.

1. Tilaiya Dam :

• This dam has been constructed on Barakar river, a tributary of Damodar.
• Its gross storage capacity is 395 million cubic metres.
• Two power stations of 200KW each have been set up here. The dam provides irrigation facilities to 40,000 hectares.

2. Konar Dam :

• It has been constructed on Konar river.
• Its gross storage capacity is 337 million cubic metres. Its provides irrigation facilities to 1.4 Lakh hectares.

3. Marathon Dam :

• It has been constructed on Barakar river.
• Its gross storage capacity is 1,357 million cubic metres. There are three hydro¬electric power units with an installed capacity of 60MW.

4. Panchet Hill Dam :

• It has been constructed on river Damodar.
• Its gross storage capacity is 1,497 million cubic meters.

5. Durgapur Barrage : The Network is of 2,495 km long canals. They irrigate 4.75 Lakh hectares in West Bengal.

Question 30.
Explain the methods of rain water harvesting.
1. Controlling the runoff of rain water and make it to perculate to increase ground water table for future purpose.

2. It involves collection and storage of rainwater at surface or in sub-surface aquifier, before it is lost as surface runoff. It not only increases water availability but also checks the declining water table.

Objectives : The following are the main objectives of rain water harvesting.

• It checks runoff water & avoid flooding.
• It replenishes the ground water table and enables the wells.
• It helps to overcome the adequancy of surface water to meet demand of water.
• If the ground water is blackish, it will reduce the salinity.
• It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.
• It helps to increase agricultural product and improves ecology of an area.

Methods of Rain Water Harvesting :
1. In-situ method The method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called In-situ rainwater harvesting.
For example :

• Infilteration pits: The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.
• Contour bunds and trenches: The Construction of bunds, trenches or check dams.
• Roof top water harvesting: The Rain water that falls on the roofs of buildings or in courtyards is collected and stored in underground. Sumps, or wells or in drums and used for domestic purpose such as cleaning, washing etc.

2. Ex-situ method: This method of rainwater harvesting involves storing of running water. It is collected in check dams, huge percolation tanks etc. It is an expensive method.

Question 31.
Explain the characteristics of intensive farming.

• The land holdings are usually small in a thickly populated area, farming is very intensive
and produced more is known as “Intensive farming”.
• It is a labour and capital Intensive farming.
• Large amount of labour and capital is used on small land holding to get maximum production of crops.
• The available small piece of land is used for cultivation with irrigation facilities through out the year.
• In this system, farmers try to raise two or more crops, with careful tilling of the soil.
• Intensive agriculture is characterized by high yields per unit area and farmers try to get
the maximum production from small land holdings.
• It is common in the fertile and irrigated parts of the country.
• In this type, agricultural operations are carried on by manual labour and animals.
• Rice is the main crop of Intensive farming.

Question 32.
Explain the types and distribution of cotton crop in India.

Conditions for Cultivation of cotton:

• Cotton is a tropical & Sub-tropical crop. It requires high temperature. At the time of growing it requires 2l°C to 24°C temperature.
• It requires moderate rainfall of 50 cm to 100 cm. However it can cultivate in areas of lesser rainfall with the help of irrigation.
• Deep black soil is well suitable to cotton crop. This soil is commonly known as Black cotton soil. This is capable of retaining moisture.
• Cotton requires the use of Manures & fertilizers crop rotation helps to maintain fertility of the soil & improve the yield.
• Cotton cultivation requires large amount of cheap labours for planting, thinning, seeding, picking of cotton.
• Frosting, Moist weather & heavy rainfall are harmful to the crop.
• Cotton plant is susceptible to disease & pests. Scj’it requires the use of insecticides & pesticides.

The Sunny weather is necessary at the time of harvesting the cotton.
Varieties of Cotton:-

(i) Long Staple Cotton :

• It is the. best variety .
• It has over 3.8 cm in length.
• Because of its length of fibre, fine & shining it is used for making fine & superfine quality of cloth.

(ii) Medium Staple Cotton :

• The length of cotton fiber is between 2.5 cm to 3.8 cm is known as medium staple cotton.
• It is used for making Medium cloth.

(iii) Short Staple Cotton :

• This is inferior variety with fiber length less than 2.5 cm.
• It is used for making inferior quality of cloth, stuffing purpose, blending with synthetic, fiber etc.
• This type of cotton production is reduced in India.
• Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh & Rajasthan etc are growing this type of cotton.

Question 33.
Write the uses and drawbacks of television.

An electronic device that receives television signals and displays them on a screen.

• Television can offer video clips of events that show the audience what happened in the accompanying story.
• The television coverage covers events at all times of the day.
• Television broadcasting was first started by the government of India under the name of Doordarshan (DD) in Delhi on Sep – 1959.
• Today, Television coverage is provided by Doordarshan to about 90 percent of India’s population in India.

• It is the most effective medium to deliver information to large number of people very quickly.
• News in different part of the world can be seen with in minutes or even seconds.
• It is a source of entertainment.
• It makes a personal appeal and transmits the message directly into the home.
• It exhibits the persons giving the message.

• It is a sort of time – consuming, people waste time in watching.
• Television is a health hazard to people, especially to children.
• Television also braodcasts some inappropriate programmes.
• It is very costly, so it can be used only to a limited extent.
• It requires lot of concentration, attention of the people.

Question 34.
Mention any six problem of slums.

• Slums are in environmentally unsuited and degraded area. Houses in slums are decaying, poor hygienic conditions, poor ventilation.
• Lack of basic amentities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities.
• They are overcrowded having narrow street pattern prone to serious hazards from fire.
• People living in slums are poor. Therefore problems are common.
• They are the undernourished, prone to different types of diseases and illness.
• They can not afford to give proper education to their children
• The poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse alcoholism, crime, vandalism and ultimately they face social exclusion.

IV. Answer any one of the following questions : (1 × 10 = 10)

Question 35.
Discuss the non-conventional sources of energy.

The term “Automobile” is applied to any self-propelled vehicle powered by an Internal combustion engine & designed to transport passengers and goods over roads and highways.

Development :

• At present, India has above 40 million passenger vehicles.
• More than 3.7 million Automotive vehicles are produced annually, making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world after China.
• According to the society of Indian automobile manufacturers, annual vehicles sales are projected to increase to 4 million by 2015.

Location Factors:
The main factors favour the growth of automobiles industry are:

• Large supply of Iron & Steel, wood, glass, aluminium and fuels.
• Highly skilled labour.
• High degree of scientific and engineering skill.
• Large amount of capital.
• A large home market.

Distribution :

• Mumbai, Chennai, Jamshedpur, Jabalpur and Kolkata are the chief centres of automobile Industry.
• These centres produce almost all sorts of vehicles including trucks, buses, passengers, three wheelers and two wheelers.
• Motor cycles are also manufactured at Faridabad and Mysore.
• Scooters are also manufactured at Lucknow, Satara, Pune, Kanpur & Odhav (Ahmedabad district).

Production :

• In 2012-13, Automobile industry of India produced 20.6 million vehicles.
• India is the largest producer of two wheelers.

Question 36.
Write a note on industrial regions of India.

Industrial region refers to the continuous development of industrial landscape over a large area by concentration of a number of factories of different industries. In short, it is a wide area of manufacturing industries.

1. Mumbai-Pune Industrial regions: It is the biggest and most important industrial region of the country. Opening of the Bhorghat to Pune in 1830, opening of steamer service through Suez Canal in 1843, opening of first railway line of 32 km in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane etc. Supports lot of development of industries in this region by the British who got the Mumbai island as marriage gift of Catherine Braganza’s dowry, in 1661.

2. Kolkata-Hooghly Industrial region: It is an old and important industrial region of the country. Kolkata is the main centre for Hooglgly basin, port, rich hinterland of Ganga and Bramaputra plain, Assam and Bengal tea plantations, coal and iron ore region of Chotanagapur plateau. Cheap labour from Weat Bengal Bihar, Orissa states, efficient transport by rail, road and waterways etc. are the important facilities supported to develop this region.

3. Ahmedabad-Vadodara Industrial region: It is thrid largest industrial region of the country. It is located in Gujarat and includes the areas around the Gulf of Khambhat and important industrial centres like Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Koyali, Baruch and Surat etp. Ahmedabad is the main centre for cotton.textiles, woollen and silk, textiles, paper, petrochemicals milk products, Engineering, diesel engines, oil refining etc., are the other important industries of this region.

4. Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore Indusrial regions: This region lies in Tamil nadu and Karnataka states. The important centres are Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Sivakasi, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Mysore, Mandya, Bhadravathi etc. The region has diversified Industries like cotton textiles, silk, sugar, leather, chemicals, machinery, rubber, electrical equipments telephone, railway coaches, Information Technology’, BioTechnology etc.

5. The Chotanagapur Plateau Industrial regions: This region is located in the states of Bihar, parts of Jharkhand and West Bengal. This region is called the Ruhr of India on account of the growth of a number of iron and steel plants and various engineering industies. Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Chittaranjan, Sindri, Durgapur, Hazaribagh etc are the important industrial town in this region.

6. The Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala Industrial regions: This region covers Uttar Pradesh, parts of Haryana and Delhi. It includes Agra, Saharanpur, Faridabad, Ambala, Delhi, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Ferozabad, Noida, Meerut, Mathura, Panipat etc. Delhi is the most important centre for the Industries of cotton textiles, glass, chemicals, automobiles, engineering, paper, soap, vanaspati, sugar and oil refineries. The region is facing the problem of environmental pollution.

V. Answer the following questions: (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 37.
Construct a Pie-Diagram using the following data:

Question 38.
Construct a simple line graph by using the following data:

Question 39.
Construct a simple bar graph by using the following data.
Density of population in Indian from 1961-2011

For Blind Students Only

Question 40.
Answer any two of the following: (2 × 10 = 20)

(a) Explain the development of iron and steel industry in India.

Importance:

• The Iron and Steel industry is described as a basic Industry.
• Iron and Steel supplied by this industry such as machineries, irrigation projects, ship building, power projects, construction of bridges, buildings, transport equipment, machine tools and so on.
• The Production and Consumption of Iron and Steel is an index level of the economic develpoment of a country.

Distribution:
There are nine major Iron and Steel industries in India.

• Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), Jamshedpur:- It was established in 1907. It was the first largest steel plant of the country.
• Vishveswariah Iron and Steel Co. Ltd (VISL) Bhadravathi 11 was first established in 1923 by the princely state of Mysore located at Bhadravathi in Shimoga district of Karnataka.
• India Iron and Steel Company Ltd (IISCO) Bunpur:- It was established in 1919 at Bumpur in West Bengal. It was the second largest integrated steel plant after Tata Iron and Steel Ltd.
• Hindustan Steel Company Ltd, Rourkela:- It was completed with the German collaboration. The steel plant was commissioned in 1955.
• Bhilai Steel Plant :- It has the largest steel production plant of the public sector. It is located at Bilai near Raipur in Chhatisgarh.
• Durgapur Steel Plant :- The steel plant in Durgapur in West Bengal was established with British collaboration and was commissioned in 1956.
• Salem Steel Plant:- It is located at Salem in TamilNadu and the production was started from 1982.
• Vishakapatnam Steel Plant :- Established by National Ispat Nigam Ltd in Andhra Pradesh.
• New Steel Plants Some private sectors plants are.
• Jindal Vijaynagar Steel Ltd (JVSL) This steel plant is located at Tomagal, Bellary district in Karnataka.
• Essar Steel Ltd (ESL) It is situated at Hazira in Gujarat.
• Ispat Industries Ltd (IIL) It is situated at Dovi, Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra.
• Neelachal Ispat Nigam Ltd (NINL)It is a new steel plant located at Dubai, Odisha.
• Mini Steel Plants Presently, 199 lincensed electric ore furnace units with an installed capacity of 7.8 million tonnes have been commissioned and hence started commercial production.

(b) Discuss the functions of GIS and GPS.

• Capture data: Geographical data can be collected/captured from various sources like hard copy, map through tophosheet, digital data, through GPS, Secondary data through published tables.
• Storing data: Geographical data once captured, it needs to transform from Analogy into digital format and to be stored in computer for further analysis.
• Query: Once you have a functional GIS containing your geographical information, you can begin to ask a simple questions.
• Analysis: There are 3 types
1. Proximity Analysis : Proximity queries find features with in a certain distance of other features.
2. Overlay Analysis : It is simplest, this could be a visual operation, but analytical operations require One or more data layers to be joined physically.
3. Network Analysis : Anetwork is a set of edges and junctions that are Topologically connected to each other.
• Display: Once analysis is done maps, diagrams, graphs and tables are to be designed and same has to be displayed over computer moniter.
• Output: This is final, stage of GIS function where in the maps, data tables etc…. can be printed to have hard copy as output.

There are three segments of GPS:-

1. The space segments : The satellites of GPS are launched and positioned at an altitude of approximately 20200 km which is almost more than three times of the earth’s radius. The space segment consists of a constellation of 24 functioning GPs satellites located in 6 orbital plane with 4 satellites in each orbital plane. The time for the satellite to complete one revolution around the earth is 11 hrs and 58 minutes.

2. The control segment: The control segment consists of facilities necessary for satellites especially healthy monitoring, telemetry, tracking command and control clock error ‘ computation .of satellites. There are 5 GPS stations spread over the earths surface they are

• Hawaii
• Ascension Island
• Diego Garcia
• Kwajalein.

3. The user segment: It is a total user and supplier community, both civilian and military. The user segment consists of all earth – based GPS receivers. Receivers very greatly in size and complexity, through the basic design in rather simple. The space and control segments are largely transparent to the operations of navigation functions.

(c) Explain the urban waste disposal in India.

• Urban centres are known for large amount of waste generation. It is a serious problem in India.
• In metropolitan cities likes Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore etc.
• About 90 percent of the solid waste is collected and disposed.
• The waste may be treated as resources and utilized for generating energy and compost.
• Untreated wastes fermently releases toxic bio gases to the atmosphere including methane.
• These wastes should be treated as resources and utilized for generating energy and compost etc.

Students can Download 2nd PUC Business Studies Model Question Paper 2 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Model Question Paper 2 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

SECTION – A

I. Answer any ten of the following questions in a word or a sentence each.
Each questions carries one mark. (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
State any one dimension of management?
Management of work.

Question 2.
Henry fayol was a.

1. Social Scientist
2. Mining Engineer
3. Accountant
4. Production Engineer

2. Mining Engineer.

Question 3.
What do you mean by business environment? An example for standing plan is

1. Budget
2. Program
3. Project
4. Rule

4. Rule

Question 4.
State any one importance of planning function?
Planning Provides Direction.

Question 5.
A______________ structure of organisation leads to occupational specialisation.
Functional structure.

Question 6.
State the first step in staffing process?
Estimating the man power requirements.

Question 7.
Mention any one element of Directing function?
Supervision.

Question 8.
State any one limitation of controlling function.
Difficulty in setting quantitative standards.

Question 9.
Give the meaning of Business finance.

Question 10.
What is the other name given for secondary capital market?
Stock exchange/stock market.

Question 11.
In which year was consumer protection Act passed?
Consumer protection Act was passed in the year 1986.

Question 12.
Who is an entrepreneur?
The person who set – up his business is called an entrepreneur.

SECTION – B

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two or three sentences each.
Each question carrier two marks: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 13.
Mention any two organizational objectives of Management.

1. Survival
2. Profit

Question 14.
What do you mean by mental revolution?
Mental revolution involves a change in the attitude of workers and management towards one another from competition to cooperation.

Question 15.
What is Globalisation?
Globalization means the integration of the various economies of the world leading towards the emergence of a cohesive global economy.

Question 16.
What is Policy
Policies are general statements that guide thinking towards a particular direction.

Question 17.
Define Organising?
According to Henry Fayol,” To organize a business is to provide it with everything, useful to its functioning – raw materials, machines, tools, capital and personnel”.

Question 18.
What is Orientation?
It is a process of introducing the new employee in the organization to the existing employees and familiarizing him with the rules and policies of the organization.

Question 19.
What is Directing
According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Direction is the inter-personal aspect of managing by which sub-ordinates are led to under stand and contribute effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprise objective.”

Question 20.
Mention any two modern techniques followed in managerial control process.

1. Return on Investment
2. Ratio Analysis.

Question 21.
What do you understand by financing decisions? Give an example
The decision about the quantum of finance to be raised from various long-term sources is known as financing decisions. These long-term sources of capital include debt, equity, preference share capital, and retained earnings. Example for financing decision: Decision about how much funds are to be raised from which source.

Question 22.
What is meant by a depository?
A depository keeps securities in electronic form on behalf of the investor.

Question 23.
State any two objectives of Pricing.
If a firm’s objective is to obtain larger share of the market; it will keep the price of its products at lower levels so that greater number of people are attracted to purchase the products.

2. Surviving in a Competitive Market:
If a firm is facing difficulties in surviving in the market because of intense competition or introduction of a more efficient substitute by a competitor, it may lead to discounting its products or running a promotion campaign to liquidate its stock.

Question 24.
Give any two reasons to emphasise the importance of consumer protection from the consumer point of view.

• Consumer Ignorance
• Unorganized Consumers

SECTION – C

III. Answer any seven of the following questions in 10 – 12 sentences.
Each question carrier 4 Marks: (7 × 4 = 24)

Question 25.
Explain briefly the principles of scientific Management of FW Taylor?
Scientific management refers to the use of scientific and standardized tools, methods and trained workers in all organisational activities in order to increase the total production with minimum cost and wastage. Following are the principles of scientific management contributed by FW Taylor.

1. Science not Rule of Thumb:
Taylor was the first person to introduce the method of scientific inquiry into the domain of management practice. He believed that there was only one best method to maximise efficiency i.e., by scientific way. Scientific management includes scientific selection of workers, placement and training, work-study motion study fatigue study, time – study, gradation of equipments and machinery, payment of wages according to work done, etc.

2. Harmony, Not discord:
There should be harmonious relationship between management and workers. Both should realise that each one is important. This avoids class-conflict. To achieve this, Taylor introduced mental revolution. Both management and workers should transform their thoughts in order to achieve harmonious relationship amongst them.

3. Cooperation, Not individualism:
There should be complete cooperation between the labour and the management instead of individualism. Competition should be replaced by cooperation. Both should realise that they need each other. To achieve this fact, the management should consult their employees while taking important decisions.

There should be a two way communication between management and workers. According to Taylor, there should be almost equal division of work and responsibility between workers and management.

4. Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity:
Industrial efficiency depends on personnel competencies. According to Taylor, efficiency could be achieved from the beginning i.e., from the time of selection of employees.

Each person must be scientifically selected. Work should be assigned according to his mental and intellectual capabilities Proper training should be given to improve his/her skill. This will contribute to their greatest efficiency and prosperity for both organisation and workers.

Question 26.
Explain briefly any four features of planning function?
The planning function of the management has certain special features. These features are as follows:

a. Planning focuses on achieving objectives:
Organisations are set up with a general purpose in view. Specific goals are set out in the plans along with the activities to be undertaken to achieve the goals. Thus, planning is purposeful. It contributes to the achievement of predetermined goals of an organization.

b. Planning is a primary function of management:
Planning lays down the base for other functions of management. All other managerial functions are performed within the framework of the plans drawn. Thus, planning is referred to as the primary function of management.

c. Planning is pervasive:
Planning is required at all levels of management. It is also o required in all departments of the organization. Planning is not an exclusive function of top management. It is required at every level and in every department. Hence, planning is all pervasive in nature.

d. Planning is continuous:
Plans are prepared for a specific period of time. At the end of that period there is a need for a new plan to be drawn on the basis of new requirements and future conditions. Hence, planning is a continuous process.

Question 27.
Explain briefly the steps in the process of organising function?
The following are the steps in the process of organizing:

a. Identification and Division of work:
The process of organizing starts with the identification and division of work. The work is divided into manageable activities so that duplication of work can be avoided. The burden of work can be shared among the employees.

b. Departmentalization:
It refers to the process of grouping the activities of similar nature under same departments. This helps specialization and co-ordination. Departments can be created generally on the following basis:

1. On the basis of function
2. On the basis of type of product manufactured
3. On the basis of territory

c. Assignment of duties:
It is necessary to define the work of different job positions and allocate the work accordingly to various employees. Once departments are formed, it is necessary to assign the work to the employees according to their skill and competencies. It is essential that a balance is created between the nature of the job and the ability of the employee.

d. Establishment of reporting relationships:
Mere allocation of work is not enough. Each individual should know from whom he has to take orders and to whom he is accountable. The establishment of such clear relationship helps to create a hierarchal structure and helps in co-ordination among various departments.

Question 28.
Explain briefly any four on the job methods of training?
On the job-training:
It is a method, where workers learn by doing the work. The following are the important methods of on the job training:

1. Apprenticeship training
2. Coaching
3. Internship training
4. Job-rotation

On the job means learning while doing. The following are the popular on the job training methods:
1. Apprenticeship Programmes:
Apprenticeship programmes put the trainee under the guidance of a master worker. These are designed to acquire a higher level of skill. People seeking to enter skilled jobs like plumbers, electricians, etc., are required to undergo apprenticeship training.

2. Coaching:
In this method, the superior guides and instructs the trainee as a coach. The coach or counselor sets mutually agreed upon goals, suggests how to achieve these goals periodically reviews the trainees progress and suggests changes required in behavior and performance. The trainee works directly with a senior manager and the manager takes full responsibility for the trainee’s coaching.

3. Internship training:
It is a joint programme of training in which educational institutions and business firms cooperate. Selected candidates carry on regular studies for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical knowledge and skills.

4. Job Rotation:
This kind of training involves shifting the trainee from one department to another or from one job to another. This enables the trainee to gain a broader understanding of all parts of the business and how the organization as a whole functions. Job rotation allows trainees to interact with other employees. When employees are trained by this method, the organization finds it easy at the time of promotions, replacements or transfers.

Question 29.
Explain briefly the importance of controlling process ?
A good control system helps an organization in the following ways:

a. Accomplishing organizational goals:
The controlling function measures progress towards the organizational goals and brings to light the deviations, if any, and indicates corrective action. Thus, it guides the organization and keeps it on the right track so that organizational goals might be achieved.

b. Judging accuracy of standards:
A good control system enables management to verify whether the standards set are accurate and objective. An efficient control system keeps a careful check on the changes taking place in the organization and in the environment and helps to review and revise the standards in light of such changes.

c. Making efficient use of resources:
By exercising control, a manager seeks to reduce wastage and spoilage of resources. Each activity is performed in accordance with predetermined standards and norms. This ensures that resources are used in the most effective and efficient manner.

d. Improving employee motivation:
A good control system ensures that employees know well in advance what they are expected to do and what are the standards of performance on the basis of which they will be appraised. It, thus, motivates them and helps them to give better performance.

e. Ensuring order and discipline:
Controlling creates an atmosphere of order discipline in the organization. It helps to minimize dishonest behaviour on the part of the employees by keeping a close check on their activities.

f. Facilitating coordination in action:
Controlling provides direction to all activities and efforts for achieving organizational goals.

Question 30.
Explain briefly the factors affecting Capital Budgeting Decision?
A long-term investment decision is also called as capital budgeting decision. It involves committing the finance on a long-term basis.
The following are certain factors which affect capital budgeting decisions:

1. Cash flows of the project:
When a company takes an investment decision involving huge amount, it expects to generate some cash flows over a period. These cash flows are in the form of a series of cash receipts and payments over the life of an investment. The amount of these cash flows should be carefully analysed before considering a capital budgeting decision.

2. The rate of return:
These calculations are based on the expected returns from each proposal and the assessment of the risk involved.

3. Investment criteria:
The decision to invest in a particular project involves a number of calculations regarding the amount of investment, interest rate, cash flows and rate of return. There are different techniques to evaluate investment’proposals which are known as capital budgeting techniques. These techniques are applied to each proposal before selecting a particular project.

Question 31.
Explain briefly any four functions of stock exchange?
Stock Exchange means any body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, constituted for the purpose of assisting, regulating or controlling the business of buying and selling or dealing in securities.

The following are the important functions of the stock exchange:

1. Providing liquidity and marketability to existing securities:
The basic function of a stock exchange is the creation of a continuous market where securities are bought and sold. It gives investors the chance to disinvest and reinvest. This provides both liquidity and easy marketability to already existing securities in the market.

2. Pricing of Securities:
share prices on a stock exchange are determined by the forces of demand and supply. A stock exchange is a mechanism of constant valuation through which the prices of securities are determined. Such a valuation provides important instant information to both buyers and sellers in the market.

3. Safety of Transaction:
The membership of a stock exchange is well regulated and its dealings are well defined according to the existing legal framework. This ensures that the investing public gets a safe and fair deal on the market.

4. Contributes to Economic Growth:
A stock exchange is a market in which existing securities are resold or traded. Through this process of disinvestment and reinvestment, savings get channelized into their most productive investment avenues. This leads to capital formation and economic growth.

Question 32.
Explain any four functions performed by public relations department of an organization.
The following are the important functions performed by public relations department of an organization:

1. Press relations:
Information about the organization needs to be presented in a positive manner in the press. The public relations department is in contact with the media to present true facts and a correct picture about the company.

2. Product publicity:
New products require special effort to publicise them and the company has to sponsor such programmes. The public relations department manages the sponsoring of such events like news conferences, seminars, exhibitions etc.

3. Corporate communication:
The image of the organization needs to be promoted through communicating with the public and the employees within the organization. This is generally done with the help of newsletter, annual reports, brochures, articles and audio-visual materials.

4. Lobbying:
The organization has to deal with government officials and different ministers in charge of corporate affairs, industry, finance with respect to policies relating to business and the economy. The public relations department has to be proactive in promoting or decoding regulations that affect their organization.

Question 33.
Discuss briefly any four differences between selling and marketing

 Money Market Capital Market It is a market where short-term funds are borrowed and lent. It is a market where long-term funds are borrowed and lent. The participants in the capital market are financial institutions, banks, corporate entities, and foreign investors. The participants in the money market are RBI, banks, financial institutions, and finance companies. Individuals can take part in the trading of capital market Individuals cannot directly trade in the money market. The instruments involved for a transaction are treasury bills, calls money, certificate of deposit, commercial papers, commercial bills etc. The major players are companies, Individual investors, Institutional Investors, foreign investors, banks and financial institutions.

Question 34.
Explain any four ways in which the objective of consumer protection can be achieved.
There are various ways in which the objective of consumer protection can be achieved which are as follows:

Enlightened business firms realize that it is in their long-term interest to serve the customers well. Socially responsible firms follow ethical standards and practices in dealing with their customers.

The associations of trade, commerce and business like Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce of India and Confederation of Indian Industries have laid down their code of conduct which lay down their guidelines for their members in dealing with the customers.

3. Consumer Awareness:
A consumer who is well informed about his rights, and the reliefs available, would be in a position to raise his voice against any unfair trade practices or any kind of exploitation by the seller.

4. Consumer Organization:
Consumer organizations play an important role in educating consumers about their rights and providing protection to them. They can force business firms to avoid malpractices and exploitation of consumers.

5. Government:
The government can protect the interest of the consumers by enacting various legislations.

SECTION – D

IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 20 – 25 sentences each.
Each question carrier 8 marks: (4 × 8 = 32)

Question 35.
Explain the various functions of Business Management?
Management is described as the process of planning, organising, directing and controlling the efforts of organisational members and of using the resources of the organisation to achieve specific goals. Luther Gulick has given a keyword “PODSCORB”.

1. P → Planning
2. 0 → Organising
3. S → Staffing
4. D → Directing
5. Co → Coordination
6. R → Reporting and
7. B → Budgeting

The most widely accepted classification of management functions is given by Koontz and O’Donnell which includes planning, organizing, staffing, Directing and Controlling.

1. Planning:
Planning is the basic and first function of management. It is the function of determining in advance what is to be done and who is to do it. A plan is a future course of action. Planning implies setting goals in advance and developing a way of achieving them efficiently and effectively. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilisation of human and non-human resources.

2. Organisaing:
It is the process of bringing together, physical, financial and human resources. It develops productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organisational goals. Organising is the management function of assigning duties, grouping tasks, establishing authority and allocating resources required to carry out a specific plan. Organising as a process involves.

• Identification of activities
• Classification of activities
• Assignment of duties
• Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility
• Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.

3. Staffing:
It includes finding the right people for the right job. This is also known as the human resource function and has assumed greater importance in the recent years staffing involves.

• Man – power planning
• Recruitment, selection and placement
• Training and Development
• Remuneration
• Performance appraisal
• Promotions and Transfer

4. Directing:
Directing function involves leading, influencing and motivating employees to perform the tasks assigned to them. It is that part of managerial function that actuates the organisational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organisational objectives Directing has the following elements:

• Supervision
• Motivation
• Communication
• Delegation
• Coordination

5. Controlling:
It is the management function of monitoring organisational performance towards the attainment of organisational goals. It implies the measurement of actual performance against the set standards and connecting the deviations if any so as to ensure the achievement of organisations goals. Controlling has the following steps:

• Establishment of standards
• Measurement of actual performance
• Comparison of actual performance with the set standards and finding out deviations if any
• Taking corrective action.

Conclusion:
Theoretically, the management functions can be separated but practically these functions are overlapping in nature. Hence they are inseparable. Each function blends into the other and each function affects the performance of other functions.

Question 36.
Explain in detail the various dimensions of business environment with examples.
Dimensions of business environment include economic, social, technical, logical, political and legal conditions which are considered relevant for decision-making and improving the performance of an enterprise.

1. Economic Environment:
Interest rates, inflation rates, changes in disposable income of people, stock market indices and the value of rupee are some of the economic factors that can affect management practices in a business enterprise.

2. Social Environment:
The social environment of business include the social forces like customs and traditions, values, social trends, society’s expectations from business, etc. Values refer to concepts that a society holds in high esteem.

In India, individual freedom, social justice, equality of opportunity and national integration are examples of major values cherished by all of us. Social trends present various opportunities and threats to business enterprise.

3. Technological Environment:
This includes forces relating to scientific improvements and innovations which provide new ways of producing goods and services and new methods and techniques of operating a business. This technological advancement creates shifts in demand and also has been responsible for creating new business.

4. Political Environment:
Political environment include political conditions such as general stability and peace in the country and specific attitudes the elected government representatives hold towards business. If political unrest prevails, there may be uncertainty of business activities. Political stability builds up confidence among business people to invest in the long term projects and assist in the growth of the economy.

5. Legal Environment:
Legal environment includes various legislations passed by the Government administrative orders issued by government authorities, court judgements, decisions given by various commissions and agencies at every level of the government – Centre, state or local. An adequate knowledge of rules and regulations framed by the Government is a prerequisite for better business performance.

Question 37.
Formal Organisation refers to the organization structure which is designed by the management to accomplish a particular task. It specifies clearly the boundaries of authority and responsibility and there is a systematic coordination among the various activities to achieve organizational goals.

1. It is easier to fix responsibility since mutual relationships are clearly defined.

2. There is no ambiguity in the role that each member has to play as duties are specified. This also helps in avoiding duplication of effort.

3. Unity of command is maintained through an established chain of command.

4. It leads to effective accomplishment of goals by providing framework for the operations to be performed and ensuring that each employee knows the role he has to play.

5. It provides stability to the organization. This is because behavior of employees can be fairly predicted since there are specific rules to guide them.

1. The formal communication may lead to procedural delays as the established chain of command has to be followed which increases the time taken for decision making.

2. Poor organization practices may not provide adequate recognition to creative talent, since it does not allow any deviations from rigidly laid down policies.

3. It is difficult to understand alumna relationships in an enterprise as it places more emphasis on structure and work. Hence, the formal organization does not provide a complete picture of how an organization works.

Question 38.
Explain in detail the staffing process.
Following are the steps involved in Staffing Process:

1. Estimating the manpower requirements/ Man Power Planning:
2. Recruitment
3. Selection
4. Placement and Orientation
5. Training and Development
6. Performance appraisal(Evaluation)
7. Promotion and Career Planning
8. Compensation [Wage and Salary administration}

1. Manpower Planning:
It is the estimation of human resources required by an organization. Its main focus will be on getting right number of qualified people at the right time. While estimating the manpower requirement, the management generally keeps in mind, the available infrastructure including the technology, production schedule, market fluctuation, demand forecasts, etc.

2. Recruitment:
It is the process of finding the candidates for employment and motivating them to apply for the jobs in the organization.

3. Selection:
It is a process of choosing the best candidate from the large pool of applicants. It aims at finding the right person for the right job.

4. Placement:
It is a process of assigning job to the selected candidates. Assigning jobs to employees may involve a new job or different job. it also includes assignment of job to a new employee, transfer, promotion and also demotion of existing employee. Placement involves striking a fit between the requirements of a job and the qualifications of a candidate.

5. Orientation:
It is a process of introducing the selected employee to other employees and familiarizing him with the rules and policies of the organization. This process will help the new entrants to know about their superiors, subordinates, colleagues and about the organization.

6. Training:
Training is the process which is under taken to increase the knowledge and skills of an employee to perform the present job accurately.

7. Development:
It refers to the process of not only building up the skill and abilities for specific purpose, but also the overall competence of managerial executives to undertake more difficult and challenging tasks. Development refers to the training of managers and executives.

8.Performance appraisal (evaluation):
It is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his performance on the job and his potential for development. It is concerned with determining the differences among the employees, working in the organization. It also determines an employee’s worth to the organization.

9. Promotion and career planning:
Promotion is a term usually used for the upward movement of an employee to a higher position with greater responsibilities and higher pay. Promotion requires more knowledge, experience and skills to perform the job.

10. Compensation:
Workers work for wages or salary which can be otherwise known as compensation. The term compensation comprises of cash payments related to wages and salary, bonus, share in the profit, pension etc. A properly developed compensation system enables an employer to attract, obtain, retain and motivate people of required intelligence and qualification in the organization.

Conclusion:
A competent staffing process obtains the most competent person to the organization. Staffing process should be carefully followed to get right man in the right job at the right time and in the right place.

Question 39.
How does Demat system works? Explain.

1. A depository participant (DP), either a bank, broker, or financial services company, may be identified.

2. An account opening form and documentation (PAN card details, photograph, and power of attorney) may be completed.

3. The physical certificate is to be given to the DP along with a dematerialisation request form.

4. If shares are applied in a public offer, simple details of DP and Demat account are to be given and the shares on allotment would automatically be credited to the demat account.

5. If shares are to be sold through a broker, the DP is to be instructed to debit the account with the number of shares.

6. The broker then gives instruction to his DP for delivery of the shares, to the stock exchange.

7. The broker then receives payment and pays the person for the shares sold.

8. All these transactions are to be completed within two days, i.e., delivery of shares and payment received from the buyer is on a T+2 basis, settlement period.

Question 40.
Advertising is the most commonly used tool of promotion. It is an impersonal from of communication, which is paid for by sponsors to promote some goods or service.

1. Mass Reach:
Advertising is a medium through which a large number of people can be reached over vast geographical area.

2. Enhancing customer satisfaction and confidence:
Advertising creates confidence amongst prospective buyers as they feel more comfortable and assured about the product quality and hence feel more satisfied.

3. Expressiveness:
with the help of computer designs, graphics, etc advertising has developed into one of the most forceful medium of communication. With the special effects created, even simple product and messages look very attractive.

4. Economy:
Advertising is a very economical mode of communication. A large number of people can be reached at a time. Because of its wide reach, the overall cost of advertising gets spread over numerous communication links established. As a result the per unit cost of reach comes low.

1. Less Forceful:
Advertising is an impersonal form of communication. It is less forceful than personal selling as there is no compulsion on the prospects to pay attention to the message.

2. Lack of feedback:
The evaluation of the effectiveness of the advertising message is very difficult as there is no immediate feedback mechanism of the message that is delivered.

3. Inflexibility:
Advertising is less flexible as the message is standardized and cannot be altered according to the requirements of the different customer groups.

4. Low Effectiveness:
As the volume of advertising is getting more and more expanded, it is becoming difficult to make advertising messages heard by the target customers. This affects the effectives of advertising.

Advertising unnecessarily adds to the cost of product, which is ultimately passed on to the buyers in the form of high prices. The money spent on advertising adds to the cost, which is an important factor in the fixation of the price of a product.

But, advertisement also helps to increase the demand for the product as large number of potential buyer are persuaded to buy more product. Increased demand leads to higher production, which brings in the economies of scale. As a result, the per unit cost of production comes down. This reduces the burden of consumers.

2. Undermines social values:
People argue that advertising undermines social values and promotes materialism. It encourages dissatisfaction among people as they come to known about new products and feel dissatisfied with their present state of affairs.

But, advertisement in fact, helps buyers by informing them about the new products, which may be improvement over the existing products. If the buyers are not informed about these products, they may be using inefficient products.

4. Encourages sale of inferior product:
Advertising does not distinguish between superior and inferior products. Hence, it persuades people to buy even inferior products.

But, superiority and inferiority depends on the quality, which is a relative concept. The desired level of quality also depends on the economic status and preferences of the target customers. Hence, advertisements are not solely responsible for the sale of inferior products.

There can be some chances of misuse of adverting as a tool, which can be properly safeguarded by the low or by developing a code of conduct by the advertisers, for their self regulation.

Conclusion:
Most of the Criticism against advertising are not entirely true. In the changed are economic environment of globalization, advertising is considered as an important tool of marketing. It helps a firm in effectively communicating with its target market, increasing the sale and there by reducing the per-unit cost of production.

It is not a social waste it adds value to the social cause by increasing production and generating more employment opportunities. Hence, advertising is a use and not a waste.

SECTION – E

V. Answer any two of the following questions.
Each question carrier five marks: (2 × 5 = 10)

Question 41.
As a general manager, list out any ten Fayol’s Principles of Management which you would like to adopt in your business organization.

• Division of work
• Authority and responsibility
• Discipline
• Unity of Command
• Unity of Direction
• Subordination of individual interest to general interest.
• Remuneration of Employees
• Centralisation and Decentralisation
• Scalar Principle
• Order.

Question 42.
Draw the organisation Chart showing Divisional and Functional Structure.
Divisional Chart of an Organisation

Functional Chart of an Organisation

Question 43.
As a Financial Consultant, give the list of any ten factors which affect the choice of Capital Structure.
List of factors that affects the choice of Capital Structure

• Cash flow position
• Interest Coverage Ratio
• Debt Service Coverage Ratio
• Return on Investment
• Cost of debt
• Tax rate
• Cost of Equity
• Flotation Costs
• Risk Considerations
• Flexibility

## 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2018

Students can Download 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2018, Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2018

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

Section – A

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 x 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
Define ‘Human Geography’.
According to Ellen C. Semple – “The study of changing relationship between the unresting man and the unstable earth.”

Question 2.
According to 2012 mention the total population of the world.
Seven billion population (7 billion).

Question 3.
What is ‘Internet’?
An Inter connected system of networks that connects computers around the world.

Question 4.
Which is the first mega city of the world?
Newyork is the largest mega city in the world.

Question 5.
Which state has lowest literacy rate in India?
Bihar with 63.82% is the Lowest Literacy state.

Question 6.
Bhakra-Nangal dam was constructed across which river.
Sutlej river.

Question 7.
Mention the hightest coffee producing state of India.
Karnataka is the hightest coffee producing state in India.

Question 8.
Which is called ‘Liquid gold’?
‘Petroleum’.

Question 9.
Which city is called ‘Jawa of India’?
The Gorakhpur distric of Uttar Pradesh is known as Jawa of India.

Question 10.
What is ‘Environmental pollution’?
Environment Pollution means the release of Harmful substances and contamination of environment.

Section – B

II. Answer any 10 of the following questions in 2 to 3 sentences each: ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 11.
Mention any four primary economic activities.

1. Primary activities
2. Secondary activities
3. Teritiary activities
4. Quatemary activities.

Question 12.
State the importance of industries.

1. Industries helps in removing poverty and unemployment.
2. The economic strength of a country is judged by the develepment of its industries.
3. It contributes about 78 percent of our foreign exchange earning.
4. Industries involve from the making of Machines euipement and tools for the automobiles, ships, aircrafts etc.

Question 13.
Write any four probblems of rural settlements.
Some of the most important common problems of rural settlements are –

• Supply of water is most inadequate. People in the rural areas particularly in mountain and desert region walks for long distances to Fetch drinking water.
• The Water borne disease such as cholera, jaundice etc, are the common problems.
Many rural areas are facing the problems of natural diasters which occur frequently such as floods and droughts.
• Agriculture areas are severely affected due to lacking of irrigation.
• Being dominated by agriculture the effects of droughts are severe and have effects which strech for many years.
• The rura1houscs are lacking toilet and disposal facilities of solid aster/garbages which cause health related problems.
• The houses are made up of mud, wood and thatch which are damaged by heavy rains & floods. They require proper maintainance every year.
• Most of the houses do not have proper ventilation and the design of the houses also includes animaL shed with fodder storage.
• The rural settlements are lacking roads and other modern communications.

Question 14.
What is migration? Give any one reason of migration.
The movement of people from onc place to another place is known as Migration.
Causes of Migration : Migration is caused by a variety of factors including economic, social and political factors. Some of them are briefly discussed below.

• Marriage: Every girl has to migrate to her husband’s place after marriage, thus the entire female population of India has to migrate over short or long distance.
• Employment : The agricultural base of rural areas does not provide employment to all the people living here. In contrast, urban areas provide vast scope for employment in industries, trade, transport & services. Hence people like to migrate towards the urban areas.
• Education : Educational facilities are very low in the rural areas especially those of higher education and rural people have to migrate to the urban centers for this purpose.
• Lack of security: Large number of people have migrated out of Jammu and Kashmir and Assam during the last few cars due to disturbed conditions there. In this situation, people would like to migrate towards well secure areas.

Question 15.
Mention the types of canal irrigation.

1. Inundation canals :- taken out direct1 from ivers without making any barrage or dam.
2. Perennial canals :- which are taken Out from the reservoirs by constructing barrage.

Question 16.
Mention the benefits of rainwater harvesting.

• It involves collection and storage of rain water at surface or in Sub-surface aquifer before it is lost as surface run off.
• It is not only increase water availability but also check the declining water table.

Question 17.
What is ‘Mixed farming’?
Raising of food as well as commercial crops and keeping of lives stock is called “Mixed farming”. It has been introduced in 1951.

Question 18.
Name the types of coal.
The types of coal arc:

1. Anthracite
2. lignite
3. Bituminous
4. Peat.

Question 19.
Discuss the factors necessary for the production of Hydro-electricity.

• The regular and uniform supply of water is essential.
• The water should fall from a sufficient height.
• It requires huge capital investment to purchase machines.
• A ready available market should be there.

Question 20.
Give any two examples of Agro-based industries.

1. Cotton textile industries
2. Sugar industries
3. Jute industries.

Question 21.
What are the main four items importing of India?
Imports of India : Imports trade of India refers to buying goods from foreign countries and bringing them to home country.
The main items of Imports of India are:

1. Petroleum crude and products :

• It is the most important materials of Indian, Imports.
• In 2006-2007 India imported rupees 2,58,572 crores worth of crude oil and other petroleum products.
• It contributed 23% of our total imports.

2. Pearls precious and semi-precious stones :
India imported rupees 33,881 crores worth of precious stone.

3. Capital goods :
In 2006-2007 India imported rupees 2,51,136 crores worth of capital goods.

4. Fertilizers :
India is a major importer of chemical Fertilizers. It is because the country is agrarian and the Internal production of fertilizers is insufficient. Potash fertilizers are largely imported.

Exports of India : Export trade of India refers to the sale of goods and services by India to other countries of the world.

The main items of our exports are as follows:

• Agricultural and Allied products: Products such as cereals, pulses tobacco, spices, nuts and seeds, oil meals, caster oil etc.
During 2011-2012 exports income is about US dollar 13300.63 million.
• Ores and minerals: Export of ores and minerals like Iron ore, Manganese, Micca was estimated at US dollar 4700.29 million during 2011-12.
• Gems and Jewellery: India imports gems and precious stones in their raw form and exports them after proper cutting and polishing.
• Electronic goods: Items under this group. of consists of machinery, iron, steel and other engineering items.
• Petroleum products: Export of petroleum products increased to US dollar 34667.02 million.

Question 22.
Mention the two sources of solid wastes.

1. Household or Domestic establishment
2. Industrial. or Commercial establishment.

Section – C

III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each: ( 5 × 8 = 40 )

Question 23.
Explain the branches of Human Geography.
The important branches of human Geography are as follows-

• Economic Geography: It deals with the study of influence of Geographical factors on the economic activities man like agriculture, industries, transport etc.
• Po1itica1 Geography: It deals with the influences of geographical environment on political aspects such as states nations & boundaries etc.

Question 24.
What is the growth of population? Explain the distribution of population in the world.
The growth of population refers to the increases in the number of inhabitants of a country during specific period.

• It is estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804.
• Due to the impact of the industrial revolution & improvement in living standards, the rate of population growth increased two billion in 1927.
• At present estimate of 2013 the globe is inhabited by 7121 million population.
• During the begining of 20th century the world population was only 2 billion and century ended with 6 billion. It continues to grow even in the 21st century.

Stages of Population growth:
I Three billion – July 1959
II Four billion – April 1974
III Five billion – July 1987
IV Six billion – 12th October 1999
V Seven billion – 12th March 2012.

Question 25.
What is ‘Demographic cycle’? Explain its different stages.
Demographic cycle is the process of population transformation from the countries of high birth rate and high death rates to low birth rate & low death rate countries.
Stages of Demographic cycle:

• First stage: High birth rate and high death is found when the country ¡s economically most backward, so the population remains stationary. India was in the stage till 1920.
• Second stage (Early expanding): It begins with the declining of death rate while the birth rate ramins unchanged. These changes due to the advancement of science & technology, basic health care and education etc. At present many developing countries of Asia & Africa are in this stage.
• Third stage (Late expanding): Death rate declines and birth rate begins to fall due to access of contraceptives, urbanization, an increase in the status and women education etc India appears to be this stage.
• Fourth stage (Low stationary): It is characterized with low birth rate and low death rate. Growth is stationary due to changing life style, high obesity and many diseases are caused in this stage. Japan, Sweden, Belgium Denmark & Switzerland are in this stage.
• Fifth stage(Declining): Population begins to decline or birth rate is lower than deathrate. East European countries like Germany and Hungary and North European countries like Sweden. Norway are now in this stage.

Question 26.
Write a note on modes of communication.

• Communication plays a significant role in the Modern World. They create awareness about the policies. programme of developments, learning.
• Adopt new technological innovations in agriculture and industry as well as transportation.
• People can acquire information of day’s affairs of the world.
• It brings out the unity, integrity and stability of the country.
• It helps in the development of cultural, political and social aspects as well as trade and commerce.
• They have laid a base for modern business. Thus, communication plays a vital role in the development of a nation.
• Speed with messages could be sent across the world with in a second.
• The Telephone or Radio are linked the people Worldwide and they can speak each other directly.
• Even today newspaper touch everypart of the country as it covers international, national and local news as well as entertainments with other information.
• The radio has its own name by broadcasting news and information which will reach all corners of country and abroad.
• Television allows the audio and video facilities to gain information for public.
• It has a profound role to play in the forecasting of weather, the direction of aircraft.
shipping and warning of usual events such as Hirricanes, snowfall and rainfalls as well as floods.
• Rapid communication have great political implication for leaders can speak to people all over the country.

Question 27.
Explain the measures to check the growth of population in India.
The government of India has taken several steps to control the growth of population in the country are as :

• Family Planning Programme : India was the first country in the world to adopt the family planning programme in the year 1952. The main aim is to control births by various means such as free sterilization (Vasectomy for males Tubectomy for females). Adopting contraceptives etc.
• Improvement of the status of women : The social, economic and political status of women have been improved through education and various women welfare scheme. For ex: In Karnataka free Education, Government jobs, Bhagyalaxmiyojana etc.
• Programmes to control infant mortality : The government of Karnataka has introduced many child welfare programmes to control infänt mortality. For ex: Jananisurakshayojan, Madilu Prasooti Araike etc.
• Area Projects : Under this project health worker visit door to door and advise. In addition they are also motivating the people to adopt contraceptives and undergo sterilization.
• Publicity : Broadcasting the benifits of small family through the Radio, Television and Ne spapers etc.

Question 28.
What are the types of migration? Analyse types of internal migration of India.
The types of Migration are Internal Migration and International Migration.

I. Internal Migration :
Movement of people fiom one region to another within the same country is called internal
migration. In India there are four streams of mternal migration. They are

1. Rural to Rural
2. Rural to Urban
3. Urban to Urban
4. Urban to Rural

1. (a) Rural to Rural : This is estimated that about 65.2% of total migration is of this category.
Female migrants dominated in this stream, Thus it is an important example for matrimonal migration and it is called women migration.

2. Rural to Urban : Rural to Urban migration (17.6%) is second important type of migration.
Rural – Urban migration is caused b both push of the rural areas as well as pull of the urban areas.

3. Urban to Urban : Generally, people like to move from small town with less facility to large cities ith more facilities.

4. Urban to Rural : Urban areas are usually affected by the pollution.
The retired and aged people prefer to spend their old age life in nearby villages. Thus people move from ltrban to Rural.

2. International Migration : Movement of people from one country to another across international borders is called International migration.

Question 29.
Describe the land – use pattern of India.
The important types of land use pattern in India are:

1. Forest area
2. Land not available for cultivation
3. Cultivable wasteland
4. Fallow land
5. Net area sown.

1. Forest area : –

• According to National Forest Policy 1952, reporting area of the forest must be 33.3% of the total land.
• It is due to heavy rainfall and relief features.

2. Land not available for cultivation :

• The land used for human settlements, transport routes, canals, quarries, the mountains, deserts, marshes etc, are coming under this category. It accounts 14.2% of the total land in India.

Question 30.
Write the types and distribution of cotton crop in India.
Conditions for Cultivation of cotton:

1. Cotton is a tropical & Sub-tropical crop. It requires high temperature. At the time of growing it requires 21°C to 24°Ç temperature.
2. It requires moderate rainfall of 50 cm to 100 cm. However, it can cultivate in areas of lesser rainfall with the help of irrigation.
3. Deep black soil is well suitable for cotton crop. This soil is commonly known as Black cotton soil. This is capable of retaining moisture.
4. Cotton requires the use of Manures & fertilizers crop rotation helps to maintain fertility of the soil & improve the yield.
5. Cotton cultivation requires large amount of cheap labours for planting, thinning, seeding, picking of cotton.
6. Frosting, Moist weather & heavy rainfall are harmful to the crop.
7. Cotton plant is susceptible to disease & pests. Site requires the use of insecticides & pesticides.
8. The Sunny weather is necessary at the time of harvesting the cotton.

Varieties of Cotton:

(1) Long Staple Cotton:

• It is the best variety
• It has over 3.8 cm in length.
• Because of its length of fibre, fine & shining it is used for making fine & super fine quality of cloth.

(ii) Medium Staple Cotton:

• The length of catton fibre is between 2.5 cm to 3.8 cm is known as medium staple cotton.
• It is used for making Medium cloth.

(iii) Short Staple Cotton:

• This is infèrior variety with fiber length less than 2.5 cm.
• This used for making inferior quality of cloth, stuffing purpose, blending with synthetic, fibre etc.
• This type of cotton production is reduced in India.
• Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh & Rajasthan etc are growing this type of cotton.

Question 31.
What is ‘Green revolution’? Discuss the advantages of green revolution in India.
Increase in Food production through the introduction of high yield crop varieties and the application of modem agricultural techniques is called Green Revolution.

1. Increase in Agricultural production and yield per hectare.
2. Better land use by employing two or three crop pattern.
3. Reduction of imports of food grains.
4. Improves country’s Economic status.

Question 32.
Explain the four major types of roads in India.

1. National highways
2. State highways

Besides these, there are border roads and International highways linking major Indian cities with the capitals of other neighbouring countries.

National highways:

• They connect the capitals of the states, industrial centres and major ports.
• They are bell planned wide roads with two-lane, four-lane, and six-lane roads. Both construction and maintenance are carried out by the Central Government and National Highway Authority of India [NHAI].
• The total length of the national highways is about 71, 772 km as per 2011
• (i)The Golden Quadrilateral, (ii) The North South and East-West corridors, (iii) Port connectivity with industries are all part of this network.

Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway: The Governmcnt of India has implemented a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai by six-lane super high-ways. It has a total length of 5846 kms and it is called as Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway.

North – South and East-West corridors: This project connects Srinagar (JK) in the North with Kanyakumari (TN) in the South and Silcher(Assam) in the East with Forbandar (Gujarat) in the West covering major cities along the way. The project has a total length of 7300 km.

Port connectivity project: This is also included in the programmes of NHAI. This project connects the Golden Quadrilateral roads with the 13 major ports (380 km) and other projects (962 km). This is still in progress.

State highways: The State Highways connect the important cities of the state with its capital. with the national highways and link with other slate capitals. The State Government is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the State Highways. Now there are about 1.54. 522 km length of the state highways in the country.

District roads: These roads connect the production and marketing centres with the highways, railways, towns and larger villages with the district headquarters. The Zilla Parishad takes the responsibility for the development and maintenance of these roads.

Village roads: Roads which link the Taluk headquarters with villages and the district highways are called village roads. They are mostly untarred or metalled, They are constructed and maintained by Taluk Panchayats and Village Panchayats.

Border roads: Border roads are constructed in the border areas of the country. They are constructed in the North and North eastern border areas adjoining Pakistan. Nepal. Bhutan and Bangladesh. These are mainly for army movement in the defense of the country.

International highways: Some of the national highways of the country have been linked with the international highways of the neighbouring countries.

Question 33.
Why railway transport is very important in India? Discuss.
Importance of Railways : Indian Railway have benefited our country in the following ways.

• They have helped in the commercialization of agricultural sector through the movement of perishable goods, necessary inputs and implements.
• They help the industry by transporting raw-material, labour, fuel by distribution and ( marketing.
• Railways are useful for carrying bulky and heavy goods for long distance.
• Railways are promoting the movement of goods and passenger traffic.
• They are helping in unifying the national market by stimulating the process of equalization of prices.
• They are promoting the development of the foreign trade.
• They are helping in the process of better administration, understanding and national intergration.
• It helps tourism by connecting places of tourist interest.
• Our railway also help to strengthen the Law and Order situation in the country.

Question 34.
Explain the sources of water pollution.
Causes of water pollution: Water pollution is caused by natural and human sources.

• Natural sources of water pollution are due to erosion, landslides, gases, soil, minerals.
• Human excreta, waste created by animals and other living organisms and rotting vegetation
are also some causes. More than natural sources, water pollution is largely caused by human activities.
• Humans pollute water through industrial, agricultural and cultural activities. Among these, industry is the worst culprit.
• Industries produce a variety of waste products including industrial wastes, polluted water wastes, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke etc.,
• Most of the industrial wastes are disposed off by running water. Consequently poisonous elements reach the lakes, river and other water bodies, which destroy them.
• Reservoirs -They in turn destroy the bio-systems of the water. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals.
• Fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides, farm wastes and mineral particles from agricultural lands are washed down and end up in rivers, lakes and tanks.
• The chemicals also infiltrate into the soil to reach the ground water.
• Addition of fertilizer increases the nitrate content of surface waters.
• Religious and cultural activities like pilgrimages, fairs, tourism, immersiOn of idols after pujas etc., also cause water pollution,
• Urban activities such as improper sewage disposal also cause water pollution.
• Effects of water pollution: Water pollutants adversely affect the health of humans, animals and aquatic life.
• Water pollution is a source of various water borne diseases like diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis etc.
• World health organization shows that about one fourth of the communicable diseases in India are disease water borne.

IV. Answer any one of the following questions : ( 1 x 10 = 10 )

Question 35.
Explain the types of agriculture in India.
Various types of farming are practised in different parts of the country. They are as follows :

1. Primitive subsistence farming
• Migratory subsistence farming
• Sedentary subsistence farming
2. Intensive farming
3. Commercial farming
4. Mixed farming
5. Plantation farming
6. Dry farming
7. Humid farming
8. Irrigation farming

1. Primitive Subsistence Farming : The production of crops for the purpose of domestic consumption and not for commercial use is called “Primitive subsistence farming”. Farmers -used primitive methods of cultivation. This types of farming is widely practiced in hilly regions like North-easterns states, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh. Primitive subsistence farming can be classified into two types. They are –

(i) Migratory subsistances farming and (ii) Sedentary subsistence farming.

(a) Migratory subsistances farming : It is a primitive method of farming, practised by tribals in the tropical rainy forests. Under this system formers clear patches of forest by cutting and burning the bushes and trees and cultivate land. Later people migrate to another parts of the forest. Along with cultivation of crops, hunting, fishing and collection of forest resource etc are done by the people.

This type of farming is called by different local names-eg- ‘ Jhumming’ in North Eastern regions(Assam), ‘Koman’ in Odisha, ‘Ponam’ in Kerala, and ‘Podu’ in Andhra Pradesh. Yams, Peanuts, beans, bananas, upland rice, buck wheat, maize, millets and sometime vegetables are grown under this farming. This farming is practiced in Assam, Meghalay, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, parts of Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.

(b) Sedentary subsistence farming : This is an ancient form of cultivation and practiced by the people living permanetly. Here there is physical factors are favourable for cultivation, of land. The farm lands are not abandoned. They are cultivated through of the year and farmer lived near the land. Hence, this system is called “Sedentary subsistence farming”. Under this system, implements used and the mehtods Of cultivation are primitive. The surplus agricultural produce are sold to neighbouring people or sold in the market.

Sedentary subsistence farming also includes the rearing of animals for milk, meat, woo! and hides.

2. Intensive farming : It is found in the areas of dense population and land holdings are small. in this type of farming land in intentively used and 2-3 harvests are obtained in year. It is known as “Intensive farming”.

It is labour and capital Intensive farming. Large amount of labour and capital is used on a small land holding, to get maximum production of crops. The available small piece of land is ised for cultivation with irrigation facilities throughout the year. In this system, farmers try to raise two or more crops, with careful tilling of the soil. Intensive agriculture is characterized by high yields per unit area and farmers try to get the maximum production from small land holdings. It is common in the fertile and irrigated parts of the country. In this type, agricultural operations are carried on by manual labour and draught animals. Rice is the main crop of Intensive farming in India.

3. Commercial farming : Agricultural crops are produced on a large scale.for the purpose of sale and not for domestic consumption, is called ‘Commercial farming’. This type of farming is generally practised in the large areas of sparse population with good transportation facilities. On large scale farms, using small amount of labour, large scale use of machinery, cash crops are growth for scale.

4. Mixed farming: Farming that includes the raising of crops and keeping of livestock is called ‘Mixed farming’. In this system farmers use the land for raising food as well as commercial crops and also used for other purposes such as livestock-raising, poultry farming, sericulture, bee-keeping etc. Farmer get more income from both side. It has been introduced in India since 1951. It is popular in the states like, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Tamil Nadu.

5. Plantation farming: A single cash crop is grown on large area or estates is known as ‘Plantation farming’. This is mainly a commercial type of farming. It requires large amount of labour and capital. Manual labour and skilled labour is important. Under this system crops are grown mainly for export. The important plantation crops of India are Tea, Coffee and rubber.

6. Dry farming : The farming system practised in areas which receive scanty rainfall (i.e, less that 50 cms) and irrigation facilities are very limited or absent is called ‘Dry farming’. This type of farming is practiced in Deccan plateau of south India, Western Rajasthan and other arid and semiarid regions. Famines and droughts are common in these regions. Crops are growing with low yield. Only quick maturing and drought resistant crops are cultivated. Jowar, bajra, ragi, oilseeds are the important dry farming crops.

7. Humid farming: Cultivation of crops, where the areas receiveing sufficient rainfall without the help of irrigation is known as Wet farming or Humid farming. If the rainfall is sufficient i.e. 100 to 150cms throughout the year, double or multiple cropping is practiced in that area. Rice, sugarcane, Jute, tea, coffee, rubber etc, are grown. Sufficient rainfall helps to obtain higher yields and better quality of crops.

8. Irrigation farming: Cultivation of crops with the help of Irrigation is called ‘Irrigation farming’. This type of farming is very essential to India, because monsoon rainfall is seasonal, uncertain and insufficient. The largest area of cultivated land is under irrigation in India. This type of farming is highly concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, and also practiced in many other states of the country.

Question 36.
Explain the major industrial regions in India. –
Industrial region refers to the continuous development of industrial landscape, over a large area by concentration of a number of factories of different industries. in short, it is a wide area of manufacturing industries. :

1. Mumbai-Pune Industrial regions: It is the biggest and most important industrial region of the country. Opening of the Bhorghat to Pune in 1830, opening of steamer service through Suez Canal in 1843, opening of first railway line of 32 km in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane etc. Supports lot of development of industries in this region by the British who got the Mumbai island as marriage gift of Catherine Braganza’s dowry in 1661.

2. Kolkata-Hooghly Industrial region: It is an old atid important industrial region of the country. Kolkata is the main centre for Hoogigly basin, port., rich hinterland of Ganga and Bramaputra plain, Assam and Bengal tea plantations, coal and iron ore region of Chotanagapur plateau. Cheap labour from West Bangal Bihar, Orissa states. effecient transport by rail, road and waterways etc. are the important facIIitis supported to dc elop
this region.

3.Ahmedabad-Vadodara Industrial region : It is thrid largest industrial region of the country. It is located in Gujarat and includes the areaš around the Gulf of Khambhat and important industrial centres like Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Koyali, Baruch and Surat et. Ahmedabad is the main centre for cotton.textiles, woollen and silk, textiles, paper, petrochemicals milk products, Engineering, diesel engines, oil refining etc.. åre the other important industries of this region.

4. Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore Indusrial regiòns : This region lies in Tamil nadu and Kaniataka states. The important centres are Bangalore, Chennai. Coimbatore, Madurai, Sivakasi, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Mysore, Mandya, Bhadravathi etc. The region hasdiversified Industries like cotton textiles, silk, sugar, leather, chemicals, machinery, rubber, electrical equipments telephone, railway coaches, Information Technology. Bio- Technology etc.

5. The Chotanagapur Plateau Industrial regions : This region is located in the states of Bihar, parts of Jharkhand and West Bengal. This region is called the Ruhr of India on account of the growth of a number of iron and steel plants and various engineering industies. Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Chittaranjan, Sindri, Durgapur, Hazaribagh etc are the important industrial town in this region.

6. The MatburaDelhi-Saharanpur-Ambala Industrial regions : This region covers Uttar Pradesh, parts of Haryana and Delhi. It includes Agra, Saharanpur, Faridabad, Ambala, Delhi, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Ferozabad, Noida., Meerut, Math ura, Pan ipat etc. Delhi is the most important centre for the Industries of cotton textiles, glass, chemicals, automobiles, engineering, paper, soap, vanaspati, sugar and oil refineries. The region is facing the problem of environmental pollution.

Section – E

V. Answer the following questions: ( 2 x 10 = 20 )

Question 37.
Construct a Pie-Diagram by using the following date :

Question 38.
Construct a simple line graph by using the following data.
Growth of irrigated area in India 1961 to 2008

Question 39.
Construct a simple bar graph by using the following data.
State wise production of manganese in India. 2011-12 (in thousand tonnes)

For Blind Students only

Answer any two of the following :  ( 2 x 10 = 20 )

Question 37.
Explain the primary sources of data.
Meaning – The data which are collected for the first time by a researcher or groups of researchers, institution or organizations are called Primary sources of data.

Types of Primary data collection:

• Through Personal interview : Personal interviews are the most commonly used method of collecting data, because the interviewer has the opportunity of explaing the study and answering any question, here the researcher gets direct information from the respondents.
• By Personal observations: It refers to the collection of data or information by individual or group of individuals, through direct observations in the field.
• By Questionnaire : The most common method used in surverys is the Questionnaire. In this method, simple questions and their possible answers are written on a plain paper, and the respondents have to tick mark the possible answers from given choices.
• Others methods :
• Telephone interview : In this method, the researcher/interviewer can collect the information over the telephone.
• Measuring properties: In this method, the data about properties of soil nd water collected directly from the field by measuring their characteristics using soil and water quality kit.

Question 38.
Explain the segment of GPS
There are three segments of GPS:

1. The space segments : The satellites of GPS are launched and positioned at an altitude of approximately 20200 km which is almost more than three times of the earth’s radius. The space segment consists of a constellation of 24 functioning GPs satellites located in 6 orbital plane with 4 satellites in each orbital plane. The time for the satellite to complete one revolution around the earth is 11 hrs and 58 minutes.

2. The control segment : The control segment consists of facilities necessary for satellites especially healthy monitoring, telemetry, tracking command and control clock error computation of satellites. There are 5 GPS stations spread over the earths surface they are-

• Hawaii
• Ascension island
• Diego Garcia
• Kwajalein.

3. The user segment : it is a total user and supplier community, both civilian and military. The user segment consists of all earth – based GPS receivers. Receivers very greatly in size and complexity, through the basic design in rather simple. The space and control segments are largely transparent to the operations of navigation functions.

• Navigation : In navigation, by using GPS can save countless hours in the field. Any feature, even if it is under water, can be located upto one hundred meters simply by scaling coordinates from a map, entermg way points & going directly to site.
• Remote sensing and GIS : GPS positioning can be intergrated into remote – sensing methods such, as Photogrammetry and aerial scanning, magnetometry, and video technology using DGPs techniques.
• Surveying/Mapping : The high precision ofGPS carries phase measurements, together with appropriate adjustment algorithum, provides an adequate tool for a variety of tasks for surveying and mapping.
• Geodescy : Geodetic mapping and other control surveys can be carried out effectively using high grade GPs equipment.
• Military : The GPs was Primarily develped for real time military positioning. Military applications include airbone, marine and land navigation.

Question 39.
Write the importance of remote sensing.
Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area or phenomenon through the analysis of data aquired by a device that is not in contact with it.

This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing and applying that information.

In much remote sensing. the process involves an- interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest. This device can be a camera or a bank of sensors operated from an airplane or a satellite. Though satellite we can collect date related agriculture, forest, urban land use, watcr, natural calamities etc the satellite data is based for mapping, monitoring, studyIng the various phenomena related to earth’s surface.

## 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 with Answers

Students can Download 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs. 15 Min.
Max. Marks: 70

PART-A

I. Each question carries one mark. (10 × 1 =10)

Question 1.
Name the two types of UPS.
The two types of UPS are online UPS and standby UPS.

Question 2.
What are universal gates?
Universal gate is a gate using which ail the basic gates can be designed. NAND and NOR are universal gates.

Question 3.
Give the formula to calculate Base address of one-dimensional array in memory.
The formula to calculate the memory address of an array element is Base_Address + W ( Position – LB ) Where W is number of words per memory cell, position is location of array element for which memory address is calculated, LB is Lower bound (index) of an array.

Question 4.
What do you mean by access specifier ‘private’?
Private access means a member data can only be accessed by the member function of that class only.

Question 5.
What is static memory?
The fixed size of memory allocation and cannot be altered during runtime is called static memory allocation.

Question 6.
What is a field?
Each column in a table is identified by a distinct header is called a field.

Question 7.
What is topology?
It is the geometric arrangement of a computer system in network. Common topologies include a Linear bus, star, ring, and ring.

Question 8.
What is cyber law?
The cyber law has been referred to as the Law of the Internet. Cyberlaw is the part of the overall legal system that deals with the Internet, cyberspace, and their respective legal issues.

Question 9.
What is domain affiliation?
A domain affiliation means the type of domain whether it is commercial (.com), education (.edu) or government (.gov), etc.,

Question 10.
What is XML?
XML is a extended Markup Language for documents containing structured information. XML is a text-based markup language becoming the standard for data interchange on the web.

PART – B

II. Each question carries two marks. (5 × 2=10)

Question 11.
Use duality theorem to derive another boolean relation from A + A’B = A+B.

Question 12.
Give an example for a Boolean expression the sum of minterms form and product of maxterm form.
The example for boolean expression in the sum of minterms form is X’Y’ + XY’ +XY =Z. The example for Boolean expression in the product of max terms form is x’+y’. x+y’ + x+y =z.

Question 13.
Explain polymorphism.
The polymorphism is ability of an object to take more than one form in different instances. For example, one function name can be used for different purposes. Similarly, same operator can be used for different operations. There are two types one is the “compile-time polymorphism” and other one is the “run-time polymorphism”.

Question 14.
What is a destructor? Which operator is used with destructor?
It is a special member function that destroys the objects that have been created by a constructor when they no longer required. The operator tilde sign (~) is used with destructor.

Question 15.
Name the streams generally used for file I/O.
The streams generally used for file I/O is input stream, output stream, and error stream.

Question 16.
What is data mining?
It is the process of discovering interesting knowledge, such as patterns, associations, changes, anomalies from large amounts of data stored in databases using pattern recognition technologies as well as statistical and mathematical techniques.

Question 17.
How do you modify the column name and width for existing table?
Syntax:
Alter table tablename modify (columnname datatype (size), columnname datatype(size)..);
Example:
Alter table student modify ( studentname varchar2(50) );

Question 18.
What is topology? Mention the common topologies.
Topology is the geometric arrangement of a computer system in network. Common topologies include a bus, star, ring and ring topologies.

PART – C

III. Each question carries three marks. (5 × 3 = 15)

Question 19.
Explain Integrated Digital Electronics (IDE) port, Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) and Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) port.
1. Integrated Digital Eelectronics (IDE) port:
IDE devices like Harddisk drives, CD-ROM drives are connected via 40-pin ribbon cable.

2. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP):
The AGP is an advanced port designed for Video cards and 3D accelerators designed by Intel. AGP is to provide enhanced graphic accelerator cards, thus enhancing the picture quality of the screen.

3. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) port:
This port is used for adding external devices such as high-speed hard disks, CD-ROM drives, scanners etc., These ports are expensive but does fast data transfers.

Question 20.
Explain basic gates.
The three basic logic gates are NOT, OR and AND gate.
The NOT or inverter is a gate with only one input and one output. The standards symbol for NOT gate is
The truth table for
1. NOT gate:

The truth table for NOT gate:

2. OR gate:
The OR gate has two or more input signals but only one output. If any of the input signal is high the output is high.
The standard symbol for OR gate is

The truth table for OR gate.

3. AND gate:
The AND gate has two or more input signals with one output. When all the inputs are high, then output is high. The standard symbol of AND gate is

The truth table for AND gate:

Question 21.
Explain the memory representation of queue using one-dimensional array.
Let Q be a linear array of size N.
The pointer FRONT contains location of front element of the queue (element to be deleted)
The pointer REAR contains location of rear element of the queue (recently added element)
The queue is empty when FRONT = 0
The queue is full when FRONT = N
To add element, REAR = REAR + 1
To delete element, FRONT = FRONT + 1

Question 22.
What is the relationship between string and pointers? Give example.
There is a relationship between string and pointers. In C++ string means character array. When a character array is declared then only its first element address is stored. The rest of the elements can be accessed with the help pointer to character array. This is explained with the following example;

Every increment of cptr and printing the value at the location of pointer gives the next element of the character array.

Question 23.
Mention the methods of opening files within C++. Discuss anyone.
The methods of opening file within C++ program

• Opening a file using constructor
• Opening a file using member function open() of the class Opening a file using constructor

The.syntax for opening file for output purpose only is ofstream obj(“filename”);
Example:
ofstream out(“results.dat”);

Question 24.
Explain Boyce and Codd form (BCNF).
Boyce and Codd form (BCNF):

• When a relation has more than one candidate key, anomalies may result even though the relation is in 3NF.
• 3NFdoes not deal satisfactorily with the case of relation with overlapping candidate keys
• BCNF is based on the concept of a determinant.
• A determinant is any attribute on which some other attribute is fully functionally dependent.

A relation is in BCNF is, and only if, every determinant is a candidate key.

Question 25.
Write a short note on web servers.
1. A web server is a computer on which a web site is hosted and a program that runs on such a computer. So the term web server refers to both hardware and software.

2. A web site is a collection of web pages stored or “hosted” on a computer that is connected to the internet. Such a computer is known as a Web Server.

3. A web server program is software that runs on the web site hosting Server computer. Its main purpose is serving web pages for requests from web browsers.

4. There are many web server programs available. The most famous and popular of them all is Apache developed by the Apache Foundation. It is free and also available for several operating systems including Windows, Macintosh, and Linux/Unix.

PART D

IV. Each question carries five marks. (7 × 5 = 35)

Question26.
Using maps simplify the expression m1+m3+m5+m6+m7+m9+m11+m13 in four variables W,X,Y,Z.

Question 27.
Write a short note on linked list.
Linked list is a data structure in which each element is a separate object and each element is dynamically allocated. Each element in the list is called “node”. A linked list is a dynamic data structure. The number of nodes in a list is not fixed and can grow and shrink on demand. Any application which has to deal with an unknown number of objects will need to use a linked list.

The node is comprising of two items – the data and a reference to the next node. The last node has a reference to null. The entry point into a linked list is called the head of the list. The head node is reference to the first node. If the list is empty then the head is a null reference.

is a list that has two references, one to the next node and another to previous

where last node of the list points back to the first node (or the head) of the list.

• Inserting an item into a linked list
• Deleting an item from the linked list
• Searching an item in the linked list
• Merging two or more linked list

Question 28.
Write an algorithm to insert a data element at the rear end of the queue.
Step 1: if REAR >= N -1 then
Print “Queue is overflow”
Exit
End of if
Step 2: REAR = REAR + 1
Step 3: QUEUE [REAR] = element
Step 4: if FRONT =-1 then
FRONT = 0

Question 29.
Write a short note on concepts of object oriented programming.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language model organized around “objects” rather than “actions” and data rather than logic of the program. Object-oriented programming method modularizes a program by creating a memory area for data and member functions together as a single entity.
The following are the basic concepts of object oriented programming.

1. Object:
An object is a combination of code and data that can be treated as a unit. An object can be considered any real time entity (existing thing) that can perform a set of related activities.

2. Class:
The class is a collection of objects that have similar properties and common behavior.

3. Data Abstraction:
The process of hiding the representation of various data items and implementation details of a function from the user program is called data abstraction.

4. Encapsulation:
It is the method of combining the data, attributes, and methods in the same entity is called encapsulation.

Two or more functions with the same name is called function overloading.

6. Polymorphism:
Polymorphism is a Greek word that means Many Shapes. In OOP Polymorphism means the ability to take on many forms. The term is applied both to objects and to functions.

7. Inheritance:
Inheritance is the process by which new objects can acquire the properties of an existing objects of other class.

Question 30.
Explain how objects of a class can be defined?
The objects are declared after a class is defined. The object declaration creates object of that class and memory is allocated for the created object. The object are created using the following
syntax:
classname objectname1, objectname2,
example:
student obj1, obj2;
the obj1 and obj2 are the objects of class type student.
The object names are used to access the data members through member functions by invoking member functions.
example:
obj1.getdata(5, 25);
here, metadata() is the member function of a class student and function call is give using object obj1 which assign the value 5 and 25 to the data members of the class. The memory is allocated separately for data members of each object.

Question 31.
Explain friend functions and their characteristics.
A friend function is a non-member function and is a friend of a class. It is declared inside a class with the prefix friend and defined outside the class like any other normal function without the prefix friend. This friend function can access private and protected data members if it is a friend function of that class.

The characteristics of friend function are:

• The friend function should not be defined inside the class
• It can be declared inside a class under public, private or protected access specifier since it is a nonmember function and make no difference.
• A friend function should be defined outside the class without prefix friend
• The scope resolution operator should not be used while defining the friend’s function outside the class since it is not member function of any class.
• It should be called like any other normal function and not be called using an object with dot operator.
• The data members of class are accessed through object and dot operator with data member.

Question 32.
An example show how constructors are used with = operator.
The constructor argument if limited to single argument then = operator can be used to pass the values to these constructors. This is explained in the following example.

Question 33.
Explain single inheritance with a suitable C++program.

Question 40.
Write a short note on Indexed Sequential Access Method.
Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM):
This method combines both the feature of sequential and random organization. Records are accessed by using an index or a table. The index stores the address of each record corresponding to a key number of the record.

The records within the file are stored sequentially but directly accessed to individual records.
An indexed sequential access method (ISAM) consists of

1. The main file storage
2. A table to maintain the index

• It combines both sequential and direct
• Suitable for sequential access and random access

• it uses special software and is expensive
• extra time is taken to maintain index
• extra storage for index files
• expensive hardware is required

Question 41.
Classify various built-in functions in SQL.
The built-in functions are classified as Single row functions and Group functions. The single-row functions are of four types. They are numeric functions, character or text functions, date functions, and conversion functions.

1. Numeric functions:
a. ABS function- The ABS function returns the absolute value of the number you point to.

b. CEIL and FLOOR functions – CEIL returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to its argument. FLOOR does just the reverse, returning the largest integer equal to or less than its argument.

c. POWER function – To raise one number to the power of another, use POWER. In this function the first argument is raised to the power of the second.

d. SORT function – The function SORT returns the square root of an argument.

2. Character or text functions:
1. CHR function – returns the character equivalent of the number it uses as an argument.
2. CONCAT function – function combines two strings together.
3. INITCAP function – capitalizes the first letter of a word and makes all other characters lowercase.
4. LOWER and UPPER functions – LOWER changes all the characters to lowercase; UPPER does just the reverse.
5. LENGTH function – returns the length of its lone character argument.

3. Date functions:
1. ADD_MONTHS function – This function adds a number of months to a specified date.
2. LAST_DAY – LAST_DAY function- returns the last day of a specified month.
3. MONTHS_BETWEEN function – to know how many months fall between month x and
month y,
4. NEXT_DAY function – finds the name of the first day of the week that is equal to or later than another specified date.
5. SYSDATE function – SYSDATE returns the system time and date.

4. Conversion functions:

• TO_CHAR function – to convert a number into a character.
• TO_NUMBER function – it converts a string into a number.

The group functions are:

1. AVG() – Returns the average value
2. COUNT() – Returns the number of rows
3. FIRST() – Returns the first value
4. LAST() – Returns the last value
5. MAX() – Returns the largest value
6. MIN() – Returns the smallest value
7. SUM() – Returns the total value of the given column

Question 42.
What is gateway? Explain.
A network gateway is an internetworking system capable of joining together two networks that use different base protocols. A network gateway can be implemented completely in software, completely in hardware, or as a combination of both. The key feature of a gateway is that it converts the format of the data, not the data itself.

Gateway functionality differs in many ways. For example, a router that can route data from an IPX network to an IP network is, technically, a gateway. The same can be said of a translational bridge that, converts from an Ethernet network to a Token Ring network and back again.

Software gateways can be found everywhere. Many companies use an email system such as Microsoft Exchange. These systems transmit mail internally in a certain format. When email needs to be sent across the Internet to users using a different email system, the email must be converted to another format, this conversion process is performed by a software gateway.

In enterprises, the gateway often acts like a proxy server and a firewall. Gateways also associated with router and switch.

Students can Download 2nd PUC Business Studies Model Question Paper 1 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Model Question Paper 1 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

SECTION – A

I. Answer any ten of the following questions in a word or a sentence each.
Each questions carries one mark. (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
Management is _____________

1. an art
2. a science
3. both art and science
4. neither

3. both art and science

Question 2.
Who is known as the Father of General Management?
Henry Fayol is known as the Father of General Management.

Question 3.
Give the meaning of ‘Rule’.
Rule is a specific statement that informs what is to be done.

Question 4.
A network of social relationship that arise spontaneously due to interaction at work is called _________

1. Formal Organization
2. Informal Organization
3. Decentralization
4. Delegation

2. Informal Organization

Question 5.
State any one internal source of recruitment.
Transfer

Question 6.
Grapevine is ____________

1. Formal Communication
2. Barrier to Communication
3. Lateral Communication
4. Informal Communication

4. Informal Communication

Question 7.
What is ‘Standard’?
Standards are the criteria against which actual performance would be measured.

Question 8.
Give the meaning of Capital Structure?
Capital structure refers to the mix between owners and borrowed funds.

Question 9.
The settlement in NSE is __________

1. T+5
2. T+3
3. T+2
4. T+l

3. T+2

Question 10.
State any one marketing philosophy.
The production concept.

Question 11.
State any one regulation which provides legal protection to the consumers.
The consumer protection Act, 1986.

Question 12.
Who is an ‘Entrepreneur’?
The person who set- up his business is called an entrepreneur.

SECTION – B

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two or three sentences each.
Each question carrier two marks: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 13.
Define Management.
According to Harold Koontz, “Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims”.

Question 14.
What is Scalar Chain?
The formal lines of authority from highest to lowest ranks are known as a scalar chain.

Question 15.
Give the meaning of Business Environment.
The term business environment means the sum total of all individuals, institutions and other forces that are outside the control of a business enterprise but that may affect its performance.

Question 16.
State any two features of planning.

1. Planning focuses on achieving objectives
2. Planning is a primary function of management.

Question 17.
Differentiate between Delegation and Decentralization by taking any two factors as a basis.

Question 18.
What do you understand by Supervision?
Supervision is an element of directing. It means overseeing what is being done by subordinates and giving instructions to them. It is also considered an important function to be performed by supervisor.

Question 19. What is Budgetary Control?
Budgetary control is a technique of managerial control in which all operations are planned in advance in the form of budgets and actual results are compared with budgetary standards.

Question 20.
State the twin Objectives of Financial Planning.

1. To ensure availability of funds whenever required.
2. To see that the firm does not raise resources unnecessarily.

Question 21.
How do you describe Marketing Mix?
The marketing mix is described as the set of marketing tools that a firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in a target market. This term marketing mix is given by Neil H Borden. It is the combination of four inputs namely product, price, promotion and place.

Question 22.
Write any two Rights of Consumers.

1. Right to Safety
2. Right to be informed

Question 23.
State any two characteristics of Entrepreneurship.

1. Systematic activity
2. Innovation

Question 24.
Expand KASH as explained in the context of Entrepreneurship.
K = Knowledge
A = Attitude
S = Skills
H = Habits

SECTION – C

III. Answer any seven of the following questions in 10 – 12 sentences.
Each question carrier 4 Marks: (7 × 4 = 24)

Question 25.
Explain F.W. Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles.
Scientific management refers to the use of scientific and standardized tools, methods and trained workers in all organisational activities in order to increase the total production with minimum cost and wastage. Following are the principles of scientific management contributed by FW Taylor.

1. Science not Rule of Thumb:
Taylor was the first person to introduce the method of scientific inquiry into the domain of management practice. He believed that there was only one best method to maximise efficiency i.e., by scientific way. Scientific management includes scientific selection of workers, placement and training, work-study motion study fatigue study, time – study, gradation of equipments and machinery, payment of wages according to work done, etc.

2. Harmony, Not discord:
There should be harmonious relationship between management and workers. Both should realise that each one is important. This avoids class-conflict. To achieve this, Taylor introduced mental revolution. Both management and workers should transform their thoughts in order to achieve harmonious relationship amongst them.

3. Cooperation, Not individualism:
There should be complete cooperation between the labour and the management instead of individualism. Competition should be replaced by cooperation. Both should realise that they need each other. To achieve this fact, the management should consult their employees while taking important decisions.

There should be a two way communication between management and workers. According to Taylor, there should be almost equal division of work and responsibility between workers and management.

4. Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity:
Industrial efficiency depends on personnel competencies. According to Taylor, efficiency could be achieved from the beginning i.e., from the time of selection of employees.

Each person must be scientifically selected. Work should be assigned according to his mental and intellectual capabilities Proper training should be given to improve his/her skill. This will contribute to their greatest efficiency and prosperity for both organisation and workers.

Question 26.
Explain any four points to explain how important the understanding of business
environment is for the managers.
The importance of business environment can be explained in the following points:

1. Identification of opportunities:
Business environment enables the firm to identify opportunities and getting the first mover advantage. Environment provides numerous opportunities for business success. Early identification of opportunities helps an enterprise to be the first to exploit them instead of losing them to competitors.

2. Identification of threats:
The study of business environment helps the firm to identify threats and helps to know early warning signals.

3. Helps in tapping useful resources:
Environment is a source of various resources for running a business. To engage in any type of activity, a business enterprise assembles various resources called inputs like finance, machines, etc from its environment. The business enterprise supplies the environment with its outputs such as goods and services for customers etc.

Because the enterprise depends on the environment as a source of inputs and as an outlet for outputs, the enterprise designs policies that allow it to get the resources that it needs so that it can convert those resources into outputs that he environment desires. This can be done better by understanding what the environment has to offer.

4. Coping up with rapid changes:
Today’s business environment is getting increasingly dynamic. All business enterprises are facing increasingly dynamic environment. In order to effectively cope with these significant changes, managers must understand and examine the environment and develop suitable courses of action.

5. Assistance in planning and policy formulation:
Since environment is a source of both opportunities and threats for a business enterprise, its understanding and analysis can be the basis for deciding the future course of action or training guidelines for decision making.

6. Improved performance:
The future of an enterprise is closely bound up with what is happening in the environment. And the enterprises that continuously monitor their environment and adopt suitable business practices are the ones which not only improve their present performance but also continue to succeed in the market for a longer period

Question 27.
Explain any two types of plans.
Types of plans:
1. Single-use plans:
A single-use plan is developed for a one-time event or project. The examples are

1. Budgets
2. Programmes
3. Projects

2. Standing Plans:
A standing plan is used for activities that occur regularly over a period of time. The examples are

1. Policies
2. Procedures
3. Methods
4. Rules

1. Policy:

1. Policies are general statements that guide thinking.
2. Policies provide a basis for interpreting strategy.
3. Policy is a guide to managerial action and decision in the implementation of strategy.
4. Strategies are formulated by the top management.

Formulation of strategy involves the following aspects:

1. Determination of the long term objectives
2. Adopting a course of action to achieve the objectives and
3. Allocating resources necessary to achieve the objectives.

2. Procedure:
1. Procedures are routine steps on how to carry out activities. They detail the exact manner in which any work is to be performed.

2. Procedures are the guidelines to action and they are usually intended to the works which are repetitive in nature.

3. Examples of procedure include procedure for execution of the customer’s order for supply of goods and procedure for recruitment of employees in an organisation.

Question 28.
Explain any four important tests used for the selection of employees.
After screening the applications, eligible candidates are asked to appear for selection tests. The following tests are usually conducted to measure the intelligence, aptitude, proficiency, personality, etc.

a. Intelligence tests:
These tests are used to judge the mental capacity of the applicant. Intelligence tests evaluate the ability of an individual to understand instructions and make decisions.

b. Aptitude tests:
Aptitude means the potential which an individual has for learning new skills. Aptitude test indicate the person’s capacity and his potential for development.

These tests are designed to measure the skills already acquired by the individuals. They measure the level of knowledge and proficiency in the area of profession or technical training.

d. Personality tests:
These tests probe for the overall qualities of a person as a while. They provide clues to a person’s emotional reactions, maturity level, value system, etc.

e. Interest tests:
These tests identify the areas in which a candidate has special concern, fascination, involvement, etc. These tests suggest the nature of job liked by a candidate which may bring him job satisfaction.

Question 29.
Explain briefly the steps involved in Controlling Process.
Controlling is a systematic process involving the following steps:

1. Setting performance standards:
The first step in the controlling process is setting up of performance standards. Standards are the criteria against which actual performance would be measured. Standards can be set in both quantitative as well as qualitative terms.

2. Measurement of Actual Performance:
Once performance standards are set, the next step is measurement of actual performance. It is generally believed that measurement should be done after the task is completed.

3. Comparing actual performance with standards:
This step involves comparison of actual performance with the standard. Such comparison will reveal the deviation between actual and desired results. Comparison becomes easier when standards are set in quantitative terms.

4. Analysing deviations:
Some deviation in performance can be expected in all activities. After identifying the deviations that demand managerial attention, these deviations need to be analysed for their causes. These causes may be unrealistic standards, defective process, inadequacy of resources, structural drawbacks, etc. It is necessary to identify the exact cause of deviation, failing which an appropriate corrective action might not be possible.

5. Taking corrective action:
The final step in the controlling process is taking corrective action. No corrective action is required when the deviations are within acceptable limits. When the deviations go beyond the acceptable range, it demands immediate managerial attention. Corrective action might involve training of employees if the production target could not be met.

Question 30.
Explain any four factors that affect the Working Capital requirements of a business.
The factors affecting the working capital requirement of a business are as follows:

The basic nature of business influences the amount of working capital required. A trading organization usually needs a smaller amount of working capital compared to a manufacturing organization. Similarly, service industries which usually do not have to maintain inventory require less working capital.

b. Scale of Operations:
for organizations which operate on a higher scale of operation, the quantum of inventory and debtors required is generally high. Such organizations, therefore, require large amount of working capital as compared to the organizations which operate on a lower scale.

Different phases of business cycles affect the requirement of working capital by a firm. In case of a boom, the sales and production are likely to be larger and therefore larger amount of working capital is required. Working capital requirement will be less during the period of depression as the sales and production will be small.

d. Seasonal Factors:
Most business have some seasonality in their operations. In peak season, because of higher level of activity, larger amount of working capital is required. When the level of activity is less, working capital requirement will be less.

31. Briefly explain any four differences between Capital Market and Money Market.

 Money Market Capital Market It is a market where short-term funds are borrowed and lent. It is a market where long-term funds are borrowed and lent. The participants in the capital market are financial institutions, banks, corporate entities, and foreign investors. The participants in the money market are RBI, banks, financial institutions, and finance companies. Individuals can take part in the trading of capital market Individuals cannot directly trade in the money market. The instruments involved for transaction are treasury bills, calls money, certificate of deposit, commercial papers, commercial bills, etc. The major players are companies, Individual investors, Institutional Investors, foreign investors, banks and financial institutions.

Question 32.
Explain any four factors that affect the fixation of price of a product.
1. Cost of the product:
Cost of the product includes the cost of producing, distributing and selling the product. The cost sets the floor price at which the product may be sold. The firm aims at earning a margin of profit over and above the costs. Total costs are the sum total of the fixed, variable and semi-variable costs for the specific level of activity.

2. The Utility and Demand:
While the product costs set the lower limits of the price, the utility provided by the product and the intensity of demand of the buyer sets the upper limit of the price, which a buyer would be prepared to pay. According to the law of demand, consumers usually purchase more units at a low price than at high price. The price of a product is also affected by the elasticity of demand of the product. If the demand of a product, is inelastic, the firm can fix higher prices and vice versa.

3. Extent of competition in the market:
Price is affected by the nature and the degree of competition. If less competition is there in the market, prices can reach the upper limit. Thus, competitors prices and their anticipated reactions must be considered before fixing the price of a product.

4. Government and legal regulations:
In order to protect the interest of public against unfair practices in the field of price fixing, Government can intervene and regulate the price of commodities. Government can also declare a product as essential product and regulate its price.

Question 33.
Advertising is the most commonly used tool of promotion. It is an impersonal form of communication, which is paid for by sponsors to promote some goods or service.

1. Mass Reach:
Advertising is a medium through which a large number of people can be reached over vast geographical area.

2. Enhancing customer satisfaction and confidence:
Advertising creates confidence amongst prospective buyers as they feel more comfortable and assured about the product quality and hence feel more satisfied.

1. Less Forceful:
Advertising is an impersonal form of communication. It is less forceful than personal selling as there is no compulsion on the prospects to pay attention to the message.

2. Lack of feedback:
The evaluation of the effectiveness of the advertising message is very difficult as there is no immediate feedback mechanism of the message that is delivered.

Question 34.
State any four responsibilities of consumers while purchasing , using and consuming goods and services.
The following are the responsibilities of the consumer:

1. Awareness of Rights:
A consumer must be fully aware of various rights available to him while purchasing the products or availing of any services, such as right to safety, right to be heard etc.

2. Quality Conscious:
A consumer must be cautious in respect of quality of the product like AGMARK, BIS, HALLMARK, etc.

Normally, the seller exaggerates the quality in their products, but the consumer must compare the actual quality with that stated in the advertisement. He should not be misled through false advertisement in order to safeguard his interest.

4. Cautious Consumer:
A consumer must be honest in his dealings, choose only from legal goods and services and discourage unscrupulous practices like black-marketing, hoarding, etc.

A consumer must ask for a cash memo on purchase of goods or services. This would serve as a proof of the purchases made.

SECTION – D

IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 20 – 25 sentences each.
Each question carrier 8 marks: (4 × 8 = 32)

Question 35.
Explain the Characteristics of Management.
Features of Management:

a. Management is a goal oriented process:
Every organisation has a set of basic goals to achieve. Management unites the efforts of different individuals in the organisation towards achieving these goals:

b. Management is all pervasive:
Management activities are universally applicable to all organisations, social, economic and political. Hence, management is all pervasive and a universal phenomenon.

c. Management is multidimensional:
Management is a complex activity and involves three dimensions namely.

1. Management of work
2. Management of people (and)
3. Management of operations

d. Management is a continuous process:
Management consists of a series of functions like planning, organising, staffing and controlling which are continuous and composite in nature. These functions are simultaneously performed by all managers all the time. Hence, management is considered a continuous process.

e. Management is a group activity:
An organisation is a collection of number of individuals with different needs. Every member of the group has different purpose to join the organisation. But, as members of the organisation, they work towards fulfilling the common organisation goal. This requires team work and coordination. Hence, management is a group activity.

f. Management is a dynamic function:
Every organisation works in an environment which keeps on changing. The external environment which consists of various social, economic and political factors keep changing. In order to be successful, an organisation must change itself and its goals according to the needs of the environment. Hence, management is a dynamic environment.

g. Management is an intangible force:
Management cannot be seen but its presence can be felt in the operations of the organisation. The effect of management is noticeable in an organisation where targets are met according to plans, when employees are happy and satisfied. So management is an unseen force but reflects in the collective efforts.

Question 36.
What is Organizing? Explain its importance.
Organising is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating authority and responsibility and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.

The following points highlight the importance of organizing:

a. Benefits of specialization:
Organizing leads to a systematic allocation of jobs amongst the work force. This reduces the workload as well as enhances productivity. Right man is placed for the right job. Repetitive performance of a specific job on regular basis helps worker to gain experience and leads to specialization.

b. Clarity in working relationships:
The establishment of working relationships and clarifies lines of communication and specifies who is to report to whom. This further helps in fixation of responsibility and also specifies the dimensions of authority which an individual can exercise.

c. Optimum utilization of resources:
Organising leads to the proper usage of all material, financial and human resources. The proper assignment of jobs avoids overlapping of work and also makes possible the best use of resources. Avoiding duplication of work prevents confusion and minimizing the wastage of resources.

The process of organizing allows a business enterprise to accommodate changes in the business environment. It allows the organization structure to be suitably modified. It provides stability to the organization.

Organising provides clear description of jobs and related duties. This helps to avoid confusion and duplication. Clarity in work relationship enables proper execution of work. Thus, it provides effective administration in the enterprise.

f. Development of personnel:
organizing stimulates creativity amongst the managers. Effective delegation allows the managers to reduce their workload by assigning routine jobs to their subordinates. This reduction in the work load allows the manager to develop new methods and ways of performing tasks for the growth of an organization. It also develops ability among the subordinates to deal effectively with the challenges.

g. Expansion and growth:
Organising helps in the growth and diversification of an enterprise by enabling it to deviate from existing norms and taking up new challenges.

Conclusion:
Thus, organizing is a process by which the manager brings order out of confusion, removes conflict among people over work or responsibility sharing and creates an environment suitable for team work.

Question 37.
Explain the four methods of ON-the -job and any four methods of off-the -job Training.
Training:
Training is the process of teaching the new or present employees, the basic skills they need to effectively perform their job.

Importance of training:

1. Improves employee’s ability and skills.
2. Leads to high morale among the employees.
3. The chances of accidents are very less.
4. Become more eligible for promotion.
5. Maintain industrial peace in the organization.

Methods of Training

On the job-training
It is a method, where workers learn by doing the work. The following are the important methods of on the job training:

1. Apprenticeship training
2. Coaching
3. Internship training
4. Job-rotation

Off the job training

1. Classroom lecture
2. Case-study
3. Vestibule training
4. Computer modeling

On the job means learning while doing. The following are the popular on the job training methods:
1. Apprenticeship Programmes:
Apprenticeship programmes put the trainee under the guidance of a master worker. These are designed to acquire a higher level of skill. People seeking to enter skilled jobs like plumbers, electricians, etc., are required to undergo apprenticeship training.

2. Coaching:
In this method, the superior guides and instructs the trainee as a coach. The coach or counselor sets mutually agreed upon goals, suggests how to achieve these goals periodically reviews the trainees progress and suggests changes required in behavior and performance. The trainee works directly with a senior manager and the manager takes full responsibility for the trainee’s coaching.

3. Internship training:
It is a joint programme of training in which educational institutions and business firms cooperate. Selected candidates carry on regular studies for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical knowledge and skills.

4. Job Rotation:
This kind of training involves shifting the trainee from one department to another or from one job to another. This enables the trainee to gain a broader understanding of all parts of the business and how the organization as a whole functions. Job rotation allows trainees to interact with other employees.

When employees are trained by this method, the organization finds it easy at the time of promotions, replacements or transfers.

Off the job training means learning before doing. The popular off the job methods of training include:
1. Class room lecture/Conferences:
The lecture or conference approach is used to convey specific information effectively. The use of audio-visuals or demonstrations can often make a formal classroom presentation more interesting.

2. Case Study:
Cases represent attempts to describe, as accurately as possible the real problems faced by the managers. They are generally taken from actual experiences of the organization and its managers.

Trainees study the cases to determine problems, analyse causes, develop alternative solutions, select what they believe to be the best solution and implement it.

3. Computer Modeling:
It stimulates the work environment by programming a computer to initiate some of the realities of the job. It also allows learning to take place without the risk or high costs that would be incurred if a mistake occurs in real life situation.

4. Vestibule Training:
Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. Actual work environments are created in a class room and employees use the same materials, tools and equipment. This is usually done when employees are required to handle sophisticated machinery and equipment.

Conclusion:
In order to perform well in an organization, an employee must have the theoretical and practical knowledge of the work. Training provides the practical knowledge that is required of an employee. Thus training is necessary to make the workers alert and active.

Question 38.
Suggest suitable measures to improve communication effectiveness.
Perfect and complete communication does not take place many times due to certain obstacles which are known as barriers to communication. Following are the barriers to effective communication:

1. Physical barriers:
Internal structure of the organization and layout of office machines and equipments creates physical barriers in communication. Physical barriers include:

1. Distance
2. Noise
3. Physical arrangement

2. Semantic barriers:
The use of difficult and multiple uses of languages, words, figures, and symbols create semantic barriers. Some semantic barriers are:

1. Language
2. Jargons.

3. Organisational barriers:
These arise from the organizational goals, regulations, structure, and culture. Organisational barriers include:

1. Poor planning
2. Structure complexities
3. Status differences
4. Organisational distance
6. Timing

4. Psychological barriers:
These are the barriers to effective communication created due to lack of interest in the people for whom the communication is meant. People do not pay attention to the communication in which they are not interested. Examples for psychological barriers are:

• Perception
• Filtering
• Distrust
• Emotions
• Viewpoint

Following are the ways to overcome barriers to effective communication:

1. Clarity of ideas:
The problem to be communicated to subordinates should be clear in all aspects. The entire problem should be studied in depth, analysed and stated in such a manner that is clearly conveyed to subordinates.

2. Communicate according to the needs of receiver:
The level of understanding of receiver should be crystal clear to the communicator. Manager should adjust his communication according to the education and understanding levels of subordinates.

3. Consult others before communicating:
Before actually communicating the message, it is better to involve others in developing a plan for communication. Participation and involvement of subordinates may help to gain ready acceptance and willing cooperation of subordinates.

4. Be aware of languages, tone, and content of message:
The contents of the message, tone, and language used, manner in which the message is to be communicated are the important aspects of effective communication. The language used should be understandable to the receiver and should not offend the sentiments of listeners.

5. Convey things of help and value to listeners:
While conveying message to others, it is better to know the interests and needs of the people with whom you are communicating. If the message relates directly or indirectly to such interests and needs it certainly evokes response from communicate.

6. Ensure proper feedback:
The communicator may ensure the success of communication by asking questions regarding the message conveyed. The receiver of communication may also be encouraged to respond to communication. The communication process may be improved by the feedback received to make it more responsive.

7. Communicate for present as well as future:
Generally, communication is needed to meet the existing commitments to maintain consistency; the communication should aim at future goals of the enterprise also.

There should be regular follow up and review on the instructions given to subordinates. Such follow up measures help in removing hurdles if any in implementing the instructions.

9. Be a good listener:
The manager should be a good listener. Patient and attentive listening solves half of the problems. Managers should also give indications of their interest in listening to their subordinates.

Question 39.
Explain the steps involved in the Screen based Trading and Settlement Procedure of Securities.
The procedure for purchase and sale of securities on a stock exchange involves the following steps:

a. Selection of a broker:
The first step is to select a broker who will buy or sell securities on behalf of the investor as trading of securities can be done only through a broker registered under SEBI.

b. Opening Demat Account:
The investor has to open a demat account or beneficial owner account with a depository participant for holding and transferring securities in the demat form. He will also have to open a bank account for cash transactions in the securities market.

c. Placing the Order:
The investor then places an order with the broker to buy or sell securities. Clear instructions have to be given to the broker on the number of shares, price etc. An confirmation slip is issued to the investor by the broker on placing the order.

d. Executing the Order:
According to the instructions of the investor, the broker will go on¬line and buys or sells the securities. Then, he issues a contract note and a copy of it is sent to the investor. A unique order code number is assigned to each transaction by the stock exchange is printed on the contract note.

e. Settlement:
Now, the investor has to deliver the shares sold or pay cash for the shares bought. This should be done immediately after receiving the contract note or before the day when the broker shall make payment or delivery of shares to the exchange. This is called the pay-in-day.

Question 40.
Explain any eight functions of Marketing.
Marketing is concerned with exchange of goods and services from producers to consumers in such a way that maximises the satisfaction of customers’ needs. The various functions of marketing include:

1. Gathering and Analysing marketing information:
One of the important functions of a marker is to gather and analyse market information. This is necessary to identify the needs of the customers and take various decisions for the successful marketing of the product and services.

2. Marketing planning:
Another important area of work of a marketers is to develop appropriate marketing plans so that the marketing.objectives of the organisation can be achieved A complete marketing plan covering aspects like plan for increasing production, promotion of the products etc, and action programmes to achieve these objectives are to be developed.

3. Product Designing and Development:
The design of the product contributes to making the product attractive to the target customers: A good design can improve performance of a product and also give it a competitive advantage in the market.

Standardisation refers to producing goods of Predetermined specifications, which helps in achieving uniformity and consistency in the output. Standardisation ensures the buyers that goods confirm to the pre-determined standards of quality, price, and packaging.

Grading is the process of classification of products into different groups, on the basis of some of the important characteristics such as quality, size, etc., Grading ensures that goods belong to a particular quality and helps in realising higher prices for high quality output.

5. Packaging and Labeling:
Packaging refers to designing and developing the package for the products. Labeling refers to designing and developing the label to be put on the package. Packaging and labeling have become so important in marketing that these are considered as the pillars of marketing. Packaging protects the products and also acts as an effective promotion tool.

6. Branding:
brand name helps in creating product differentiation. It provides basis for distinguishing the product of a firm with that of the competitor. Branding also helps in building customer’s loyalty and promotes sales of a product.

7. Customer support services:
These include after sales services, handing customer complaints, procuring credit services, maintenance services, technical services and consumer information. All these services aim at providing maximum satisfaction to the customers. Which is the key to marketing success in modern days.

8. Pricing of product:
Price of product refers to the amount of money customers have to pay to obtain a product the marketers have to properly analyse the factors determining the price of a product and then take several other decision such as setting the pricing objectives, determining the pricing strategies, determining the price and changing the prices etc.

9. Promotion:
It involves informing the customers about the firms product, its features etc, and persuading them to buy these products. The four important methods of promotion include advertising, personal selling, publicity and sales promotion. Deciding the budget for promotion, promotional tools to be used etc, are important decisions to be taken by a marketer in this area.

10. Physical Distribution:
The two major areas under this function include

1. Decision regarding channels of distribution.
2. Physical movement of the product from the place of its production to the ultimate consumer’s place.

Managing Inventory, storage, and warehousing, transportation, etc, are key areas under this physical distribution function.

Conclusion:
The modern functions of marketing emphasises more on customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction itself leads to survival and growth of an organisations. From the view point of management function, the above activities are referred to as the functions of marketing.

SECTION – E

V. Answer any two of the following questions.
Each question carrier five marks: (2 × 5 = 10)

Question 41.
Assuming that you are manager of an organization, draw the neat diagram of different Levels of Management to specify that authority – responsibility relationships create different levels of management.

Question 42.
Draw the neat diagram of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy.

Question 43.
As an exploited consumer, write a complaint letter to your nearest District Consumer Forum claiming reasonable redressal.
Bangalore
1st March, 2019

From
xxxx
No. 74, I cross,
M.L. Layout Bangalore – 560 086

To
The Registrar
Karnataka State Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission
Bangalore
Dear Sir,

Sub: Complaint regarding service of two wheeler-Regarding
On 1st February, 2019, I had bought a kinetic Honda Two wheeler [Model No.] I made this purchase at Mahalakshmi lay out Raveesh showroom on 1st February, 2019 by paying an amount of Rupees
[Bill Enclosed]
Unfortunately, the two-wheeler is not working properly and the Pick-up is not proper. The brake – systems are also not up to the mark.

To resolve the problem, I approached the show – room authorities who in turn guided me to the authorized service centre. But, the service centre authorities are not ready to do the needful free – of – cost though the warranty period is still on for the vehicle

I look forward to your reply and a resolution to my problem. I am enclosing herewith the receipts, warranty card details, model details of the vehicle bill and other details of the vehicle] Please lodge a complaint against the seller and kindly ensure that timely action is taken in this regard.

Thanking you
Yours faithfully
xxxx

Enclosures:
1. Bill
2. Warranty card
3. Model details

## 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Paper 3 with Answers

Students can Download 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Paper 3 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Paper 3 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs
Max. Marks: 100

Section – A

I. Answer the following in one sentence each: ( 1 × 10 = 10 )

Question 1.
Name the four concepts of Human development.

1. Equity
2. Sustainability
3. Productivity
4. Empowerment.

Question 2.
What is Agriculture?
Agriculture is an art of tilling the soil for the purpose of raising the crops to provide food for the man and fodder for the animals.

Question 3.
Which is the largest news Agency in the world?
The laigest news Agency in the world is reuter. It is the first news paper in die world.

Question 4.
What are Hamlets?
They are smaller than village and lacking of public utilities.

Question 5.
What are the Rank of Human development index of India according to 2011?
The rank of Human development index of India according to 2011 is 134th rank.

Question 6.
What are the drawbacks of well irrigation?
They can dry up in the summer season.

Question 7.
What is the scientific name of the wheat?
‘Triticum’ is the scientific name of the wheat

Question 8.
What is the meaning of term petroleum?
The term ‘Petroleum’ has been derived from two Latin words, petro means ‘Rock’ and ‘Oleum’ means ‘Oil’ through the word petroleum literally means rock oil known as mineral oil.

Question 9.
In which year was STPI established in India?
Software technology park of India (STPI) was established in 1995.

Question 10.
Expand NRSA.
National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA).

Section – B

II. Answer any TEN of the following questions in 2-3 sentence each. ( 2 x 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
Write a short note in food Gathering.
Gathering of products from nature to fulfill their basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. In some parts of the world, the people lead a simple life depending upon the nature for their livelihood like collect the wild fruits, roots, nuts, leaves for the food, bark of tree, leaves and grass for clothing branches of tree, bamboo, leaves for making their homes for examples few nomadic tribes in the world.

Question 12.
What are the uses of animal rearing.

• Source of employment for the formers.
• Source of income for the former and revenue to the government.
• For animal product like milk, meat, bones, skins, hair and wool etc.
• Source of natural manure for the agriculture.

Question 13.
What is occupational structure?
The economic activities is an important criteria for designing urban settlements interns of population size and their occupation secondary and tertiary occupations are pre-dominant in the urban areas.

Question 14.
What is the difference between intrastate and inter state migration.
Movement of people from one state to another is called inter state migration for example people can migrate from Karnataka to Goa.
In contrast movement of people within the state is called ‘Intra-state migration’ for example: People can migrate from for Mysore to Bengaluru.

Question 15.
What are Aus, Aman and Boro?
They are the veraities of rice grown in following seasons.

• Aus : Seeds are sown in May-June and harvested in September – October [Autumn season],
• Aman : Seeds are sown in June-July and harvested in November – December [Rainy season],
• Boro : Seeds are sown in November to December and harested in March – April [Summer season],

Question 16.
What are the types of thermal power projects.

1. Coal based thermal power projects.
2. Oil based thermal power projects.
3. Gas based thermal power projects.

Question 17.
Which are the regions identified for the establishment of tidal power stations in India.

1. the gulf of kambhat on wrest coast in Gujarat:
2. sundarbans in the West Bengal on the East coast.
3. lakshadweep and Andaman nicobar islands.

Question 18.
Mention the four important advantages of Hoogly Kolkata region?

1. A rich hinter land of the Ganga and Brahmaputra plains.
2. Availability of raw materials like jute, cotton, tea, minerals etc.
3. Cheap labour from Bihar and Odisha.
4. Availability of vast market in and around Kolkata.

Question 19.
State the two types of water ways.

1. Inland water transport.
2. Ocean water transport.

Question 20.

• They are available for low cost.
• They provide all types of information regarding science and technology, news, articles etc.
• Large number of people can read them.
• They provide a accurate information from different sources.

Question 21.
Name different types of degraded lands in India.

1. Barren and uncultivable waste land.
2. Natural degraded cultivable waste land

Question 22.
Mention the drought prone areas in India.

• Semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarath.
• Maratha wada region of Maharastra.
• Rayalaseema and telegana pleatus of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka pleatus.

Section – C

III. Answer any Eight of the following in 25-30 sentences each: ( 5 x 8 = 40 )

Question 23.
Describe the development of human geography.

1. Human Geography is a recent sprout from the main, trunk of geography. During 18th & 19th century a new systematic approach of studying man & nature relationship was introduced into the field of Georaphy.
2. Friedrich Ratzel, a German geography was greatly influenced by Darwin’s theory (1859). He wrote a book ‘Anthropo Geography” in 1882.
3. Anthropo means ‘Human’ so he coined the term “Human Geography”. Hence, Ratzel is known as the Father of ‘Human Geography’, he developed man & his relationship with environment as described in two schools –
• The German school or the Deterministic school – Describes . The control of environment
on man and his activities.
• French school or possibilistic school – It advocates that environment provides possibilities for man to persue variuos activities.
•  Later Griffith Taylor an Australian Geography introduced ‘Neo-determinism’ or ‘Stop and Go determinism’ which balances between environment determinism and possibilism approach. . .
4. Many Geographers & new approaches, methods tools were introduced to develop Human Geography into systematic science.

Question 24.
Write a note on sex ratio and age structure of the world.
Sex Ratio:

• The ratio between male and female population is called sex ratio. It is usual measured as “the number of females per thousand nales.
• On an average, a sex ratio of the world was 986 females per 1000 males during 2010 it was reduced 984 in 2011.
• The highest sex ratio in the world has been recorded in ‘Latria and Estonia’ it was 1174 & 1170 per thousand.
• The lowest sex ratio was found in UAE which is only 468 females per thousand males.
• As per the united nations list in 139 countries females are more than the males. Where as 72 countries males are more than females.

Age structure:
Age structure represents the number of people in different age groups. It includes both male & female population.

• About 65.8% of population belongs to the age group of 15-65 years who are ‘adults’.
• Above 65 years of age group is only 8%. They are called ‘aged’.
• Remaining about 26.2% is below the age group of 15 year called ‘infants’.
• Dependency ratio – The population ratio between the ages of 15 & 64 (Aults) and below 15,(infants) & above 64 (aged).

Question 25.
Explain the Growth of population in the world.
The growth of population refers to the increases in the number of inhabitants of a country during specific period.

• It is estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804.
• Due to the impact of the industrial revolution & improvement in living standards, the rate of population growth increased two billion in 1927.
• At present estimate of 2013 the globe is inhabited by 7121 million population.
• During the begining of 20th century the world population was only 2 billion and centum ended with 6 billion.
• It continues to grow even in the 21st century.

Stages of Population growth:
I Three billion – July 1959
II Four billion-April 1974
III Five billion-July 1987
IV Six billion – October 1999
V Seven billion – 12th March 2012.

Question 26.
Explain internet, remote sensing, E-mail and satellite communication.

• Internet : An Interconnected system of networks that connects computers around the world.
• E-Mail : A system for sending and receiving messages electronically over a computer network, in between personal computers.
• Remote Sensing : Remote sensing is the scanning of the earth by Satellite or aircraft to obtain information about it. It is also the gathering and recording of information through
aerial Photographs and Satellite images.
• Satellite Communication : An artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or another planet in order to collect information for communication with other purposes.

Question 27.
What are the problems caused with rapid growth of population?
Effects of over population:

• Increased levels of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution.
• Deforestation and loss of ecosystem.
• Increasing temperature in the atmosphere which results of Global Warming.
• Starvation, Malnutrition.
• Unhygienic living condition for many due to water scarcity, discharge of sewage water & solid waste disposal.
• Depletion of natural resources.
• Political instability.
• Increasing of unemployment.
• Lack of civic amentities (Food, Clothing & Shelter).

Measurements to Control the population:

• Adoption and Propoganda of Family planning methods.
• Practice of celibacy.
• Self control.
• Remaining unmarried.
• Improving women’s status and health.
• Provide education.
• Increasing the food production.

Question 28.
Explain the measures to check the growth of population in India.
The government of India has taken several steps to control the growth of population in the country are as :

• Family Planning Programme : India was the first country in the world to adopt the family planning programme in the year 1952. The main aim is to control births by various means such as free sterilization (Vasectomy for males Tubectomy for females). Adopting contraceptives etc.
• Improvement of the status of women : The social, economic and political status of women have been improved through education and various women welfare scheme. For ex: In Karnataka free Education, Government jobs, Bhagyalaxmiyojana etc.
• Programmes to control infant mortality: The government of Karnataka has introduced many child welfare programmes to control infant mortality. For ex: Jananisurakshayojan, Madilu Prasooti Araike etc.
• Area Projects : Under this project health worker visit door to door and advise. In addition they are also motivating the people to adopt contraceptives and undergo sterilization.
• Publicity : Broadcasting the benifits of small family through the Radio, Television and Newspapers etc.

Question 29.
Explain the chief aims and importance of Hirakud project.
Importance :

• It is an ambitious multipurpose river valley project in Odisha, planned for harnessing the waters of Mahanadi river.
• There dams are constructed across the Mahanadi at different places.
• The 4801 mt long dam has been built across the Mahanadi at Hirakud, 9.7 kms up stream of Sambalpur.
• The height of the dam above the river bed is 61 metres.
• It is the longest dam in India and forms 650km2 reservoir.
• It has a gross storage capacity of 810 crore cubic meters of water.
• They irrigate 2.54 lakh hectares.
• The project has two hydro-electric power stations with an installed capacity of 270 m.
• The second and third dams are constructed at Tikarapara and Naraj respectively.
• The Mahanadhi Delta Irrigation scheme can provide irrigation for 6.84 lakh hectares.
• The third one comprises of 1353 km and 386.2 km long canals with irrigation potential of 5.4 lakh hectares.
• Chief Aims of this projects are :
• Flood control
• Irrigation development
• Generation of hydro-electric power
• Provides navigation, recreational facilities and afforestation.

Question 30.
Explain the canal irrigation in India.
India has one of the largest canal systems of the world. Canals are the second largest source of irrigation in the country.
Canals are of two types :

1. Inundation canals : taken out directly from rivers, without making any barrage or dam.
2. Perennial canals : which are taken out from the reservoirs by constructing barrage or weir to regulate the flow of water.
• Canal irrigation is widely practiced in the Sutlej Gangas plains and the deltas of the peninsular rivers.
• Uttar Pradesh ranks first in India where canal irrigation is most extensive.
• Canal irrigation suffers from a number of draw-backs such as water logging, increase in water table, alkalinity of soils due to capillary action etc.

Question 31.
What are the Geographical conditions necessary for the cultivation of cotton? Explain the varieties of cotton.
Conditions for Cultivation of cotton:

• Cotton is a tropical & Sub-tropical crop. It requires high temperature. At the time of growing it requires 2l°C to 24°C temperature.
• It requires moderate rainfall of 50 cm to 100 cm. However it can cultivate in areas of lesser rainfall with the help of irrigation.
• Deep black soil is well suitable to cotton crop. This soil is commonly known as Black cotton soil. This is capable of retaining moisture.
• Cotton requires the use of Manures & fertilizers crop rotation helps to maintain fertility of the soil & improve the yield.
• Cotton cultivation requires large amount of cheap labours for planting, thinning, seeding, picking of cotton.
• Frosting, Moist weather & heavy rainfall are harmful to the crop.
• Cotton plant is susecptible to disease & pests. It requires the use of insecticides & pesticides.
• The Sunny weather is necessary at the time of harvesting the cotton.

Varieties of Cotton:-

(i) Long Staple Cotton :

• It is the best variety .
• It has over 3.8 cm in length.
• Because of its length of fibre, fine & shining it is used for making fine & superfine quality of cloth.

(ii) Medium Staple Cotton :

• The length of cotton fibre is between 2.5 cm to 3.8 cm is known as medium staple cotton.
• It is used for making Medium cloth.

(iii) Short Staple Cotton :

• This is inferior variety with fiber length less than 2.5 cm.
• It is used for making inferior quality of cloth, stuffing purpose, blending with synthetic, fibre etc.
• This type of cotton production is reduced in India.
• Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh & Rajasthan etc are growing this type of cotton.

Question 32.
Explain the need of agriculture in India.
Agriculture is the most important Primary activity and the oldest occupation of human beings in India.

• Main source of livelihood : About 70% of the people directly and indirectly depend on agriculture for their Livelihood.
• Food supply : Agriculture provides food grains, fruits, vegetables, spices etc to the people and fodder for the animals.
• Provides employment facilities : Agriculture is largest sector providing highest employment.
• Source of National income : It contributes to the national income of the country.
• Source of raw materials for Agro-based-industries ex: Raw cotton, sugar cane and Jute.
• Source of large amount of revenue to the government.
• Support to tertiary sector like transport, communication, banking, insurance etc.
• Help to internal trade like Agricultural products are transported from the area of surplus production to the area scarcity.
• Support to export, many agricutlural products produced in the country are exported i.e. tea, coffee, Jute, Tobacco etc.
• Political & Social situation in the country is determined by the agricultural production.

Question 33.
Describe the radio as a communication media in India.
Radio has played an important means of communication in the field of advertising, information, broadcasting local, regional, public opinions, national and international news, sports, cricket etc.

• Radio is more powerful than the press because it gives immediate information throughout the world without loss of time. Radio broadcasting was started in India in the early 1920’s.
• The first programme was broadcasted in 1923 by radio club of Mumbai. The broadcasting service was setup in 1927.
• It was changed to all India Radio (AIR) in 1936. It also came to be known as “Akashvani” from 1957.
• The All India radio has at present 213 Radio stations these includes 114 regional stations,

• Radio reaches both to the literate and illiterate as well as to people of all ages.
• It creates awakening among the people about the worls.
• It provides educated values.
• The productions costs are lower.
• Radio is the only mass media that people use while driving, cleaning, moving etc. ‘ Disadvantages:
• Radio is brief, It cannot be very descriptive.
• Its scope is limited.
• It is one way commuication.
• It is confined to the control of government.

Question 34.
What is target area planning? Why it is necessary in India? Give any four examples of target area planning.
Target area planning means making schmes for the development of particular group or area such as backward regions.

• This type of planning is necessary in india because region imbalances in Economic development are getting serious.
• Some of the examples of programmes directed towards the development of target areas are command Area Development Programme.
• Drought prone area development programme.
• Desert Development Programme.
• Hill area development programme.
• The small farmers development agency and margins farmers development agency which are the examples of target group programme.

Section – D

IV. Answer any one of the following : ( 10 x 1 = 10 )

Question 35.
Describe the distribution, production and trade of Bauxite in India.

• Bauxite ore is found in laterite rocks occuring extensively either on the plateau or hill ranges of peninsular India and also in the coastal tracts of the country.
• It is estimated that total reserves of Buaxite in the country is about 2500 million tones. This reserve is the .fifth largest in the world.
• Odisha : Odisha has large reserves and is the biggest producer of Bauxite in India.
Vast reserves of Bauxite are located at Kalahandi, Koraput, Sundaragarh, Bolingir and Sambalapur districts.
• Chhatisgarh: Chhatisgarh produce more than 18.4 percent of the total production of Bauxite in the country. It is found Bilasapur, Durga, Surguja and Rajagarh districts.
• Maharashtra : Maharashtra accounts for 15.1
percent of the total production of Bauxite in the country. It mainly occurs in Ratnagiri, Kollapur, Jhana and Satara districts.
• Jharkhand : It is fourth largest producer of Bauxite in India. If contributes about 14.3 percent of total production. It is located in Ranchi, Lahardaga, Palmu and Gumla districts.
• Gujarat: Gujarat is another important producer of Bauxite in India.
It accounts for 6.6 percent in India. It is located in Jamanagar, Junagash, Kedha Kuchchh and Bhavanagar districts.
• Nearly 80 percent of the bauxite in India is used for producing aluminium.
• India’s export of bauxite have been reduced considerably due to the increasing demand in the home market.
• So, India exports only 20 percent of its Bauxite ore mainly to Italy, U.K, Japan and Germany.

Question 36.
Write the importance of knowledge based industry and explain briefly why? These industries are located in major cities.
Significance : Computer software industry in India are :

• The Aptitude of Indians for mathematics.
• Another reason may be the cost advantage of production in India. Global software firms are attracted to India’s large, skilled labour force.
• It has the second largest number of English speaking scientific professionals in the world, after the U.S.
• The Indian software industry focuses more on management information and decisions support systems, banking, insurance and financial applications, artificial intelligence etc.

Distribution :

• The major software and hardware producing companies include M/s Altos, HCL, Infosystems, Wipro, Digital Equipment (India), Zenith Computers, Tata Honey well, Unicorp Industries, Eseda Industries, Infosys, BEL software, PSI Data are global software firms having manufacturing base in India.
• Among the states of India Karnataka, particularly Bengaluru is the most important destination of Indian software industry so it is called Silicon Valley of India.
• In addition to Bengaluru software industries are also, developing in many centres of Karnataka such as Mysore, Mangalore, Udupi, Hubli etc.

Section – E

V. Answer any TWO of the following. ( 10 x 2 = 20 )

Question 37.
Construct a pie diagram using the following data.
India : Types of railways gauges – 2012.

 Types Percentage Broad Guage 86 Meter grage 10 Narrow gange 4

Question 38.
(a) Construct a line graph by using the following data
Karnataka : Selected district-wise population (id lakh)

 District Population Belgaum 47.8 Bagalkot 18.9 Bijapur 21.8 Bidar 17.0 Raichur 19.3 Dharwad 18.5

(b) Construct a single bar graph by using following data Karnataka: Decade wise sex ratio [per 1000 males]

 Year Female 1951 966 1961 959 1971 957 1981 963 1991 960 2001 965 2011 968

Answer any two of the following : (10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 39.
(a) Explain the primary sources of data.
Meaning – The data which are collected for the first time by a researcher or groups of researchers, institution or organizations are called Primary sources of data.
Types of Primary data collection:-

1. Through Personal interview : Personal interviews are the most commonly used method of collecting data, because the interviewer has the opportunity of explaing the study and answering any question, here the researcher gets direct information from the respondents.

2. By Personal observations: It refers to the collection of data or information by individual or group of individuals, through direct observations in the field.

3. By Questionnaire : The most common method used in surverys is the Questionnaire. In this method, simple questions and their possible answers are written on a plain paper, and the respondents have to tick mark the possible answers from given choices.

4. Others methods :

• Telephone interview : In this method, the researcher/interviewer can collect the information over the telephone.
• Measuring properties : In this method, the data about properties of soil, and water collected directly from the field by measuring their characteristics using soil and water quality kit.

(b) Explain the components of GIS.
The components of GIS are

1. Data : Geographical data can jbe divided into 3
• Spatial data Any data which is associated with a specific geographical location, eg Locating of India, Bangalore city, KRS dam.
• Attribute/Non-spatial data Any data which is not associated with a specific geographical location.
• Continous dataThe data which have no discrete boundaries like soil, atmospheric temperature and land elevation.
2. Software : There are the programmes designed to run the computer. However, GIS is designed to collect, store, process geographical data and construct maps.
3. Hardware : Hardware comprises storing and processing devices like central process unit, monitor, key board, mouse, printer, scanner etc …
4. People : This component consists of the skilled people who involve in data capturing, ‘, processing and analysing.
5. Analysis : It involves the processing of GIS data with various analyses so as to get meaningful information.

(c) Explain the segments of GPS.
There are three segments of GPS:-
1. The space segments : The satellites of GPS are launched and positioned at an altitude of approximately 20200 km which is almost more than three times of the earth’s radius. The space segment consists of a constellation of 24 functioning GPs satellites located in 6 orbital plane with 4 satellites in each orbital plane. The time for the satellite to complete one revolution around the earth is 11 hrs and 58 minutes.

2. The control segment: The control segment consists of facilities necessary for satellites especially healthy monitoring, telemetry, tracking command and control clock error ‘ computation of satellites. There are 5 GPS stations spread over the earths surface they are –

• Hawaii
• Ascension Island
• Diego Garcia
• Kwajalein.

3. The user segment: It is a total user and supplier community, both civilian and military. The user segment consists of all earth – based GPS receivers. Receivers very greatly in size and complexity, through the basic design in rather simple. The space and control segments are largely transparent to the operations of navigation functions.

## 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 with Answers

Students can Download 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 with Answers

Time: 3 Hrs. 15 Min.
Max. Marks: 70

PART-A

I. Each question carries one mark. (10 × 1 =10)

Question 1.
Expand the term POST.
The expansion of POST is Power On Self Test.

Question 2.
What is NOR gate?
The NOR (Not OR) gate has two or more input signals with one output. If all the inputs are 0, then output is 1 in NOR gate.

Question 3.
What are Non-linear data structures?
A non-linear data structure is a data structure in which a data item is connected to several other data items i.e., every data item is attached to several other data items.

Question 4.
Define array of objects.
The array of class type is known as array of objects.
For example:
classname object[5];

Question 5.
What is new operator in C++?
The new operator in C++, allocates memory dynamically.

Question 6.
Give the symbol notion for project.
The symbol notion for project is? (pi)

Question 7.
EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment) is a faster version of GSM designed to deliver data at rates up to 384 Kbps and enable the delivery of multimedia and other broadband applications to mobile phone and computer users.

Question 8.
What are dedicated servers?
A computer exclusively reserved for server’s job and its only job is to help workstations to access data, software and hardware resources. The term “dedicated server” can also mean a single computer within a network that is reserved for a specific purpose.

Question 9.
What is FSF?
A Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit organization created for the purpose of supporting free software movement.

Question 10.
What do you mean by web scripting?
A script is a list of commands that are embedded in a web page and are interpreted and executed by the scripting engine. The process of creating and embedding scripts in a web page is known as web scripting.

PART-B

II. Each question carries two marks. (5 × 2=10)

Question 11.
Construct a truth table for three variables A, B and C that will have an output 1 when XYZ=100, XYZ=101, XYZ=110, and XYZ=111. Write the Boolean expression for logic network in SOP form.

Question 12.
Draw Karnaugh maps for the expression XYZ’ + X’Y’Z.

Question 13.
Mention various characteristics of object-oriented programming language.
The characteristics of object-oriented programming are objects, classes, data abstraction, data encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.

Question 14.
Write an example to show the use of parameterized constructors through explicit calls.

Question 15.
What is ifstream class and ofstream class?
The ifstream class supports input operations on files and is derived from istream class. The class ofstream class supports output operations on files and is derived from ostream class.

Question 16.
Name the data types supported by DBMS.
The various data types supported by DBMS are integer, single precision, double precision, character, string, memo, index, currency, date and text fields.

Question 17.
Explain update command with example.
UPDATE command:
It can be used to change row values from a table. The SET keyword takes the column in which values need to be changed or updated. The WHERE keyword is used to filter the records in some conditions.
Syntax:
UPDATE tablename SET columnname = values WHERE Condition;
Example:
UPDATE student SET combn = ‘PCMCs’ where combn=’pcmc’;

Question 18.
Name the different networking techniques.
The networking techniques (topologies) are Bus topology, Ring topology, Star topology, Three topology, Mesh topology, Extended star topology.

PART – C

III. Each question carries three marks. (5 × 3 = 15)

Question 19.
Write a short note on SMPS of a computer system.
Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS): The switched mode power supply acting as a DC to DC converter first rectifies an AC input voltage (240Volts), converts it to DC and, chops this DC in a “chopper” and converts it to a higher or lower level of DC (5 to 12 V DC Volts). Typical modern applications include computer power supply and the power supplies in TV and Video sets. The wattage of SMPS is around 150 to 500 watts.
SMPSs are three types :

1. AT SMPS
2. ATX SMPS
3. BTXSMPS

1. AT SMPS :
AT stands for Advanced Technology. These are all old SMPSs. They had 12pin power connector, this is called as AT power connector. They were used in Pentium-I, Pentium-MMX, Pentium-II and Pentium-III CPUs.

2. ATX SMPS :
ATX stands for Advanced Technology extended. They had 20pin Power connector, this is called as ATX power connector. They were used in Pentium-III, Pentium- IV and AMD CPUs.

3. BTX SMPS :
BTX stands for Balanced Technology extended. They have 24pin Power connector, this is also called as ATX power connector. It has 15pin SATA power connectors. They are used in Dual core, core2duo, Quad core, i3, i5, i7 and latest AMD CPUs.

Question 20.
Explain the working of NAND gate.
This is a NOT-AND gate which is equal to an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. The outputs of all NAND gates are high if any of the inputs are low.

Question 21.
Write the algorithm for linear search.
Linear_search(Array, ele, N)
Step 1: loc = -l
Step 2 : for i = 0 to N-l repeat step 3 through step step 5
Step 3 : if (Array[i] = ele ) then step 4 through step 5
Step 4 : loc = i Step 5 : goto step
Step 6 : if (loc >=0 ) then step 7 otherwise step 8
Step 7 : output “The search element found at location “, loc
Step 8 : output “Search is unsuccessful”
Step 9 : exit.

Question 22.
Mention any three advantages of pointer.
The three advantages of pointer are

1. For objects, memory can be allocated dynamically during runtime.
2. When objects are not used, then memory can be released.
3. Memory is efficiently used.

Question 23.
Mention the types of files. Explain anyone.
The text file and binary file are the two types of files in C++.
Text file:
A text file also called a ASCII file is a stream of characters that can be sequentially processed in forward direction by the computer. In text files, each line of text end with a EOL (End of line) character and each file ends with a special character called the EOF (End of file). The file can be edited using text editors like C++ editor, notepad, vi editors in UNIX.

Question 24.
What is generalization and specialization?
1. Generalization is the process of taking the union of two or more lower-level entity sets to produce a higher-level entity sets. Generalisation is a bottom-up approach.

2. Specialization is a top-down approach in which one higher level entity can be broken down into two lower level entities.

Question 25.
List the services of e-commerce?
Few services of ecommerce are

• Secure hosting
• Full integration with the payment gateway of your choice
• Web design
• Shopping cart system
• Marketing .

PART- D

IV. Each question carries five marks. (7 × 5 = 35)

Question 26.
Given F(A,B,C,D) = (0,2,4,6,8,10,14). Use Karnaugh map to reduce the function F using POS form. Write a logic gate diagram for the reduced POS expression.
Logical gate diagram:

Question 27.
Write a short note on queues.
A queue is a non-primitive data structure where an item is inserted at one end and removed from the other end. The data structure queue is called FIFO(First In First Out) which means first inserted data item is removed first.

The variable FRONT is used to identify the position of the first element in the queue, and variable REAR is used to identify the position of last element of the queue. The different types of queues are simple queue, circular queue, priority queue, and dequeue.

1. Simple Queue:
Simple queue Insertion occurs at the rear of the list, and deletion occurs at the front of the list.

2. Circular Queue :
A circular queue is a queue in which all nodes are treated as circular such that the first node follows the last node.

3. Priority Queue :
A priority queue is a queue that contains items that have some preset priority. When an element has to be removed from a priority queue, the item with the highest priority is removed first

4. Dequeue (Double Ended queue):
In dequeue(double ended queue) Insertion and Deletion occur at both the ends i.e. front and rear of the queue.

5. Operations on Queue:
The queue(), enqueue(item), dequeue(), isEmptyO and size() are the operations that can be performed on queues.

Applications of Queue :
Queue is used when things don’t have to be processed immediately, but have to be processed in First In First Out order.

• When a resource is shared among multiple consumers. Examples include CPU scheduling, Disk Scheduling.
• When data is transferred asynchronously (data not necessarily received at same rate as sent) between two processes.

Examples include 10 Buffers, pipes, file 10, etc.

Question 28.
Write an algorithm to insert a data element at the beginning of a linked list.
Step 1: if AVAIL = NULL then
Print” Availability stack is empty”
Else
NEWJMODE = AVAIL
Step 2: if FIRST = NULL then
NEWJMODE-> INFO = ELEMENT
FIRST = NEW_NODE
Else
NEWJMODE -> INFO = ELEMENT
FIRST = NEW_NODE
Step 3: return

Question 29.
The advantages of object oriented programming:
1. OOP provides a clear modular structure for programs. Large problems can be reduced to smaller and more manageable problems.

2.  In OOP, data can be made private to a class such that only member functions of the class can access the data. This principle of data hiding helps the programmer to build a secure program.

3. Implementation details are hidden from other modules and other modules has a clearly defined interface.

4. It is easy to maintain and modify existing code as new objects can be created with small differences to existing ones.

The disadvantages of object oriented progrmming:
1. Size:
Object Oriented programs are much larger than other programs. In the early days of computing, space on hard drives, floppy drives and in memory was at a premium. Today we do not have these restrictions.

2. Effort:
Object Oriented programs require a lot of work to create. Specifically, a great deal of planning goes into an object oriented program well before a single piece of code is ever written. Initially, this early effort was felt by many to be a waste of time. In addition, because the programs were larger (see above) coders spent more time actually writing the program.

3. Speed:
Object Oriented programs are slower than other programs, partially because of their size. Other aspects of Object Oriented Programs also demand more system resources, thus slowing the program down.

Question 30.
Describe how objects can be used as function arguments.
The objects of same class can be passed as arguments to a function. This is explained with an example,

in the above example, rup is the class, n1 and n2 are data members, readdata(), printdataQ and multi() are member functions with r1, r2 are the function argument of object type. The line obj3.multi (obj1, obj2); pass obj1 and obj2 which are the objects of class rup type. In the statement
n1 = r1.n1 * r1.n2;
n2 = r2.n1 * r2.n2;

r1.n1 is accessing data member n1 of object r1 and r1.n2 is accessing data member n2 of object r1 and their product is stored in data member n1 and same for n2 in the second line which is the member of obj3 object. The obj3. printdata() gives out the result stored in the n1 and n2.

Question 31.
Inline functions are those functions whose body is inserted in place of the function call.

• The speed of execution of a program increases
• Efficient code can be generated
• Readability of the program increases

• The size of the executable file increases and more memory is required as the body of inline function is inserted in the place of function call.
• Not suitable for too long, complicated, recursive function definition

Question 32.
Explain different types of constructors.
There are three types of constructors.

1. Namely Default constructor.
2. Parameterized constructor.
3. Copy constructor.

1. Default Constructor:
A constructor which does not take any arguments is called a zero argument constructor. It is also called zero-argument constructor.
Features of default constructor are:

• All objects of a class are initialized to same set of values
• These constructors has no arguments
• These constructors are automatically called when every object is created.

The disadvantages of default constructor are:

• Different objects cannot be initialized with different values.
• Declaring a constructor with arguments hides default constructor.

2. parameterized constructor:
A constructor that takes one or more arguments is called a parameterized constructor.
The features of parameterized constructors are :

• parameterized constructors can be overloaded
• parameterized constructors can have default arguments and default values.

The different methods through which constructors can be invoked are implicit call and explicit call and using operator.
a. Explicit call:
It is a method of invoking a function where the declaration of object is followed by assignment operator followed by a constructor followed by argument list enclosed within parentheses.

b. Implicit Call:
It means the declarationof the object is followed by argument list enclosed in parentheses used with constructors The is used for the parameterized constructor which has exactly one argument.

3. Copy Constructor:
It is a parameterized constructor using which one object can be copied into another object. The copy constructor takes an object as argument and is used to copy values of data members of one object into other object.

Question 33.
Explain multilevel inheritance with a suitable C++ program.

In the above program student information is a derived class from student parents and student marks is derived class from student information. Std is a object belongs to student marks class. The object std can access the member functions of classes student marks, student information and student parents.

Question 34.
Write the differences between manual and electronic file systems.
The difference between manual, and electronic file systems

Question 35.
Explain DML commands with example.
The data manipulation commands are used for retrieval (view) of data, insertion of new data, modification of data or deletion. The DML commands include insert, delete and update.
1. INSERT command :
It is used to inserts new rows into the table.
Syntax:
INSERT INTO tablename (columnname1, columnname2,…) VALUES (value1, , value2, ..);
Example:
INSERT INTO student (Regno, name, Combn, fees) VALUES (1234, ‘Hemanth’, ‘PCMCs’,15000);

2. UPDATE command:
It can be used to change row values from a table. The SET keyword takes the column in which values need to be changed or updated. The WHERE keyword is used to filter the records in some conditions.
Syntax :
UPDATE tablename SET columnname = values WHERE Condition; Example: UPDATE student SET combn = ‘PCMCs’ where combn=’pcmc’;

3. DELETE Command :
It is used to delete/remove the tuples/rows from the table. All the rows will be deleted if WHERE clause is not used in the statement otherwise it selects the rows for delete which satisfies the condition.
Syntax:
DELETE from tablename WHERE Condition;
Example:
DELETE from student;
DELETE from student WHERE regno=1234;

Question 36.
Write a short note on star topology and tree topology.
Star Topology:

A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub, switch. Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, before continuing to its destination. The hub, switch, manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow.
Advantages of a Star Topology :

• Easy to install and wire.
• No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
• Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

Disadvantages of a Star Topology :

• Requires more cable length than a linear topology.
• If the hub, switch fails, nodes attached are disabled.
• More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc.

Tree topology :

A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network.

• Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.
• Supported by several hardware and software vendors.

• Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.
• If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
• More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

## 2nd PUC Computer Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2017

Students can Download 2nd PUC Computer Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2017, Karnataka 2nd PUC Computer Science Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Computer Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2017

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

PART – A

Answer all the following questions. Each question carries one mark. (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
What is a bus?
A bus is a set of wire connected between the units for the purpose of carry the signals between the units.

Question 2.
Write the standard symbol for AND gate.

Question 3.
Define an array.
Array is a collection of similar elements that share a common name. It is a structured data type and allocates memory contiguously.

Question 4.
Is it possible to access data outside a class?
Yes, the public members can be accessed by member functions of the class and non member function (outside the class) of the class.

Question 5.
Mention any one advantage of pointer.
The two advantages of the pointer are

1. For objects memory can be allocated dynamically during runtime.
2. When objects are not used, then memory can be released.
3. Memory is efficiently used.

Question 6.
Define an entity.
An entity is a person, place, thing or event for which data is collected and maintained.

Question 7.
What is chatting?
It is online communication between two users through the computer. Once a chat has been initiated, either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will appear on the other user’s monitor.

Question 8.
What is a server?
A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs and their users in the same or other computers.

OR

The computer that a server program runs in is also referred to as a server.

Question 9.
Expand WWW.
Worldwide Web

Question 10.
What is a website?
A website is a collection of web pages generally written using Hyper Text Markup Language.

PART -B

Answer any five questions. Each question carries two marks. (5 × 2 = 10)

Question 11.
Prove algebraically x + xy = x.
LHS x + xy
= x + x x + y (distributive law)
= 1 1+y (absorption law)
= 1

Question 12.
State the principle of duality. Write the dual of 1 + x = 1.
The principle of duality states that starting with a Boolean relation, another relation can be derived by

1. Changing each OR sing (+) to an AND sign (.)
2. Changing each AND sing (.) to an OR sign (+).
3. Replacing each 0 by 1 and each 1 by 0.
4. All variables are complemented.

For example, (X + Y’) dual is (X’. Y)
1 + X = 1  is  0 . X = X.

Question 13.
Define base class and derived class.
1. base class:
A base class is a class from which other classes are derived.

2. derived class:
The class that inherits is called derived class.
The inheriting class is called the derived class.

Question 14.
Write the features of default constructors.
The features of default constructors are:

1. All objects of a class are initialized to same set of values.
2. These constructors has no arguments.
3. These constructors are automatically called when every object is created.

Question 15.

 read() write() belongs to the class ifstream belongs to the class ofstream used to read binary data from a file used to write binary data to a file Syntax: fin.read( (char *) &variable, sizeof(variable)); Syntax: fout.write( (char *) &variable, sizeof(variable));

Question 16.
Write the difference between data and information.
Data:
1. Data is a collection of facts, figures or statistics. Data is transformed into meaningful information. It is raw material of information.

2. Information:
It is processed data with definite meaning. Information gives meaning.

Question 17.
Give the syntax and example of UPDATE command in SQL.
UPDATE command:
It can be used to change row values from a table. The SET key word takes the column in which values needs to be changed or updated. The WHERE keyword is used to filter the records on some condition.
Syntax:
UPDATE tablename SET columnname = values WHERE Condition;
Example:
UPDATE student SET combn = ‘PCMCs’ where combn=’pcmc’;

Question 18.
What is communication (transmission) mode? Explain simplex mode.
The communication mode is the technique of transmitting and receiving signals between the sender and receiver.
Simplex mode:

PART – C

Answer any five questions. Each question carries three marks: (5 × 3 = 15)

Question 19.
Explain the characteristics of motherboard.
The characteristics of motherboard identifies different kinds of motherboards, including Physical characteristics, which in combination are called the form factor like XT, AT Baby AT and ATX motherboard; The chipset used, which defines the capabilities of the motherboard such as an AMD, Intel, NVidia, SiS, or VIA chipset; The processors the motherboard supports; Different processors use different sockets or slots. Based on the type, there are two main types of slots.

a. Socket 7:
Is a 321-pin socket for Pentium class CPUs – Pentium MMX, K5, K6, etc.,

b. Slot 1:
Pentium ll/IH CPUs use slot 1.

The BIOS it uses – System BIOS is a chip located on all motherboards that contain instructions and set up for how your system should boot and how it operates. The phoenix and AMI are the two BIOS manufacturers and the internal and expansion buses that it supports.

Question 20.
Realize AND, OR, NOT gates using NAND gates.
1. Implementing AND using NAND gates:

2. Implementing OR using NAND gates:

3. Implementing NOT using NAND gates:

Question 21.
Explain the memory representation of two dimensional array.
Let A be two-dimensional array
Let M is rows and N is columns
The A array may be stored in the memory in one of the following methods;
1. Row-major representation:
In this type of method, the first row occupies the first set of memory locations reserved for the array and second-row occupies the next set and so on.

2. Column-major representation:
In this type of method, the first column occupies the first set of memory locations reserved for the array and the second column occupies the next set and so on.

Question 22. Define:

1. Pointer
2. Static memory allocation
3. Dynamic memory allocation

1. A pointer is a variable that holds the memory address, usually the location of another variable.
2. The fixed size of memory allocation and cannot be altered during runtime is called static memory allocation.
3. Allocation of memory at the time of execution (run time) is known as dynamic memory allocation.

Question 23.
Explain any three modes to open a file in C++.
The file can be opened both for input and output operations using fstream class.
The syntax for opening a file with constructor is fstream object(“filename”, mode);
The syntax for opening a file with open() is fstream object.open(“filename”, mode);
Therefore, file can be opened using different modes. They are
ios::in opens file for reading only. For example, fstream fin(“te’xt.dat”, ios::in);
ios::out opens file for writing only. For example, fstream fout(“text.dat”, ios::out);
ios::app opens a file to append to end of file. For example, fstream
file.open(“text.dat”,ios::app);

Question 24.
Mention database users.
There are different types of database users. They are
1. Application programmers or Ordinary users:
These users write application programs to interact with the database. Application programs can be written in some programming language typically a SQL statement to DBMS.

2. End Users:
End users are the users, who use the applications developed. They just use the system to get their task done. End users are of two types:

• Direct users
• Indirect users.

Database Administrator (DBA) is the person which makes the strategic and policy decisions regarding the data of the enterprise, DBA is responsible for overall control of the system at a technical level.

4. System Analyst:
System Analyst determines the requirement of end-users, and develops specifications for transactions that meet these requirements. System Analyst plays a major role in database design, technical aspect, etc. of the system.

Question 25.
Give the services of e-commerce.
Few services of eCommerce are:

• Secure hosting.
• Full integration with the payment gateway of your choice.
• Web design.
• Shopping cart system.
• Marketing.

Question 26.
Explain any three HTML tags.
1. The <p> tag is a paragraph tag.
Usage:
<p> HTML paragraphs </p>

2. The <table> tag is a table tag that creates a table in HTML.
Usage:
<table> </table>

3. The <tr> tag is a table row tag that creates a row in a table.
Usage: <tr> </tr>

PART – D

Answer any Seven of the following questions. Each question carries Five marks: (7 × 5 = 35)

Question 27.
Reduce F(A,B,C,D) = Σ(0,4,6,7,8,12,14,15) using K-map.

The F(A,B,C,D) = C’D’ + BC + BD’

Question 28.
Write an algorithm to insert an element in an array.
A is an array
N is number of elements (size)
Element is a data element
Pos is the location of the element to be inserted.

Insertion (A, N, Element, Pos)
Step 1: for i = N-1 downto Pos repeat step 2
Step 2: A[i+1] = A[i]
End for
Step 3: A [Pos] = Element
Step 4: N = N + 1

Question 29.
What is a stack? Write an algorithm for PUSH() and POP() operations.
Algorithm for PUSH operation:
PUSH(STACK, TOP, SIZE, ITEM)
Step 1: if TOP >= N-1 then
PRINT “stack is overflow”
Exit
End of if
Step 2: Top = TOP + 1
Step 3: STACK[TOP] = ITEM
Step 4: Return

Algorithm for POP operation:
PUSH(STACK, TOP, ITEM)
Step 1: if TOP = 0 then
PRINT “stack is empty”
Exit
End of if
Step 2: ITEM = STACK[POP]
Step 3: TOP = TOP -1
Step 4: Return

Question 30.
Write the applications of OOPs.
Some of the real life applications of object oriented programming are given below;

• Computer graphic applications.
• Object oriented database.
• User interface design such as windows.
• Real time systems.
• Simulation and modeling.
• Artificial intelligence and expert systems.

Question 31.
Explain class definition with syntax and example.
A class is a structured data type in C++ which is a collection of variables and functions. A class in C++ combines related data and functions together. It makes a data type which is used for creating objects of this type
The syntax of a class definition:

Question 32.
Explain inline function with programming example.
Declaration and Definition of inline function
sinline returntype_specifier functioname (arguments)
{
….
}
The definition of inline function should be defined before all functions that call it.
The function definition should have the prefix inline.
Example:

Question 33.
What is a destructor? Write its syntax and example.
It is a special function used to release the memory space allocated by the object.
→ Name of the Destructor is similar to the class, which it belongs.
→ It does not have argument(s) and doesn’t return any value (no return type)
→ Destructor is preceded by ~ (tilde) sign.

Following points should be kept in mind while defining and writing the syntax for the destructor:

• A destructor function must be declared with the same name as that of the class to which it belongs.
• The first character of the destructor name must begin with a tilde (~).
• A destructor function is declared with no return types specified (not even void).
• A destructor function must have public access in the class declaration.

General Syntax of Destructors:

~ classname();

The above is the general syntax of a destructor. In the above, the symbol tilde ~ represents a destructor which precedes the name of the class.
For example,

Question 34.
Write the types of inheritance. Explain any two.
The different types of inheritance are single inheritance, multilevel inheritance, hierarchical inheritance, multiple inheritance and hybrid inheritance.

1. Single inheritance:
A derived class with only one base class is called single inheritance. For example, If A is base class then class B derive from base class A.

2. Multilevel inheritance:
A class can be derived from another derived class which is known as multilevel inheritance. For example, The derived class C inherit B class whereas B is derived from class A.

Question 35.
Briefly explain the data processing cycle.
DATA PROCESSING CYCLE:
Data processing is the activity of collecting the data from various sources, properly organizing and processing to obtain required information.
The stages of data processing cycle

a. Data collection:
Data required for an organization may be available at various places. It involves identifying the source of data for collection. The sources may include documents, such as invoices, sales orders, purchase orders etc., for the purpose of processing.

b. Data input:
The gathered/collected data is entered into the system in the suitable format which is acceptable by the data processing system for the necessary process.

c. Processing of data:
Before any process is applied, classifying the data or grouping the similar type of data is performed. Then to such data proper arrangement/order is done i.e., in ascending or in descending order. Then verification for any missing data, incomplete data is done. Finally calculation process gives the information.

d. Data output:
It is necessary to put the results in proper format in the form of a summarized report, consolidated report, statements etc.,

e. Data storage:
The inputted data and generated results are stored for the future use. They are stored using different mass storage devices (Hard disk, floppy dis, etc.,).

Question 36.
Write the purpose of the following SQL function:

1. count()
2. max()
3. min()
4. avg()
5. sum()

The built-in functions associated with GROUP functions in SQL are

1. COUNT function- returns the count of records that satisfies the condition for each group of records.
Example:
SELECT department, COUNT(*)FROM employees WHERE salary > 25000 GROUP BY department;

2. MAX function- returns the maximum values from the column for each group of records.
Example:
SELECT department, MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY department;

3. MIN function – returns the lowest values from the column for each group of records.
Example:
SELECT department, MIN(salary)FROM employees GROUP BY department;

4. AVG function – returns the average values from the column for each group of records.
Example:
SELECT AVG(cost) FROM products WHERE category = ‘Clothing’;

5. SUM function- returns the total values from the column for each group of records.
Example:
SELECT department, SUM(sales)FROM order_details GROUP BY department;

Question 37.
Give the measures of preventing virus.
The different measures for preventing virus are
1. Install quality antivirus:
The users should install professional, business-grade antivirus software on their PCs. Pro-grade antivirus programs update more frequently throughout the, protect against a wider range of threats (such as rootkits), and enable additional protective features (such as custom scans).

2. Install real-time anti-spyware protection:
Use of professional (or fully paid and licensed) anti-spyware programs are required to prevent infections and fully remove those infections already present.

3. Keep anti-malware applications current:
Antivirus and anti-spyware programs require regular signature and database updates. Without these critical updates, anti-malware programs are unable to protect PCs from the latest threats. Computer users must keep their antivirus and anti-spyware applications up to date.

4. Perform daily scans:
Enabling complete, daily scans of a system’s on hard drive gives protection. These daily scans can be invaluable in detecting, isolating, and removing infections that initially escape security software’s attention.

5. Disable autorun:
Many viruses work by attaching themselves to a drive and automatically installing themselves. As a result, connecting any network drives, external hard disks, or even thumb drives to a system can result in the automatic propagation of such threats. The users can disable the Windows autorun feature to avoid.

6. Don’t click on email links or attachments:
Users should never click on email attachments without at least first scanning them for viruses using a business-class anti-malware application. As for clicking on links, users should access Web sites by opening a browser and manually navigating to the sites.

7. Use a hardware-based firewall:
The software-based firewall included with Windows isn’t sufficient to protect systems. For this reason, all PCs connected to the Internet should be secured behind a capable hardware-based firewall.

## 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2015

Students can Download 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2015, Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2015

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
State the total population of the world according to 2012.
World population as per 2012 was Seven billion.

Question 2.
What is an Industry?
The process of conversion of raw materials into finished goods employing machinery and man power is called as industry.

Question 3.
What is Water Transport?
The method of carrying goods and passengers on boats, ships, steamers etc on water from place to place is water transport.

Question 4.
What is a Megacity?
Megacity is a metropolitan area with a total population of more than 10 million.

Question 5.
Which State recorded the highest literacy in India?
Kerala is the state which has recorded the highest literacy rate with 93.91%.

Question 6.
What is Irrigation?
The supplying of water to the crops through various means like canals, tanks etc is irrigation.

Question 7.
Which is the highest coffee producing state in India?
Karnataka is the highest coffee producing state in India.

Question 8.
Name the metal which is made of bauxite ore.
Aluminium is the metal which is made from bauxite ore.

Question 9.
Which city of India is known as Silicon Valley?
Bengaluru is called the silicon valley of India.

Question 10.
Which is the Headquarters of South-Western Railway?
Mumbai (Church gate).

II. Answer any ten questions in 2 to 3 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
Name the types of Human Economic Activities.

• Primary activities
• Secondary activities
• Teritiary activities
• Quaternary activities.

Question 12.
Give the importance of Industries.

• They provide employment to a lot of people.
• They help to modernize the agricultural sector by providing tractors, fertilisers, manures and scientific technology.

Question 13.
Give two examples of administration towns.

• New Delhi
• Canberra

Question 14.
Name the types of migration.

• Internal migration
• International migration

Question 15.
What is Green Revolution?
Increase in food production through the introduction of high yield crop varieties and application of modem agricultural techniques is called Green Revolution.

Question 16.
Mention the types of coal.
The types of coal are as follows.

• Anthracite
• Lignite
• Bituminous
• Peat

Question 17.
Which minerals are used for producing Nuclear Energy?

• Uranium
• Thorium
• Plutonium

Question 18.
Mention the importance of Aluminium.

• It is light weight strong and rust resistant,
• It is used in aircrafts, automobiles.
• It is mainly used in electrical industry as it is a good conductor of electricity.

Question 19.
Name the two air transports in India.

• Internal Air transport or The Indian Airlines.
• International Air transport or The Air India.

Question 20.

• It is a source of entertainment.
• It makes a personal appeal and transmits messages directly into the homes of the viewers.
• Events happening at different parts of the world can be seen within minutes or even seconds thanks to news coverage.

Question 21.
Name the types of pollution.

•  Air pollution
• Water pollution
• Land pollution
• Noise pollution

Question 22.
What are the causes of Air pollution?
Ans:

• Increased use of varieties of fuels such as coal, petrol and diesel in vehicles and machines.
• Increase in emission of toxic gases from industrial activities.
• Mining activities release dust in the air.
• Important pollutants such as hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide which lead to air pollution.

III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each: (5 x 8 = 40)

Question 23.
Explain the importance of Human Geography.
Scope of human Geography:
As early societies became more successful in meeting their need with in permanent settlements.

• The rise of agriculture activities resource extra and manufacturing activities led to more complex economic and political boundaries were created and more settlement grew into towns and cities.
• The physical environment also changed with the influence of modem urbanize and industrialized world that we known today.
• One of the greatest challenges faced by humans today is how to manage energy resource in a sustainable fashion without inflicting permanent damage to environment in the form of land, air, water, pollution and climatic changes.

Importance of Human Geography:

• It clarifies the societies and cultures in different ^locations.
• The great diversity reflects through the fashion life.
• Which realizes carrying capacity of the Earth.
• It helps us to understand circumstances affecting people and nation.
• It is helpful to the planners, administrations, Industrialists and others. ’

Question 24.
Explain the growth of population in the world.

• The growth of population refers to the increases in the number of inhabitants of a country during specific period.
• It is estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804.
• Due to the impact of the industrial revolution & improvement in living standards, the rate of population growth increased two billion in 1927.
• At present estimate of 2013 the globe is inhabited by 7121 million population.
• During the begining of 20th century the world population was only 2 billion and centum ended with 6 billion. It continues to grow even in the 21st century.

Stages of Population growth:
I Three billion – July 1959
II Four billion – April 1974
III Five billion – July 1987
IV Six billion – October 1999
V Seven billion – 12th March 2012.

Question 25.
Explain the stages of Demographic Cycle.
Demographic cycle is the process of population transformation from the countries of high birth rate and high death rates to low birth rate & low death rate countries.
Stages of Demographic cycle:
1. First stage: High birth rate and high death is found when the country is economically most backward, so the population remains stationary. India was in the stage till 1920.

2. Second stage (Early expanding): It begins with the declining of death rate while the birth rate remains unchanged. These changes due to the advancement of science & technology, basic healthcare and education etc. At present many developing countries of Asia & Africa are in this stage.

3. Third stage (Late expanding): Death rate declines and birth rate begins to fall due to access of contraceptives, urbanization, an increase in the status and women education etc India appears to be this stage.

4. Fourth stage (Low stationary): It is characterized with low birth rate and low death rate. Growth is stationary due to changing life style, high obesity and many diseases are. caused in this stage. Japan, Sweden, Belgium Denmark & Switzerland are in this stage.

5. Fifth stage(DecIining): Population begins to decline or birth rate is lower than deathrate. East European countries like Germany and Hungary and North European countries like Sweden, Norway are now in this stage.

Question 26.
Explain the world distribution of Railways.
Europe has the highest density of rail. Network in the world. It has about 4,40,000 kms of railway track.

• Marmary is the first continental under water railway line. It is between Asia and Europe. It is about 13Kms through Bosporus strait (sea of Marama) & was opened in 2013.
• Railways are more in Russia. From Moscow major lines radiating to different parts of the Country.
• North America has one of the most extensive rail Networks accounting for nearly 40% of the World’s total.
• Chile rail route connects the coastal centres, mining centres as well as interior. Peru, Bolivia, Eurador, Colombia, Venezuela.
• In Asia rail Network is the most dense in Japan, China & India. Japan has 20,035 kms of rail routes.
• Africa has 82,000 kms of Railway route in which 18000 kms lies in South Africa alone due to the concentration of gold, diamond and copper mines. Africa has many major railway route which connects Benguela, Katanga, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe.
• The Tranzam-great Churn railway is connecting the Copper mines of Zambia with the port of Dar-es-Salam of Tanzania.
• The Benguela railway links the Copper mines of Zaire with the Atlantic coast ports via Angola.
• The Blue train run for from Cape Town to Pretoria in the republic of South Africa.
• The Algeria, Senegal, Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia railway lines connects the port cities to interior centres.

Question 27.
Explain the factors affected on Human development Index in India.
Factors influencing on HDI of India are discussed below:
1. Birth and Death Rate: Declining of birth rate has been much slower than that of the death rate. This results in rapid increase of population. It affects on slow economic growth of the country. It is the main cause for declining of human development index.

2. Life Expectancy: Life Expectancy has gone up 65.77 years for males 67.95 years females respectively in 2011-12. This is due to the consequence of the expansion of food security and medical facilities. It helps to raise the HDI in the country.

3. Food and Nutrition: According to the 2011 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report, India has 15th rank among the leading countries with hunger situation.

• The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest-ranking countries in the World for the number of children suffering from malnutrition.
• It is adversely affecting the Human development.

4. Literacy: Education is the key for socio-economic progress. The Indian literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011 from 12% at the end of the British rule in 1947. The large proportion of illiterate females is another reason for the low literacy rate in India. Due to this there is decline in the Human development Index of the country.

5. Poverty :

• India suffers from a lot of Poverty which means that many people here do not have enough money.
• Poverty has reflected in poor quality of life, hunger, malnutrition, illiteracy and consequent low level of human development.

Question 28.
Explain the trend of population growth in India.
The Population growth in India between 1901 and 2011 can be divided ‘into four stages as
follows.
1. 1901 – 1921 Stagnant population growth.
3. 1951 – 1981 Rapid high growth.
4. 1981 -2011 High growth with definite signs of slowing down.

1. In the first stage: In this decade, population growth was naturally curbed with the outbreak of Plague, Cholera. Malaria, influenza and other epidemics. Thus the decade is considered as ‘the great divide in the history of Indian Census

2. In the second stage: The population can be considered as moderate The population • grow ing from about 251 million (1921) to 361 million (3951), an increase of about 110
million. The main reason was decline in death rate due to control of epidemics like Plague, Cholera etc.

3. The third stage: is very important, because of the growth rate of population is very high. The Population grew from .361 million (195 1) to 686 (1981). an increase of about 325 million The growth has been very rapid after independence. The government of India was implemented many Socio-Economical Programs in all sectors.

4. The fourth stage: It completely differs from other three stages. Here the trend of growth rate of population is gradually slowing down. We can easily justify that, the period from 1981 to 2011 is referred to as a high growth with definite signs of slowing down.

Question 29.
Explain the Canal Irrigation in India.
India has one of the largest canal systems of the world. Canals are the second largest source of irrigation in the country.
Canals are of two types :
1. Inundation canals : taken out directly from rivers, without making any barrage or dam.

2. Perennial canals: which are taken out from the reservoirs by constructing barrage or weir to regulate the flow of water.

• Canal irrigation is widely practiced in the Sutlej Gangas plains and the deltas of the peninsular rivers.
• Uttar Pradesh ranks first in India where canal irrigation is most extensive. Canal irrigation suffers from a number of draw-backs such as water logging, increase in water table, alkalinity of soils due to capillary action etc.

Question 30.

• Controlling the runoff of rain water and make it to perculate to increase ground water table for future purpose.
• It involves collection and storage of rainwater at surface or in sub-surface aquifier, before it is lost as surface runoff. It not only increases water availability but also checks the declining water table.

Objectives: The following are the main objectives of rain water harvesting.

• It checks runoff water & avoid flooding.
• It replenishes the ground water table and enables the wells.
• It helps to overcome the adequancy of surface water to meet demand of water.
• If the ground water is blackish, it will reduce the salinity.
• It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.
• It helps to increase agricultural product and improves ecology of an area.

Methods of Rain Water Harvesting :
1. In-situ method The method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called In-situ rainwater harvesting.
For example

• Infiltration pits: The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.
• Contour bunds and trenches: The Construction of bunds, trenches or check dams.
• Roof top water harvesting : The Rain water that falls on the roofs of buildings or in courtyards is collected and stored in underground. Sumps, or wells or in drums and used for domestic purpose such as cleaning, washing etc.

2. Ex-situ method: This method of rainwater harvesting involves storing of running water. It is collected in check dams, huge percolation tanks etc. It is an expensive method.

Question 31.
Explain the importance of Agriculture in India.
Agriculture is the most important Primary activity and the oldest occupation of human beings in India.

• Main source of livelihood: About 70% of the people directly and indirectly depend on agriculture for their Livelihood.
• Food supply: Agriculture provides food grains, fruits, vegetables, spices etc to the people and fodder for the animals.
• Provides employment facilities: Agriculture is largest sector providing highest employment.
• Source of National income: It contributes to the national income .of the country.
• Source of raw materials for Agro-based-industries ex: Raw cotton, sugar cane and Jute.
• Source of large amount of revenue to the government.
• Support to tertiary sector like transport, communication, banking, insurance etc.
• Help to internal trade like Agricultural products are transported from the area of surplus production to the area scarcity.
• Support to export, many agricutlural products produced in the country are exported i.e. tea, coffee, Jute, Tobacco etc.
• Political & Social situation in the country is determined by the agricultural production

Question 32.
Explain the production and distribution of cotton in India.
Production and distribution of cotton in India:
Cotton is grown in different parts of the country. Gujarat, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana are the major cotton producing states.

1. Gujarat: Gujarat is the largest producer of cotton in India, which is due to the better yield per hectare i.e 689 kg per hectare. Bharuch, Surendemagar, Vadodara and Ahmedabad are the important cotton growing districts.

2. Maharashtra: Maharashtra ranks first in cotton growing area and it stands second in the production of raw cotton in the country. Over 80% of its cotton production comes from Khandesh, Vidarbha and Marathwada regions.

3. Andhra Pradesh: It is the third largest producer of cotton in India. The leading cotton producing districts are Guntur, Prakasam, Adilabad, Kurnool and Anantapur.

4. Haryana: Haryana stands in the fourth place of cotton production in India. It has the highest yield per hectare of cotton in the country i.e. 703 kg. Gurgoan, Hissar, Rohtak and are the major districts.

Question 33.
Explain the various types of roads in India.

1. National highways,
2. State highways,

Besides these, there are border roads and International highways linking major Indian cities with the capitals of other neighbouring countries.

National highways:

• They connect the capitals of the states, industrial centres and major ports.
• They are well planned wide roads with two-lane, four-lane, and six-fane roads. Both construction and maintenance are carried out by the Central Government and National Highway Authority of India [NHAI],
• The total length of the national highways is about 71,772 km as per 2011.
(ii) The North South and East West corridors,
(iii) Port connectivity with industries are all parfbf this network.

1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway: The Government of India has implemented a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai by six-lane super high-ways. It has a total length of 5846 kms and it is called as Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway.

2. North – South and East-West corridors: This project connects Srinagar (JK) in the North with Kanyakumari (TN) in the South and Silcher (Assam) in the East with Porbandar (Gujarat) in the West covering major cities along the way. The project has a total length of 7300 km.

3. Port connectivity project: This is also included in the programmes of NHAI. This project connects the Golden Quadrilateral roads with the 13 major ports (380 km) and other projects (962 km). This is still in progress.

4. State Highways: The State Highways connect the important cities of the state with its capital, with the national highways and link with other state capitals. The State Government is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the State Highways. Now there are about 1.54, 522 km length of the state highways in the country.

5. District roads: These roads connect the production and marketing centres with the highways, railways, towns and larger villages with the district headquarters. The Zilla Parishad takes the responsibility of the development and maintenance of these roads.

6. Village roads: Roads which link the taluk headquarters with villages and the district highways are called village roads. They are mostly untarred or metalled. They are constructed and maintained by Taluk Panchayats and Village Panchayats.

7. Border roads: Border roads are constructed in the border areas of the country. They are constructed in the North and North eastern border areas adjoining Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. These are mainly for army movement in the defence of the country.

8. International highways: Some of the national highways of the country have been linked with the international highways of the neighbouring countries.

Question 34.
Write about the causes of Water Pollution and effects of Water Pollution.
Causes of water pollution: Water pollution is caused by natural and human sources.

• Natural sources of water pollution are due to erosion, landslides, gases, soil, minerals.
• Human excreta, waste created by animals and other living organisms and rotting vegetation are also some causes. More than natural sources, water pollution is largely caused by human activities.
• Humans pollute water through industrial, agricultural and cultural activities. Among these, industry is the worst culprit.
• Industries produce a variety of waste products including industrial wastes, polluted water wastes, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke etc.,
• Most of the industrial wastes are disposed off by running water. Consequently poisonous elements reach the lakes, river and other water bodies, which destroy them.
• Reservoirs -They in turn destroy the bio-systems of the water. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals.
• Fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides, farm wastes and mineral particles from agricultural lands are washed down and end up in rivers, lakes and tanks.
• The chemicals also infiltrate into the soil to reach the ground water.
• Addition of fertilizer increases the nitrate content of surface waters.
• Religious and cultural activities like pilgrimages, fairs, tourism, immersion of idols after pujas etc., also cause water pollution,
• Urban activities such as improper sewage disposal also cause water pollution.
• Effects of water pollution: Water pollutants adversely affect the health of humans, animals and aquatic life.
• Water pollution is a source of various water borne diseases like diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis etc.
• World health organization shows that about one fourth of the communicable diseases in India are diseases water borne.

IV. Answer any one of the following: (1 × 10 = 10)

Question 35.
Describe the non-conventional energy resources in India.

The Power resources other than the traditional fossil and Mineral sources are known as ‘Non Conventional Power Resources’. They include Solar energy, Wind energy, Bio-gas, Sea waves, Biomass and geo-thermal etc. These reasources are inexhaustible and renewable in nature.
Importance :

• These Power resources are found in abudance, pollution free, eco-friendly and not harm to the eco-system.
• They can be very conveniently supplied to urban as well as rural areas.
• In India conventional power resources are inadequate. Recently the rate of energy consumption has been increased.
• Hence there is urgent need to harness other alternative power resources.
• Top priority has been given for the development of non-conventional power resources.
• They are capable of solving the requirements. Such as supply of energy in decentralized manner and have sustainable environment.
• Thus the development of the these power resources is very essential.

Question 36.
Explain the localization factors of industries.
Some important factors are:

• Raw materials Industries are set up close to or in the regions where raw materials is available.
• Power Resources Power is essential for running the machinery of industries and influences much on the industrial location.
• Water supply Large quantities of water essential for the processing of raw materials or for cooling purposes. Therefore industries are usually localized near rivers or lakes.
• Climate: Industries are influenced by climate. For example Cotton textile industry requires humid climate.
• Labour Cheap and efficient labour is required to work in the industries.
• MarketNearness to market is essential for quick marketing of manufactured goods.
• Transportation It is necessary to carry raw materials to the factories and to carry finished products to the markets as well.
• Capital Development of Industries requires large capital investment.
• Government must have favourable policies such as tax exemptions electricity and sites at concessional rates, subsidies, rail-link, improved roads etc.

V. Answer any two of the following: (2 x 10 = 20)

Question 37.
Represent the following data by a Pie diagram

 Types of Railway Gauges Percentage Broad gauge Meter gauge Narrow gauge 86 10 04 Total 100

Broad gauge = $$\frac { 86 }{ 100 }$$ × 360 = 309.6
Meter gauge = $$\frac { 10 }{ 100 }$$ × 360 = 36
Narrow gauge = $$\frac { 4 }{ 100 }$$ × 360 = $$\frac { 14.4 }{ 360 }$$

38.
Construct a simple line graph to represent the following data.
India : Selected Statewise Rice Production (in percentage)

 States Production % West Bengal 15.80 Andhra Pradesh 12.71 Uttar Pradesh 11.91 Punjab 10.86 Odissa 7.31 Karnataka 3.70

Question 39.
Construct a simple bar graph to represent the following data:
India : Decadewise Sugarcane Production (in million tonnes)

 Year Production (in million tonnes) 1961 110.00 1971 126.36 1981 156.24 1991 241.04 2001 286.00 2011 310.00

Blind Candidates only

Question 40.
Answer any two of the following questions: (2 x 10 = 20)

(a) Write the importance of Remote Sensing.
(b) Explain the functions of GIS.
(c) Explain the functions of GPS.
(a) Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with it. This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing and applying that information.

In much remote sensing, the process involves an interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest. This device can be a camera or a bank of sensors operated from an airplane or a satellite. Though satellite we can collect date related agriculture, forest, urban land use, water, natural calamities etc the satellite data is based for mapping, monitoring, studying the various phenomena related to earth’s surface. –

(b)  1. Capture data: Geographical data can be collected/captured from various sources like hard copy, map through top sheet, digital data, through GPS, Secondary data through published tables.

2. Storing data: Geographical data once captured, it needs to transform from Analogy into digital format and to be stored in computer for further analysis.

3. Query: Once you have a functional GIS containing your geographical information, you can begin to ask a simple questions.

4. Analysis: There are 3 types

1. Proximity Analysis: Proximity queries find features with in a certain distance of other features.
2. Overlay Analysis: It is simplest, this could be a visual operation, but analytical operations require One or more data layers to be joined physically.
3. Network Analysis: A network is a set of edges and junctions that are Topologically connected to each other.

5. Display: Once analysis is done maps, diagrams, graphs and tables are to be designed and same has to be displayed over computer moniter.

6. Output: This is final, stage of GIS function where in the maps, data tables etc… can be printed to have hard copy as output.

(c) There are three segments of GPS:-
1. The space segments : The satellites of GPS are launched and positioned at an altitude of approximately 20200 km which is almost more than three times of the earth’s radius. The space segment consists of a constellation of 24 functioning GPs satellites located in 6 orbital plane with 4 satellites in each orbital plane. The time for the satellite to complete
one revolution around the earth is 11 hrs and 58 minutes.

2. The control segment: The control segment consists of facilities necessary for satellites especially healthy monitoring, telemetry, tracking command and control clock error ‘ computation .of satellites. There are 5 GPS stations spread over the earths surface they arc

• Hawaii
• Ascension Island
• Diego Garcia
• Kwajalein.

3. The user segment: It is a total user and supplier community, both civilian and military. The user segment consists of all earth – based GPS receivers. Receivers very greatly in size and complexity, through the basic design in rather simple. The space and control segments are largely transparent to the operations of navigation functions.

1. Navigation: In navigation, by using GPS can save countless hours in the field. Any feature, even if it is under water, can be located upto one hundred meters simply by scaling coordinates from a map, entering way points & going directly to site.

2. Remote sensing and GIS: GPS positioning can be integrated into remote – sensing methods such, as Photogrammetry and aerial scanning, magnetometry, and video technology using DGPs techniques. ,

3. Surveying/Mapping: The high precision of GPS carries phase measurements, together with appropriate adjustment algorithum, provides an adequate tool for a variety of tasks for surveying and mapping.

4. Geodesy: Geodetic mapping and other control surveys can be carried out effectively using high grade GPs equipment.

5. Military: The GPs was Primarily develped for real time military positioning. Military applications include airbone, marine and land navigation.

## 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers

Students can Download 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers

Time: 3.15 Hours
Max. Marks: 100

PART – A

I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
From which language is the word ‘India’ derived?
The word India is derived from Persian word ‘Indos’.

Question 2.
Which is the first Paleolithic site found in India?
The Sohan river basin.

Question 3.
What is meant by ‘Veda’?
Veda means knowledge.

Question 4.
Which was the original home of the Kushanas?
The Kushanas were originally a nomadic race known as Yuch – Chi and they lived in China.

Question 5.
Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka – I.

Question 6.
What was the title of Shivaji?
Chatrapati was the title of Shivaji.

Question 7.
Dwaitha was the Philosophy of Madhwacharya.

Question 8.
When was the British East India Company established?
The British East India Company was established in 1600 C.E.

Question 9.
Expand : I.N.A.
Indian National Army.

Question 10.
Which was the famous work of Alur Venkata Rao?
Karnataka Gatavaibhava.

PART – B

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
Name any two Universities of ancient India.
The Nalanda and Takshashila were two Universities of ancient India.

Question 12.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Neolithic’?
The word Neolithic is derived from the Greek words Neo meaning new and Lithic meaning stone to refer to the New Stone Age.

Question 13.
Which two political institutions assisted the King in the administration, during the Vedic Period?
Sabha and Samithi.

Question 14.
Name any two architectural centres of the Satavahanas.
Amaravathi, Nagarjunakonda, Karle, Nasik, Kanheri etc.,

Question 15.
Mention any two titles of Rajendra Chola-I.
Pandita Chola, Gangaikonda Chola, Kedarakonda Deva etc.,

Question 16.
Name any two works of Pampa.

Question 17.
Mention any two titles of Vikramaditya-VI.

Question 18.
Who was Mahmud Gawan and where did he build the Madarasa?
Mahmud Gawan was a chief minister of Mahammad Shah – III. He built the Madarasa at Bidar.

Question 19.
Who founded Anubhava Mantapa and where?
Basaveshwara at Kalyana (Bidar Dist).

Question 20.
Mention any two terms of the treaty of Srirangapattana.
Tippu Sultan had to cede half of his Kingdom to the British and pay 330 lakhs of rupees as war indemnity. On his failure to pay the amount, he had to keep two of his sons as hostages with the British.

Question 21.
What was the opinion of Macaulay regarding Eastern literature?
Macaulay opined that “A single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia”.

Question 22.
When and where was Swami Vivekananda born?
Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th January 1863 at Calcutta.

PART – C

III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15 words or 20 sentences each. (6 × 5 = 30)

Question 23.
Unity in Diversity is the unique feature of Indian History. Explain.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different cLimatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land where we sec unity in diversity.

Diversities :

1. Geographical diversity:
India possesses diverse geographical features. The Himalayan region has a cold climate, the Indo-Gangetic plain has a temperate climate and the Deccan plateau has a tropical climate. The hot desert of Rajasthan, coastlines, evergreen forests, heavy (Assam) and low (Rajastan) rainfall areas, etc., have added to the variety of our flora and fauna.

2. Racial and linguistic diversities:
People belonging to different races and ethnic groups like Dravidian, Negroids, Alpines, Mongoloids, etc., inhabited this country. No wonder, India has been described as ‘an ethnological museum’. Linguistic diversity is also another unique feature of India. There are more than 1600 minor dialects and 15 major languages in India.

3. Social and religious diversity :
India is a land of different religions, castes, cults, faiths, customs, racial types, languages, variety of food habits and costumes. It has both patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. Monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry are also practiced. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism have originated in this land. People belonging to Christianity, Islam, Jewism, Zoroastrianism (Parsees) and the innumerable sub-sects of all these religions, co-exist here with great harmony.

4. Economic and Political diversities :
The political history of India shows a lack of political unity. The whole of India never came under a single administration. Indian resources are also unevenly distributed. On one hand, we find some regions highly prosperous and well developed and on the other hand, certain areas very poor and underdeveloped. The urban parts of India are highly developed and modem compared to the rural sectors.

In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying factors that have kept India united. Important among them are the following ones:

1. Geographical unity :
India has well-defined boundaries which provide a permanent shape with the Himalayas to the north and oceans below surrounding the southern parts. This has isolated India from the rest of the world and formed a separate geographical unit.

The administrative system of ancient India was mostly identical and uniform, and followed the set of rules laid down by Chanakya in his ‘ Arthashastra’. The King who brought different parts of the country under his sovereignty came to be called as Chakravarthi. Mouryas, Guptas, Vardhanas, Chalukyas, Moghuls, etc., have all tried unsuccessfully to bring political unity in the country, by expanding their territories and bringing larger areas under a single ruler.

3. Uniformity of education and literature:
Sanskrit, the divine language, Vedic literature including Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgeetha have instilled the feelings of oneness and also added to the unity of India. Knowledge of Sanskrit had enabled persons to move freely across India and exchange their views with people from other parts of the country.

Languages like Pali, Prakriti, Persian, and English also played an important role. A composite culture evolved during Muslim and British rules. Hence, Indians have developed the spirit of tolerance and co-existence.

4. Religious and social ceremonies:
India is a land of various religions, castes, creeds, and sects. People here lead a life of harmony. They participate in the religious and social ceremonies of each other. This has inculcated a feeling of oneness.

5. Recent changes:
Indian constitution and the Government, the present economic and social conditions, the effects of globalization, etc., have reduced the differences further. Global unity transcends the innumerable diversities of race, skin colour, language, dress, customs, and traditions. This again has ushered in unity among the people.

Question 24.
Explain the town planning of Indus Civilization.
1. Town planning:
Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed. Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well-laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.

2. Streets:
The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.

3. Buildings:
People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom.

Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually inside alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bathroom was constructed nearest to the street so that the wastewater drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.

4. Drainage system:
One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level. The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus, people had perfected the underground drainage system.

5. The Great Bath (Public bath):
The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 × 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them. On all sides of the pool, there were steps.

Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and freshwater was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.

6. The Granary (Warehouse):
The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 × 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 × 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.

7. Dockyard :
Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people earned on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.

Conclusion:
The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.

Question 25.
Write about the achievements of Chandragupta Maurya.
a. Chandragupta Maurya 324-300 BCE:
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty. There is very little information about his parents, his birth and early childhood, lie was born in the capital city of Pataliputra. Kautilya, better known as Chanakya, a brahmin from Takshashi la took the orphan under his care, educated him in all the princely requirements and trained him to be a worthy commander and Ruler. Chandragupta was fortunate to come under the influence of this great thinker, politician, and statesman.

Military Achievements:

1. Conquests of Punjab :
Chandragupta built a strong army under the guidance of Chanakya and defeated the petty Rulers of Punjab and annexed their regions. He then marched against Magadha.

2. Defect of the Nanda ruler:
Chandragupta made several attempts to defeat the Nandas. Chanakya had vowed to depose Dhanananda because he had insulted Chanakya. Dhanananda was finally defeated and killed and Chandragupta Maurya became the King of Magadha and established the Mauryan dynasty.

After overthrowing and ending Dhanananda’s oppressive rule, Chandragupta consolidated his power and freed the country from foreign occupation. The Greek Governors appointed by Alexander in the Sindh and Punjab provinces were defeated and the territories were annexed by Chandragupta.

3. War with Seleucus:
After the death of Alexander, the eastern part of his Empire went over to Seleucus. A war ensued between Seleucus and Chandragupta Maurya. Seleucus was defeated, and he had to sign a treaty with Chandragupta and had to surrender the provinces of Kabul, Afghanistan, Kandahar, and Baluchistan.

This victory of Chandragupta spread his Kingdom up to the frontiers of Hindukush (Afghanistan) the northwest. Seleucus maintained friendly relations with the Mauryas and sent Megasthanes as his Ambassador to Pataliputra.

b. Assessment:
Chandragupta was undoubtedly one of the greatest Rulers of India. He expelled the Greeks from the country. According to Jain tradition, in the last days of his reign, Chandragupta abdicated the throne and embraced Jainism under the influence of the Jain scholar Bhadrabahu. lie spent his last days at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka and died by performing ‘Sallekhana’ in 300 BCE.

Question 26.
Describe the achievements of Harshavardhana.
1. Harshavardhana (606-647 C.E):
Harshavardhana was the greatest ruler of the Vardhanas. He came to power in 606 C.E. Prabhakara Vardhana and Yashomathi were his parents. He had an elder brother Rajavardhana and a younger sister Rajyashri. Prabhakara Vardhana was succeeded by Rajavardhana.

Yashomathi pained by the death of her husband, committed Sati in 605 C.E. Devagupta of Malwa killed Rajyashri’s husband Gruhavarma and imprisoned her at Kanauj. Rajavardhana who went to get her released, was killed by Shashanka of Gaudadesha. Harshavardhana came to power under such painful circumstances.

2. Immediate tasks and conquests :
The immediate task of Harsha was twofold One to crush his enemies and the other to save his sister from the enemy’s prison. King Shashanka of Bengal was responsible for the murder of Harsha’s brother and even for imprisoning Rajyashri. Harsha marched against Shashanka and won a diplomatic victory by concluding a treaty of friendship with Bhaskaravarma of Kamarupa, then attacked Shashanka and took revenge.

Harsha’s first act was to rescue Rajyashri. She had escaped from prison (Kanauj) and went towards the Vindhya forests. Harsha searched for her with great difficulty, saved her and brought her back to Kanauj. Rajyashri did not agree to rule Kanauj. Harsha was compel led to accept that and he united the Kingdoms of Thaneshwar and Kanauj.

Later he shifted his capital to Kanauj. Later, he defeated Devagupta of Malwa and annexed his Kingdom. By 612 C.E., he achieved complete control over the five sindus of Punjab, Kanauj, Goudadcsha, Mithila, Orissa, and other places and annexed them to his Kingdom.

3. Annexation of North India:
HaVshavardhana won Orissa, Magadha, Vodra, Ganjam, and Bengal. Later he defeated the ruler of Nepal and received tributes from him. He established his supremacy by defeating most of the north Indian Kingdoms. In commemoration of these achievements, he took the title‘Uttarapatheshwara’.

4. War with Pulikcshi – II :
After the northern campaign, Harsha turned his attention towards south. However, he received resistance from the Chalukyan ruler, Pulikeshi – II when he tried to extend his Empire in the south. Armies of the two Emperors met on the banks of Narmada, in 634 C.E. In the battle of Narmada, Harshavardhana was defeated.

Pulikeshi – II won the battle and took the title ‘Parameshwara’. As a result, the river Narmada became the boundary line of both the Empires. Aihole inscription says, that Harsha’s harsha” (happiness) flew away, seeing his war elephants falling in the battlefield.

5. Extent of the Kingdom:
Harsha exchanged Ambassadors with China. The credit for uniting north India after the Guptas, goes to Harshavardhana. His Empire extended from Bengal and Orissa in the east, Punjab in the west, Himalayas in the north and Narmada river in the south.

6. Religion :
Harsha was a devotee of Lord Shiva and called himself ‘Parama Maheshwara’. Later, he embraced Buddhism due to the influence of Hieun Tsang. He built stupas at a few prominent places of Buddhism. He conducted a Buddhist council at Kanauj for a religious debate in 643 C.E. 3000 Buddhist monks, 1000 scholars, 20 Kings, 3000 brahmins and Jains attended the conference.

A golden statue of Buddha, as well as that of the King, were installed in the Auditorium. Hieun Tsang explained the philosophy of Mahayana in this council.

Harshavardhana organised the Mahamoksha Parishat, at Prayag in 643 C.E. Hieun Tsang was invited to it and a procession of Buddha’s idol along with that of Shiva and Surya was taken out.

7. Literature:
Harsha was an able administrator, patron of literature and cared for the welfare of his people. He wrote the following dramas:- Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyadarshika in Sanskrit. He patronised the famous poet Biinabhatta, author of Harshacharite.

The celebrated Chinese pilgrim and scholar Hieun Tsang adorned his court. Nalanda University, which was established by Kumara Gupta, spread Mahayana Buddhist Philosophy and received the patronage and reached the zenith of its glory, during the reign of Harshavardhana.

Question 27.
Why is Mohammad – bin – Tughalak called as “A mixture of Opposites”?

1. Tax increase in Doab area:
The area between the Ganga and Yamuna (Doab) rivers being a very fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state, Mohammad – bin – Tughalak decided to increase the taxes there. But he enforced the tax raise at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of additional taxation.

Revenue collection was also strict, which the farmers were unable to pay. This measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.

2. Transfer of capital in 1327 C.E.:
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objective was to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. Also, Devagiri occupied a central position in India and it was equidistant to Delhi and the other important cities of his kingdom.

He desired to shift the entire Delhi population along with his court. Barani says that “Not a cat ora dog was left”. Causes for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through the dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by dacoits, hunger, mental agony, etc., resulted in death and sufferings of many.

The Sultan having, at last, realised his folly, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire incident made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool, operation – Daulatabad of was a “Monument of misdirected energy”. This scheme also failed on account of the Sultan’s unplanned method of forcing it on his people.

3. Circulation of token currency in 1329 C.E.:
Mohammad – bin – Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief to the Doab people famine, transfer of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of Silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency in circulation, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass. Tanka was the token currency and its value was made equivalent to gold and silver coins.

Minting of the copper coins was not retained as a monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as the ‘Prince of Moneycrs’ and a currency expert. The Sultan did not take precautionary measures to minting of the coins. People started minting their own coins. Hence, the Empire was flooded with thousands of counterfeit copper coins. People paid their taxes with these counterfeit coins. Copper coins lost their value as a medium of exchange.

Trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his error in judgement and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 C.E. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. When everybody was there to exchange their copper coins with silver and gold coins, the treasury became empty.

was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. Pie lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice, without any forethought about the consequences.

According to scholars, he was a ‘mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks that “Mohammad appers to be an amazing compound of contradictions”. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.

Question 28.
Explain the life and teachings of Shankaracharya.
1. Early life of Shankaracharya (788-820 C.E.):
Shankaracharya was the exponent of Advaitha (Non-duality) Philosophy. He was born at Kaladi in Kerala in 788 C.E. His parents were Shivaguru and Atyambha. He was inclined towards spiritualistic life and became a sanyasi with the permission of his mother. Shankara went in search of a spiritual teacher.

He met his teacher Govinda Bhagwathpada on the banks of the river Narmada. He studied under him, and very soon his teacher found in Shankara, great qualities to attain the highest spiritual knowledge. He toured the whole of India – from Kashmir to Kanyakumari three times on foot. Wherever he went, he expounded his Advaitha Philosophy. He made a spiritual conquest of India. He earned the titles of Sarvajna and Jagadguru.

2. Works of Shankaracharya:
Shankara wrote commentaries on Brahmasutra, the Upanishads and the Bhagvadh Geetha. He composed Viveka Chudamani, Shivananda Lahari, Ananda Lahari, Soundarya Lahari, Bhajagovindam, Badaramayana, Geetha Bhashya, etc.

3. Establishment of the four mathas :
To spread the Advaitha Philosophy, Shankaracharya established four mathas in the four directions of the country. They are:

• Govardhana Peeth at Puri (Orissa – east),
• Kalika Peetha at Dwaraka (Gujarath – west),
• Jyothirmatha at Badarinath (U. P. – north),
• Sharada Peetha at Sringeri (Karnataka – south).

Shankaracharya’s contribution to Indian culture is the Advaitha Philosophy. Advaitha means non-duality or monoism. The main features of the Advaitha propounded by Shakaracharya are:

1. The Universal Soul (God or Brahma) and the individual Soul are inseparable. They are one and the same.

2. By Jnana Marga (knowledge), individual Soul ultimately merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma). This may be called as salvation (Moksha). There is no duality between them.

3. The individual Soul has no independent existence. The individual Soul merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma) through Sadhana. It is a part of Brahma and the ultimate reality is Brahma. That is why Shankara said ‘I am Brahma’ (Aham Brahmasmi).

4. Brahma is the ultimate truth. It is Nirguna, which means it has no predefined or specific qualities. It is Nirakara which means it has no shape or form of any kind and Swaprakashaka which means self-evident.

5. ‘Brahma Sathya, Jaga Mithya’ – It means Universal Soul (Brahma) is the ultimate reality and world is an illusion or Maya. To an ordinary man, the world appears to be real, because of ignorance.

Shankaracharya advocated ‘Jnana Marga’ (path of knowledge), to attain salvation (Moksha). He combined the path of Karma and Bhakti with Jnana. He strived to unify the different cults, by giving equal importance to the worship of Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha, Kumara, and Shakti. Therefore he is called as ‘Shanmatha Sthapanacharya’.

Question 29.
What were the causes and results of the battle of Plassey?
Battle of Plassey in 1757:
The battle of Plassey was fought between the British (Robert Clive) and Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal in 1757. This battle led to the British supremacy in India.

Causes for the battle of Plassey :

1. Misuse of the concession pass (Dastaks):
The British had received tax concessions from the Mughal Emperors. But, servents of the East India Company were misusing the concessions by openly indulging in private trade for profit. They refused to pay any taxes to the Nawab. This resulted in the loss of income to the state, and was opposed by the Nawab of Bengal. This was the main cause for the battle of Plassey.

2. Shelter to the French and demolition of fortifications of factories:
The British and the French were rivals. The British captured Chandranagore from the French. Siraj-ud-Daula gave shelter to some Frenchmen, which angered the British.

Siraj-ud-Daula tried to develop cordial relations with the British, but soon the relations got strained because the British fearing the French attack began to fortify their factories in Bengal which was counter to the interest of Bengal, when Siraj-ud-Daula protested and demanded for the demolition of all fortifications of factories.

3. Political cause – Encouragement to the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daula:
Siraj-ud-Daula had many rivals. Soon after his succession to the throne, it was opposed by Shaukath Jung, Ghasti Begum and Rajavallabha who put forward theirclaims to the throne. The British fully supported the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daulah and ultimately succeeded in bringing his downfall.

4. The black hole incident or tragedy :
During ap attack on Kasim Bazar, the forces of Nawab besieged Fort William (Calcutta). The 146 civilians comprising of women and children who surrendered to the Nawab’s army were taken prisoners and forced into a small dark cell (15’ × 18’) within the fort and killed in the most inhuman manner. This incident called ‘The Block hole episode or Tragedy’ took place on 20th June 1757.

5. Course of the Battle:
Peace was concluded between the British and Siraj-ud-Daula and the treaty of Aligarh was signed in February 1757. Robert Clive hatched a conspiracy with the commander Mir Jafar against Siraj-ud-Daula. When the arrangements were complete, Clive took position at Plassey (Bhagirathi river). However, when the war broke out, the troops under Mir Jafar remained inactive and Siraj-ud-Daula was defeated and he fled and got killed while trying to escape.

Results of the battle of Plassey :

1. British domination over Bengal:
The British established domination over the political life of Bengal. Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal. He was called a Sovereign but in actual practice he was nothing more than a puppet of the company. He could be removed from the throne any time, by the Company.

2. Territorial gains for the British:
As a result, the British gained both in territorial as well as in finances. The Company received the 24 Parganas and other grants. The trade of the British Company greatly flourished and it made huge profits. Robert Clive was appointed as the Governor of Bengal.

3. Establishing political supremacy:
The battle of Plassey left a deep impact on the course of Anglo-French conflict in Deccan. This battle laid the foundation for the British supremacy in India.

Question 30.
Write a note on the course of the First War of Indian Independence.
Course of the war (Revolt):

1. Mangal Pandey:
The revolt broke out in 34th infantry at Barrackpur (Bengal) on 29th March 1857. The Indian soldiers of Barrackpur refused to use the new cartridges and one of them, Mangal Pandey killed the British sergeant who forced them. This was the first shot of the revolt, but he was arrested and hanged. Mangal Pandey became the first martyr of the revolt.

2. Meerut Military:
The Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to use the cartridges. They were tried and sentenced to long term imprisonments. Other soldiers broke out in open rebellion (10th May 1857). They attacked the jail, released their fellow soldiers and the British officers were killed and their houses were burnt. ‘Maro Phirangiko’ was their slogan.

The soldiers marched from Meerut to Delhi on 11th May 1857 and brought it under their control. The dethroned Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah-II was proclaimed as the ‘Emperor of India’. They hoisted the flag of independence on the Red Fort. The loss of Delhi dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the British Empire. Finally, in September 1857, Delhi was recaptured by the British. Bahadur Shah – II was arrested and deported to Rangoon.

4. Revolt in Lucknow:
In June 1857, Begum Hazrath Mahal declared her son Wajid Ali as the Nawab of Oudh, but this proposal was rejected by the British. So, she rebelled against them at Lucknow. The British attacked Lucknow and captured it and she fled to Nepal.

5. Kanpur incident:
On 5th June 1857, Nana Saheb revolted against the British and captured Kanpur and declared himself as Peshwa. Nana Saheb was assisted by Tantia Tope. But the British (General Havelock) were successful in recapturing Kanpur (17th June 1857). Nana Saheb fled to Nepal.

6. Revolt in Jhansi:
Protesting against the policy of Doctrine of Lapse, Rani Laxmi Bai the Queen of Jhansi who was driven out of Jhansi, along with Tantia Tope revolted and captured Gwalior. When the British came to recapture Gwalior under Hugh Rose, she fought heroically and died on the battlefield on 17th June 1858.

The news of the revolt at Delhi spread throughout northern and central India, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bihar, Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagadhishpur, Jhansi and other parts of the country. Many Rulers remained loyal to the British government, but their soldiers revolted, and people started supporting the rebels.

PART – D

IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. (5 + 5 = 10)

Question 31.
A. Mark any 5 of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences :

1. Takshashila
2. Pataliputra
3. Halebeedu
4. Devagiri
5. Bijapura
6. Pondicherry
7. Meerut
8. Dandi.

Instruction:
Out of the 20 places any 8 will be asked of which students have to mark 5 places on the outline map of India. Fi ve marks will be awarded for marking the places correctly and five marks for writing the historical importance of each marked place in two sentences.
1. Taxila (Takshashila):
It was the capital of the Gandhara Province now in Pakistan. Takshashila University was an important educational centre in ancient India. Kautilya(Chanukya) was a teacher in this University.

2. Pataliputra:
It is the capital of Bihar State, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.

3. Halebeedu:
It’s early name was Dhwarasamudra and it was the capital of the Hoysalas. The Hoysaleshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are found here. It is in Hassan district of Karnataka.

4. Devagiri:
It is in Maharastra. Alla-ud-din-Khilji led many expeditions on Devagiri. Mohammad-Bin-Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri for a short while. Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.

5. Bijapura (Vijapura) :
It was the capital of Adil Shahis. Monuments like Golgumbaz, Ibrahim Rauza, Asar Mahal, Barakaman, etc are found here.

6. Pondicherry:
It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramandal Coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.

7. Meerut:
It is in Uttar Pradesh. The first war of Indian Independence started at Meerut. The sepoys broke out into open revolt against the British on 10th May 1857.

8. Dandi:
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected seawater and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.

For Visually Challenged Students Only

Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 Sentences : (1 × 10 = 10)

31.
B. Describe the cultural contribution of the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong central Government along with decentralization of power.

Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like death sentences, trampling to death, etc.,

Kingship was hereditary. The King was assited by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’. The council of ministers played an important role in the administration. They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions.

Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P.M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasaman tadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer), Sabhanaiyaka (Leader of the council), Mahasand ivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.

There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were :

a. Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.

b. The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which was called the Nayankara system. The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories.’ The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu.

The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchyat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika. Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman.

4. Revenue System:
Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxs of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.

Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.

b. Social conditions :

1. Caste System:
The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras. Brahmans had a high position in the society. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers, and traders played very important role in the social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.

2. Position of Woman:
Women enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution, child marriage, and polygamy existed in that society.

3. Social Harmony:
Musi is settled in the Empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Hindu, Buddha, and Jain deities and followed the common tenets of these religions. Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi, and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.

c. Economic Condition:

1. Agriculture:
Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat, cotton, pulses, spices, are canuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric, etc., were the main products of agriculture.

2. Irrigation:
They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals, and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadevaraya near Nagalapura. A Dam and a Raya canal were also built by him at Korrangal.

Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamounds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, suger, spices, iron, etc., The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks, etc., Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut, Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade.

There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.

d. Religion:
Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains, and Muslims. The Sangama Rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later Rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka – I refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains.

The Vachana Movement was popular during this time. The Varkari Movement of Lord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabelagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahashti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres. Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged Education and Culture.

e. Education and Literature:
Mathas, Agraharas, and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal, etc., were notable centers of education of that time.

f. Literature:
The Vijayariagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. Harihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are :

g. Sanskrit Works:
Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam), Tirumalamba wrote Varadambikaprinayam. Guru Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanirnaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavati Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, etc.,

Tontada Siddaling- eshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharata), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvarni – Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakavi – Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhulingaleele. Kanakadasa – Mohana Tarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara, etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Torave Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.

i. Telugu :
Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. He patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna revered as the father of Telugu was conferred with the title of ‘Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.

(or)

Trace the Indian National Movement from 1885 to 1920.
1. Role of the Indian National Congress:
The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 gave a clear warning to the British with regard to the rising national feeling among Indians. There was a need for a common national organisation, which included all classes of people. A. O. Hume (Allan Octavian Hume.) inspired the national leaders to establish the Indian National Union in 1884, subsequently the Indian National Congress.

The first Indian National Congress session was held at Bombay on 27th December 1885, presided over by Womesh Chandra Banerjee 72 delegates from different parts of India attended it and four of them were from Karnataka.

Aims and objectives of the Congress :

1. Promotion of friendly relations among the nationalists and other political workers from different parts of the country.

2. Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity, irrespective of caste, religion, province, etc.,

3. Presenting the popular demands of the people before the British Government.

4. Organisation of public opinion in the country.

5. To politically educate the Indian masses and demand to include more Indians in the councils and civil services.

In the beginning, the British Government was friendly towards the Congress. But as its strength and popularity increased, Congress was in favour of a responsible Government in India and began to demand the same. This irritated the British Government and it began to adopt a policy of favouring anti-Congress elements. Freedom movement in India can be divided into three stages, namely:-

1. The first phase – The period of the Moderates -1885-1905.
2. The second phase – The period of the Extremists in 1905-1920.
3. The third phase – The Gandhian period or Era – 1920-1947.

1. The first phase – The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905 :

a. The early Congress (1885-1905):
Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji (The grand old man of India), Pheroz Shah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjee, G. K. Gokhale, Badruddin Tyabji, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Anandacharlu, and others were the moderates. Policy of the Moderates: The Moderates were cordial towards the British, and they had strong faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They felt that India will get modernised and uplifted by the benevolent and liberal rule of the British.

Moderates followed the principles of Prayers, Petitions, and Protests to pressurize the British Government. They organized public meetings, submitted memorandums to the Government to redress the grievances of the people; If the Government was stubborn to their demands, they used to protest against it.

Dadabhai Naoroji established the East India Association in 1866. This Association took up the Indian issues at London and attempted to influence the British public and British legislators to enact policies and laws favoring Indians.

The British were hostile towards the Congress since its establishment and they developed a stem attitude towards the moderates. Their policy was nicknamed as ‘Political Mendicancy’ (begging for political concessions) by the Extremists. They called the Congress as a ‘Factory of sedition’ and leaders as ‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘Disloyal Babus’.

Moderates were true patriots and they brought political maturity to the Indians. They exposed the exploitative character of the colonial rule and policies of the British. They were able to underline that the duty of the Government was to consider the interests of the Indians.

The notable results of their demands was the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The Moderates played a very important role in the freedom movement in India. They sowed the seeds of liberalism and nationalist ideas in the minds of Indians.

2. Second Phase – The period of the Extremists – 1905-1920:
The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The Extremists were radical and militant in their approach in contrast to the Moderates. They believed that reforms could not be secured by mere talk, and only by action. They blamed the British rule for all the prevailing problems and were called Extremists or Radical Nationalists.

Extremists convinced the public that Self – Government was essential for the sake of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country. Extremists had grown in self – confidence. The leaders of the extremists were Bal GangadharTilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Roy.

Important events during the Extremist’s Period :

1. Partition of Bengal in 1905:
In 1905, Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal. He justified the partition on administrative convenience, as Bengal was too big a province to be administrated by a single provincial Government. The real intention of the order was to curb the growing national feeling in Bengal. The people staunchly opposed this and indulged in the anti partition movement, boycott of foreign goods and usage of only swadeshi goods.

2. The Surat Split-1907:
The Extremists and the Moderates differed over issues like election of the President, setting goals and passing resolutions of the Congress. Finally, both the groups agreed to Dadabhai Naoroji for Presidentship of the Congress in 1906. But the Extremists were successful in making Dadabhai Naoroji to declare ‘Swaraj (Self Government) as the goal of the Congress.

The differences once again emerged at the Surat session in 1907. The Moderates wanted Rashbihari Ghosh and the Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be the President. Both the groups refused to compromise resulting in the split in the Indian National Congress.

This is commonly known as the ‘Surat Split’. The British undertook many repressive measures and also introduced many Acts to suppress the Extremists. Both groups reunited in the Lucknow Congress session.

3. Revolutionary Nationalism (Terrorism):
The repressive measures of the British encouraged revolutionary terrorism. The revolutionaries were radical nationalists who did not believe in passive resistance. They were ready for any violent activity in order to drive away the British from India.

They organised secret societies like Abhinav Bharat and Anusilan Samiti to achieve their goal. The revolutionaries were able to create a commotion but most of them were either imprisoned, exiled, killed or hanged.

4. Muslim League in 1906:
The All India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Aga Khan, Nawab Mohsim ul Mulk and others in 1906. The British tried to check the National movement by following a policy of divide and rule. The League followed a path contrary to that of Congress. They supported the partition of Bengal and also demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims. The Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. The Hindu Maha Sabha like the All India Muslim League was also against the Indian National Congress.

5. Morley – Minto Reforms 1909:
This act increased the number of elected members to the Central and Provincial Councils and also introduced separate electorates to the Muslims. The number of seats so reserved was in an higher ratio for the Muslim population when compared to die Hindu population. Only Muslims were to vote to the reserved Muslim seats.

6. Home Rule League 1916:
The Home Rule Movement was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mrs. Ann ie Besant in 1916. The objective of the movement was to attain Self-Government within the British Empire by all constitutional means. The movement soon spread throughout India and became popular. Tilak gave the popular slogan “Swaraj (Home rule) is my birthright and I shall have it”.

Mr. Edwin Montague made a declaration on 20th August 1917. By this announcement, it was promised to give responsible Government to Indians, by degrees.

7. Montague – Chelmsford Reforms 1919:
(Government of India Act of 1919) This Act introduced Bi-Cameral legislatures (Diarchy). The Central Assembly (Lower house) consisted of 144 members, 104 elected and 40 nominated members. The Council of States (Upper House) was to have 34 elected and 26 nominated members.

8. Rowlatt act of 1919 and Jalian Walabagh Tragedy:
The British Government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. This Act empowered the Government to arrest and detain suspected persons without warrant and imprison them without any trial. Indians protested against the Rowlatt Act. A huge meeting was held at Jalian.

Walabagh on 13th April 1919. About 10,000 unarmed people had gathered there. General Dyer with his troops surrounded the meeting place and opened fire on the innocent people and around 1000 persons were killed and many more were injured.

PART – E

V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 32.
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.

He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.

He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.

Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.

2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).

Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.

3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.

Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.

Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.

His four noble truths are:

1. Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
2. Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
3. To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
4. Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.

When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of

1. Right faith
2. Right thought
3. Right speech
4. Right conduct
5. Right effort
6. Right meditation
7. Right livelihood and
8. Right mindfulness.

Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.

Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.

Question 33.
Why is the Gupta age called “The Golden Age” in the Indian History?
1. Introduction:
Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all-round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age and Ahe “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.

2. Religion:
Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed Vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular.

Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta Rulers performed Vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta- II, were worshippers of Vishnu.

They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). Image worship, rites, and ceremonies became very common. The Vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya, and Rajasuya yagas-were performed with all splendour. Buddhism also enjoyed great popularity during the Gupta age The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period.

Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.

3. Education:
Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxi la, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well-known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology, and Science.

4. Literature:
The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramaditya-II) patronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court.

Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc., Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.

5. Other important writers and their works:
Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam achari the, Charaka- Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra, and others.

The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.

6. Development of science:
The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine, and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works- Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science.

Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu.

He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun, etc., all these hundreds of years.

7. Art and Architecture:
The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. The Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism, and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh, etc were the centres of their artistic activities.

The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated.

Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivalings were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat-roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhuniara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi, etc., follow this design.

8. Painting:
In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no. 1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.

Question 34.
Describe the achievements of Akbar.
a. Military achievements of Akbar:

1. The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.

2. Conquest of Malwa:
He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior, and Jaunpur effortlessly because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.

3. Conquest of Gondwana:
In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empire.

4. Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567:
Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. But Udaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were killed in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh (Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.

5. Conquest of Gujarat in 1572:
The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat,, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.

6. Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir:
Ranathambore from Roy Surjenhara and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir, and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.

7. Extent of the Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.

8. Conquest of Deccan:
Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.

b. Religious policy of Akbar:
Akbar was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep-rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus.

He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali, and Shivaratri.

Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions.

Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and. openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Allahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.

Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state. The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers.

The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Ali, Mir Bakshi, Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister.

Kingdom was divided into a number of. provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar. Province was divided into Sarkars. Paraganas and, Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.

d. Mansabdari system:
Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status, and salary, etc.

This army was at the service of the – Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavaliy, and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a -mansabdar in charge of 10 to a mansabdar controlling 10,000.

The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, they were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries.

There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers . was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.

e. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System):
Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar, and Banjar.

The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. Raja Todarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual installments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’.

The state maintained the documents, Patta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regaring the land, ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.

f. Literature, Art, and Architecture:
Akbar was a patron of 1 literature. Abdul FazI wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer.

The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana(Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharvaveda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi, etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion, Some popular Hindi scholars were Tulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh, and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’.

Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were –

1. Abdul Rahim.
2. Abul Fazal,
3. Birbal,
4. Faizi
5. Hamid Human
6. Raja Mansingh
7. Shaikh Mubarak
8. Tansen
9. Raja Todarmal.

Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘Humayun Tomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were but It with red sandstone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri.

The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘BulandDarwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i- Am, Diwan – i – Klias, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.

Question 35.
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysore’ Explain.
1. Introduction:
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.

2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivass Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.

He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.

Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.

This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.

4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial work shop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.

Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.

5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.

Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore.

His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.

6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.

He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.

7. Railway reforms:
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.

8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.

Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.

PART – F

VI. Match the following. (5 × 1 = 5)

Question 36.

1. Kushana Ruler.
2. Kailasanatha Temple.
3. Navakoti Narayana.
5. Aligarh Movement.

Arrange the following in chronological order. (5 × 1 = 5)

Question 37.
a. Introduction of subsidiary Alliance.
b. Coming of Aryans of India.
c. Unification of Karnataka.
d. Shivaji’scoronation.
e. Woods’ dispatch.