2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 10 Heaven, If you are not here on Earth

You can Download Heaven, If you are not here on Earth Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 10 Heaven, If you are not here on Earth

Heaven, If you are not here on Earth Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

Heaven, If you are not here on Earth Comprehension I

Question 1.
According to the poet, ‘heaven’ is
(a) on earth
(b) within us
(c) elsewhere.
Answer:
(a) on earth.

Question 2.
The poet finds god in
(a) nature
(b) earth
(c) temple.
Answer:
(a) nature.

Question 3.
What does the line ‘Heaven lies all over’ suggest?
Answer:
Heaven is not elsewhere but within us and is all over the world. If we are good, then that is heaven and if we are bad that is hell. Nature is also a heaven as we can find heaven in objects like trees, moon, sands of grains etc.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Who creates’heaven on earth’?
OR
Where does the poet create heaven?
Answer:
The poet creates heaven on earth.

Heaven, If you are not here on Earth Comprehension II

Question 1.
Describe the beauty in nature that makes the earth a heavenly place.
OR
How has the poet glorified heaven on earth?
Answer:
The poet Kuvempu argues that we do not need to seek heaven after death. We can enjoy the heavenly bliss in looking at Nature on this earth itself. The poet presents a beautiful description of nature’s beauty. The poet emphatically states that the bliss that one experiences while looking at the streams that are leaping down, roaring from the top of the hills, the waves that come rolling across the seas carrying surf at their edges, the tender rays of sunlight falling on the sprawling green forests and the gentle sun warming up the earth make this earth a heavenly place.

Question 2.
Why does the poet feel that earth is more beautiful than heaven?
Answer:
According to Kuvempu, there is no heaven in reality. Entities like ‘God’, ‘Heaven’, and the nymphs are merely figments of man’s imagination. All the different forms of nature like the green forests, the streams that leap down the hills, the waves that roll across the seas, the moonlit night, and the splendour of harvest appear more beautiful than the imaginary descriptions of the man.

Heaven, If you are not here on Earth Comprehension III

Question 1.
How does the poet explain the illusion of heaven in the poem?
OR
How does the poem ‘Heaven, if you are not here on Earth’ visualise heaven?
Answer:
Kuvempu considers concepts like ‘God’, ‘nymphs’ and ‘heaven’ as myths created by man. He opines that if at all ‘heaven’ exists it exists only on this earth and nowhere else. In order to break the illusion of heaven in man’s mind, he presents before us charming sights of nature and argues that nothing can be more heavenly than these forms of nature.

He makes a direct address to nature and declares that if heaven does not exist on the earth where else can it be. He justifies his statement referring to the streams, the waves, and the sunlight. He says that the streams that leap down roaring from the top of the hills, the rolling surf at the edge of the waves, the tender rays of sunlight falling on the green forests, the gentle sun warming the earth all these make the earth heaven.

Question 2.
How does the poem celebrate the power of the poet?
Answer:
Having argued categorically that if at all there exists an entity called heaven, it exists only on this earth, the poet Kuvempu presents before the readers’ beautiful sights of nature. In the last stanza, the poet states that one sees chunks of heaven lying all over in the splendour of harvest and of moonlight. He concludes the poem celebrating poetic talent. He says that the poet enjoys looking at Nature, imbibes the beauty of nature and spills the nectar of heaven, on the earth, through his poetry.

Heaven, If you are not here on Earth Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase, or a sentence each:

KSEEB Solutions

Question 1.
Where can heaven be found, according to Kuvempu?
OR
Where, according to the poet, did he see heaven?
OR
Where does the poet create heaven in the poem ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’?
Answer:
On this earth itself.

Question 2.
Where does the tender sunshine lean?
Answer:
The tender sunshine leans on gardens green with grass or other rich vegetation.

Question 3.
How does the poet create heaven on earth?
Answer:
The poet creates heaven on earth by imbibing the beauty of nature and spilling the nectar of heaven, on the earth, through his poetry.

Question 4.
What, according to Kuvempu, are only figments of man’s imagination?
Answer:
‘Heaven’, ‘God’, and ‘nymphs’ are not tangible entities but are only figments of man’s imagination.

Question 5.
When, according to the speaker, can there be no Gods?
Answer:
According to the speaker, if we ourselves cannot be gods, then there can be no gods.

Question 6.
According to the speaker, heaven is
(a) on earth
(b) not on earth
(c) beyond earth.
Answer:
(a) on earth.

Question 7.
Who creates heaven on earth?
Answer:
The poet.

Question 8.
How does the poet imbibe and spill the ‘song of nectar’?
OR
What does the poet imbibe and spill to create heaven on earth?
Answer:
The poet absorbs the beauty of nature through his eyes and spills the ‘song of nectar’ through his poetry.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
According to the poet makes this Earth heaven.
(a) heavenly nymphs
(b) gods
(c) gentle sun.
Answer:
(c) gentle sun.

Question 10.
What could not be anywhere else but on earth, according to the speaker, in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’?
Answer:
According to the speaker in the poem ‘Heaven, if You are not Here on Earth’ it is heaven. If heaven is not on the earth, it can be nowhere else.

Question 11.
According to the speaker in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’, if we ourselves cannot be gods, then there can be no
(a) gods
(b) nymphs
(c) humans.
Answer:
(a) gods.

Question 12.
When can there be no nymphs, according to the speaker, in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’?
Answer:
According to the speaker in the poem, there can be no nymphs if we ourselves are not heavenly nymphs.

Question 13.
According to the speaker in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’ if we ourselves aren’t heavenly nymphs, the nymphs are not
(a) everywhere
(b) nowhere
(c) elsewhere.
Answer:
(c) elsewhere.

Question 14.
Who, according to the speaker, imbibes and spills the song of nectar in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’?
Answer:
According to the speaker in the poem, it is the poet who imbibes and spills the song of nectar.

Question 15.
What does the poet create on earth, according to the speaker, in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’?
Answer:
According to the speaker in the poem, the poet creates heaven on earth.

Question 16.
What quality of harvest causes heaven to lie all over in ’Heaven If you are not here on Earth’?
Answer:
In ‘Heaven, if you are not Here on Earth’, the splendour of harvest causes heaven to lie all over.

Question 17.
“In the splendour of harvest and of moonlight Heaven lies all over!” The phrase refers to
(a) harvest and moonlight are no match to heaven
(b) splendour is only in heaven
(c) heaven can be seen in the harvest and moonlight
Answer:
(c) heaven can be seen in the harvest and moonlight.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each:

Question 1.
Why does the speaker believe that heaven can be created only by human effort in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’?
Answer:
The speaker convincingly argues that we do not need to seek heaven in the skies because this very earth is heaven-like in reality. He tries to prove this point by describing a roaring stream and the sunlit verdant garden. The poet emphatically states that the bliss that one experiences while looking at the streams that are leaping down, roaring from the top of the hills, the waves that come rolling across the seas carrying surf at their edges, the tender rays of sunlight falling on the sprawling green forests and the gentle sun warming up the earth make this earth a heavenly place.

The poet presents two more pictures of heaven on earth. They are the splendour of harvest and the beauty of the moonlit night. The poet wishes that the reader brings to mind the harvest season when in every bit of agricultural land do we see heaps of grains covering the land. Then he mentions the moonlit night on which the whole earth seems to be bathed in silvery light. Finally, the poet says that we (the poets) who enjoy such heavenly sights, imbibe the beauty of nature and spill the nectar of heaven through our poetry and thus create heaven on earth.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
What image of heaven does the poem, ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’ create?
Answer:
According to the speaker, the poem creates a mesmerizing image of heaven which is reflected in the description of pristine nature created by the poet. There are roaring streams leaping down from the top of the hills. The waves come rolling across the seas carrying surf at their edges. The tender rays of sunlight falling on the vast expanse of green forests and the gentle sun warming up the earth enhance the beauty of the Earth, creating an image of Heaven on earth. The splendour of harvest and the pleasant moonlight that bathes the earth makes it all the more heavenly.

Question 3.
What are the requirements of heaven, according to ‘Heaven, If You Are NotHere On Earth’?
Answer:
As expressed in the poem, Heaven is imagined to be the abode of gods and heavenly nymphs. Besides, it must have roaring and leaping streams, waves rolling with surf at their edge, the vast expanse of green forests being clothed by the tender rays of the sunlight, warmed by the gentle sun during the day and cooled and covered by moonlight at night.

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words each:

Question 1.
‘Heaven is a creation of one’s own mind’. Explain with reference to ‘Heaven, if you are not here on earth’.
OR
Why does the speaker in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here on Earth’ say that heaven is nowhere else but on earth?
Answer:
The very title of the poem suggests the intention of the poet. The poet wishes to argue that concepts like ‘heaven’, ‘god’, nymphs, etc., are not tangible entities but are only figments of man’s imagination. On the other hand, all the imaginary comforts, pleasures, and bliss one believes to enjoy in heaven, can be got in reality on this earth. The poet presents a beautiful picture of the different forms of nature which make this earth a heaven.

The poet claims that the roaring streams that tumble down fast from the top of the hills, the rolling surf at the edge of the waves that come rolling across oceans and seas, the tender rays of the sunbathing the vast green forests, and the gentle sun warming up the earth make this earth a heaven.

Question 2.
‘Heaven lies all over’. How is this brought out in ‘Heaven, if you are not here on earth’?
OR
How does Kuvempu show that heaven is here on earth?
OR
How does the poet recreate and capture the beauty and splendour of heaven on earth?
OR
Describe how the poem ‘Heaven, if you are not on earth’ visualizes heaven in nature.
OR
Why does the speaker heaven, if you are not on earth’ say that heaven is right here on earth?
OR
How, according to the speaker, does one find heaven on earth?
OR
“Heaven is not a separate entity but a part of the earth to be created by human endeavour”. How does the poem ‘Heaven, if you are not here on earth present this?
Answer:
Having convincingly argued that we do not need to seek heaven in the skies, and this very earth is heavenly in reality, the poet presents the splendour of harvest and the beauty of the moonlit night. The poet calls these chunks of heaven. The poet wishes the reader to bring to mind the harvest season when in every bit of agricultural land do we see heaps of grains, covering the land.

He then presents a beautiful picture of the different forms of nature which make this earth a heaven. The poet claims that the roaring streams that tumble down fast from the top of the hills, the rolling surf at the edge of the waves that come rolling across oceans and seas, the tender rays of the sunbathing the vast green forests, and the gentle sun warming up the earth make this earth a heaven.

KSEEB Solutions

Secondly, he mentions the moonlit night on which, the whole earth seems to be bathed in silvery light. Finally, the poet tells the reader that the poets who enjoy such heavenly sights imbibe the beauty of nature and spill the nectar of heaven through their poetry. This way the poet creates heaven on earth and celebrates the joys of heaven through his poetry.

Question 3.
How, according to the speaker, can we create heaven on earth?
OR
Human effort alone can create heaven on earth. How is this brought out in ‘Heaven, If you are not here on Earth’?
Answer:
The poet Kuvempu convincingly argues that we do not need to seek heaven in the skies because this very earth is heaven-like in reality. He tries to prove this point by describing a roaring stream and the sunlit verdant garden. The poet emphatically states that the bliss that one experiences while looking at the streams that are leaping down, roaring from the top of the hills, the waves that come rolling across the seas carrying surf at their edges, the tender rays of sunlight falling on the sprawling green forests and the gentle sun warming up the earth make this earth a heavenly place. The poet presents two more pictures of heaven on earth. They are the splendour of harvest and the beauty of the moonlit night.

The poet wishes that the reader brings to mind the harvest season when in every bit of agricultural land do we see heaps of grains covering the land. Then he mentions the moonlit night on which the whole earth seems to be bathed in silvery light. Finally, the poet says that we (the poets) who enjoy such heavenly sights, imbibe the beauty of nature and spill the nectar of heaven through our poetry and thus create heaven on earth.

Question 4.
Heaven is nothing but a replica of the best qualities of Earth. How does the poem ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’justify this statement?
Answer:
” The poem ‘Heaven, if You are not Here on Earth’, makes an attempt to argue that there is no ‘Heaven’ in reality. Entities like ‘God’, ‘Heaven’, and the ‘Nymphs’ are merely figments of man’s imagination. In response to the belief that ‘Heaven’ is mesmerizingly beautiful and is the abode of ‘Gods’ and the ‘Nymphs’, the poem asserts that ‘Heaven’ is only a replica of the resplendent and pristine Nature. When we are treated with kindness and compassion in times of distress and helplessness, we attribute it to the divinity of God. This is only a replica of ‘Man’ giving divine help to his fellow beings in times of distress and saving them.

We believe that nymphs are lesser goddesses of Nature represented as young girls living in trees, streams, mountains, etc. They are none other than a replica of the beautiful and charming girls living in the lap of nature of this earth.

Besides being the abode of the gods and nymphs, ‘Heaven’ is believed to be an incredibly beautiful place. The poem argues that the idea or concept of Heaven’s beauty is only an image of the beautiful earth which abounds in roaring streams leaping down the mountains and the rolling waves carrying surf at their edges. This enchanting beauty of the earth is enhanced by the tender sunshine clothing the vast expanse of green forests, and the warmth of the gentle sunbathing the greenery. To top all this is the moonlight, which makes our nights tranquil and pleasant.

On the whole, one can conclude that it is our human kindness and compassion that comes to be termed as ‘divinity’ and the pristine Nature that creates Heaven on earth.

Question 5.
‘It is not gods that make heaven but humans who attain divinity’. How is this brought out in ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’?
Answer:
The idea that ‘it is not gods that make heaven but humans who attain divinity’ is expressed in lines three and four:

“If we ourselves cannot be gods
Then there can be no gods!”

According to the poet, heaven is only a replica of the resplendent and pristine nature. There is no distinct or substantial entity called ‘God’ and it is the man who makes the earth ‘Heaven’. When ‘man’ treats his fellow beings with kindness and compassion in times of distress and helplessness, he attains divinity. He is as divine as God. This is only a replica of a man giving divine help to his fellow beings in times of distress and saving them. It is such human beings with divine kindness and compassion that make ‘Heaven’ on earth.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’ tries to remove the traditional picture of heaven. Discuss.
Answer:
” The poem ‘Heaven, if You are not Here on Earth’, makes an attempt to argue that there is no ‘Heaven’ in reality. Entities like ‘God’, ‘Heaven’, and the ‘Nymphs’ are merely figments of man’s imagination. In response to the belief that ‘Heaven’ is mesmerizingly beautiful and is the abode of ‘Gods’ and the ‘Nymphs’, the poem asserts that ‘Heaven’ is only a replica of the resplendent and pristine Nature. When we are treated with kindness and compassion in times of distress and helplessness, we attribute it to the divinity of God. This is only a replica of ‘Man’ giving divine help to his fellow beings in times of distress and saving them.

We believe that nymphs are lesser goddesses of Nature represented as young girls living in trees, streams, mountains, etc. They are none other than a replica of the beautiful and charming girls living in the lap of nature of this earth.

Besides being the abode of the gods and nymphs, ‘Heaven’ is believed to be an incredibly beautiful place. The poem argues that the idea or concept of Heaven’s beauty is only an image of the beautiful earth which abounds in roaring streams leaping down the mountains and the rolling waves carrying surf at their edges. This enchanting beauty of the earth is enhanced by the tender sunshine clothing the vast expanse of green forests, and the warmth of the gentle sunbathing the greenery. To top all this is the moonlight, which makes our nights tranquil and pleasant.

On the whole, one can conclude that it is our human kindness and compassion that comes to be termed as ‘divinity’ and the pristine Nature that creates Heaven on earth.

Question 7.
Both human nature and the natural world play a vital role in the creation of heaven. Explain with reference to ‘Heaven, If You Are Not Here On Earth’.
Answer:
” The poem ‘Heaven, if You are not Here on Earth’, makes an attempt to argue that there is no ‘Heaven’ in reality. Entities like ‘God’, ‘Heaven’, and the ‘Nymphs’ are merely figments of man’s imagination. In response to the belief that ‘Heaven’ is mesmerizingly beautiful and is the abode of ‘Gods’ and the ‘Nymphs’, the poem asserts that ‘Heaven’ is only a replica of the resplendent and pristine Nature. When we are treated with kindness and compassion in times of distress and helplessness, we attribute it to the divinity of God. This is only a replica of ‘Man’ giving divine help to his fellow beings in times of distress and saving them.

We believe that nymphs are lesser goddesses of Nature represented as young girls living in trees, streams, mountains, etc. They are none other than a replica of the beautiful and charming girls living in the lap of nature of this earth.

Besides being the abode of the gods and nymphs, ‘Heaven’ is believed to be an incredibly beautiful place. The poem argues that the idea or concept of Heaven’s beauty is only an image of the beautiful earth which abounds in roaring streams leaping down the mountains and the rolling waves carrying surf at their edges. This enchanting beauty of the earth is enhanced by the tender sunshine clothing the vast expanse of green forests, and the warmth of the gentle sunbathing the greenery. To top all this is the moonlight, which makes our nights tranquil and pleasant.

On the whole, one can conclude that it is our human kindness and compassion that comes to be termed as ‘divinity’ and the pristine Nature that creates Heaven on earth.

Heaven, If you are not here on Earth by Kuvempu About the Poet:

K.V. Puttappa (1904-1994) is widely known by the pen name Kuvempu. He is acknowledged as the greatest poet of the 20th century Kannada literature. He is the first among eight recipients of the Jnanpith Award for Kannada.

He is the second – after M. Govinda Pai – among Kannada poets to be revered as Rashtrakavi, a national poet. His work ‘Sri Ramayana Darshanam’, the rewriting of the great ancient Indian epic ‘Ramayana’ in modern Kannada, is regarded as a revival of the era of Mahakavya (Epic poetry) in a contemporary form and charm. He is immortalized by some of his phrases, and in particular for his contribution to Universal Humanism or in his own words ‘Vishwa Manavatha Vaada’. He was conferred the Padma Vibhushan by the Government of India. He has penned the Karnataka State anthem ‘Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate’. The poem has been translated into English by Dr. C. Naganna, a well-known poet, critic, and translator.

KSEEB Solutions

In this poem, Kuvempu urges us to take note of nature as a dynamic entity. For him, heaven is not something beyond the boundaries of this world, since the earth itself possesses all that the so-called heaven promises. The poet’s decisive inference that heaven is here on earth and nowhere else is seen from the beginning to the end. According to him, the stream, the waves, the splendour of harvest, the sunshine, the celestial eye, the moonlight – are all nothing but the reflection of that unseen paradise called heaven.

Heaven, If you are not here on Earth Summary in English

This poem is the English version of’Swargave, Bhoomiyoliradire Neenu’, a poem in Kannada, written by Kuvempu, one of the most revered poets of Karnataka.

The poem makes an attempt to give the reader a glimpse into the rationalistic outlook of the poet. The poet has tried to argue that concepts like ‘Heaven’, ‘God’, ‘Nymphs’ etc., are man’s creations. Entities like ‘Heaven’ and ‘God’ exist only on the Earth and you cannot find them anywhere else. The poet suggests that one should perceive divinity and enjoy the heavenly bliss in the company of Nature itself. The poet strongly believes that ‘Heavenliness and worldliness’ are not distinct or two separate entities and argues that there is no difference between worshipping or adoring Nature and worshipping or adoring God.

In the first two lines the poet addresses ‘Heaven’ and declares emphatically that if Heaven does not exist on the Earth where else can it be. It only means that the reader needs not look for ‘Heaven’ in the skies; if at all there is an entity called ‘Heaven’ one must find it on the earth only and nowhere else.

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 10 Heaven, If you are not here on Earth image - 1

The poet refers to our beliefs about ‘Gods’ and ‘heavenly nymphs’. The poet expresses his conviction that there is no distinct or substantial entity called ‘God’ and it is Man himself who is God. Similarly, there exist no entities called ‘heavenly nymphs’. He firmly believes that we ourselves are the nymphs, and the nymphs are to be found nowhere else but on this earth only.

The poet wants to dispel the popular notion that gods and nymphs live in heaven. The poet, who wants to dismiss such beliefs, tells the reader that we ourselves should become gods and nymphs. The poet wants us to give up our belief that we go to heaven after death where we find gods and nymphs.

The poet tries to introduce us to the different forms or parts of heaven that exist on the earth. He presents a mesmerizing picture of ‘Nature’ in its pristine form. The poet states that the ‘bliss’ that we experience when we look at the streams that are leaping down, roaring, from the top of the hills, the waves that come rolling across the seas carrying surf at their edges, the tender rays of sunlight falling on the vast expanse of green forests and the gentle sun warming up the earth make this Earth, ‘Heaven’.

The poet refers to the beauty of the harvest season and the moonlit night. He declares that one enjoys heavenly bliss when one watches the splendour of harvest and the moonlit night. The poet ends the poem saying that the poet who imbibes this heavenly bliss, spreads the nectar of Heaven through his poetry on this earth.

A poet is endowed with a higher degree of imagination and sensibility. With these qualities, the poet appreciates nature’s beauty and in turn, the poet enables others to behold heaven on earth.

To sum up, the poet argues that we do not need to seek heaven after death, but can enjoy heavenly bliss even when we are alive, if only we have the ‘eyes’ to see ‘Heaven’ on this earth. ’Heaven’ exists only on the earth and nowhere else. One is sure to enjoy the pleasures of heaven when one looks at the splendour of Nature. The poet urges the reader to perceive the tremendous energy that lies underneath the physical beauty of Nature. This idea can be taken as the message of the poem.

Heaven, If you are not here on Earth Summary in Kannada

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 10 Heaven, If you are not here on Earth image - 2
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 10 Heaven, If you are not here on Earth image - 3
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 10 Heaven, If you are not here on Earth image - 4

Glossary:

  • nymph: damsel
  • Froth: foam
  • Verdant: green with grass or other rich vegetation
  • Nectar: the drink of the Gods

2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 8 यात्रा जापान की

You can Download Chapter 8 यात्रा जापान की Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 8 यात्रा जापान की

यात्रा जापान की Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

I. एक शब्द या वाक्यांश या वाक्य में उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
लेखिका जापान किस हेतु गई थीं?
उत्तर:
लेखिका अन्तरराष्ट्रीय हिन्दी सम्मेलन में भाग लेने हेतु जापान गई थीं।

प्रश्न 2.
जापान के होटलों का रिवाज़ क्या है?
उत्तर:
जापान के होटलों का रिवाज़ है कि वहाँ सबसे पहले गर्म पानी पीने के लिए दिया जाता है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 3.
जापान का गुणधर्म क्या है?
उत्तर:
शालीनता जापान का गुणधर्म है।

प्रश्न 4.
‘तोक्यो यूनिवर्सिटी ऑफ़ फ़ॉरेन स्टड़ीज़’ के निदेशक कौन हैं?
उत्तर:
‘तोक्यो यूनिवर्सिटी ऑफ़ फ़ॉरेन स्टड़ीज़’ के निदेशक प्रोफेसर फुजिई ताकेशी हैं।

प्रश्न 5.
पुस्तकालय से बाहर निकलते समय अलार्म क्या जताता है?
उत्तर:
पुस्तकालय से बाहर निकलते समय अलार्म इस लिए होता है कि आपके पास कोई छुपाई हुई पुस्तक है क्या इसका पता चले।

प्रश्न 6.
लेखिका ने किसे अनुशासन प्रिय कहा है?
उत्तर:
लेखिका ने जापानी लोगों को अनुशासन प्रिय कहा है।

प्रश्न 7.
शिन्कान्सेन’ का शाब्दिक अर्थ क्या है?
उत्तर:
‘शिन्कान्सेन’ का शाब्दिक अर्थ है- न्यू ट्रंक लाइन।

प्रश्न 8.
‘पानी’ के लिए जापानी भाषा में कौन-सा शब्द है?
उत्तर:
‘पानी’ के लिए जापानी भाषा में शब्द है- मिजु।

प्रश्न 9.
‘स्लम डाग मिलियनेर’ फिल्म किसकी पुस्तक के आधार पर बनी है?
उत्तर:
‘स्लम डाग मिलियनेर’ फिल्म विकास स्वरूप की पुस्तक पर बनी है।

प्रश्न 10.
‘नारा’ का प्रसिद्ध मंदिर कौन सा है?
उत्तर:
‘नारा’ का प्रसिद्ध मंदिर है – तोदायजी।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 11.
गौतम बुद्ध को जापानी भाषा में क्या कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
गौतम बुद्ध को जापानी भाषा में दायबुत्सु कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 12.
नारा मंदिर में बुद्ध प्रतिमा की ऊंचाई कितनी है?
उत्तर:
नारा मंदिर में बुद्ध प्रतिमा की ऊँचाई 55 फुट है।

प्रश्न 13.
एक जमाने में कौन-सा शहर जापान की राजधानी हुआ करता था?
उत्तर:
एक जमाने में नारा शहर जापान की राजधानी हुआ करता था।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्न :

प्रश्न 1.
एयर इंडिया की उड़ान कितने मिनट विलम्ब से चली?
उत्तर:
एयर इंडिया की उड़ान तीस मिनट विलम्ब से चली।

प्रश्न 2.
लेखिका और उनके साथी तोक्यो में किस होटल में ठहरे?
उत्तर:
लेखिका और उनके साथी तोक्यो में सनपेटियो होटल में ठहरे।

प्रश्न 3.
लेखिका और उनके साथियों के पथ-प्रदर्शक कौन थे?
उत्तर:
सुरेश ऋतुपर्ण लेखिका और उनके साथियों के पथ-प्रदर्शक थे।

प्रश्न 4.
‘स्टेशन’ को जापानी भाषा में क्या कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
‘स्टेशन’ को जापानी भाषा में ‘इकी’ कहते हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 5.
‘ओके’ को जापानी भाषा में क्या कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
‘ओके’ को जापानी भाषा में ‘ऊकी’ कहते हैं।

II. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
जापान के भारतीय रेस्तराँ ‘कलकत्ता’ का वर्णन कीजिए।
उत्तर:
तोक्यो विश्वविद्यालय के अतिथि प्रोफेसर सुरेश ऋतुपर्ण नमूदार उन्हें भारतीय रेस्तराँ ले गए। जहाँ की एक दीवार पर ताजमहल के सामने ऊँटों की तसवीर लगी थी और उसपर Incredible India लिखा था। हिन्दी संगीत चल रहा था। वहाँ की रीतिनुसार पहले उनको गरम पानी पीने को दिया। भारतीय मसालों की और डोसा-साम्भार की सुगन्ध वहाँ छाई हुई थी। वहाँ की दालचीनी काली मिर्च डली हुई मसाला चाय उन्हें पसन्द आई। और तड़केवाली साबुत काली उड़द की दाल, तन्दूरी रोटी, आलू के पराँठे और सरसों का साग खाकर तो ऐसे लगा उन्हें जैसे पंजाब में बैठे स्वादिष्ठ खाना खा रहे है।

प्रश्न 2.
जापान के रेलवे स्टेशन और रेल-यात्रा के बारे में लेखिका क्या कहती हैं?
उत्तर:
जापान में रेल-व्यवस्था पर टिप्पणी करते हुए लेखिका कहती हैं कि जापान में कदम-कदम पर रेलवे स्टेशन हैं। रेलें कई धरातलों पर चलती रहती हैं। प्लेटफार्म पर थोड़ी-थोड़ी दूरी पर लाल लकीरें खिंची हैं। हर डिब्बा ऐन उस लकीर के सामने ही पड़ता है। गाड़ी जैसे रुकती है, टिकट खाँचे में डालकर अंदर घुसो, उस पार जाकर अपना टिकट उठा लो। रेल के अंदर बैठने के स्थान कम और खड़े होने के ज्यादा हैं। वृद्धों, स्त्रियों, रोगियों के लिए courtesy seats अर्थात् सौजन्यस्थान आरक्षित हैं। रेल में चढ़ते समय धक्का-मुक्की नहीं होती। शालीनता जापान का गुण धर्म है। रेल में लोग खड़े-खड़े पढ़ते हैं। हर जगह स्वच्छता। यहाँ की सबसे तेज गति से चलनेवाली रेल है – ‘शिन्कान्सेन’ जिसे बुलेट ट्रेन भी कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 3.
‘टफ्स’ के पुस्तकालय के बारे में लिखिए।
उत्तर:
टफ्स का पुस्तकालय अपने आप में अद्भुत है। इस चार मंजिल इमारत की हर मंजिल पर विशाल वाचनालय है। पुस्तकालय में कुल 6,18,615 पुस्तकें हैं। विद्युतचालित आलमारियों में रखी ये पुस्तकें मात्र एक बटन दबाने से सामने उपलब्ध होती हैं। आप जी-भरकर पढ़िए, पन्ने पलटिये या नोट्स बनाइये, वापस बटन दबाइए, आलमारी अपने-आप बंद हो जाएगी। इससे जगह की बचत और पुस्तकों की सुरक्षा भी होती है। पुस्तकों के बीच मनमाना समय गुजारने के बाद जब पुस्तकालय के द्वार से बाहर निकलते हैं, एक अलार्म जता देता है कि आपके पास कोई छुपी हुई पुस्तक नहीं है। यहाँ इंडिक भाषा विभाग में कई दुर्लभ ग्रंथ देखने को मिलते हैं। यहाँ हिन्दी, अवधी, ब्रज भाषा, राजस्थानी, भोजपुरी, पहाड़ी और मैथिली की अनेकों पुस्तकें हैं। यहाँ पर कई दुर्लभतम पुस्तकों के लिए ‘नवलकिशोर संग्रह’ है जिसमें 187 ग्रन्थ उपलब्ध है। सरस्वती, विशाल भारत और माधुरी के अंक भी यहाँ उपलब्ध हैं। यहाँ फीजी का प्रथम हिन्दी उपन्यास ‘डउका पुरान’ भी देखने को मिलता है।

प्रश्न 4.
जापान के ‘बुलेट-ट्रेन’ पर टिप्पणी लिखिए।
उत्तर:
जापान की सबसे तेज़ गति रेल ‘शिन्कान्सेन’ है जिसका शाब्दिक अर्थ है न्यू ट्रंक लाइन । इस को बुलेट ट्रेन भी कहते हैं। यह 16 डिब्बों की गाड़ी है। हर गाड़ी में 1300 यात्रियों के बैठने का प्रबन्ध है। 1300 फीट लम्बी इस रेल में 40 मोटर जनरेटर लगे होते हैं। जिस वक्त यह 170 कि.मी. प्रति घंटे की रफ़्तार से चलती है, कहीं भी रुकने के लिए कम-से-कम 5 कि.मी. की गुंजाइश चाहिए। 8600 कर्मियों की कार्यक्षमता का उपयोग इसके संचालन में प्रतिदिन लगता है। जापान के निवासी इस रेल से यात्रा करना एक मौलिक अनुभव मानते हैं जहाँ गंतव्य से अधिक गति का महत्व है, मंजिल से ज्यादा सफ़र की अहमियत।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 5.
ओसाका के किले का चित्रण कीजिए।
उत्तर:
‘जो’ का अर्थ है किला। ओसाका जो 1585 ई. में सम्राट तोयोतोमी हिदेयोशी ने बनवाया था। विशाल परिसर में हरियाली और रंगबिरंगे पुष्प-पादपों से घिरा यह किला अनेक आख्यानों का पुंज है। इनके सब हिस्सों का पुनर्निर्माण हुआ है। किले को लेकर कई किस्से-कहानियाँ है। किले के चारों ओर गहरी खाई और जलाशय है। किले का प्रवेश-द्वार एक काला विशाल फाटक है और काले पत्थर की प्राचीरें है। ओसाका जो कई बार बना और नष्ट हुआ। वहाँ का मन्दिर जो ओसाका होंगाजी ने बनाया था, लकड़ी का होने के कारण कई बार जल चुका था, एक बार बिजली भी गिरी 1931 में उसका नवीनीकरण हुआ। वही पर ओसाका जो का संग्रहालय भी है।

प्रश्न 6.
‘तोदायजी मंदिर’ का वर्णन कीजिए।
उत्तर:
रेल से यह यात्री तोदायजी मंदिर गए जिसकी स्थापना 743 में हुई। गौतम बुद्ध को ‘दायबुत्सु’ कहते हैं। विशाल परिसर में काली भूरी लकड़ी का महाकाय स्थापत्य है जो बिना सीमेंट और पत्थर के टिका हुआ है। बड़े से आँगन के बीचोंबीच एक गोलाकार वृत्त में आग जलती है जिसे दिव्य ज्योति मानकर लोग उसे माथेपर लगाते हैं। दानपत्र है लेकिन दान देने की बाध्यता नहीं। प्रवेश द्वार के दोनों तरफ प्रहरी की प्रतिमाएँ है, एक का मुँह खुला है, दूसरी का बन्द। गर्भगृह में 55 फुट ऊँची बुद्ध की मूर्ति है। जो तांबे की है और जिसका वजन 500 टन है। इस गर्भगृह को दायबुत्सु देन कहते हैं। बौद्ध प्रतिमा के नीचे एक छोटा सा मार्ग है, बहुत ही सँकरा, उमें से जो कई पार निकलता है, उसे मोक्ष प्राप्त होता है मानते हैं।

प्रश्न 7.
जापान के ‘हिरन-वन’ के बारे में लिखिए।
उत्तर:
हिरन वन में हिरन भारतीय हिरनों की तुलना में ज्यादा हट्टे-कट्टे है, दूर से देखने पर तगड़े, बछड़ों की तरह है। वन में जगह जगह आटे के बिस्किटों का पैकेट मिलता है, १५० येन में उसे खरीदकर लोग खिलाते हैं।

वे अपने सुडौल गर्दन ऊपर कर उसे खा लेते हैं। कुछ लोग बिस्किटों के जगह हिरनों का केले खिलाते – हैं। आसपास के हिरन बिना डरे लेखिका के हाथ से केला छीन कर खा जाते हैं।

प्रश्न 8.
अंतरराष्ट्रीय हिन्दी सम्मेलन के बारे में लेखिका के क्या विचार हैं?
उत्तर:
अंतर्राष्ट्रीय हिन्दी सम्मेलन का उद्घाटन २८ नवंबर को सुबह दस बजे हुआ। उतने सारे जापानी विद्वानों का हिन्दी भाषा और लेखन से जुड़ा रहना देखकर लेखिका को अचरज हुआ। हिन्दी-उर्दू की सामर्थ्य व समृद्धि के प्रति उन सबकी निष्ठा और आस्था सराहनीय थी। प्रथम सत्र की अध्यक्षता अवकाश प्राप्त तोमियो मिज़ोकामी ने की। उन्होंने हिन्दी जापानी के मध्य सेतु बनाने का एक अद्भुत कार्य किया है। जापान में हिन्दी गाने भी बहुत पसन्द किए जाते हैं। सभागार में वे प्रो० मालवीय से मिले। वहाँ पर जैसे सारा इलाहाबाद इकट्ठा हुआ था। जिनके किताब पर स्लमडॉग मिलियनेर’ फिल्म बनी वह विकास स्वरूप भी वहाँ मिले। उद्घाटन सत्र में सबका परिचय देना हुआ, विशेष आलेख पढ़े गए। छात्रों ने उसे पूरी एकाग्रता से सुना, हिन्दी में प्रश्न पूछे। लेखिका को लगा कि डॉ. फुजिई और डॉ. सुरेश ऋतुपर्ण ने संवाद-भाषा के रूप में हिन्दी सिखाने में छात्रों के साथ भरपूर परिश्रम किया है।

प्रश्न 9.
जापान में हिन्दी के प्रभाव-प्रसार पर टिप्पणी लिखिए।
उत्तर:
लेखिका जब अंतर्राष्ट्रीय हिन्दी सम्मेलन गई तो वहाँ के जापानी विद्वानों को हिन्दी भाषा व लेखक की जानकारियों जुड़ा देखना-सुनना अच्छा लगा। हिन्दी-उर्दू की सामर्थ्य व समृद्धि के प्रति उन सब की आस्था और निष्ठा सराहनीय है। जापान में हिन्दी फिल्मी गाने भी बहुत पसन्द किये जाते हैं। मिजेकामी ने हिन्दी फिल्मों के लोकप्रिय गानों का अनुवाद-संकलन किया है जिसमें तीन सौ गीत है। ‘टफ्स’ में हिन्दी-उर्दू शिक्षण की एक शताब्दी बीत गई है। दोनों भाषाओं में यहाँ शोधकार्य करने की सुविधा है। विदेशी भाषा अध्ययन संस्थान के कई विद्यार्थी है जो हिन्दी वार्तालाप की कोशिश कर रहे हैं। पुस्तकालय में दुर्लभ और बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण सामग्रीवाले हिन्दी किताबें हैं। इस तरह जापान में हिन्दी का प्रचार-प्रसार होता है।

III. निम्नलिखित वाक्य किसने किससे कहे?

प्रश्न 1.
‘यहाँ तो डेंटिस्ट मक्खी मारते होंगे।
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य ममता कालिया ने ऋचा मिश्र से कहा।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्न :

प्रश्न 1.
‘वह देखिये फूजी पर्वत।’
उत्तर:
इशिदा ने लेखिका और उसके साथियों से कहा।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 2.
‘बताइये, गटापार्चा क्या होता है?’
उत्तर:
सुरेश जी ने लेखिका को कहा।

प्रश्न 3.
‘हफ्ते भर तक यही खाऊँगा और क्या?’
उत्तर:
हरजेन्द्र चौधरी ने लेखिका और उनके साथियों से कहा।

IV. ससंदर्भ स्पष्टीकरण कीजिए :

प्रश्न 1.
“यहाँ टिकट खाँचे में डाल कर जल्द अंदर घुसो, उस पार जाकर अपनी टिकट उठा लो।”
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘यात्रा जापान की’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसकी लेखिका ममता कालिया हैं।

संदर्भ : सुरेश ऋतुपर्ण ने यह वाक्य मेट्रो-ट्रेन टिकट निकालते समय प्रतिनिधियों से कहा।

स्पष्टीकरण : सुरेश ऋतुपर्ण ने यह वाक्य रेल-टिकट निकलवाते समय प्रतिनिधियों से धैर्य के साथ कहा – यहाँ टिकट खाँचे में डालकर जल्द अन्दर घुसो, उस पार जाकर अपनी टिकट उठा लो। मेट्रो-ट्रेन के टिकट के लिए सावधानी व फुर्ती दोनों की आवश्यकता होती है।

प्रश्न 2.
“यहाँ तो डेंटिस्ट मक्खी मारते होंगे।”
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘यात्रा जापान की’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसकी लेखिका ममता कालिया हैं।

संदर्भ : जापान की सभी लड़कियाँ खाना खाने के बाद हर बार, बिना नागा दाँत साफ़ करती हैं।

स्पष्टीकरण : अंतर्राष्ट्रीय हिन्दी सम्मेलन में भाग लेने हेतु छः सदस्यीय प्रतिनिधि मंडल जापान की यात्रा करते हैं। जापानियों के रीति-रिवाज, तथा जापान में हिन्दी प्रचार-प्रसार का वर्णन इस यात्रावृत्तांत में मिलता है। विदेशी भाषा अध्ययन संस्थान के कार्यक्रम के दौरान लेखिका और ऋचा मिश्र बाथरूम जाते हैं। वहाँ उन्हें एक दिलचस्प नजारा देखने को मिलता है। वॉशबेसिन के सामने छात्राओं की लम्बी कतार है। सबने अपने पर्स से टूथब्रश और टूथ पेस्ट निकालकर रखे हैं। बाद में पता चला, सभी लड़कियाँ खाना खाने के बाद हर बार, बिना नागा दाँत साफ़ करती हैं। इसे सुनकर लेखिका ममता कालिया ने इस वाक्य को कहा।

प्रश्न 3.
“इनकी हर मंज़िल पर इतनी जगह जानबूझकर छोड़ी गई है जो भूकम्प के धक्के सह सके।”
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘यात्रा जापान की’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसकी लेखिका ममता कालिया हैं।

संदर्भ : जापान में इतने तूफान और भूचाल आते हैं, इतनी गगनचुम्बी इमारते फिर क्यों बनायी गयीं हैं? इस प्रश्न के उत्तर में सुरेश जी इस वाक्य को कहते हैं।

स्पष्टीकरण : ओसाका यूनिवर्सिटी के अंतराष्ट्रीय हिन्दी सम्मेलन में भाग लेने के लिए ममता कालिया ने प्रतिनिधि मंडल के साथ जापान की यात्रा की। जापान में हुई तकनीकी प्रगति, जापानियों की कर्मनिष्ठता का वर्णन इसमें देखने को मिलता है। वे तोक्यो नगर को देखने निकलीं। वे कहती हैं जैसे-जैसे दिन छुपता है, तोक्यो उजागर होता जाता है – गलियों में, बाजारों में, सागर और किनारों में। ममता कालिया सुरेश ऋतुपर्ण से पूछती हैं – जापान में इतने भूचाल और तूफान आते हैं, इतनी गगनचुम्बी इमारतें क्यों बनायी गयी हैं? इस प्रश्न के उत्तर में सुरेश जी कहते हैं – इनकी हर मंजिल पर इतनी जगह जानबूझकर छोड़ी गई है जो भूकम्प के झटके सह सके।

प्रश्न 4.
“यहाँ प्रकृति की तूलिका में सात से अधिक रंग दिखाई दे रहे हैं।”
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘यात्रा जापान की’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसकी लेखिका ममता कालिया हैं। ओसाका शहर का वर्णन करते हुए ममता कालिया जी ने इसे कहा।

स्पष्टीकरण : जापान की राजधानी तोक्यो का कार्यक्रम समाप्त कर लेखिका का दल बुलेट ट्रेन से ओसाका शहर पहुँचा। ओसाका स्टेशन पर उच्चायोग के प्रतिनिधि वैन लेकर इंतजार कर रहे थे। वैन बहुत क्षिप्र गति से चल रही थी। सड़क की दोनों ओर बड़ी इमारतें थीं। यहाँ अजनबी नामपटों के साथ कुछ ऐसे नामपट भी झलक जाते हैं जिनकी हम भारतीयों को सुनने की, देखने की आदत पड़ गयी है जैसे हिताची, मित्सुबिशि, काकुरा आदि। चमचमाती इमारतों के बाद रंगबिरंगे पेड़ों का सिलसिला शुरू हो जाता है। लेखिका कहती हैं – यहाँ प्रकृति की तूलिका में सात से अधिक रंग दिखाई दे रहे हैं – मोमिजी की पत्तियाँ लाल हैं, कुछ नारंगी और गुलाबी रंग भी मिले हैं, साकुरा के पेड़ सफेद फूलों से ढंके हैं। हरा रंग यहाँ चटक हरा है जैसे पत्तों पर किसी चित्रकार ने एक बार फिर रंग पोत दिया हो।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 5.
“यह किला जापानी संघर्षधर्मिता और जिजीविषा का प्रतीक है।”
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘यात्रा जापान की’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसकी लेखिका ममता कालिया हैं।

संदर्भ : जापान के ओसाका किले का वर्णन करते हुए लेखिका इसे कहती हैं।

स्पष्टीकरण : जापानी में ‘जो’ का अर्थ है किला, ‘जी’ का अर्थ है मंदिर। ओसाका ‘जो’ 1585 ई. में सम्राट तोयोतोमी हिदेयोशी ने बनवाया था। विशाल परिसर में हरियाली और रंगबिरंगे पुष्प पादपों से घिरा यह किला अनेक आख्यानों का पुंज है। कई बार इसके कुछ हिस्सों को पुनर्निर्माण हुआ। किले के चारों ओर गहरी खाई और जलाशय है। किले का प्रवेश-द्वार एक काला विशाल फाटक है और काले पत्थर की प्राचीरें हैं। किले के अंदर मंदिर, संग्रहालय, आदि हैं जो देखने लायक हैं। यहाँ लकड़ी का इतना ज्यादा प्रयोग हुआ है कि कई बार इसमें आग लगने की दुर्घटनाएँ होती रहीं। ओसाका ‘जो’ कई बार बना और नष्ट हुआ। जापानवासियों में अपने सम्राट और अपनी संस्कृति के प्रति अपार श्रद्धा और प्रेम है। यह किला जापानी संघर्षधर्मिता और जिजीविषा का प्रतीक है।

V. वाक्य शुद्ध कीजिए :

प्रश्न 1.
हम सातवीं मंज़िल में हैं।
उत्तर:
हम सातवीं मंजिल पर हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
पीने के लिए गरम पानी अवश्य मिलती है।
उत्तर:
पीने के लिए गरम पानी अवश्य मिलता है।

प्रश्न 3.
छात्रों ने पूरी एकाग्रता से हमें सुनी।
उत्तर:
छात्रों ने पूरी एकाग्रता से हमें सुना।

प्रश्न 4.
बाजार का कोई शोर सुनाई नहीं देती।
उत्तर:
बाजार का कोई शोर सुनाई नहीं देता।

प्रश्न 5.
होटल में हिन्दी संगीत चल रही है।
उत्तर:
होटल में हिन्दी संगीत चल रहा है।

VI. निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को सूचनानुसार बदलिए :

प्रश्न 1.
रात की दावत हरजेन्द्र चौधरी के घर पर थी। (वर्तमान काल में बदलिए)
उत्तर:
रात की दावत हरजेन्द्र चौधरी के घर पर है।

प्रश्न 2.
यहाँ हिन्दी-उर्दू प्रेमियों का जमावड़ा है। (भविष्यत्काल में बदलिए)
उत्तर:
यहाँ हिन्दी-उर्दू प्रेमियों का जमावड़ा होगा।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 3.
कुछ देर तक हम इसका वैभव देखते हैं। (भूतकाल में बदलिए)
उत्तर:
कुछ देर तक हम इसका वैभव देखते रह गए।

VII. अन्य लिंग रूप लिखिए :

विद्वान, छात्र, युवक, पत्नी, बालक।

  1. विद्वान – विदुषी
  2. छात्र – छात्रा
  3. युवक – युवती
  4. पत्नी – पति
  5. बालक – बालिका

VIII. अन्य वचन रूप लिखिए :

दुकान, सुविधा, पुस्तक, टिकट।

  1. दुकान – दुकानें
  2. सुविधा – सुविधाएँ
  3. पुस्तक – पुस्तकें
  4. टिकट – टिकटें

IX. विलोम शब्द लिखिए :

सुगंध, समर्थ, सौम्य, सुरक्षा।

  1. सुगंध × दुर्गंध
  2. समर्थ × असमर्थ
  3. सौम्य × वैषम्य
  4. सुरक्षा × असुरक्षा

X. निम्नलिखित शब्दों के साथ उपसर्ग जोड़कर नए शब्दों का निर्माण कीजिए :

शासन, विश्वास, चालन, व्यवस्थित।

  1. शासन – अनु + शासन = अनुशासन
  2. विश्वास – अ + विश्वास = अविश्वास
  3. चालन – सु + चालन = सुचालन (सं + चालन = संचालन)
  4. व्यवस्थित – अ + व्यवस्थित = अव्यवस्थित

यात्रा जापान की लेखिका परिचय :

ममता कालिया का जन्म 2 नवम्बर 1940 ई. को वृंदावन में हुआ। आपने अपने पिता श्री विद्याभूषण अग्रवाल से साहित्य सृजन की प्रेरणा पाई। आपकी शिक्षा नागपुर, मुम्बई, पुणे, इन्दौर और दिल्ली में हुई। आपने 1963 ई. में दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय से अंग्रेजी साहित्य में एम.ए. की उपाधि पाई। दिल्ली के दौलतराम कॉलेज में प्राध्यापक के रूप में कार्य किया, तत्पश्चात एस.एन.डी.टी. विश्वविद्यालय में प्राध्यापिका नियुक्त हुईं। बाद में इलाहाबाद के महिला सेवा सदन कॉलेज में प्राचार्या के पद पर कार्यरत रहीं। 2001 ई. में सेवा निवृत होने के उपरान्त 5 वर्ष तक महात्मा गांधी अंतरराष्ट्रीय हिन्दी विश्वविद्यालय की अंग्रेजी पत्रिका ‘हिन्दी’ की संपादिका रहीं। आपको अनेक पुरस्कारों से सम्मानित किया गया है, जिनमें उत्तर प्रदेश हिन्दी संस्थान का ‘यशपाल स्मृति सम्मान’, ‘साहित्य भूषण’, ‘सीता स्मृति सम्मान’, ‘लमही कथा सम्मान’ आदि शामिल हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

आपकी रचनाएँ :
कहानी-संग्रह : ‘छुटकारा’, ‘जांच अभी जारी है’, ‘सीट नंबर छः’, ‘प्रतिदिन’ आदि।
उपन्यास : ‘नरक दर नरक’, ‘दौड़’, ‘बेघर’, ‘अंधेरे का ताला’ आदि।
संस्मरण : ‘कितने शहरों में कितनी बार’ आदि।

यात्रा जापान की Summary in Hindi

प्रस्तुत यात्रा-वृत्तांत में जापान के तोक्यो विश्वविद्यालय में आयोजित अन्तरराष्ट्रीय हिन्दी सम्मेलन का, जापान के लोगों का रहन-सहन, भाषा, सभ्यता, संस्कृति के अलावा वहाँ की प्राकृतिक छटा, ऐतिहासिक धरोहरें, किले, मंदिर, पुस्तकालय, मेट्रो-ट्रेन इत्यादि की विस्तृत जानकारी दी गयी है।

तोक्यो में ‘कलकत्ता’ नामक भारतीय रेस्तराँ है। यहाँ दीवारों पर भारतीय चित्रकारी तथा भारतीय व्यंजनों की व्यवस्था है। सबसे पहले गरम पानी पीने के लिए दिया जाता है। पानी के लिए जापानी भाषा में शब्द है – ‘मिजु।’ शालीनता जापानियों का गुणधर्म है। जापान के रेल स्टेशनों में हर काम पलक झपकते करना होता है। जापानी यात्री धक्का-मुक्की नहीं करते। हमारे देश की तरह महिलाओं के लिए, बुजुर्गों तथा विकलांगों के लिए सीटों का वर्गीकरण नहीं होता है।

तोक्यो के पुस्तकालय में देश-विदेश की अनेक विषयों की पुस्तकें हैं। विद्युतचालित अलमारियों में पुस्तकें सुरक्षित रहती हैं। यहाँ की न्यू ट्रंक लाइन को बुलेट ट्रेन भी कहते हैं। यह 170 किलोमीटर प्रति घंटा चलनेवाली ट्रेन है। इसमें 16 डिब्बे होते हैं और 1300 यात्री सवार हो सकते हैं। तोक्यो और ओसाका के बीच 66 गुफाएँ हैं।

किले को ‘जो’ कहते हैं और ‘जी’ का अर्थ होता है मंदिर। सन् 1585 में सम्राट तोयोतोमी हिदेयोशी नामक सम्राट ने ओसाका का किला बनवाया था। किले के चारों ओर खाई और जलाशय है। प्रवेश द्वार पर विशाल फाटक है। यह किला जापानियों के संघर्ष का प्रतीक है। नारा का प्रसिद्ध मंदिर है – तोदायजी, जिसकी स्थापना 743 ई. में हुई थी। मंदिर के अधिष्ठाता गौतम बुद्ध (दायबुत्सु) हैं। काली व भूरी लकड़ी की स्थापत्य कला देखने लायक है। तोदायजी से जुड़ा एक हिरन वन है। मंदिर से हिरन-वन तक का रास्ता प्राकृतिक छटा से ओतप्रोत है। ऊँची पहाड़ी से नारा शहर का विहंगम दृश्य दिखाई देता है।

KSEEB Solutions

अन्तरराष्ट्रीय हिन्दी सम्मेलन में विश्वभर के हिन्दी विद्वान आये थे। विशेषता यह थी कि जापान में हिन्दी विद्वानों का एक बहुत बड़ा समूह है। वे हिन्दी और उर्दू के विद्वान माने जाते हैं। भारतीय हिन्दी साहित्य के अच्छे ज्ञाता माने जाते हैं। सम्मेलन में कई पुस्तकों का लोकार्पण हुआ और जाने-माने कई विद्वानों को सम्मानित किया गया। जापानियों का हिन्दी प्रेम देखते ही बनता था। सम्मेलन विश्वबंधुत्व का परिचायक था। जापान में बौद्ध धर्म का प्रचार-प्रसार होने से प्रायः वहाँ की सभ्यता, संस्कृति भारतीय संस्कृति से बहुत कुछ मिलती-जुलती है। स्वभाषा-प्रेम तथा स्वदेश-भक्ति की सीख जापानियों से लेनी चाहिए।

यात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannadaयात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannada 1
यात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannada 2
यात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannada 3
यात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannada 4
यात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannada 5
यात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannada 6
यात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannada 7
यात्रा जापान की Summary in Kannada 8

यात्रा जापान की Summary in English

This travelogue, by Mamta Kalia, is a description of the author’s trip to Japan, to attend an International Hindi conference in Tokyo University.

In Tokyo, there is an Indian restaurant named ‘Calcutta’. The walls of this restaurant are decorated with Indian art forms and symbols. First, one is served hot water to drink. The word for drinking’ in Japanese, is ‘mizu’. Maintaining decorum and being polite is very important in Japanese culture. In the train stations of Japan, everything has to be done in the blink of an eye. Japanese passengers do not engage in jostling or moving disorderly. Unlike in India, in Japan, there are no seats reserved for either woman, old people, or the physically challenged.

The delegation visited the library of TUFS (Tokyo University of Foreign Language Studies). This is a four-storey building and on every storey, there is a reading hall. The library had 6,18,615 books. These books could be accessed from cupboards by pressing an electrically operated button. When the button was pressed again, the cupboard would close automatically. This arrangement not only saved space but also protected the books. There was sufficient space to stand in front of the cupboards. An alarm would be heard as soon as one came out of the library. The object of this alarm was to ascertain that no book was carried away by the visitor. The members of the Indian delegation saw many rare books in the Indological section.

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The New Trunk Line in Japan is also referred to as the Bullet train. This train can run at speeds up to 170 kilometres per hour. The train has 16 compartments and can hold 1300 passengers. There are 66 tunnels between Tokyo and Osaka through which this train passes.

In Japanese, a fort is called ‘Jo’, while a temple is called ‘ji’. In 1585, Emperor Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed the fort at Osaka. The fort is surrounded by steep cliffs and a deep moat on all sides. At the entrance, there is a huge door. This fort is a testament to the struggles of the Japanese.

There is a renowned temple located in Nara, called Todai-Ji, which was built in 743 A.D. The temple is dedicated to Gautama Buddha (Daibutsu). There is a 55 feet tall bronze idol of Buddha. Dark and brown wood has been used to build it. There is a deer park attached to Todai-Ji. The path that leads from the temple to the deer forest is full of beautiful sights of pristine nature. From atop tall mountains, one can look at the town of Nara.

The International Hindi Conference was attended by Hindi scholars from the world over. What was special was that in Japan there is a very big congregation of Hindi scholars who are well versed with Indian Hindi literature.

In the conference, many books were released to the public, and many well-known scholars were bestowed with honours. One can know the Japanese love for Hindi if one attends the conference. The conference is a precursor for universal brotherhood. Since most of Japan follows Buddhism, the customs and traditions of Japan seem to resemble Indian customs and traditions. We must learn how to love our mother tongue and how to be patriotic from the Japanese.

कठिन शब्दार्थ :

  • यदा-कदा – कभी-कभी;
  • तकनीकी – Technology;
  • कर्मठ – कर्मनिष्ठ;
  • पथ-प्रदर्शक – रास्ता दिखानेवाला;
  • धरातल – धरती;
  • धकापेल – धक्कम-धक्का;
  • शुमार – गणना;
  • बहुतायत – अधिकता;
  • जिज्ञासा – जानने की इच्छा;
  • जमावड़ा – भीड़;
  • फक्कड – लापरवाह एवं निश्चिंत व्यक्ति;
  • औघड़ – मनमौजी;
  • अदद – संख्या;
  • फिसल पट्टी – स्वचालित सीढ़ियाँ, Elevator;
  • पलक झपकना – बहुत थोड़े ही समय में।

KSEEB Solutions

मुहावरा :
मक्खी मारना – बेकार बैठना।

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 9 I Believe that Books will Never Disappear

You can Download I Believe that Books will Never Disappear Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 9 I Believe that Books will Never Disappear

I Believe that Books will Never Disappear Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

I Believe that Books will Never Disappear Comprehension I

Question 1.
‘I was educated more by my father’s library’ says Borges. He means ______
a. school or the university did not educate him.
b. he was educated in his father’s library too.
c. he learnt through private tuitions held in his father’s library.
Answer:
(b) he was educated in his father’s library too.

Question 2.
Why did Borges feel guilty about his mother?
Answer:
His mother’s dedication to nurturing him was immense. He had misused her love as he had taken her for granted and never gave her his love and affection in return.

Question 3.
According to Borges, blindness is ______
a. just a physical handicap
b. not a misfortune
c. actually a resource.
Answer:
(c) actually a resource.

Question 4.
Why does Borges prefer to believe that he is not blind?
Answer:
He believes in optimism than pessimism. If he were to believe that he was blind, it would affect his future but if he takes it positively and uses it as raw material, it helps his future. Hence he believes in optimism.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Borges feels that when we read a book what matters is not the author’s intention, but what sense we get out of it. (True/False.)
Answer:
True.

Question 6.
How, according to Borges, does the book go beyond the author’s intention?
Answer:
According to Borges, in every book, there is a need for something more, which is always mysterious. A book can be full of errors; we can reject its author’s opinions; disagree with him or her, but the book always retains something sacred, something mortal, and something magical which brings happiness. Thus, the book goes beyond the author’s intention.

Question 7.
When does the poetic act happen, according to Borges?
Answer:
According to Borges, the poetic act happens when the poet writes it and the reader reads it.

Question 8.
What cannot be defined without oversimplifying it?
Answer:
Poetry is something so intimate and essential that it cannot be defined without oversimplifying it.

Question 9.
Which is the most astounding invention of man?
Answer:
‘Book’ is undoubtedly the most astounding invention of man.

I Believe that Books will Never Disappear Comprehension II

Question 1.
Why does Borges feel remorseful after his mother’s death regarding his relationship with her? Can this experience be generalized?
OR
How does Borges describe his mother and his feelings for her in his interview?
Answer:
During the course of his interview with Alifano, Borges tells him that his mother was an extraordinary person who showed him a great deal of kindness in his life. Then he confesses in a remorseful tone that he could not make his mother happy because he himself was not a happy man. He also confesses that he should have shown a better understanding of his mother.

This experience can be generalized because what Borges says is true of all children. It is not surprising to know, when their mothers die, most children express that they had taken their mother for granted while they were alive like they do with the moon or the sun or the seasons and are guilty that they had abused their mothers.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
How does Borges elaborate on Goethe’s words, ‘ail that is near becomes far’?
Answer:
While giving his observations about ‘blindness’, Borges recalls an idea he had expressed in one of his poems. He had said that humiliation, misfortune, and discord were given to us so that we may transmute them, and make from the miserable circumstance of our life ‘eternal works’. At this juncture, Borges recalls to mind a statement made by Goethe. It says, “All that is near becomes far”. In this statement, Goethe refers not only to the sunset but also to life. Borges says that in his case, the visible world has moved away from his eyes forever. He feels that it is his duty to accept his misfortune and as far as possible enjoy those things.

Question 3.
What, according to Borges, should one think of humiliations and misfortunes?
Answer:
Borges says that all persons must think that whatever happens to him or her is a resource. He adds that all things have been given to us for a purpose, and therefore we should think of our humiliations, misfortunes and embarrassments as raw material like clay so that we may shape our art. He says that humiliation, misfortune and discord were given to us so that we may transmute them, so that we may make from the miserable circumstance of our life eternal works or works that aspire to be so.

Question 4.
What are Borges’views on poetry and poem?
Answer:
Borges believes that poetry is something so intimate and so essential that it cannot be defined without oversimplifying it. Then he says that poetry is not the poem and opines that a poem may be nothing more than a series of symbols. Borges opines that poetry is the aesthetic act that takes place when the poet writes it and when the reader reads it. He believes that poetry is a magical, mysterious and unexplainable – although not an incomprehensible – event. He believes that one should feel the poetic event upon reading it otherwise the poet should be deemed to have failed.

Question 5.
Why is it important for poetry to use language precisely? With what example does Borges demonstrate this aspect of poetic language?
OR
Finding precise words is important in the art of poetry. How does Borges justify this in his interview? ‘
OR
To what extent is finding the precise words important in the art of poetry, according to Borges?
Answer:
Borges feels that poetry needs to use language precisely. He opines that only precise words elicit the emotion. In order to prove his point, he quotes a line from Emily Dickinson, ‘This quiet dust was gentlemen and ladies’. He argues that though the idea is banal the poet is referring to a place which had been visited by men and women in ‘summer’. These people are now dead and the dust she refers to is the dust of death. Instead of saying ‘This quiet dust was gentlemen and ladies’ if the poet had used ‘men and women’, the poem would have failed as poetry. It would have sounded trivial.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
In spite of modern modes of communication, Borges believes that books will not disappear. Illustrate.
OR
Why does Borges say that books will never disappear?
OR
Answer:
‘The modem developments in communications will not replace books.’ Explain with reference to Jorge Luis Borges’ thoughts on this.
Answer:
According to Borges, among the many inventions of man, the book is undoubtedly the most astounding of all. All others are extensions of our bodies. The telephone is the extension of our voice, the telescope and the microscope are extensions of our sight and the sword and the plough are extensions of our arms. Only the book is an extension of our imagination and memory. Modern modes in communications have not developed anything to work as a substitute for our imagination and memory.

I Believe that Books will Never Disappear Comprehension III

Question 1.
‘Poetry is magical, mysterious, and unexplainable’. How does Borges explain the strange aspect of poetry?
OR
What are Borges’s views on poetry?
Answer:
According to Borges, poetry is an aesthetic act; and poetry is not the poem. The poetic act takes place when the poet writes it and the reader reads it and it always happens in a slightly different manner. When the poetic act takes place, Borges believes that we become aware of it. That is why he calls poetry as a magical, mysterious, and unexplainable event. If one does not feel the poetic event upon reading it, Borges opines that we need to conclude that the poet has failed.

Question 2.
How does Borges value literature? Why is it important for the future of mankind?
Answer:
According to Borges, a book is only an extension of our imagination and memory. We get access to literature through books. Literature is a dream, a controlled dream. Borges believes that we owe literature almost everything we are, what we have been, and what we will be. Our past is nothing but a sequence of dreams. He believes that there is no difference between dreaming and remembering the past. It is books that serve as the repositories of great memories of all centuries and nothing else can replace books. Therefore, if books disappear, surely history would disappear and along with history man would also disappear. Therefore, literature is very important for preserving the future of mankind.

I Believe that Books will Never Disappear Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase, or a sentence each:

Question 1.
Mention any one of the things that Borges continued to do even after becoming blind.
Answer:
Borges continued to buy books and went on filling his house with books, even after becoming blind.

Question 2.
When, according to Borges, would history and man disappear?
Answer:
According to Borges, man and history would disappear if books disappear.

Question 3.
Which was the first book that Borges read?
OR
Which was Borges’s first literary reading in an English version?
Answer:
Grimm’s ‘Fairy Tales’ in an English version.

Question 4.
Who is the writer of the verse ‘AUes Nahe Werd Fern’?
Answer:
Goethe (Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
What does ‘Alles Nahe Werd Fern’ mean?
Answer:
‘All that is near becomes far’.

Question 6.
Which famous library does Borges visualise in his dream?
OR
Which library was said to be attacked by flames in the dream of Jorge Luis Borges?
Answer:
The Royal Library of Alexandria in Egypt.

Question 7.
When is a poet considered a failure?
Answer:
A poet is considered a failure if one does not feel the poetic event upon reading it.

Question 8.
What elicits the emotion in a poem?
Answer:
Precise words.

Question 9.
Name the metaphors that Borges considers essential in literature.
OR
Mention the metaphors listed by Borges as essentials.
OR
Mention any one of the essential metaphors which, according to Borges, is found in all literature.
Answer:
Borges considers

  • Time and a river
  • life and dreams
  • death and sleep
  • stars and eyes, and
  • flowers and women as metaphors essential in literature.

Question 10.
What would happen if books disappear?
Answer:
If books disappear, surely history would disappear and along with that men would disappear.

Question 11.
What strange dream did Borges have?
OR
What does Borges dream of one night?
Answer:
Borges dreamed of the burning of a great library.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
What should a writer or an artist transmute in order to create eternal works?
Answer:
According to Borges, we must transmute our humiliations, our misfortunes, and our embarrassments, to create eternal works.

Question 13.
Which library does Borges visualize in his dream?
OR
Mention the name of the library which was attacked by countless volumes of flames in the dream of Borges.
Answer:
The library of Alexandria in his dream.

Question 14.
According to Borges, the telescope is the extension of our
(a) sight
(b) voice
(c) arms.
Answer:
(a) sight.

Question 15.
How does Borges look upon blindness?
OR
Borges looks upon blindness as a
(a) way of life
(b) miserable circumstance
(c) major handicap.
Answer:
Borges looks upon blindness as a way of life.

Question 16.
Whom does Borges look upon as an intelligent and gracious woman?
Answer:
Borges looks upon Dona Leonor, his mother, as an intelligent and gracious woman.

Question 17.
What was Borges’first literary reading?
Answer:
An English version of ‘Grimm’s Fairy Tales’ was Borges’ first literary reading.

Question 18.
Which is the most outstanding invention of man, according to Borges?
Answer:
According to Borges, ‘book’ is the most outstanding invention of man.

Question 19.
Where was Luis Borges educated?
Answer:
Luis Borges was educated in his father’s library.

Question 20.
According to Borges, in which language did, he read ‘Grimm’s Fairy Tales’?
Answer:
According to Borges, he read Grimm’s Fairy tales in an English version.

Question 21.
Where, according to Borges, was he educated more than by high school or the university?
Answer:
According to Borges, he was educated by his father’s library more than by high school or the university.

Question 22.
Who, according to Borges, was an extraordinary person?
Answer:
According to Borges, his mother was an extraordinary person.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 23.
Whom does Borges look upon as an intelligent and gracious woman?
Answer:
Borges looks upon his mother as an intelligent and gracious woman.

Question 24.
What, according to Borges, is blindness to him?
Answer:
According to Borges, blindness is a way of life that is not entirely unhappy.

Question 25.
Borges says one must think that whatever happens to him or her is a
(a) resource.
(b) misfortune
(c) embarrassment
Answer:
(a) resource.

Question 26.
Name the book of Homer mentioned by Borges in his interview.
Answer:
In his interview, Borges mentions ‘The Odyssey’ written by Homer.

Question 27.
‘All that is near becomes far’. This line is from a poem by
(a) Homer
(b) Spengler
(c) Goethe.
Answer:
(c) Goethe.

Question 28.
What did Borges fill his house with when the visible world moved away from his eyes?
Answer:
Borges filled his house with books when the visible world moved away from his eyes.

Question 29.
What exactly did Borges visualize about the library in his dream?
Answer:
In his dream, Borges visualized the burning of a great library with its countless volumes attacked by flames.

Question 30.
Name the book which, according to Borges, has remarkable comments on books.
Answer:
According to Borges, Spengler’s book ‘Decline of the West’ has remarkable comments on books.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
Who, according to Borges, have predated his attempt to write a history of the book?
Answer:
According to Borges, Spengler has predated his attempt to write a history of the book.

Question 32.
Who, according to Borges, quoted that every book worth being re-read has been written by the spirit?
Answer:
According to Borges, Bernard Shaw quoted that every book worth being re-read has been written by the spirit.

Question 33.
What, according to Borges, is magical, mysterious, and unexplainable?
Answer:
According to Borges, poetry is magical, mysterious, and unexplainable.

Question 34.
Whose line in a poem does Borges remember always?
Answer:
Borges always remembers Emily Dickinson’s line in a poem.

Question 35.
Since when, according to Borges, do metaphors exist?
Answer:
According to Borges, metaphors exist since the beginning of time.

Question 36.
What, according to Borges, will never disappear?
Answer:
According to Borges, books will never disappear.

Question 37.
Borges says that the telescope and the microscope are the extensions of our
(a) voice
(b) sight
(c) arms.
Answer:
(b) sight.

Question 38.
Which of the inventions of man is the extension of our voice, according to Borges?
Answer:
According to Borges, of the many inventions of man, the telephone is the extension of our voice.

Question 39.
According to Borges, which of the inventions of man is the extension of our imagination and memory?
Answer:
According to Borges, of the many inventions of man, only the book is an extension of our imagination and memory.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
What, according to Borges, is a controlled dream?
Answer:
According to Borges, ‘Literature’ is a controlled dream.

Question 41.
According to Borges, our past is nothing but a sequence of _______
(a) dreams
(b) memories
(c) experiences.
Answer:
(a) dreams.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each:

Question 1.
‘A poet’s task is to discover metaphors’. How does Borges explain this in ‘Books will never Disappear’?
OR
What are Borges’ views on metaphors?
Answer:
While giving his views about ‘poetry’, Borges calls poetry as the aesthetic act. He opines that the poetic act takes place when the poet writes it and when the reader reads it. At this point, Alifano says that finding the precise words is very important in the art of poetry because it is the precise words that elicit the emotion. Such precise words exist naturally in the form of metaphors. According to Borges, true metaphors have been in existence from the beginning of time. Then he says that all the existing metaphors can be grouped under five or six essential metaphors, like time and a river, life and dreams, death and sleep, stars and eyes, and flowers and women. But it is the poet who has to discover metaphors though they may already exist.

Question 2.
How does Borges reconcile with his blindness? Explain.
Answer:
According to Borges, people must think that whatever happens to a person is a resource and such things have been given to us for a purpose. He opines that all that happens to us, including humiliations, misfortunes, and embarrassments are given to us as raw material like clay, so that we may shape our art out of it. Therefore, he has taken blindness as a way of life, which is not entirely unhappy. He believes that it is his duty to accept it as far as possible and enjoy it. Therefore, he still continues to pretend that he is not blind and buys books to fill his house with.

Question 3.
Why does Borges define poetry as intimate and essential and that which cannot be defined without oversimplifying?
Answer:
According to Borges, poetry is the aesthetic act that takes place when the poet writes it, and when the reader reads it, which happens in a slightly different manner. That is why he calls it something so intimate, and so essential that it cannot be defined without oversimplifying it. If we try to define it, it would be like attempting to define the colour yellow or love or the fall of leaves in autumn.

Question 4.
Why does Borges say blindness is a way of life and a resource?
OR
How does Borges define ‘blindness’?
OR
How does Borges look upon his blindness? Explain.
OR
What are the views of Borges on blindness?
Answer:
Borges defines ‘blindness’ as a way of life that is not entirely unhappy. He also calls it a resource because he believes that all things have been given to us for a purpose and an artist must feel this more intensely. He believes that all that happens to us including humiliations, our misfortunes, and our embarrassments are given to us as raw material, as clay so that we may shape our art, eternal work, or work that aspires to be so. Therefore, he has taken blindness as a way of life, which is not entirely unhappy. He believes that it is his duty to accept it as far as possible and enjoy it.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
How does Borges describe the happiness of re-reading books?
Answer:
Borges endorses the idea of Bernard Shaw expressed in the statement, “Every book worth being re-read has been written by the spirit”. In this context, Borges opines that a book goes beyond its author’s intention. He opines that in ever ‘-ook there appears to be a need for something more, which is mysterious. He then says that when we read an ancient book we feel as though we are reading all time that has passed from the day it was written to our present-day because the book always retains something sacred, something mortal and something magical which brings happiness.

Question 6.
What are Luis Borges’ views on books?
OR
What is the significance of the book in a man’s life, according to Jorge Luis Borges? According to Borges, a book is only an extension of our imagination and memory. We get access to literature through books. Literature is a dream, a controlled dream. Borges believes that we owe literature almost everything we are, what we have been and what we will be. Our past is nothing but a sequence of dreams. He believes that there is no difference between dreaming and remembering the past.

Books are undoubtedly the most astounding invention of man. It is books that serve as the repositories of great memories of all centuries and nothing else can replace books. Therefore, if books disappear, surely history would disappear and along with history man would also disappear. He says that books always retain something sacred, mortal and magical which brings happiness. Therefore, literature is very important for preserving the future of mankind.

Question 7.
What does Borges tell us about his mother in particular and all mothers in general?
Answer:
Borges says that his mother was an extraordinary person who showed him a great deal of kindness in his life. Then he confesses in a remorseful tone that he could not make his mother happy because he himself was not a happy man. He also confesses that he should have shown a better understanding of his mother.

This experience can be generalized because what Borges says is true of all children. It is not surprising to know, when their mothers die, most children express that they had taken their mother for granted while they were alive like they do with the moon or the sun or the seasons and are guilty that they had abused their mothers.

Question 8.
How, according to Borges, does a book go beyond its author’s intention?
Answer:
According to Borges, though a book is only an extension of our imagination and memory, a book goes beyond its author’s intention. He opines that the author’s intention is a meager thing – a fallible thing. In every book, there is a need for something more, which is always mysterious. When we read an ancient book we feel as though we are reading all time that has passed from the day it was written to our present-day because the book always retains something sacred, something mortal and something magical which brings happiness. That is why he endorses the opinion of Bernard Shaw, who made the statement, “Every book worth being re-read has been written by the spirit”.

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words each:

Question 1.
“If books disappear, surely history would disappear, and surely the man would disappear”. Justify the statement with reference to the interview of Borges on the significance of books.
OR
The function of books is irreplaceable. Explain with reference to ‘I Believe Books Will Never Disappear’.
Answer:
Towards the end of the interview, Roberto Alifano asks Borges’ opinion on the comment that modern developments in communications will replace books with something more dynamic than reading. In reply, Borges asserts that books will never disappear and it is impossible to replace books. He justifies his opinion saying that ‘book’ is the most astounding invention of man. Whereas the telephone can be considered as an extension of our voice, the television and microscope as extensions of our sight, and the sword and the plough as extensions of our arm, only the book is an extension of our imagination and memory and nothing can replace books.

KSEEB Solutions

Books preserve the great memory of all centuries and their function is irreplaceable. Naturally, if books disappear, history would disappear and man would also surely disappear. He says that books always retain something sacred, mortal and magical which brings happiness.

Question 2.
One’s experience is one’s resource. How does Borges expound his views on this?
Answer:
While answering a question about his blindness, Borges says that whatever happens to us in life should be considered a resource, because he believes that all things have been given to us for a purpose and an artist must feel this more intensely. He believes that all that happens to us, including humiliations, misfortunes, and embarrassments are given to us as raw material, as clay, so that we say shape our art. He says that humiliation, misfortune and discord are given to us so that we may transmute them, so that we may make from the miserable circumstance of our life eternal works or works that aspire to be so.

Question 3.
Poetry is unexplainable. Discuss in the light of Borges’s interview.
Answer:
Borges believes that poetry is something so intimate and so essential that it cannot be defined without oversimplifying it. Then he says that poetry is not the poem and opines that a poem may be nothing more than a series of symbols. According to Borges, poetry is an aesthetic act; and poetry is not the poem. The poetic act takes place when the poet writes it and the reader reads it and it always happens in a slightly different manner. When the poetic act takes place, Borges believes that we become aware of it. That is why he calls poetry as a magical, mysterious and unexplainable event. If one does not feel the poetic event upon reading it, Borges opines that we need to conclude that the poet has failed.

I Believe that Books will Never Disappear Vocabulary

Word Pairs:
Non-reversible word pairs always appear in the same order, e.g., back and forth. It would sound awkward if we read forth and back. The following is a list of some common word pairs.

  1. Trial and Error
  2. Pride and Prejudice
  3. Null and Void
  4. Flora and Fauna
  5. Whims and Fancies
  6. High and Dry
  7. Time and Again
  8. Pick and Choose
  9. Time and Tide
  10. Tooth and Nail
  11. Forgive and Forget
  12. Pros and Cons
  13. Hale and Hearty
  14. Hue and cry

List of a few other word pairs:

  • above and beyond
  • alive and kicking
  • hugs and kisses
  • down and out
  • back and forth
  • bow and arrow
  • cat and mouse
  • eyes and ears
  • fish and chips
  • hale and hearty
  • hammer and tongs
  • high and mighty
  • kith and kin
  • ladies and gentlemen
  • law and order
  • loud and clear
  • pure and simple
  • short and sweet
  • supply and demand
  • tooth and nail
  • track and field
  • up and about
  • better or worse
  • dead or alive
  • give or take
  • clean and tidy
  • heart and soul
  • neat and tidy
  • pick and choose
  • bag and baggage
  • bread and butter
  • chalk and cheese
  • forgive and forget
  • mix and match
  • pen and paper
  • rock and roll
  • rhyme or reason
  • safe and sound
  • high and dry
  • hustle and bustle
  • rough and tough
  • wear and tear
  • back to back
  • side by side
  • sick and tired
  • alive and well
  • once and for all
  • apples and oranges
  • beck and call
  • by and large
  • each and every
  • far and wide
  • flesh and blood
  • hammer and sickle
  • hard and fast
  • home and dry
  • knife and fork
  • lakes and streams
  • lo and behold
  • nuts and bolts
  • salt and pepper
  • song and dance
  • thunder and lightning
  • touch and go
  • trial and error
  • ways and means
  • big or small
  • do or die
  • by hook or by crook
  • first and foremost
  • leaps and bounds
  • null and void
  • plain and simple
  • bold and beautiful
  • cash and carry
  • fast and furious
  • kith and kin
  • part and parcel
  • pillar to post
  • read and write
  • rules and regulations
  • spick and span
  • hither and thither
  • near and dear
  • time and tide
  • wine and dine
  • bit by bit
  • apples and pears

Additional Exercises

A. Passive Voice:

Question 1.
Borges’ first literary reading was ‘Grimm’s Fairy Tales’. It _____ (find) in his father’s library. It was an English version of the book that ______ (translate) from German. According to Borges he ____ (educate) by his father’s library more than by high school or the university.
Answer:
was found; had been translated; was educated.

Question 2.
Borges opines that all things _____ (have, give) to us for a purpose. All that happens to us _____ (must, see) as raw material. This material _______ (transmute) into art and eternal works are made.
Answer:
have been given; must be seen; is transmuted.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Last night, I had a very strange dream. I dreamed of a great library and it ______ (burn) down. Its countless volumes ____ (attack) by flames. I _____ (disturb) by this dream.
Answer:
was being burnt; were attacked; was disturbed.

Question 4.
The visible world has moved away from my eyes. But it _____ (has, replace) by other things. It _____ (accept) by me positively. Books ______ (buy) even today with the same interest.
Answer:
has been replaced; is accepted/has been accepted; are bought.

Question 5.
It is an excellent idea that a history of book _____ (should, write). ‘Decline of the West’ _______ (remember) for ever because some remarkable comments ______ (make) by Spengler on books.
Answer:
should be written; will be remembered; have been made/are made.

Question 6.
Poetry is something so intimate and essential, it _______ (cannot, define) without oversimplifying it. Mere arrangement of words ____ (not call) poetry. Just as the fall of leaves in autumn ______ (cannot explain), poetry is difficult to explain.
Answer:
cannot be defined; is not called; cannot be explained.

B. Report the following conversation:

Question 1.
Alifano: What is your first literary reading?
Borges: My first reading is Grimm’s Fairy Tales in an English version.
Alifano: Where did you read it?
Borges: I read it in my father’s library. It taught me more than any high school.
Answer:
Alifano asked Borges what was his first literary reading. Borges replied that his first reading was Grimm’s Fairy Tales in an English version. Alifano further asked him where he had read it. Borges replied that he had read it in his father’s library. He added that it taught him more than any high school would.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Alifano: What is blindness to you?
Borges: It is a way of life. In my case, the visible world has moved away from my eyes.
Alifano: Have you thought of writing a book on the history of the book?
Borges: It is an excellent idea. I will keep it in my mind.
Answer:
Alifano asked Borges what was blindness to him. Borges replied that it was a way of life. He added that in his case the visible world had moved away from his eyes. Alifano again asked Borges whether he had thought of writing a book on the history of the book. Borges said that it was an excellent idea and that he would keep it in his mind.

C. Fill in the blanks by choosing the appropriate expressions given in brackets:

Question 1.
Borges says that all children fail to give their mother her deserved happiness because the mother is ______. However, it does not ______ them before her death. (dawn on, taken for granted, keep in wind)
Answer:
taken for granted; dawn on.

Question 2.
Borges says that it would be wonderful to write a history of the book. He will _______. However, he says that an eighty-three-year-old man cannot ______ of this kind for himself. (set a project, keep it in mind, take for granted)
Answer:
keep it in mind; set a project.

D. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkers:

Question 1.
Borges believes that metaphors, _____ they are truly metaphors, exist from the beginning of time. ______ we express them differently, he asserts. In his view, all metaphors can be reduced to five or six ______ seem to be essential metaphors. He says that the poet’s task is to discover metaphors ______ they may already exist. (even though, if, which, but)
Answer:
if; But; which; even though.

Question 2.
Literature is a dream. Our past is nothing ______ a sequence of dreams. There is no difference between dreaming ______ remembering the past. Books are a great memory of all centuries. _______ their function is irreplaceable. _______ books disappear, surely history would disappear, and surely the man would disappear. (If, but, therefore, and)
Answer:
but; and; Therefore; If.

Believe that Books will Never Disappear Interview with Jorge Luis Borges About the Interviewee:

Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986) is an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator born in Buenos Aires. His work embraces the “character of unreality in all literature”. His most famous books, ‘Ficciones’ (1944) and The Aleph’ (El Aleph, 1949) are compilations of short stories interconnected by common themes, including dreams, labyrinths, libraries, mirrors, infinity, fictional writers, philosophy, religion and God.

Believe that Books will Never Disappear Interview with Jorge Luis Borges About the Interviewer:

Roberto Alifano, Argentine poet, storyteller, essayist and journalist, was born in the city of
General Pinto, province of Buenos Aires, in 1943. His books have been translated into several languages. From 1974 to 1985 he worked with Jorge Luis Borges.

Believe that Books will Never Disappear Summary in English

This lesson presents excerpts from a face-to-face interview between Jorge Luis Borges and Roberto Alifano. Jorge Luis Borges was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, who became partially blind at the age of 55.
In this interview, Borges shares his views on the importance of ‘books’ in the era of globalised electronic communication. Incidentally, Borges shares his views/observations about a few other topics like poetry, metaphors and literature as well, besides expressing his feelings about his ‘mother’ and his ‘blindness’. Alifano, the interviewer, asks questions about each of the topics mentioned above and Borges expresses his views in response to them.

KSEEB Solutions

The interview begins with the first question, ‘What was your first literary reading?’ In reply, Borges tells him that the first literary work that he read was ‘Grimm’s Fairy Tales’ in the English version. Then Borges tells his interviewer that he learned more from his father’s library than by high school or the university.

Alifano then asks Borges to speak about his mother Dona Leonor. Borges tells him that his mother was an extraordinary person who showed him a great deal of kindness in his life. Then he continues, telling the interviewer in a confessional tone that he feels guilty for not having been a happy man in order to have given his mother the happiness she deserved. He also feels that he should have shown a better understanding of his mother.

Then, he generalizes the issue stating that it is true of all children that when their mothers die, children feel that they had taken them for granted (while she was alive) like they do with the moon or the sun or the seasons and feel that they have abused their mothers. However, this truth does not dawn on such children before the death of their mother. Then Borges adds that his mother was an intelligent and gracious woman who had no enemies.

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 9 I Believe that Books will Never Disappear image - 1

Then, Alifano asks Borges apologetically what blindness meant to him. Borges, in reply, tells him that blindness is a way of life not entirely unhappy. He adds that as a writer he generally believes that all persons must think that whatever happens to him or to her is a resource. He believes that all things have been given us for a purpose and an artist must feel that more intensely. Borges is of the opinion that all that happens to us, including humiliations, misfortunes, and embarrassments are given to us as raw material as clay so that we may shape our art.

Alifano endorses Borges’ idea quoting from Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’. The lines quoted by Alifano are taken from this poem, in which the poet tells the reader that it is the Gods who make man’s life tragic so as to weave a song for future generations to sing. This idea is based on the belief that men write songs in order to soothe the mind when they recall their woes.

After listening to Alifano’s quote from ‘The Odyssey’, Borges adds a little more to highlight the same idea of man’s life being troubled by many undesirable events. Borges tells Alifano that in one of his poems he has said that ‘humiliation’, ‘misfortune’, and ‘discord’ were given to us that we may change them and using our miserable circumstances create works which last forever. Then he quotes from Goethe, “All that is near becomes far”. Here again, Borges is referring to the loss of his eyesight.

In the line quoted here, Goethe is referring to the evening twilight when the things closest to us seem to move away from our eyes. Borges is quoting this line to tell Alifano that the visible world has moved away from his eyes forever. Borges then adds that his eyesight has been replaced by many other things. Then he tells Alifano that it is his duty to accept blindness and still enjoy it as far as possible. Therefore, he tells Alifano that he still continues to pretend that he is not blind and buys books, to fill his house with.

Alifano, hearing him mention ‘Books’, asks Borges to speak about the theme of books. In reply, Borges tells Alifano that he had a very strange dream in which he had seen the library of Alexandria burning, its countless volumes attacked by flames. Then he asks Alifano whether he believes that his dream has any meaning. Alifano replies that it may have some meaning, but then continues his interview asking Borges whether he has ever thought of writing a book on the history of the ‘book’.

Borges tells him that he won’t be able to write such a book though it is an excellent idea. He wonders whether an eighty-three-year-old man can set such a project for himself. Incidentally, Borges tells him that he will keep it in his mind. Then Borges tells Alifano that Spengler has already made an effort in this regard in his ‘Decline of the West’.

In this book, Spengler has made a remarkable comment on books. Then Alifano refers to Borges’ comments (in one of his essays) about the words of Bernard Shaw, in which he has declared “Every book worth being re-read has been written by the spirit”.

Borges agrees with him and tells him that a book goes beyond its author’s intention, which may not be right. Borges declares that in every book there is a need for something more, which is not easy to understand. Then he gives the example of an ancient book. He tells Alifano that when one reads an ancient book one feels as though he or she was reading about all the time that has passed from the day it was written to his present day.

Borges concludes saying that a book always retains something sacred, something mortal, something magical which brings happiness. Then, Alifano asks Borges to define poetry. In reply, Borges says that poetry is something so intimate, and so essential that it cannot be defined without being oversimplified. If one attempts to define poetry it would be like attempting to define the colour yellow, love, and the fall of the leaves in autumn. Borges then states that poetry is not the poem but it is the aesthetic act, the poetic act that takes place when the poet writes it when the reader reads it and it always happens in a different manner. Then he adds and says that when the poetic act takes place, we become aware of it. He then concludes declaring that poetry is a magical, mysterious, and unexplainable, although not an incomprehensible, event.

KSEEB Solutions

He feels that the poet should be deemed to have failed if one does not feel the poetic event upon reading it. Alifano then adds telling Borges that the important thing in the art of poetry is finding the precise words. Borges agrees with him. He then states that precise words elicit the emotion. He quotes the line “This quiet dust was gentlemen and ladies” from Emily Dickinson’s poem to illustrate his statement.

Alifano then asks Borges to explain the concept of metaphors. Borges tells him in reply that true metaphors have been there in existence since the beginning of time. Then he tells him that he has occasionally thought of reducing all metaphors to five or six essential metaphors.

Borges is of the opinion that these essential metaphors are found in all literature, apart from many others which are whimsical. Borges then tells him that the poet has to discover metaphors, even though they may already exist.

Finally, Alifano asks Borges to comment on the statement “modern developments in communications will replace books with something more dynamic that will require less time than reading”.

Borges tells him that books will never disappear. Then, he declares that among the many inventions of man, the book is undoubtedly the most astounding, and all the others are only extensions of our bodies. He opines that the telephone is the extension of our voice; the telescope and the microscope are extensions of our sight, and the sword and the plough are extensions of our arms. He asserts that only the book is an extension of our imagination and memory.

Then Alifano asks Borges his reactions to his own statement, ‘Literature is a dream’. Borges assertively tells him.that it is true. He restates his statement ‘Literature is a dream’, and says that it is a ‘controlled dream’. Then he says that it is his belief that we owe literature almost everything we are; what we have been, and also what we will be and ends saying “Our past is nothing but a sequence of dreams.” He concludes remarking that there can be no difference between dreaming and remembering the past. Then he declares, “Books are the great memory of all centuries and their function is irreplaceable. If books disappear, history will disappear and surely the man would disappear”.

Believe that Books will Never Disappear Summary in Kannada

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2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 9 I Believe that Books will Never Disappear image - 7
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Glossary:

  • Dona: used as a courtesy title before the name of a woman in a Spanish-speaking area
  • Whimsical: fanciful
  • Odyssey: Greek epic written by Homer
  • Library of Alexandria: one of the largest libraries of the ancient world which was burnt
  • Spengler: Oswald Spengler (1880 – 1936), German historian and philosopher.

2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 20 प्रतिशोध

You can Download Chapter 20 प्रतिशोध Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 20 प्रतिशोध

प्रतिशोध Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

I. एक शब्द या वाक्यांश या वाक्य में उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
संस्कृत के महापंडित कौन हैं?
उत्तर:
संस्कृत के महापंडित भारवि के पिता श्रीधर हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
संस्कृत के महाकवि कौन हैं?
उत्तर:
संस्कृत के महाकवि भारवि हैं।

प्रश्न 3.
भारवि की माँ का नाम क्या है?
उत्तर:
भारवि की माँ का नाम सुशीला है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 4.
सुशीला किसके लिए बेचैन है?
उत्तर:
सुशीला अपने बेटे भारवि के न आने से बेचैन है।

प्रश्न 5.
कवि किस पर शासन करता है?
उत्तर:
कवि समय पर शासन करता है।

प्रश्न 6.
शास्त्रार्थ के नियमों में किसके हृदय को नहीं बाँधा जा सकता?
उत्तर:
शास्त्रार्थ के नियमों में माता के हृदय को नहीं बाँधा जा सकता।

प्रश्न 7.
पुत्र को कौन निर्वासित कर सकता है?
उत्तर:
पुत्र को पिता निर्वासित कर सकता है।

प्रश्न 8.
पुत्र को कब निर्वासित किया जा सकता है?
उत्तर:
पुत्र यदि अन्याय का आचरण करे, धर्म के प्रतिकूल चले तो उसे निर्वासित किया जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 9.
शास्त्रार्थों में पंडितों को किसने पराजित किया?
उत्तर:
शास्त्रार्थों में पंडितों को भारवि ने पराजित किया।

प्रश्न 10.
भारवि में किस कारण अहंकार बढ़ता जा रहा था?
उत्तर:
पंडितों की हार से भारवि में अहंकार बढ़ता जा रहा था।

प्रश्न 11.
पिता क्या नहीं सहन कर सकता?
उत्तर:
पिता यह नहीं सहन कर सकता कि उसका पुत्र दंभी या घमण्डी हो।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 12.
पिता ने भारवि की किन शब्दों में ताड़ना की?
उत्तर:
पिता ने भारवि की इन शब्दों में ताड़ना की – कि तू महामूर्ख है, दंभी है, अज्ञानी है।

प्रश्न 13.
पंडित किस प्रकार भारवि का परिहास करने लगे?
उत्तर:
पंडित भारवि की ओर देखकर, उनके स्वर में ही बोलकर वे उसका परिहास करने लगे और ताली पीटने लगे।

प्रश्न 14.
ग्लानि से भरे हुए भारवि को जाने से क्यों नहीं रोका गया?
उत्तर:
अनुशासन की मर्यादा रखने के लिए भारवि को जाने से नहीं रोका गया।

प्रश्न 15. अनुशासन की मर्यादा पर क्या किया जा सकता है?
उत्तर:
अनुशासन की मर्यादा पर बड़े से बड़े व्यक्ति का बलिदान किया जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 16. श्रीधर पंडित का पुत्र क्या नहीं हो सकता?
उत्तर:
श्रीधर पंडित का पुत्र इतना पतित नहीं हो सकता।

प्रश्न 17. श्रीधर पंडित के घर की सेविका का नाम लिखिए।
उत्तर:
श्रीधर पंडित के घर की सेविका का नाम आभा है।

प्रश्न 18. सुशीला किसको खोजकर लाने के लिए आभा से कहती है?
उत्तर:
सुशीला अपने पुत्र भारवि को खोजकर लाने के लिए कहती है।

प्रश्न 19. प्रेम के बिना किसका मूल्य नहीं है?
उत्तर:
प्रेम के बिना अनुशासन का मूल्य नहीं है।

प्रश्न 20.
श्रीधर पंडित भारवि को खोजने के लिए किसका सहारा लेना चाहते थे?
उत्तर:
श्रीधर पंडित भारवि को खोजने के लिए राजकीय सहायता लेना चाहते थे।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 21.
शास्त्रार्थ के लिए जाते समये भारवि ने किस रंग के कपड़े पहने हुए थे?
उत्तर:
शास्त्रार्थ के लिए जाते समय भारवि ने कौशेय वस्त्र, पीतरंग का अधोवस्त्र और नील रंग का उत्तरीय पहने थे।

प्रश्न 22.
भारवि से मिलने आयी स्त्री का नाम लिखिए।
उत्तर:
भारवि से मिलने आई स्त्री का नाम भारती है।

प्रश्न 23.
वसंत ऋतु में किसके स्वर से सभी परिचित हैं?
उत्तर:
वसंत ऋतु में कोकिल के स्वर से सभी परिचित हैं।

प्रश्न 24.
ब्रह्म ज्ञान किसकी वीणा पर नृत्य करने के समान था?
उत्तर:
ब्रह्मज्ञान सरस्वती की वीणा पर नृत्य करने के समान था।

प्रश्न 25.
भारती ने भारवि को कहाँ देखा था?
उत्तर:
भारती ने भारवि को मालिनी-तट पर देखा था।

प्रश्न 26.
भारती ने जब भारवि को देखा तो उनकी स्थिति कैसी थी?
उत्तर:
भारती ने जब भारवि को देखा, तो वे उस वक्त ध्यानमग्न थे, लगता था कि वे भारती की उपासना कर रहे थे।

प्रश्न 27.
बीज से दूर रहने पर भी फूल क्या नहीं होता?
उत्तर:
बीज से दूर रहने पर भी फूल मलिन नहीं होता।

प्रश्न 28.
भारवि के पिता को किसके पांडित्य को देखकर प्रसन्नता होती थी?
उत्तर:
भारवि के पांडित्य को देखकर उसके पिता को हार्दिक प्रसन्नता होती थी।

प्रश्न 29.
अहंकार किसमें बाधक है?
उत्तर:
अहंकार उन्नति में बाधक है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 30.
पिता के क्रोध में किसके प्रति मंगल कामना छिपी है?
उत्तर:
पिता के क्रोध में पुत्र की मंगल कामना छिपी है।

प्रश्न 31.
तलवार का प्रमाण किसका प्रमाण है?
उत्तर:
तलवार का प्रमाण निर्बलों का प्रमाण है।

प्रश्न 32.
जीवन से क्या उत्पन्न होती है?
उत्तर:
जीवन से ग्लानि उत्पन्न होती है।

प्रश्न 33.
ब्रह्म का निवास कहाँ होता है?
उत्तर:
मस्तक में स्थित सहस्रदल में ब्रह्म का निवास होता है।

प्रश्न 34.
भारवि के अनुसार क्या जघन्य पाप है?
उत्तर:
भारवि के अनुसार आत्महत्या जघन्य पाप है।

प्रश्न 35.
भारवि को अपमान किसके समान खटक रहा था?
उत्तर:
भारवि को अपमान शूल के समान खटक रहा था।

प्रश्न 36.
भारवि ने प्रतिशोध की आग में क्या करना चाहा?
उत्तर:
भारवि ने प्रतिशोध की आग में पिता की हत्या करना चाहा।

प्रश्न 37.
पितृ-हत्या का दण्ड क्या नहीं है?
उत्तर:
पितृ-हत्या का दण्ड प्रतिशोध या पुत्र-हत्या नहीं है।

प्रश्न 38.
भारवि के अनुसार जीवन का सबसे बड़ा अपराध क्या है?
उत्तर:
भारवि के अनुसार जीवन का सबसे बड़ा अपराध जीवन को चिंता में घुलाना, पाप में लपेटना और दुःख में बिलखाना है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 39.
‘प्रतिशोध’ एकांकी के एकांकीकार का नाम लिखिए।
उत्तर:
‘प्रतिशोध’ एकांकी के एकांकीकार डॉ. रामकुमार वर्मा हैं।

प्रश्न 40.
भारवि किस महाकाव्य की रचना कर महाकवि भारवि बने?
उत्तर:
भारवि ‘किरातार्जुनीयम’ महाकाव्य की रचना कर महाकवि भारवि बने।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्न :

प्रश्न 1.
भारवि किससे तलवार लेकर आया था?
उत्तर:
भारवि मित्र विजयघोष से तलवार लेकर आया था।

II. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
भारवि से संबंधित माता-पिता के बीच होने वाले प्रारंभिक संवाद का सार लिखिए।
उत्तर:
भारवी से संबंधित माता-पिता के बीच होनेवाला प्रारंभिक संवाद इस प्रकार से है – भारवि के पिता श्रीधर अपनी पत्नी सुशीला को वेद सुना रहे हैं। सुशीला का ध्यान कहीं और है क्योंकि अभी तक उसका पुत्र घर नहीं आया। श्रीधर कहते हैं कि भारवि शास्त्रार्थ में पण्डितों को पराजित करता जा रहा था और इस वजह से उसका घमण्ड बढ़ता जा रहा था। मैंने उसे ताड़ना दी क्योंकि मैं चाहता था कि मेरा पुत्र सुमार्ग पर चले। इसके लिए कभी-कभी ताड़ना अनिवार्य हो जाती है। सुशीला कहती है कि माँ के हृदय को शास्त्रार्थ के नियमों में नहीं बाँधा जा सकता।

प्रश्न 2.
शास्त्रार्थ में पंडितों को हराते देख पिता ने भारवि के बारे में क्या सोचा?
उत्तर:
शास्त्रार्थ में पंडितों को हराते देख पिता ने भारवि के बारे में सोचा कि पंडितों की हार से उसका अहंकार बढ़ता जा रहा है। उसे अपनी विद्वता का घमंड हो गया है। उसका गर्व सीमा को पार कर रहा है। भारवि आज संसार का श्रेष्ठ महाकवि है। दूर-दूर के देशों में उसकी समानता करने वाला कोई नहीं है।

उसने शास्त्रार्थ में बड़े से बड़े पण्डितों को पराजित किया है। उसका पांडित्य देखकर पिता को बहुत प्रसन्नता होती है। पर भारवि के मन में धीरे-धीरे अहंकार बढ़ता जा रहा है। पिता चाहते हैं कि भारवि और भी अधिक पंडित और महाकवि बने। पर अहंकार उन्नति में बाधक है। इसलिए पिता ने अहंकार पर अंकुश रखना चाहा। जिसे अपने पांडित्य का अभिमान हो जाता है वह अधिक उन्नति नहीं कर सकता। इसी कारण से पिता भारवि को समय-समय पर मूर्ख और अज्ञानी कहते हैं। पिता नहीं चाहते हैं कि अहंकार के कारण उसके पुत्र की उन्नति रुक जाये।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 3.
सुशीला के अनुरोध पर श्रीधर ने भारवि को कहाँ-कहाँ और कैसे तलाश करने का वचन दिया?
उत्तर:
जब पुत्र भारवि वापस नहीं लौटा तो माता सुशीला बहुत चिंतित हो गई। बार-बार अपने पुत्र की खोज के लिए पति श्रीधर से आग्रह करने लगी। श्रीधर हिम्मत करते हुए कहते हैं कि पुत्र तो है ही, किन्तु वह संसार का जनक भी है। अपनी कल्पना से वह न जाने कितने संसारों का निर्माण कर सकता है। श्रीधर उसे जनपदों से खोज लाने का वादा करते हैं, राजकीय सहायता लेकर उसको खोजने की बात करते है। सुशीला को शांत रहने के लिए कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 4.
भारती और सुशीला के वार्तालाप को अपने शब्दों में लिखिए।
उत्तर:
भारती भारवि को मालिनी के तट पर ध्यानमग्न बैठे देखती है, वह उन्हें मिलना चाहती थी लेकिन अचानक उद्विग्नता में उठकर भारवि चला गया वह उससे बात न कर सकी। यही बात वह सुशीला से कह रही है। सुशीला ने जानना चाहा कि क्या वह उसे जानती है। तब वह कहती है कि पिछले पूर्णिमा के त्योहार में उन्होंने बहुत ही बढ़िया शास्त्रार्थ किया था, वेदान्त की सुन्दर मीमांसा की थी। उस तरह भारती ने कही भी नहीं सुना था। ऐसे महान कवि भारवि को कौन नहीं जानता? वह कल फिर से आने की बात कर जाने लगती है तो सुशीला उसे कहती है कि उस बीच कुछ पता मिले तो हमें भी बताना।

प्रश्न 5.
भारवि अपने पिता से क्यों बदला लेना चाहता था?
उत्तर:
भारवि महाकवि था, शास्त्रार्थ में सारे पंडितों को हराता था लेकिन जब उसके मन में अहंकार भर गया तब उसके पिता उन्हीं पंडितों के सामने उसे लांछित करते हैं। जिन पंडितों को वह हराया था वे ही उसका परिहास करते थे। दो बार उन्होंने पण्डितों के सामने भारवि को मूर्ख अज्ञानी कहा, उसकी निन्दा की तो भारवि क्रोध और ग्लानि से भर गया। उसने समझा कि जबतक उसके पिता जिंदा है वह ऐसे ही अपमानित होता रहेगा, इसलिए वह अपने पिता से बदला लेना चाहता था।

प्रश्न 6.
‘अहंकार उन्नति में बाधक है।’ एकांकी के आधार पर श्रीधर के इस कथन को स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर:
श्रीधर का यह कथन ‘अहंकार उन्नति में बाधक है’ बहुत ही सार्थक प्रतीत होता है। भारवि श्रीधर का पुत्र था। वह शास्त्रार्थ में पंड़ितों को पराजित करता जा रहा था। उसके साथ ही साथ उसके अंदर घमंड की भावना बढ़ती जा रही थी। यह श्रीधर के बर्दाश्त के बाहर था। उन्होंने भरी सभा में अपने पुत्र को उग्र रूप से ताड़ना दी। उसे महामूर्ख, दंभी और अज्ञानी कहा। वे उसका भला चाहते थे। वे नहीं चाहते थे कि अहंकार या दंभ उसके पुत्र के मार्ग मे बाधक बने। अहंकार व्यक्ति को आगे बढ़ने से रोकता है। उसकी प्रतिभा का भी एक प्रकार से हनन करता है। अनुशासन के बिना व्यक्ति जीवन में आगे नहीं बढ़ सकता और वह आगे बढ़ भी गया तो अपने जीवन में सफल नहीं हो सकता।

प्रश्न 7.
ग्लानि और जीवन के संबंध में श्रीधर के क्या विचार हैं?
उत्तर:
ग्लानि और जीवन के संबंध में श्रीधर के विचार इस प्रकार हैं – ग्लानि से जीवन उत्पन्न नहीं होता। जीवन से ग्लानि उत्पन्न होती है। इस तरह ग्लानि प्रधान नहीं है, जीवन प्रधान है। श्रीधर अपने पुत्र भारवि से कहते हैं कि जब तुम जीवन के अधिकारी हो तो जीवन की शक्ति से ही ग्लानि को दूर करो, तलवार की अपेक्षा क्यों करते हो? तुम्हारे हाथों में लेखनी चाहिए, तलवार नहीं। ग्लानि काले बादल के समान है जो जीवन के चंद्र को मिटा नहीं सकता। कुछ क्षणों के लिए उसके प्रकाश को रोक ही सकता है। ग्लानि के पोषण के लिए ब्रह्मदेव की आवश्यकता नहीं है।

प्रश्न 8.
प्रायश्चित को लेकर पिता और पुत्र के बीच हुए संवाद को लिखिए।
उत्तर:
प्रायश्चित को लेकर पिता और पुत्र के बीच का संवाद इस प्रकार है – भारवि क्रोध और ग्लानि से भरकर अपने पिता श्रीधर की हत्या करना चाहता था। जब उसे पता चलता है कि उसके पिता की ताड़ना के पीछे उनकी शुभकामनाएँ और मंगल कामनाएँ छिपी हैं तो वह दुखी हो जाता है। उसने अपने पिता से कहा कि वह अपने अपराध के लिए प्रायश्चित करना चाहता है। पिता कहते हैं कि पश्चाताप ही प्रायश्चित है। वे उसे माँ की सेवा कर अपने जीवन को सफल बनाने के लिए कहते हैं। भारवि कहता है – माता की सेवा तो मेरे जीवन की चरम साधना है ही लेकिन यदि आप चाहते हैं कि आपका पुत्र भारवि जीवित रहे तो उसे दण्ड दीजिए। पुत्र के बहुत कहने पर वे उसे दण्ड देते हैं – छः मास तक ससुराल में जाकर सेवा करना और जूठे भोजन पर अपना पोषण करना। भारवि उसे सहर्ष स्वीकार कर लेता है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 9.
भारवि ने अपने पिता से किस प्रकार का दण्ड चाहा और उसे क्या दण्ड मिला?
उत्तर:
भारवि बदले की आग में जलते हुए अपने पिता की हत्या करना चाहता था। पिता की प्रताड़ना के पीछे उनकी मंगलकामनाओं का पता चलने पर वह लज्जित हो गया। उसने पिता से तलवार से उसका मस्तक काटने को कहा जिससे उसकी ग्लानि भी कट जाए। पिता कहते हैं कि पितृ-हत्या का दंड पुत्र-हत्या नहीं है। वे भारवि को क्षमा कर देते हैं। भारवि कहता है कि पाप के लिए न सही, उसके प्रायश्चित के लिए भी तो कुछ व्यवस्था होनी चाहिए। वह कहता है कि यदि आप चाहते हैं कि आपका भारवि जीवित रहे तो उसे दंड दीजिए। उसके पिता उसे छः मास तक ससुराल में जाकर सेवा करने तथा जूठे भोजन पर अपना पोषण करने का दंड देते हैं।

प्रश्न 10.
निम्नलिखित पात्रों का चरित्र-चित्रण कीजिए :
१. महापंडित श्रीधर
२. सुशीला
३. महाकवि भारवि
उत्तर:
१. महापंडित श्रीधर
महापण्डित श्रीधर संस्कृत के महापण्डित थे। उनका पुत्र महाकवि था और वह शास्त्रार्थ में पण्डितों को पराजित करता चला जा रहा था। इससे उसका अहंकार बढ़ता जा रहा था। उसे अपनी विद्वता का घमंड हो गया था। श्रीधर अपने पुत्र को सही राह पर लाना चाहते थे। वे अपने पुत्र को ताड़ना देते हैं क्योंकि वे उसका भला चाहते हैं। अहंकार व्यक्ति को आगे बढ़ने से रोकता है। वे एक आदर्श पिता का फर्ज निभाते हुए अपने पुत्र को सही राह पर लाने के लिए ताड़ना देते हैं। उनका पुत्र उन्हें गलत समझता है लेकिन अपने पिता के उद्देश्य का पता चलने पर वह लज्जित हो जाता है। वह अपनी गलती के लिए प्रायश्चित करना चाहता है। इस तरह श्रीधर का चरित्र उच्च कोटि का है।

२. सुशीला
सुशीला महापंडित श्रीधर की पत्नी तथा महाकवि भारवि की माता है। अपने विद्वान पुत्र पर पिता की तरह इसे भी गर्व है। वह अपने पुत्र भारवि के घर न लौटने के कारण दुःखी है। वह पुत्र शोक में सो नहीं पाती। वह मानती है कि यदि पुत्र के लिए माँ की ममता मूर्खता है तो ऐसी मूर्खता हमेशा बनी रहे। पति के समझाने पर भी पुत्र-मोह कम नहीं होता। पुत्र के व्यामोह में वह अपने पति से भी काफी वाद-विवाद करती है, परन्तु अपनी मर्यादा में रहकर, अपने पति-धर्म को निभाती है।

३. महाकवि भारवि
भारवि संस्कृत के महाकवि थे जो आगे चलकर ‘किरातार्जुनीयम’ महाकाव्य की रचना करते हैं। भारवि शास्त्रार्थ में पंडितों को पराजित कर रहे थे। उनके अंदर पंडितों की हार से अहंकार बढ़ता जा रहा था। उन्हें अपनी विद्वत्ता का घमंड होता जा रहा था। उनका गर्व सीमा का अतिक्रमण कर रहा था। उनके पिता श्रीधर भरी सभा में उन्हें ताड़ते हैं। भारवि उनसे बदला लेना चाहता है। जब भारवि को पिता का उनके प्रति मंगलकामना का पता चलता है तो वे विचलित हो जाते हैं। अपनी गलती पर पछताते हुए पिता से दण्ड माँगते हैं। इस तरह भारवि के चरित्र का पता चलता है कि उन्हें अपनी गलती का पछतावा है। वे पिता द्वारा दिए हुए दण्ड को सहर्ष स्वीकार करते हुए पालन करने की आज्ञा माँगते हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 11.
टिप्पणी लिखिए :
१. आभा
२. भारती
उत्तर:
१. आभा
‘आभा’ भारवि की सेविका है। जब सुशीला ने उससे पूछा कि आभा, भारवि नहीं आया? तो आभा ने कहा – अब तक कवि नहीं आये? मैं तो समझती थी कि वह इस समय तक आ गये होंगे। मैं अभी जाती हूँ, उन्हें खोजकर लाती हूँ। आप भोजन कर लीजिए। मुझे क्षमा करें। एक निवेदन और है – महाकवि से परिचित एक युवती प्रवेश चाहती है। वह स्वामी के दर्शन की अभिलाषा रखती है। ‘आभा’ सच्ची सेविका है।

२. भारती
भारती एक विदुषी है। भारती के हृदय में महाकवि भारवि के प्रति श्रद्धा की भावना है। वह सुशीला से कहती है कि वसंत ऋतु में कोकिल के स्वर से कौन परिचित नहीं? गत पूर्णिमा के पर्व में उन्होंने जो शास्त्रार्थ किया, वह बहुत महत्व का है। आज तक वेदान्त की इतनी सुन्दर मीमांसा मैंने नहीं सुनी, जैसी महाकवि भारवि के मुख से सुनी। वीणापाणि को भी ‘भारती’ ही कहते हैं। वे उस भारती की उपासना कर रहे थे। भारती सुशीला तथा श्रीधर का सम्मान करती है।

प्रतिशोध एकांकीकार का परिचय :

बहुमुखी प्रतिभा के धनी डॉ. रामकुमार वर्मा (1905-1990. आधुनिक हिन्दी साहित्य के महत्वपूर्ण कवि, नाटककार और इतिहासकार के रूप में प्रसिद्ध हैं। आप प्रयाग विश्वविद्यालय में हिन्दी प्राध्यापक तथा विभागाध्यक्ष रहे। आपके व्यक्तित्व और कृतित्व में विद्वत्ता और सृजनात्मकता का अनोखा संगम दर्शनीय है। हिन्दी एकांकी को नवीन और महत्वपूर्ण आयाम प्रदान करने वालों में डॉ. वर्मा का नाम विशेष उल्लेखनीय है। आपने ऐतिहासिक, राजनीतिक, सामाजिक, साहित्यिक, वैज्ञानिक तथा व्यंग्य-विनोद से संबंधित विविध प्रकार के एकांकियों की रचना सफलतापूर्वक की है।

आपके प्रमुख एकांकी संग्रहों में – ‘चारूमित्रा’, ‘ऋतुराज’, ‘रेशमी टाई’, ‘दीपदान’, ‘रिमझिम’, ‘पृथ्वीराज की आँखें’, ‘ध्रुवतारा’, ‘सप्तकिरण’ आदि उल्लेखनीय हैं।

डॉ. वर्मा ‘नागरी काव्य पुरस्कार’, ‘देव पुरस्कार’, ‘उत्तर प्रदेश शासन पुरस्कार’ एवं ‘भारतभारती पुरस्कार’ से सम्मानित हैं। आपकी साहित्य साधना के लिए भारत सरकार ने ‘पद्मभूषण’ से अलंकृत किया।

प्रतिशोध Summary in Hindi

पात्र परिचय :

  • भारवि : संस्कृत के महाकवि
  • श्रीधर : संस्कृत के महापण्डित, भारवि के पिता
  • सुशीला : भारवि की माता
  • भारती : एक विदुषी
  • आभा : सेविका

सारांश :
डॉ. रामकुमार वर्मा की प्रसिद्ध सांस्कृतिक एकांकी ‘प्रतिशोध’ है। इसका कथानक संस्कृत के महाकवि भारवि के जीवन से संबंधित है। भारवि की माँ सुशीला बेटे के घर न लौटने के कारण दुखी है। भारवि के पिता श्रीधर अपनी पत्नी सुशीला को समझाने का भरसक प्रयास करते हैं। परन्तु सुशीला का मन भारवि के मोह से मुक्त नहीं हो पाता है।

KSEEB Solutions

भारवि के पिता का कहना है कि भारवि कवि है और कवि समय पर शासन करता है, समय उस पर शासन नहीं करता। वह समस्त संसार में रहकर भी संसार से परे हो जाता है, किन्तु वह अपनी कल्पना से न जाने कितने संसारों का निर्माण कर सकता है। तो क्या वह कल्पना से अपनी माता का भी निर्माण कर सकता है? कहीं आप ही ने उसे घर आने से तो नहीं रोक दिया, मैं कभी रोक सकता हूँ? पिता सब कुछ कर सकता है, वह घर से, जाति से, समाज से कभी भी निर्वासित कर सकता है, किन्तु हृदय से निर्वासित नहीं कर सकता। किन्तु पिता घर से निर्वासित तभी कर सकता है जब वह अन्याय का आचरण करे, धर्म के प्रतिकूल चले तो यह भी संभव है।

यदि पिता चाहता है कि उसका पुत्र सुमार्ग पर चले, तो कभी ताड़ना भी अनिवार्य हो जाती है। इधर कई दिनों से मैंने देखा कि पंडितों की हार से उसका अहंकार बढ़ता जा रहा है। उसे अपनी विद्वता का घमण्ड हो गया है। उसका गर्व सीमा का अतिक्रमण कर रहा है। मैं यह सहन नहीं कर सकता कि मेरा पुत्र दम्भी हो। इसलिए मैंने उसे ताड़ना दी और उग्र रूप से दी। इसलिए भारवि ने एक बार व्यथित दृष्टि से मेरी ओर देखा, फिर ग्लानि से अपने हाथों से अपना मुख छिपा लिया और चुप-चाप चला गया।

भारवि नाराज होकर अपने पिता से बदला लेना चाहता था। भारवि को समझ में आ जाता है कि उसके पिता श्रीधर ने उसकी उन्नति के लिए और उसके अहंकार को मिटाने के लिए यह निर्णय लिया था।

तत्पश्चात भारवि पश्चाताप के रूप में वह अपना मस्तक कटवाने की भिक्षा माँगता है। पिता कहता है – न तो मैं प्रतिशोध लेता हूँ और न भिक्षा देता हूँ। पिता ने उसे समझाया कि ऐसा दण्ड नहीं दिया जा सकता क्योंकि पितृ-हत्या के लिए पुत्र-हत्या का दंड नहीं दिया जा सकता।

अन्त में दण्ड तो देना ही था। – श्रीधर भारवि को छः मास तक श्वसुरालय में जाकर सेवा करने और जूठे भोजन पर अपना पालन पोषण करने का दण्ड सुनाते हैं। भारवि पितृवाक्य का पालन करता है; परिणामस्वरूप उसका अहंकार मिट जाता है। अन्ततः वह ‘किरातार्जुनीयम’ महाकाव्य की रचना कर ‘महाकवि भारवि’ बनता है।

प्रतिशोध Summary in Kannada

प्रतिशोध Summary in Kannada 1
प्रतिशोध Summary in Kannada 2

प्रतिशोध Summary in English

Dramatis Personae (Characters):

  • Bharavi – A great Sanskrit poet
  • Shreedhar – A great teacher of Sanskrit, also Bharavi’s father
  • Susheela – Bharavi’s mother
  • Bharathi – A learned woman
  • Aabha – A servant

Summary:
The narrative and plot of this play revolve around the life of the great Sanskrit poet Bharavi. Bharavi’s mother, Susheela was sad because her son had not returned home. Bharavi’s father, Shreedhar, makes every effort to console his wife. However, Susheela’s mind is still hung up on the matter of Bharavi’s absence. After all, she is a mother!

Bharavi defeats many great scholars of the Shastras, and along with his victories, he becomes conceited and arrogant. However, his father Shreedhar, wanted Bharavi to cast away his conceit and arrogance because otherwise, he would not be able to make any progress in life. Shreedhar, therefore, admonishes and scolds his son in front of all the other learned scholars. Consequently, Bharavi wants to slay (kill. his own father and take revenge.

KSEEB Solutions

When Bharavi finds out about the true intentions of his father, as repentance he asks his father to punish him. Shreedhar gives Bharavi the punishment of having to serve in his father-in-law’s house and of eating leftover food for a period of six months. Bharavi obediently follows his father’s instructions and does the punishment commanded to him. Thus, his arrogance and conceit are removed. Eventually, he composes the epic poem ‘Kiratarjuneeyam’ and becomes the great poet Mahakavi Bharavi.

कठिन शब्दार्थ :

  • प्रतिशोध – प्रतिकार, बदला;
  • धारणा – विचार;
  • ताड़ना – डाँट-डपट करना;
  • व्याकुलता – चिन्ता;
  • विद्वत्ता – पांडित्य;
  • अतिक्रमण करना – सीमा लांघना;
  • दम्भी – घमण्डी;
  • उग्र – तेज;
  • परिहास – मज़ाक;
  • व्यथित – दुखी;
  • पतित – गिरा हुआ;
  • देशान्तर – देश छोड़ कर जाना;
  • भर्त्सना – निंदा;
  • उत्तरदायी – जिम्मेदारी;
  • मीमांसा – विचारपूर्वक तत्व निर्णय;
  • वार्तालाप – बातचीत;
  • उद्विग्नता – बेचैनी;
  • कृतार्थ – सफल, संतुष्ट;
  • प्रफुल्लित – खिला हुआ;
  • अंकुश – नियंत्रण;
  • ग्लानि – दुःख, खेद;
  • झंझा – तेज हवा;
  • वांछित – इच्छित;
  • लांछित – कलंकित;
  • जघन्य – बहुत बुरा;
  • विद्वत्मंडली – विद्वानों की सभा;
  • शूल – काँटा;
  • ग्रीवा – गर्दन।

2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 7 भोलाराम का जीव

You can Download Chapter 7 भोलाराम का जीव Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 7 भोलाराम का जीव

भोलाराम का जीव Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

I. एक शब्द या वाक्यांश या वाक्य में उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
स्वर्ग या नरक में निवास स्थान ‘अलॉट’ करनेवाले कौन हैं?
उत्तर:
स्वर्ग या नरक में निवास स्थान ‘अलॉट’ करनेवाले धर्मराज हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
भोलाराम के जीव ने कितने दिनों पहले देह त्यागी?
उत्तर:
भोलाराम के जीव ने पाँच दिन पहले देह त्यागी।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 3.
भोलाराम का जीव किसे चकमा दे गया?
उत्तर:
भोलाराम का जीव यमदूत को चकमा दे गया।

प्रश्न 4.
यमदूत ने सारा ब्रह्माण्ड किसकी खोज में छान डाला?
उत्तर:
यमदूत ने भोलाराम के जीव की खोज में सारा ब्रह्माण्ड छान मारा।

प्रश्न 5.
भोलाराम किस शहर का निवासी था?
उत्तर:
भोलाराम जबलपुर शहर के घमापुर मुहल्लें का निवासी था।

प्रश्न 6.
भोलाराम को पाँच साल से क्या नहीं मिला?
उत्तर:
भोलाराम को पाँच साल से पेंशन नहीं मिली थी।

प्रश्न 7.
नारद जी भोलाराम की पत्नी से विदा लेकर कहाँ पहुँचे?
उत्तर:
नारद जी भोलाराम की पत्नी से विदा लेकर सरकारी दफ्तर में पहुंचे।

प्रश्न 8.
भोलाराम ने दरख्वास्त पर क्या नहीं रखा था?
उत्तर:
भोलाराम ने दरख्वास्त पर वजन नहीं रखा था।

प्रश्न 9.
बड़े साहब के कमरे के बाहर कौन ऊँघ रहा था?
उत्तर:
बड़े साहब के कमरे के बाहर चपरासी ऊँघ रहा था।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 10.
बड़े साहब की लड़की क्या सीखती है?
उत्तर:
बड़े साहब की लड़की गाना-बजाना सीखती है।

प्रश्न 11.
नारद क्या छिनते देख घबराये?
उत्तर:
नारद अपनी वीणा छिनते देख घबराये।

प्रश्न 12.
फ़ाइल में से किसकी आवाज आयी?
उत्तर:
फ़ाइल में से भोलाराम के जीव की/आत्मा की आवाज आयी।

II. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
चित्रगुप्त ने धर्मराज से क्या कहा?
उत्तर:
भोलाराम को मरे आज पाँच दिन हो गए ये लेकिन उसका जीव यमलोक नही पहुँचा था नही उसे लेने गए दूत का कोई पता था। दूत ने जब वापस आकर भोलाराम के जीव ने चकमा देने की बात की तो धर्मराज ने नही माना। तब चित्रगुप्त ने कहा कि पृथ्वी पर इसप्रकार का व्यापार चलता है। लोग दोस्तों को फल भेजते है तो रास्ते में ही रेल्वेवाले उडा लेते है। हौजरी के पार्सलों की चीजें रेल्वे अफसर पहनते है। मालगाड़ी के डिब्बे के डिब्बे रास्ते में कट जाते है। राजनैतिक दलों के नेता विरोधी नेता को उडाकर कहीं बन्द कर देते है। ऐसे ही भोलाराम के जीव को भी किसी विरोधी ने और खराबी करने उड़ा दिया हो।

प्रश्न 2.
यमदूत ने हाथ जोड़कर चित्रगुप्त से क्या विनती की?
उत्तर:
धर्मराज और चित्रगुप्त के सामने एक गंभीर समस्या आ गयी थी। ऐसा कभी नहीं हुआ था। भोलाराम नामक व्यक्ति के जीव ने पाँच दिन पहले देह त्यागी और यमदूत के साथ यम लोक के लिए रवाना भी हुआ पर बीच रास्ते में उसे चकमा देकर गायब हो गया। इतने में एक बदहवास यमदूत वहाँ आकर हाथ जोड़कर बोला – “दयानिधान, मैं कैसे बतलाऊँ कि क्या हो गया। आज तक मैंने धोखा नहीं खाया था, पर भोलाराम का जीव मुझे चकमा दे गया। पाँच दिन पहले ही उसे पकड़ नगर के बाहर ज्यों ही मैं उसे लेकर एक तीव्र वायु-तरंग पर इस लोक के लिए सवार हुआ, त्यों ही वह मेरी चंगुल से छूटकर न जाने कहाँ गायब हो गया। इन पाँच दिनों में मैंने सारा ब्रह्मांड छान डाला, पर उसका कहीं पता न चला।’

प्रश्न 3.
नरक में निवास स्थान की समस्या कैसे हल हुई?
उत्तर:
नरक में पिछले सालों में बड़े गुणी कारीगर आ गये। कई इमारतों के ठेकेदार थे। उन्होंने पैसे लेकर रद्दी इमारतें बनायी थी। बड़े-बड़े इंजीनियरों ने ठेकेदारों से मिलकर पंचवर्षीय योजनाओं का पैसा खाया था। ओवर-सीयरों ने मजदूरों की हाजिरी भरकर पैसा हड़पा था। इन्होंने बहुत जल्दी नरक में कई इमारतें तान दी। इस प्रकार नरक में निवास स्थान की समस्या हल हो गई।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 4.
भोलाराम का परिचय दीजिए।
उत्तर:
भोलाराम धर्मापुर मुहले में नाले के किनारे एकडेढ कमरे के टूटे पूटे मकान में अपने परिवार, के साथ रहता था एक स्त्री और दो लडके। लड़की के भोलाराम एक गरीब आदमी था। पाँच साल हुए रिटायर हुआ था पर पेन्शन अभी तक नही मिल रही थी। हर दस-पन्द्रह दिन में वह एक दरस्वास्त देता पर दफ्तर के लोगों को खुश करने के लिए उसके पास कुछ नही था इसलिए उसे हर बार यही जवाब मिलता कि उसके पेन्शन के मामले पर विचार हो रहा है। सब कुछ बेचने के बाद गरीबी में भूखे मरते-मरते उसने दम तोड़ दिया था।

प्रश्न 5.
भोलाराम की पत्नी ने नारद से भोलाराम के संबंध में क्या कहा?
उत्तर:
भोलाराम की पत्नी ने नारद से कहा की भोलाराम को “गरीबी की बीमारी थी। पाँच साल हो गये पर पेंशन अभी तक नहीं मिली थी। दरख्वास्त देने पर भी पेंशन नहीं मिली थी। इन दिनों गहने बेंचकर गुजारा कर रहे हैं। बरतन तक बिक गए। खाने के फ़ाके पड़ रहे हैं। चिंता में घुलते-घुलते और भूखे मरते-मरते उन्होंने दम तोड़ दिया था।

प्रश्न 6.
भोलाराम की पत्नी ने नारद से क्या विनती की?
उत्तर:
भोलाराम जबलपुर शहर के घमापुर मुहल्ले में नाले के किनारे टूटे-फूटे मकान में पत्नी, दो लड़के और एक लड़की के साथ रहता था। वह सरकारी नौकर था। पाँच साल पहले रिटायर हो गया था। पेंशन नहीं मिला। हर दस-पंद्रह दिन में एक दरख्वास्त देता लेकिन अभी तक पेंशन नहीं मिला था। चिन्ता में घुलते-घुलते और भूखे मरते-मरते उन्होंने दम तोड़ दिया। जब नारद जी भोलाराम के जीव को ढूँढते उस घर तक पहुंचे और उसकी पत्नी से सब कहानी जान गये तो अंत में उसकी पत्नी ने नारद से एक विनती की – “महाराज, आप तो साधु हैं, सिद्ध पुरुष हैं। क्या आप कुछ ऐसा नहीं कर सकते कि उनकी रूकी हुई पेंशन मिल जाये। इन बच्चों का पेट कुछ दिन भर जाए।”

प्रश्न 7.
बड़े साहब ने नारद से दफ्तरों के रीति-रिवाज़ के बारे में क्या कहा?
उत्तर:
बड़े साहब ने नारद से दफ्तरों के रीति-रिवाज के बारे में बताते हुए कहा कि “आप हैं बैरागी। भाई, यह भी एक मन्दिर है। यहाँ भी दान-पुण्य करना पड़ता है। भोलाराम की दरख्वास्तें उड़ रही हैं, भोलाराम ने अपनी फाइल पर वज़न नहीं रखा, उन पर वज़न रखिए।’ सरकारी पैसे का मामला है। पेंशन का केस बीसों दफ्तरों में जाता है। देर लग जाती है। बीसों बार एक ही बात को बीस जगह लिखना पड़ता है, तब पक्की होती है। जितनी पेंशन मिलती है, उतनी ही स्टेशनरी लग जाती है।

प्रश्न 8.
नारद आखिर भोलाराम का पता कैसे लगाते हैं?
उत्तर:
बड़े साहब के सामने नारद ने वजन के रूप में अपनी वीणा रख दी। बड़े साहब ने फाइल मंगवाई। उन्होंने नाम पूछा, तो नारद ने साहब को बहरा समझकर जोर से कहा – ‘भोलाराम!’ सहसा फाइल से आवाज आई – “कौन पुकार रहा है मुझे? पोस्टमैन है क्या? पेंशन का ऑर्डर आ गया?” नारद को बात समझ में आ गई। बोले – “भोलाराम! तुम क्या भोलाराम के जीव हो?” आवाज आयी – “हाँ!”

III. निम्नलिखित वाक्य किसने किससे कहे?

प्रश्न 1.
‘महाराज, रिकार्ड सब ठीक है।’
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य चित्रगुप्त ने धर्मराज से कहा।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 2.
‘भोलाराम का जीव कहाँ है?’
उत्तर:
यह प्रश्न चित्रगुप्त ने यमदूत से पूछा।

प्रश्न 3.
‘महाराज, मेरी सावधानी में बिलकुल कसर नहीं थी।
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य यमदूत ने धर्मराज से कहा।

प्रश्न 4.
‘क्यों धर्मराज, कैसे चिन्तित बैठे हैं?’
उत्तर:
यह प्रश्न नारद मुनि ने धर्मराज से पूछा।

प्रश्न 5.
‘इनकम होती तो टैक्स होता। भुखमरा था।’
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य चित्रगुप्त ने नारद से कहा।

प्रश्न 6.
‘मुझे भिक्षा नहीं चाहिए, मुझे भोलाराम के बारे में कुछ पूछ-ताछ करनी है।’
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य नारद ने भोलाराम की बेटी से कहा।

प्रश्न 7.
‘गरीबी की बीमारी थी।
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य भोलाराम की पत्नी ने नारद से कहा।

प्रश्न 8.
‘आप साधु हैं, आपको दुनियादारी समझ में नहीं आती।’
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य सरकारी दफ्तर के बावू ने नारद से कहा।

IV. ससंदर्भ स्पष्टीकरण कीजिए :

प्रश्न 1.
‘पर ऐसा कभी नहीं हुआ था।’
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘भोलाराम का जीव’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक हरिशंकर परसाई हैं।

संदर्भ : धर्मराज लाखों वर्षों से असंख्य आदमियों का स्वर्ग या नरक में निवास-स्थान ‘अलॉट’ करते आ रहे थे। पर ऐसा कभी नहीं हुआ था की कोई जीव यमदूत को चकमा देकर अदृश्य हुआ।

स्पष्टीकरण : धर्मराज के सामने एक विकट समस्या आ खड़ी हुई। इससे पहले यमलोक में ऐसा कभी नहीं हुआ था। धर्मराज लाखों वर्षों से असंख्य आदमियों को कर्म और सिफारिश के आधार पर स्वर्ग या नरक में निवास स्थान ‘अलॉट’ करते आ रहे थे। एक बार भी ऐसा नहीं हुआ था। चित्रगुप्त ने रजिस्टर पर रजिस्टर देख कर बताया – महाराज, रिकार्ड सब ठीक है। भोलाराम के जीव ने पाँच दिन पहले देह त्यागी और यमदूत के साथ इस लोक के लिए रवाना भी हुआ पर यहाँ अभी तक नहीं पहुंचा। वह यमदूत भी लापता है। असल में भोलाराम का जीव यमदूत को चकमा देकर गायब हो गया था।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 2.
‘आज तक मैंने धोखा नहीं खाया था, पर भोलाराम का जीव मुझे चकमा दे गया।’
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘भोलाराम का जीव’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक हरिशंकर परसाई हैं।

संदर्भ : भोलाराम के जीव के बारे में चित्रगुप्त ने यमदूत से पूछा। तब यह वाक्य यमदूत ने धर्मराज से कहा।

स्पष्टीकरण : जब धर्मराज और चित्रगुप्त दोनों भोलाराम के जीव के न आने के बारे में चर्चा कर रहे थे तथा यमदूत के लापता होने की बात कर रहे थे, तब यमदूत वहाँ पहुँच जाता है। यमदूत का कुरुप चेहरा परिश्रम, परेशानी और भय के कारण और भी विकृत हो गया था। यमदूत को देखकर चित्रगुप्त चिल्ला उठे – ‘इतने दिन तुम कहाँ रहे? भोलाराम का जीव कहाँ है?’ तब यमदूत ने कहा कि, दयानिधान! आज तक मैंने धोखा नहीं खाया था पर भोलाराम का जीव मुझे चकमा दे गया।

प्रश्न 3.
‘इन पाँच दिनों में मैंने सारा ब्रह्माण्ड छान डाला, पर उसका कहीं पता नहीं चला।’
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘भोलाराम का जीव’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक हरिशंकर परसाई हैं।

संदर्भ : चित्रगुप्त ने यमदूत से भोलाराम के बारे में पूछा तो यमदूत ने भोलाराम के गायब होने की बात बताते हुए यह वाक्य कहा।

स्पष्टीकरण : जब चित्रगुप्त ने यमदूत से भोलाराम के बारे में पूछा, तब यमदूत भोलाराम की गायब होने की बात बताते हुए कहते है कि पाँच दिनों में उन्होंने सारा ब्रह्मांड छान डाला, पर भोलाराम का कहीं पता नहीं चला।

प्रश्न 4.
‘चिन्ता में घुलते-घुलते और भूखे मरते-मरते उन्होंने दम तोड़ दिया।’
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘भोलाराम का जीव’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक हरिशंकर परसाई हैं।

संदर्भ : नारद भोलाराम के घर पहुँचकर उसकी पत्नी से भोलाराम की बीमारी के बारे में पूछता है। तब इस वाक्य को भोलाराम की पत्नी नारद से अपने पति के बारे में कहती है।

स्पष्टीकरण : भोलाराम की मृत्यु के पाँच दिन बाद भी भोलाराम का जीव धर्मराज के सामने उपस्थित नहीं हुआ। उसे लाने के लिए गए यमदूत ने बताया कि वह उसे चकमा देकर न जाने कहाँ गायब हो गया। आखिर नारद उसे ढूँढते हुए भूलोक पहुंचते हैं। नारद ने चित्रगुप्त से उसका पता लिया और जबलपुर के घमापुर मोहल्ले में नाले के किनारे एक टूटे-फूटे मकान के पास आकर आवाज लगाई “नारायण! नारायण!” लड़की ने देखकर कहा – “आगे जाओ महाराज।’ नारद ने कहा कि भोलाराम के बारे में पूछताछ करनी है। अपनी माँ को बाहर भेज दो। नारद के पूछने पर कि उसको क्या बीमारी थी? जवाब में भोलाराम की पत्नी कहती है- “गरीबी की बीमारी थी। पाँच साल हो गए, पेंशन पर बैठे। पर पेंशन नहीं मिली। दरख्वास्त पर दरख्वास्त देते रहे लेकिन कोई फायदा नहीं। इन पाँच सालों में गहने, बर्तन सब बिक गए। चिंता में घुलते-घुलते और भूखे मरते-मरते उन्होंने दम तोड़ दिया।’

प्रश्न 5.
‘साधु-सन्तों की वीणा से तो और अच्छे स्वर निकलते हैं।’
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘भोलाराम का जीव’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक हरिशंकर परसाई हैं।

संदर्भ : सरकारी दफ्तर के बड़े साहब ने इस वाक्य को समझाते हुए नारद जी से कहा।

स्पष्टीकरण : नारद जी भोलाराम के जीव को ढूँढते हुए पृथ्वी पर आए। भोलाराम की पत्नी से . सारी कथा सुनकर उसकी रुकी हुई पेंशन दिलाने का प्रयत्न करने का आश्वासन देते हुए सरकारी दफ़्तर में पहुंचे। एक बाबू साहब से पता चला कि भोलाराम ने दरख्वास्तें तो भेजी थीं, पर उन पर वज़न नहीं रखा था, इसलिए कहीं उड़ गयी होंगी। आखिर बड़े साहब से भी यही उत्तर मिलता है तो नारद वजन का अर्थ समझ नहीं पाये। बड़े साहब नारद जी को समझाते हए कहते हैं कि जैसे आपकी यह सुंदर वीणा है, इसका भी वज़न भोलाराम की दरख्वास्त पर रखा जा सकता है। मेरी लड़की गाना-बजाना सीख रही है। यह मैं उसे दे दूंगा। साधु-संतों की वीणा से तो और अच्छे स्वर निकलते हैं। तब कहीं नारद समझ पाये।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 6.
पेंशन का ऑर्डर आ गया?’
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘भोलाराम का जीव’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक हरिशंकर परसाई हैं।

संदर्भ : इस प्रश्न भोलाराम का जीव फाइल में से पूछता है।

स्पष्टीकरण : भोलाराम एक सरकारी कर्मचारी था। पाँच वर्ष पहले रिटायर हो गया था लेकिन अभी तक पेंशन नहीं मिली थी। परिवार निभाना मुश्किल हो गया। अंत में वह मर जाता है। उसके जीव को लेकर जब यमदूत यमलोक आ रहा था, तो भोलाराम का जीव उसे चकमा देकर लापता हो गया। उस जीव को ढूँढते हुए नारद भू लोक आते हैं। सरकारी दफ्तर में बड़े साहब को ‘वजन’ के रूप में अपनी वीणा देकर उसकी फाइल माँगते हैं और पेंशन का ऑर्डर निकालने के लिए कहते हैं, तब फाइल में से भोलाराम का जीव चीख उठता है – पोस्ट मैंन है क्या? पेंशन का आर्डर आ गया?

V. वाक्य शुद्ध कीजिए :

प्रश्न 1.
ऐसा कभी नहीं हुई थी।
उत्तर:
ऐसा कभी नहीं हुआ था।

प्रश्न 2.
परेशानी और भय के कारण उसका चेहरा विकृत हो गई थी।
उत्तर:
परेशानी और भय के कारण उसका चेहरा विकृत हो गया था।

प्रश्न 3.
आज तक मैं धोखा नहीं खाया।
उत्तर:
आज तक मैंने धोखा नहीं खाया।

प्रश्न 4.
नरक पर निवास स्थान की समस्या हल हो गई।
उत्तर:
नरक में निवास स्थान की समस्या हल हो गई।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 5.
भोलाराम का पत्नी बाहर आयी।
उत्तर:
भोलाराम की पत्नी बाहर आयी।

प्रश्न 6.
लगाव तो महाराज, बाल-बच्चों से ही होती है।
उत्तर:
लगाव तो महाराज, बाल-बच्चों से ही होता है।

प्रश्न 7.
भोलाराम के केस का फ़ाइल लाओ।
उत्तर:
भोलाराम के केस की फाइल लाओ।

VI. अन्य लिंग रूप लिखिए :

माता, मालिक, बेटी, साधु।

  1. माता – पिता
  2. मालिक – मालकिन
  3. बेटी – बेटा
  4. साधु – साध्वी

VII. अन्य वचन रूप लिखिए :

दूत, यात्रा, समस्या, गहना, बात।

  1. दूत – दूत
  2. यात्रा – यात्राएँ
  3. समस्या – समस्याएँ
  4. गहना – गहने
  5. बात – बातें

VIII. विलोम शब्द लिखिए :

प्रसन्नता, मृत्यु, पाप, जल्दी, स्वर्ग, क्रोध।

  1. प्रसन्नता × अप्रसन्नता
  2. मृत्यु × जन्म
  3. पाप × पुण्य
  4. जल्दी × धीरे
  5. स्वर्ग × नरक
  6. क्रोध × शांत

भोलाराम का जीव लेखक परिचय :

हरिशंकर परसाई जी हिन्दी के सर्वश्रेष्ठ हास्य व्यंग्य लेखक हैं। आपका जन्म मध्यप्रदेश के होशंगाबाद जिले के जमानी नामक गाँव में 22 अगस्त 1924 ई. को हुआ था। आपका समस्त साहित्य सामाजिक, राजनीतिक एवं आम आदमी के जीवन की विडम्बनाओं एवं विरोधाभास का प्रतिबिम्ब है। आपकी भाषा बोलचाल की भाषा है और उसमें हास्य व्यंग्य का पुट है। 20 अगस्त 1995 ई. को आपका स्वर्गवास हुआ।

प्रमुख रचनाएँ :
व्यंग्य : ‘बेईमानी की परत’, ‘भूत के पाँव पीछे’, ‘सदाचार का तावीज़’, ‘तब की बात और थी’, ‘पगडंडियों का जमाना’ आदि।
उपन्यास : ‘रानी नागफनी की कहानी’, ‘तट की खोज’, ‘ज्वाला और जल’ आदि।
कहानी संग्रह : ‘हँसते हैं रोते हैं’, ‘जैसे उनके दिन फिरे’ आदि।

भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Hindi

प्रस्तुत कहानी हरिशंकर परसाई की व्यंग्य कहानी है। इसमें भोलाराम नामक व्यक्ति के लगातार पाँच वर्षों तक पेंशन हेतु संघर्ष करने का मार्मिक चित्रण है। प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में भ्रष्टाचार किस प्रकार पनप रहा है, इसका व्यंग्य शैली में वर्णन किया गया है।

KSEEB Solutions

भोलाराम जबलपुर के घमापुर मुहल्ले का निवासी है। उम्र लगभग साठ वर्ष है। उसकी एक पत्नी, दो लड़के और एक लड़की है। सरकारी नौकर था। पाँच साल पहले रिटायर हो गया था। मकान का किराया बाकी था। मकान मालिक घर से निकालनेवाला था, इतने में भोलाराम चल बसा। पेंशन नहीं मिल रही थी। सरकारी कर्मचारी और भ्रष्टाचारी अधिकारियों के कारण यह सब हुआ था। व्यंग्य शैली में बताया गया है कि भोलाराम का जीव सरकारी पेंशन फाइलों में अटका हुआ है।

कहानी के मध्य में समाज के विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में किस प्रकार से रिश्वतखोरी बढ़ती जा रही है, इसका सजीव चित्रण किया गया है। सरकारी धन कैसे भ्रष्ट अधिकारी हड़प जाते हैं और गरीबकमजोर व्यक्ति इसका शिकार होते है इसका वर्णन है।

अन्त में जब भोलाराम के पेंशन का कार्य नारद खुद संभालते है और जाँच करने निकलते हैं तो भोलाराम की पत्नी ने नारद से कहा – “क्या बताऊँ? गरीबी की बीमारी थी। पाँच साल से पेंशन नहीं मिली। कहीं कोई सुनता ही नहीं। घर में खाने के फाके पड़ने लगे। इन्हीं चिन्ताओं में एक दिन उन्होंने दम तोड़ दिया। ….. आप सिद्ध पुरुष हैं। यदि पेंशन दिलवा दो तो बच्चों का गुजारा हो जाय।”

जाँच करने नारद जब कार्यालय गए और बड़े साहब से मिले, तो उन्होंने कहा – “आप हैं बैरागी। दफ्तरों के रीति-रिवाज़ नहीं जानते। यहाँ भी कुछ दान-पुण्य करना पड़ता है। कुछ वजन रखिए।” वजन के रूप में नारद की वीणा ही रखवा दी। तब कहीं फाइल देखी जाने लगी।

बड़े साहब ने नाम पूछा, तो नारद ने ऊँची आवाज में कहा – ‘भोलाराम’। सहसा फाइल से आवाज आई – “कौन पुकार रहा है मुझे? पोस्टमैन है क्या? पेंशन का आर्डर आ गया?’ नारद ने कहा – “क्या तुम भोलाराम के जीव हो?” फाइल से आवाज़ आई – ‘हाँ।’

भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Kannada

भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Kannada 1
भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Kannada 2
भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Kannada 3
भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Kannada 4
भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Kannada 5
भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Kannada 6
भोलाराम का जीव Summary in Kannada 7

भोलाराम का जीव Summary in English

This is a sarcastic story written by Harishankar Parsai.
Bholaram is a resident of the Ghamapur locality in Jabalpur. He is around 60 years old. He has a wife, two sons, and a daughter. He was a government servant. He had retired five years before. The rent of their house was due for a year. The owner of the house was about to throw Bholaram’s family out. Just as this was about to happen, Bholaram died. He had not been getting his pension. All this had happened due to government employees and managers. In a sarcastic twist, it is later made known that Bholaram’s life was stuck in his pension papers.

As Bholaram’s soul did not reach the heavens after his death, the lord of death, Yamaraj, sends Narada to retrieve Bholaram’s soul. When Narada himself arrives on earth to investigate the situation, Bholaram’s wife tells him that they were living in very poor circumstances. They didn’t have enough food to eat. Bholaram’s wife tells Narada that worrying about all these things killed Bholaram. She tells Narada that he is a good man and that the children would be provided for if he could somehow help Bholaram’s family get the pension.

KSEEB Solutions

When further investigation took Narada to the Pension office, he met the chief officer. The officer calls Narada a recluse and tells him that he must learn the ways of the office. The officer tells him that one must donate something to get work done. He asks Narada to place some weight on Bholaram’s file. As Narada carries nothing other than his Veena, the officer asks him to place the Veena itself on the table. Finally, Bholaram’s pension file is looked into.

When the officer asked Narada the name of the deceased, Narada replied that it was ‘Bholaram’, in a rather loud voice. Immediately, a voice came from the file. The voice asked who was calling, whether it was the postman, and if the pension had arrived. Narada asked the voice if it was Bholaram. It replied that it was.

कठिन शब्दार्थ :

  • बदहवास – विकल, परेशान;
  • चकमा – धोखा;
  • इन्द्रजाल – जादू;
  • चंगुल – पकड़, अधिकार;
  • फ़ाके – भूखे मरने की स्थिति;
  • उचक्का – चीज़ उठाकर भाग जाने वाला;
  • वज़न – रिश्वत;
  • दरख्वास्त – प्रार्थना पत्र;
  • कुटिल – टेढ़ा, छली, दुष्ट

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 14 Water

You can Download Chapter 14 Water Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 14 Water

Water Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

Water Comprehension I

Question 1.
The expression ‘generations-old strife’ suggests
a. the bane of the caste system.
b. politics of revenge.
c. differences among humans.
Answer:
(a) the bane of the caste system.

Question 2.
“It also knows the sub-caste difference between leather and spool.”
‘leather and spool’ stands for
a. pure and impure.
b. higher and lower.
c. cobbler and weaver.
Answer:
(c) cobbler and weaver.

Question 3.
How is water a witness to the humiliation caused to the Dalits?
Answer:
In earlier times, when the varna system was in practice, the ‘panchamas’ or the untouchables were not allowed to touch or fill their pots with water. Whenever a Wada girl went to collect water from a pond or a tank, the people of other varnas used to pour water from a higher level at a distance, into the pot of the Wada girl. Naturally, on such occasions, some water would invariably fall on the body of the girl. This would cause a lot of humiliation to the girl.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
What does the speaker remember when she sees water?
Answer:
When the speaker sees water she would remember how people in her Wada would thirst all day for a glass of water.
Secondly, when she sees water she is also reminded of how they would eagerly welcome their weekly bath days as if it was a wondrous festival and also remember how the entire village bathed luxuriously twice a day.

The speaker also would recall her childhood when she would walk miles on end to go to the big canal and carry back heavy pots with the muscles and veins on her neck straining and bursting.

Finally, the sight of water would also make her recall how thatched roofs in Malapalle were burnt to ashes for want of a pot of water to douse the fire.

Question 5.
‘circus feat’ refers to
a. hardship to fetch water.
b. balancing the water pots on the head,
c. ’efforts to secure basic needs.
d. struggle surrounding water.
Answer:
(b) balancing the water pots on the head.

Question 6.
‘Water’ is a
a. a liquid called water.
b. a catalyst for a movement
c. witness to strife.
d. life-giver and destroyer,
e. mean to practice untouchability.
f. profit-making commodity.
Answer:
(c), (d), (e) and (f).

Water Comprehension II

Question 1.
Discuss the travails suffered by the Wada people to get water.
OR
How does the poet bring out the suffering and pain experienced on account of water?
OR
Discuss the problems faced by Wada people while collecting water.
Answer:
In the poem ‘Water’, the speaker recalls the ‘role’ played by water as an agent of social change. Incidentally, she uses the context of the poem to highlight the travails and tribulations suffered by the people in wadas, with particular reference to the practice of untouchability in Andhra Pradesh in the pre- and post-independence periods.

It is an age-old practice that the Dalits or the untouchables live in separate colonies situated farther away from other communities and are called ‘wadas’. Whenever the Dalits needed water they used to wait near the pond or tank until a shudra came there and gave them some water. This caused a great deal of humiliation, pain, suffering and anguish to the Dalits.

The speaker describes how an upper caste person poured water from a distance at a higher level into the pot of a wada girl at a lower level and how some water would fall on her body making her feel humiliated.

The writer also narrates a heinous incident that happened in Madigapalle in Karamchedu. It so happened that a Dalit boy tried to prevent two upper castes (Kamma) youths from washing their dirty buckets in their drinking water pond. The two upper caste youths tried to attack the boy but a Dalit woman by name Suvartamma came to the boy’s defence lifting her vessel to ward off their attack. Enraged by this protest by a Dalit woman, the Kamma landlords attacked the Dalit colony.

The speaker recalls how her wada people would thirst all day for a glass of water and narrates how people in wadas eagerly look forward to their weekly bathing day as if it was a wondrous festival while the people in the entire village bathed luxuriously twice a day. She also recalls painfully, how in her childhood she used to walk miles and miles to collect water from the big canal and carry back home heavy pots balanced on her head, with the muscles and veins on her necks straining and bursting. Finally, the speaker mentions how several thatched huts in Malapalle (a Dalit colony) were reduced to ashes for want of a pot of water to douse the fire.

Question 2.
‘For us, water is not simply H2O’, suggests
a. it’s chemical significance.
b. it is a common resource available for all.
c. it is a symbol of struggle against discrimination.
Answer:
(c) it is a symbol of struggle against discrimination.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What does the contrast ‘some taking bath once a week and others twice a day’ connote?
Answer:
‘Some taking bath once a week and others twice a day’ connotes that the Dalits were able to take a bath only once in a week because they had no free access to public water and only when they had stored enough water for all of them to take a bath, would they take a bath on that day. On the other hand, the village people had free access to water and so they would take a bath twice a day.

Question 4.
Why does water become a matter of dispute?
Answer:
The available quality of water differs from area to area so it becomes a matter of dispute, Some people get excess of water and some people do not get water even to drink. Water is a necessity for all the basic needs and for irrigation, for electricity, and for Industries. When the required quantity of water is not available, people will have to get it from elsewhere; When they go to other areas, the people from that area protest and agitate, so wars happen. A similar fight occurred between Karnataka and Tamilnadu. People of both states destroyed each other’s property and destroyed and damaged buses just over the question of sharing water. In this way, many quarrels have happened for the sake of water.

Question 5.
Look at the expressions ‘many a circus feat’ and ‘dances its way into the Pepsi man’s bottle.’ What contrast do you notice between the two?
Answer:
The phrase ‘many a circus feat’ refers to the Wada women walking with heavy pots of water on their heads, miles, and miles, from a big canal. This indicates the strain, the anguish, and the humiliation suffered by Dalits to fetch water for their daily needs. On the contrary, the phrase, ‘dances its way into the Pepsi man’s bottle’ refers to water being sold as a multinational market commodity. Here the phrase ‘dances its way’ shows the ease and the surreptitious ways in which ‘water’ is sold for a price when it is known all over the country that tens of thousands of poor people and Dalits even today, walk miles to fetch drinking water. For the Dalits and the poor, water is a necessity and ‘Pepsi’ is an item of luxury. This reflects how the poor become victims of discrimination.

Water Comprehension III

Question 1.
How does the poem ‘Water’ demonstrate the disparity and discrimination in our society using water as a symbol?
0R
Is water instrumental in social discrimination and disparity? Explain.
OR
Bring out the bitter instances recollected by the speaker in ‘Water’.
OR
The difference between race and agony of the panchama due to water has been effectively brought
out in ‘Water’. Discuss.
OR
‘Water is a witness to centuries of social injustice.’ Explain with reference to the poem ‘Water’.
Answer:
In the poem ‘Water’, the speaker recalls several instances taken from the life of the Dalits to highlight the disparity between the Dalits and the upper caste people in their lifestyles.

The speaker states that water is witness to the Panchama’s plight when he goes to the pond or tank to collect water. Since he does not have the right to draw a pot of water directly from a well, he waits all day near the well until a shudra arrives there and fills his pot. Next, the speaker mentions the humiliation of the Wada girl, when she receives water poured from a distance. Some waterfalls on her body and she felt humiliated.

Later, the speaker articulates the righteous indignation shown by Karamchedu Suvartamma, when she raised her vessel to ward off an attack by the Kamma youths against the Dalit boy who asked them not to pollute their drinking water. These instances illustrate how the Dalits were discriminated against using water from a public well.

The speaker recalls how people in the Wada would thirst all day for a glass of water while the villagers had a lot of water to drink and bathe as and when they wanted. On the other hand, the people in the village enjoyed the bath twice a day, because they had plenty of water, and the Dalits were made to forego water on the pretext of untouchability. Next, the speaker narrates how in her childhood they walked miles and miles to collect water from the big canal and walked back carrying heavy pots of water on their heads, with the veins in their neck straining and bursting.

KSEEB Solutions

Finally, the speaker recalls how several thatched huts in Malapalle were reduced to ashes for want of a pot of water to douse the fire.

Question 2.
How are the poor affected by
a. lack of water.
b. denial of water.
c. the fury of nature?
Answer:
In the poem ‘Water’ the speaker highlights how ‘water’ becomes a symbol of discrimination against the Dalits.

(a) Since the Dalits do not have free access to water, they cannot take a bath as and when they like. They can take a bath only after they have stored up adequate water for all the members of the family. Normally, this used to happen only once a week in those, days.

(b) The Dalits were prohibited from fetching water from a pond or tank in a village. Naturally, when they needed water they had to go to the pond with their pot and wait until a shudra arrived and gave them water. Secondly, when the village people gave them water, they used to pour water from a distance into the pots carried by the Dalits and some water would fall on their bodies. This caused a lot of anguish and humiliation to the Dalits.

(c) The speaker speaks about ‘water’ as a natural social agent. Water is essential for life. It can give life but also can devour lives. The water that refused to quench parched throats became the killer tsunami wave and swallowed village after village. This way ‘water’ worked as a symbol of Nature and showed its fury against people who discriminated against the Dalits.

Question 3.
Trace the journey of water from ancient times as a symbol of purity to the age of the multinational market where it is a commodity.
OR
Water that ignites struggles and strife can also be a market commodity. Examine the statement in light of ‘Water’.
Answer:
The Dalits’ age-old struggle for water has its origin in the people’s perception of ‘water’ as a source of purity and the ‘Dalits’ as ‘untouchables’. Though all living creatures have a right to share it, the upper caste society denies it to the Dalits for the only reason that they are Dalits.

The poet makes an attempt to trace the journey of water which begins as a symbol of purity in the life of the people and eventually ends up becoming a multinational market commodity. It also questions the wisdom of the people who deprived free access to water, an elixir of life, to the Dalits biasedly and eventually made it a multinational commodity and robbed them of their natural resources.

She presents a conflicting situation where Jesus, a Jew, asks for water from a Samaria woman, who is considered a lower caste woman. She also presents the instance of the Panchama, who is forced to wait with his pot all day near the well until a shudra comes to serve him.

She then presents the case of the Dalit girl, who gets humiliated by receiving water poured from above and getting her clothes drenched in water.

Next, she expresses the rage of the Dalit woman Munnangi Suvartamma, who goes to the rescue of the Dalit boy who objects to the Kamma youths washing their dirty buckets in their drinking water in Malapalle.

We learn how .the Dalits crave a glass of water to quench their thirst. We also learn that the Dalits used to have a bath only once a week whereas the other people in the village enjoyed bathing luxuriously twice a day. We then learn how the Dalits had to walk miles and miles to fetch water from the big canal and carried back home heavy pots balanced on their heads with the muscles and veins in their neck straining and bursting.

She then says that quite a few thatched huts caught fire in Malapalle and were reduced to ashes, the only reason being the absence of a pot of water to douse the fire. Then we learn how people in Mahad municipality in Mumbai, asserted their right to public water under the leadership of Dr Ambedkar. All these instances are given to trace the journey of water from that of being a symbol to that of getting asserted as a fundamental right.

KSEEB Solutions

The poem also narrates the journey of ‘water’ in the life of the people in the last two decades. ‘Water’, which can save ‘lives’, can also devour lives in the form of a tsunami. It can also turn villages into dry deserts and inflict a lot of suffering on the people. At the same time, in some places water can take a toll on the lives of people in many villages in the form of floods.

In the last part of the poem, the speaker attempts to trace the journey of water into bisleri bottles as ‘mineral water’, becoming a multinational market commodity. Here again, such activity depletes the groundwater and affects the poor Dalits.

Water Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase, or a sentence each:

Question 1.
Name the village that was burnt for want of water.
Answer:
Malapalle.

Question 2.
Whohadnorighttodrawapotofwaterfromthewell?
OR
Whose agony for a pot of water is mentioned in Water’?
Answer:
The Panchamas.

Question 3.
Who opposed the Kamma landlords?
OR
Name the lady who opposed the Kamma landlords.
Answer:
Munnangi Suvartamma.

Question 4.
What, according to the speaker, is a witness to centuries of social injustice?
Answer:
Water.

Question 5.
Where did the Mahad struggle take place?
Answer:
At the Chadar tank in Mumbai.

Question 6.
When is a wada girl humiliated?
OR
Mention any one of the types of humiliation met by the Wada girl.
Answer:
A wada girl is humiliated when waterfalls all over her and touches her as it is poured from a distance into the pot.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What was welcomed as a wondrous festival, according to the speaker, in ‘Water’?
Answer:
The weekly bath that the Dalits take.

Question 8.
Why does the poet say that water is not a simple thing?
Answer:
The poet says that water is not a simple thing because while it can give life, it can also devour lives.

Question 9.
Who are the playthings in the vicious hands of water?
Answer:
The poor.

Question 10.
What, according to the speaker, can water ignite?
Answer:
Water can ignite struggles and strife between village and Wada, between one state and another.

Question 11.
Where does water sit innocently?
Answer:
In a Bisleri bottle.

Question 12.
Under what new name is water sold now?
OR
What is the new name given to water?
Answer:
Water is now sold under a new name, Mineral water.

Question 13.
What does the poet mean by ‘Water contains the world’?
Answer:
It means water has no boundaries.

Question 14.
Why does the poet call the water ‘omniscient’?
Answer:
The poet calls water ‘omniscient’ because it knows everything.

Question 15.
Mention one of the things to which the water is a witness, according to the speaker in ‘Water’.
Answer:
Water is a witness to centuries of social injustice.

Question 16.
What stands as a witness to the generations-old strife between the village and the Wada?
Answer:
Water stands as a witness to the generations-old strife between the village and the Wada.

Question 17.
What, according to the speaker, knows the ground’s incline in ‘Water’?
Answer:
According to the speaker, water knows the ground’s incline.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Generations-old-strife in ‘Water’ refers to the dispute between
(a) leather and spool.
(b) village and Wada.
(c) Samaria woman and Jesus.
Answer:
(b) village and Wada.

Question 19.
What, according to the speaker, never disappears, in ‘Water’?
Answer:
According to the speaker in ‘Water’, untouchability never disappears.

Question 20.
Who is entitled to pour water into Panchami’s pot, as mentioned in ’Water’?
Answer:
As mentioned in ‘Water’, only a ‘shudra’ is entitled to pour water into Panchami’s pot.

Question 21.
Whom did Karamchedu Suvartamma mentioned in ‘Water’ oppose?
Answer:
As mentioned in ‘Water’, Karamchedu Suvartamma opposed the Kamma landlords.

Question 22.
According to the speaker in ‘Water’, water is witness to
(a) social injustice.
(b) pollution of the pond.
(c) ground’s incline.
Answer:
(a) social injustice.

Question 23.
What is the speaker in ‘Water’ reminded of when she sees water?
Answer:
The speaker in ‘Water’, when she sees water, is reminded of how her Wada would thirst all day for a glass of water.

Question 24.
What would the speaker’s Wada mention in ‘Water’ thirst for all day?
Answer:
The speaker’s Wada mentioned in ‘Water’ would thirst for a glass of water, all day.

Question 25.
According to the speaker in ‘Water1, they never managed to win even a
(a) glass of water
(b) pot of water
(c) puddle of water.
Answer:
(c) puddle of water.

Question 26.
When does the speaker remember her childhood in ‘Water’?
Answer:
The speaker in ‘Water’ would remember her childhood, when she sees the water.

Question 27.
What was burnt to ashes for want of a pot of water, according to the speaker, in ‘Water’?
Answer:
According to the speaker in ‘Water’, the thatched roofs in Malapalle were burnt to ashes for want of a pot of water.

Question 28.
_______ are playthings in the vicious hands of water, according to the speaker, in ‘Water’?
(a) The MNCs
(b) The landlords
(c) The poor.
Answer:
(c) The poor.

Question 29.
Where does water finally become a commodity, according to the speaker, in ‘Water’?
Answer:
According to the speaker in ‘Water’, water finally becomes a commodity in the multinational market.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
What is now a multinational market commodity mentioned in ‘Water’?
Answer:
‘Water’ is now a multinational market commodity as mentioned in ‘Water’.

Question 31.
Whose humiliation is mentioned by the speaker in ‘Water’?
Answer:
The speaker in ‘Water’ mentions the humiliation of the Wada girl.

Question 32.
Whom does the panchama wait for near the well in ‘Water’?
Answer:
In ‘Water’, the panchama waits near the well for a shudra to come and give him water from the well.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each:

Question 1.
Give an account of the humiliation and craving felt in the poem ‘Water’.
OR
The difference between race and agony of the panchama due to water has been effectively brought out in ‘Water’. Explain.
Answer:
The poem ‘Water’ expresses the terrible humiliation and suffering caused to the Dalits, or the untouchables owing to the social restrictions imposed by the upper caste people. In India, in the pre-independence period and in the early decades of the post-independence period, the Dalits had to face the wrath of the upper caste people over allowing the Dalits to collect water from the village tanks or ponds.

Whenever these panchamas needed water they would come to the village pond and wait there until a shudra came there and gave them water. The reader can imagine the misery and the anguish suffered by the Dalits at that time.

The speaker states that whenever a Wada girl comes to a village pond to collect water, a member of the upper caste would draw water from the well and pour it into the pot or vessel brought by the Dalit girl from a distance and from a higher level. Naturally, some water would fall on her. The speaker states that only ‘water’ knows the humiliation suffered by the girl. The speaker wants the reader to reflect on the cruelty shown to the Wada girl on such occasions.

On the 16th of July 1985, two Kamma youths were washing dirty buckets in the drinking water tank meant for the Dalit community in Madigapalle. This was objected to by a Dalit boy which angered the Kamma youths. The Kamma youths became furious at being challenged and tried to beat up the Dalit boy. Seeing this, a woman named Munnangi Suvartamma, lifted her vessel and prevented the youths from hurting the boy. This act resulted in a ghastly attack on the Dalits.

KSEEB Solutions

The speaker states that only ‘water’ knows the righteous anger of the Dalit woman. The speaker seems to be asking the reader whether this is not known to the others and why they are keeping quiet.

The speaker states that when she sees water, she remembers how the people in her Wada would thirst all day for a glass of water. She recalls nostalgically how they eagerly awaited the weekly bath as if it was a wondrous festival and also relives the misery when she recalls that the entire village except them, bathed luxuriously twice a day.

Question 2.
How is the destructive nature of water brought out in the poem ’Water’?
Answer:
The poem ‘Water’ attempts to depict the struggle, the anguish, the suffering and the humiliation suffered by the Dalits to get their rightful share of water. The speaker, having recollected all the incidents related to their humiliations and their suffering, talks about how water can be a source of retributive justice. The speaker declares that water is not a simple thing; it can give life but can also devour lives. She then declares in a vengeful tone that the water that could not serve to quench the thirst of the parched throats (of Dalits) became the killer tsunami wave and swallowed the whole village after village.

The speaker declares that ‘water’ is so powerful that it treats the ‘poor’ as its playthings. Sometimes, many villages suffer from drought and become dry deserts killing poor people. It may also come in the form of floods and drown them. Thus, the poet depicts the destructive nature of water.

Question 3.
How can water be a life-giver as well as life taker?
OR
Water can give life and can also devour lives. Examine the significance of this statement in light of ’Water’.
Answer:
The speaker talks about how water can be a source of retributive justice. The speaker declares that water is not a simple thing; it can give life but can also devour lives. She then declares in a vengeful tone that the water that could not serve to quench the thirst of the parched throats (of Dalits) became the killer tsunami wave and swallowed the whole village after village.

The speaker declares that ‘water’ is so powerful that it treats the ‘poor’ as its playthings. Sometimes, many villages suffer from drought and become dry deserts killing poor people. It may also come in the form of floods and drown them. Thus, the poet depicts the destructive nature of water.

Water is the elixir of life and without water, no life can exist on this earth. Naturally, water is a life-giver. When a panchama goes to a village tank and is made to wait for a pot of water all day long, one can imagine the misery and the hardships the Dalits have to suffer when they are denied a rightful share of water.

Like the panchama, the Wada girl is also made to face humiliation by being forced to collect the water dropped from above and getting drenched in the process. One has to imagine their need for water and the way it is given to them.

Similarly, water functions like a life-giver when we get to know that the Dalits face quite a few days without water even to quench their thirst. The speaker narrates one incident where water would have been a life-giver. In Malapalle, several thatched huts would have been saved if only there was one pot of water to douse the fire.

Question 4.
Why is water a mighty movement, according to the speaker in ‘Water’?
Answer:
According to the speaker, water is a mighty movement because the denial of water to the Dalits became the cause of a historical struggle in Mumbai. In the Mahad municipality in Mumbai, even though the municipality had passed a resolution allowing the Dalit community access to the public tank, the local upper caste people prevented them from using the water. Subsequently, Dr Ambedkar went in a rally to the tank, drank a handful of water from the tank and asserted the right of the Dalits to use water from a public place like every other person in society.

Question 5.
What personal memories does the speaker associate with water in the poem ‘Water’?
Answer:
Whenever the speaker sees water, she says that she recalls the days when they suffered from thirst as there was no water in the house to quench, their parched throats. She also recalls the days with regret as well as pleasure, how they eagerly looked forward to the day when they would get their bath of the week while the entire village bathed luxuriously twice a day.

KSEEB Solutions

When she sees water, the speaker recalls her childhood, when they had to walk miles and miles to fetch water from the big canal and carry back heavy pots with the muscles and veins in their necks straining and bursting. She also remembers the day when several thatched roofs in Malapalle got destroyed by fire, the only reason being there was not even a pot of water to douse the fire.

Question 6.
How does the speaker in the poem ‘Water’ trace the journey of water using it as a witness?
OR
How is water a witness to centuries of social injustice?
Answer:
The poem ‘Water’ by Swaroopa Rani presents the struggle, the humiliation, the anguish and the suffering undergone by the Dalits to obtain their rightful share of water, which is a natural resource. The speaker cites ‘water’ as the witness to the practice of untouchability.

Water has been a witness to the plight of the Dalits who have been fighting for their right to their share of water. She declares that this water has been witness to the age-old strife between the upper caste people and the Dalits. The speaker expresses the agony of the panchama who waits for water the whole day and the humiliation of the Wada girl, who has to collect the water thrown at her from a distance and in this act how she has to bear the humiliation caused by the water that falls on her.
The speaker mentions an incident in which a Dalit woman comes to the rescue of a Dalit boy who is about to be thrashed by Kamma landlords.

The speaker also mentions how they craved for a glass of water with parched throats. The speaker confesses regretfully and nostalgically how they awaited the day of their bath in a week while the other people in the village enjoyed the luxury of bathing twice a day.

Finally, the speaker recalls how several thatched huts in Malapalle got reduced to ashes for want of a pot of water to douse a rising fire.

Question 7.
Water is also a commodity in the hands of multinational companies. Explain with reference to ‘Water’.
Answer:
The poem ‘Water’ by Challapalli Swaroopa Rani highlights the humiliation, anguish, agony and suffering caused to the Dalits by the upper caste people denying them their rightful share of water.

Incidentally, the poet makes an attempt to trace the journey of water which begins as a source of purity, available in ponds and tanks in villages and towns. Though all living creatures have a right to share it, the upper caste people deny it to the Dalits for the only reason that they are ‘avarnas’ or Dalits, and thus impure.

In the last part of the poem, the speaker says that water, which began as a symbol of purity, has become a commodity in Bisleri bottles as mineral water, being sold in multinational markets. She mocks at the wisdom of the people who biasedly denied Dalits free access to water, an elixir of life.

Question 8.
What are the things that the water knows in the poem ‘Water’?
Answer:
In the poem ‘Water’, the speaker recalls the ‘role’ played by water as an agent of social change. Incidentally, she uses the context of the poem to highlight the travails and tribulations suffered by the people in wadas, with particular reference to the practice of untouchability in Andhra Pradesh.

KSEEB Solutions

In the first five stanzas, she mentions the various instances of the practice of untouchability witnessed by ‘water’. She states that ‘water’ knows that ‘untouchability’ never disappears because the quarrel over allowing the Dalits to collect water from a village tank or pond between the upper caste people and the Dalits, has been smouldering for several generations.

The speaker cites a biblical incident in which Jesus, the Jew, goes to a Samaria woman, in a town called Sychar, and asks the woman for a drink. The Samaria woman belongs to an inferior race and Jesus, the Jew belongs to a superior race. Here the speaker intends to highlight the fact that ‘water’ is essential to all, be it a Samaria woman or Jesus the Jew. The idea is reiterated in the next two lines. Even among the untouchables, there were sub-castes. ‘Leather’ refers to cobblers and the ‘spool’ refers to weavers. The speaker means to say whether one is a cobbler or a weaver both of them need water.

She next mentions the agony of the ‘Panchama’, considered an untouchable and hence not allowed to draw water from a public well. It is unfortunate that he has to wait near a well until a shudra arrives to give him water.

The speaker mentions the case of a Wada girl (an untouchable) who has to receive water poured by someone from a distance and from a higher level. On such occasions, some water is bound to fall on the body of the girl. The girl has to suffer this humiliating act for the sake of water.

Lastly, the speaker mentions the courageous act of Karamchedu Suvartamma who opposed the Kamma landlords when they were about to beat up a Dalit boy for asking them not to wash dirty buckets in the drinking water tank in Madigapalle. This act of lifting the vessel in self-defence later resulted in a ghastly attack by the upper caste people on the Dalits.

Question 9.
Describe the many things that the speaker remembers when she sees water in ‘Water’.
Answer:
In the second half of the poem, the speaker narrates her personal experiences. The speaker says that whenever she sees water, she recalls how the people in her part of the village (Wada) would suffer from severe thirst all day, not being able to get even a glass of water. She recalls sadly how they (the Dalits) would look forward to their weekly bath day, as if it was a wonderful festival day, while the upper caste people in the entire village enjoyed bathing luxuriously twice a day. Here the speaker intends to highlight the fact that while the Dalits were ‘deprived’ of water and were given water only once a week, the other people had so much water that they bathed luxuriously twice a day.

The speaker recalls her childhood when they had to walk miles and miles to fetch water from the big canal and carry back heavy pots with the muscles and veins in their necks straining and bursting.

KSEEB Solutions

The speaker narrates a fire accident in Malapalle. It was a locality where the Dalits lived in thatched huts. When their thatched roofs caught fire, the huts were completely destroyed in the fire for want of a pot of water to douse the fire.

Question 10.
Bring out the irony in ‘Water’ where the speaker remarks on the innocence of water.
Answer:
‘Water’ is a reflective narrative poem, which is used in the poem as a concrete witness to the practice of untouchability and as a metaphor for social injustice and oppression. In the first five stanzas, The poet mentions the instances in which water served as a witness for the practice of untouchability. Then she presents her own experience of the sufferings that she underwent to get ‘water’ for day-to-day needs. Next, she cites the incident of the Tsunami wave which swallowed a great number of villages. The poet vents her anger against the destruction caused by ‘water’. She remarks that water, which has ignited many struggles and quarrels between people of villages and people of the ‘Wada’, can cause blood to run in streams.

However, the same water can also sit innocently in a Bisleri bottle appearing very innocuous. Here, the poet tries to highlight the situational irony in these lines. The very same water which has caused centuries-old wars of attrition between people has now become a marketable commodity, which anyone can buy. Thus, this marketable commodity now seems to erase from people’s memory the practices of untouchability, for which it had been a witness for centuries.

Question 11.
Why is water not simply H20 to the downtrodden? Give reasons with reference to Water’.
Answer:
The poem ‘Water’ attempts to depict the struggle, the anguish, the suffering and humiliation suffered by the Dalits to get their rightful share of water, which is an elixir of life, and a natural resource. The poem incidentally throws light on the multiple facets of water. The poem highlights instances when ‘water’ is used as the instrument of discrimination, as a life-giver, a life taker and a multinational market commodity also.

Water can be a source of retributive justice. It can not only give life but can also devour life. The water that could not serve to quench the thirst of parched throats became the killer tsunami wave which swallowed the whole village after village.
Water is so powerful that it treats the ‘poor’ as its playthings. Sometimes, many villages suffer from drought and become dry deserts killing poor people. It may also come in the form of floods and drown them.

Water is the elixir of life and without water, no life can exist on this earth. Naturally, water is a life-giver. When a panchama goes to a village tank and is made to wait all day for a pot of water, one can imagine the misery and the hardships the Dalits have to suffer when they are denied their rightful share of water.

Like the panchama, the Wada girl is also made to face humiliation by being forced to collect the water dropped from above and getting drenched in the process.

KSEEB Solutions

Water functions like a life-giver. The poem presents one incident where water would have been a life-giver. In Malapalle, several thatched huts would have been saved if only there was one pot of water to douse the fire.
On the whole, one can infer that water is no mean matter but an omniscient phenomenon, because it is now being sold as mineral water in bisleri bottles all over the globe.

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words each:

Question 1.
How does the poem ‘Water’ bring out the sad plight of the Dalits?
OR
How does the poet show that water is a witness to centuries of social injustice?
OR
‘Water is a witness to the generations of the struggle of Dalits.’ Explain.
OR
Water is a witness to many struggles. Explain with reference to the poem ‘Water’.
Answer:
The poem ‘Water’ by Swaroopa Rani presents the struggle, the humiliation, the anguish and the suffering undergone by the Dalits to obtain their rightful share of water, which is a natural resource. The speaker cites ‘water’ as the witness to the practice of untouchability.

Water has been witnessing the plight of the Dalits who have been fighting for their rights to their share of water. She declares that this water has been witness to the age-old strife between the upper caste people and the Dalits. Later, the speaker expresses the agony of the panchama who waits for water the whole day and the humiliation of the Wada girl, who has to collect the water thrown at her from a distance and in this act how she has to bear the humiliation caused by the water that falls on her.

The speaker mentions an incident in which a Dalit woman comes to the rescue of a Dalit boy who is about to be thrashed by Kamma landlords.

The speaker also mentions how they craved for a glass of water with parched throats.
The speaker confesses regretfully and nostalgically how they awaited the day of their bath in a week while the other people in the village enjoyed the luxury of bathing twice a day.

Finally, the speaker recalls how several thatched huts in Malapalle got reduced to ashes for want of a pot of water to douse a rising fire.

Question 2.
Is water instrumental in social discrimination and disparity? Explain with reference to the poem ‘Water’.
OR
The poem ‘Water’ demonstrates the disparity and discrimination of society. Justify.
OR
Trace the sufferings of the people of Wada due to social discrimination.
OR
Comment on the social discrimination associated with water as presented in the poem, ‘Water’.
Answer:
‘Water’ is a reflective-narrative poem in which the speaker recalls several instances taken from the life of the Dalits to highlight the disparity seen in the lifestyle of the Dalits and that of the upper caste people. Incidentally, the speaker also highlights how the Dalits are discriminated against while using ‘water’ from a pond or a tank. The speaker states that water is a witness to the Panchama’s plight when he goes to the pond or tank to collect water. Since he does not have the right to draw a pot of water directly from a well, he waits all day near the well until a shudra arrives there and fills his pot.

The speaker mentions the humiliation of the Wada girl when she receives water poured from a distance. Some waterfalls on her body and she felt humiliated. The speaker articulates the righteous indignation shown by Munnangi Suvartamma when she raised her vessel to ward off an attack by the Kamma youths against the Dalit boy who asked them not to pollute their drinking water. These instances illustrate how the Dalits were discriminated against while using water from a public well.

KSEEB Solutions

The speaker recalls how people in the Wada would thirst all day for a glass of water while the villagers had a lot of water to drink and bathe as and when they wanted. The speaker recalls how they would look forward to that day in a week when they would get an occasion to take a bath.

On the other hand, the people in the village enjoyed the bath twice a day, because they had plenty of water, and the Dalits were made to forego water on the pretext of untouchability. The speaker narrates how, in her childhood, they walked miles and miles to collect water from the big canal and walked back carrying heavy pots of water on their heads, with the veins in their neck straining and bursting. Finally, the speaker recalls how several thatched huts in Malapalle were reduced to ashes for want of a pot of water to douse the fire.

Question 2.
The things that water knows imply humiliations, violence and injustice. Explain with reference to ‘Water’.
Answer:
‘Water’, by Challapalli Swaroopa Rani, is a reflective-narrative poem. The speaker, in the persona of a ‘Dalit’, reminisces and chronicles a few typical but poignant situations which express the anguish and helplessness of a Dalit when he or she goes to a public pond or tank to collect water for their daily needs.

In the first five stanzas, the speaker cites ‘water’ as the witness to the practice of untouchability.
The poet states in a casual, matter-of-fact tone that ‘water’, which knows where the ground is inclined along which it has to flow, knows that ‘untouchability’ never disappears, because the quarrel or conflict over allowing the Dalits to collect water from a village tank or pond, between the upper caste people and the Dalits, has been smouldering for several generations.

The idea is reiterated citing another instance of untouchability. The poet cites a Biblical incident in which Jesus, the Jew, goes to a Samaria woman (in a town called Sychar) and asks the woman for water. The Samaria woman belongs to an inferior race and Jesus, the Jew belongs to a superior race. Here the speaker seems to say that ‘water’ is essential to all, be it a Samaria woman or Jesus the Jew; similarly, water is essential for both the upper caste people and the untouchables. The same idea is reiterated in the next two lines. Even among the untouchables, there were sub-castes. ‘Leather’ refers to cobblers and the ‘spool’ refers to weavers. The speaker means to say that whether one is a cobbler or a weaver both of them need water. This fact is known to ‘water’, but why are people so cruel to give access to water to one and deny access to the other. Here, the ‘other’ refers to the untouchables.

A Panchama does not have the right to draw water from a public well because he is untouchable. It is cruel and unfortunate that he is made to wait near the well until a Shudra arrives. Here again, it is ironical that the ‘Panchama’, who does not belong to varna, has to wait for a Shudra who is supposed to belong to the fourth rank in the social hierarchy. A Shudra, according to the ‘varna’ scheme, is an unskilled labourer and he does all the physical tasks as directed by the other upper caste people.

Naturally, only when a Shudra comes to a pond to fetch water for an upper caste person can he give some water to the Panchama. It also means that the other upper caste people who normally do not fetch water from a well will not be able to give water to a Panchama. The speaker is once again referring to the cruelty of the ‘varna system’ and the practices associated with untouchability.

The speaker cites another cruel instance of untouchability. Normally, whenever a person belonging to one of the four varnas happens to give some water to an ‘untouchable’ (here it is a girl], he/she takes care to see that the giver and the receiver stand apart from each other and pours water from a distance and from a higher level. On such occasions, some water is bound to fall on the receiver. Here, the receiver being a girl, waterfalls all over her. The speaker wants the reader to imagine the humiliation of the girl when someone throws water at her or on her. Here, the speaker is highlighting the cruel practice of untouchability.

KSEEB Solutions

The speaker recalls a heinous incident that happened in a place called Karamchedu. It is reported that, when two Kamma youths were washing dirty buckets (that had been used to feed their buffaloes) in the drinking water tank in Madigapalle, a Dalit boy objected to it, which angered the youth. Consequently, when the youths were about to beat up the boy, Munnangi Suvartamma, a Dalit woman, tried to protect the boy from the attackers. She lifted the vessel that she was carrying, to drive away from the attackers. This act of lifting the vessel in self-defence later resulted in a ghastly attack by the upper caste people on the Dalits.

Question 3.
The right to water is not given equally in our society. How does the poem Water’ prove this?
Answer:
‘Water’, by Challapalli Swaroopa Rani, is a reflective-narrative poem. The speaker, in the persona of a ‘Dalit’, reminisces and chronicles a few typical but poignant situations which express the anguish and helplessness of a Dalit when he or she goes to a public pond or tank to collect water for their daily needs.

In the first five stanzas, the speaker cites ‘water’ as the witness to the practice of untouchability.
The poet states in a casual, matter-of-fact tone that ‘water’, which knows where the ground is inclined along which it has to flow, knows that ‘untouchability’ never disappears, because the quarrel or conflict over allowing the Dalits to collect water from a village tank or pond, between the upper caste people and the Dalits, has been smouldering for several generations.

The idea is reiterated citing another instance of untouchability. The poet cites a Biblical incident in which Jesus, the Jew, goes to a Samaria woman (in a town called Sychar) and asks the woman for water. The Samaria woman belongs to an inferior race and Jesus, the Jew belongs to a superior race. Here the speaker seems to say that ‘water’ is essential to all, be it a Samaria woman or Jesus the Jew; similarly, water is essential for both the upper caste people and the untouchables. The same idea is reiterated in the next two lines. Even among the untouchables, there were sub-castes. ‘Leather’ refers to cobblers and the ‘spool’ refers to weavers. The speaker means to say that whether one is a cobbler or a weaver both of them need water. This fact is known to ‘water’, but why are people so cruel to give access to water to one and deny access to the other. Here, the ‘other’ refers to the untouchables.

A Panchama does not have the right to draw water from a public well because he is untouchable. It is cruel and unfortunate that he is made to wait near the well until a Shudra arrives. Here again, it is ironical that the ‘Panchama’, who does not belong to varna, has to wait for a Shudra who is supposed to belong to the fourth rank in the social hierarchy. A Shudra, according to the ‘varna’ scheme, is an unskilled labourer and he does all the physical tasks as directed by the other upper caste people. Naturally, only when a Shudra comes to a pond to fetch water for an upper caste person can he give some water to the Panchama. It also means that the other upper caste people who normally do not fetch water from a well will not be able to give water to a Panchama. The speaker is once again referring to the cruelty of the ‘varna system’ and the practices associated with untouchability.

The speaker cites another cruel instance of untouchability. Normally, whenever a person belonging to one of the four varnas happens to give some water to an ‘untouchable’ (here it is a girl], he/she takes care to see that the giver and the receiver stand apart from each other and pours water from a distance and from a higher level. On such occasions, some water is bound to fall on the receiver. Here, the receiver being a girl, waterfalls all over her. The speaker wants the reader to imagine the humiliation of the girl when someone throws water at her or on her. Here, the speaker is highlighting the cruel practice of untouchability.

The speaker recalls a heinous incident that happened in a place called Karamchedu. It is reported that, when two Kamma youths were washing dirty buckets (that had been used to feed their buffaloes) in the drinking water tank in Madigapalle, a Dalit boy objected to it, which angered the youth. Consequently, when the youths were about to beat up the boy, Munnangi Suvartamma, a Dalit woman, tried to protect the boy from the attackers. She lifted the vessel that she was carrying, to drive away from the attackers. This act of lifting the vessel in self-defense later resulted in a ghastly attack by the upper caste people on the Dalits.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Water is a luxury for one class and a struggle for another in our society. How does the poem Water’ present this contrast?
Answer:
The poem ‘Water’, besides chronicling a few typical and poignant situations which portray the anguish, the humiliation, and the helplessness of the Dalits in their struggle for procuring ‘water’ for their everyday needs, also challenges the reader’s moral conscience and rationality by highlighting the paradoxical and biased role played by water in modern life. The speaker probably wishes to question the wisdom of the upper caste people, who have now comfortably accepted the role of water as a marketable commodity. Incidentally, the speaker highlights the self-centeredness of the upper caste people for using ‘water’ as a source of comfort and luxury.

While the upper caste people of the entire village bathed luxuriously twice a day all through the week, the Dalits who lived in wadas were given water only once a week. Only on that day, the Dalits used to take their weekly bath. Though water is the universal source of life and was available in plenty, yet the Dalits were denied water on account of the practice of untouchability. This is true even today. Thus one can argue that water is a luxury for one class and a struggle for another in our society.

Water by Challapalli Swaroopa Rani About the Poet:

Challapalli Swaroopa Rani (B 1968) obtained her doctorate at the University of Hyderabad and is currently the Head of the Centre for Buddhist Studies, Nagarjuna University, Guntur. A popular literary critic and writer, she has received several awards for her literary contributions. Several short stories and poems, essays on experiences of Dalit women, child labour and village life have been translated and published in Hindi, English and Malayalam. Her anthology of poems ‘Mankenapuwu’ has been awarded the Vimala Santhi Sahiti Puraskaram in 2006.

Some of her main books include an edited volume titled ‘Padunekkinapata’, an anthology of poetry by different Dalit poets published in 1995,-Mankenapuwu’ her first collection of poetry in 2005, ‘Neeli Meghalu’, ‘Chikkanavuthunna Pata’, a collection of essays entitled ‘Asthithvagaanam’ in 2012. She was the founder editor to the refereed Journal of Historical Research ‘Charitraka Parishodhana’. She is the chief editor of the monthly journal on Dalit issues called ‘Bahujanakeratalu’ and a member of the editorial board of the monthly journal ‘Samantara Voice’.

Water Summary in English

‘Water’, by Challapalli Swaroopa Rani, is a reflective-narrative poem. The speaker in the persona of a ‘Dalit’ reminisces and chronicles a few typical but poignant situations which express the anguish and helplessness of a Dalit when he or she goes to a public pond or tank to collect water for their daily needs.

KSEEB Solutions

In the first five stanzas, the speaker cites ‘water’ as the witness to the practice of untouchability. The poet states in a casual, matter-of-fact tone that ‘water’, which knows where the ground is inclined along which it has to flow, knows that ‘untouchability’ never disappears, because the quarrel or conflict over allowing the Dalits to collect water from a village tank or pond, between the upper caste people and the Dalits, has been smouldering for several generations. The poet draws parallels between this situation and the dampness on the well’s edge which never dries up. The writer uses this analogy to let the reader know that ‘water’, being the ‘elixir of life’, every living creature needs water, but it is so cruel of the upper caste people to deny such an essential ‘element’ of life to the ‘Dalits’ in the name of untouchability.

The speaker seems to say that this has been happening every day for several generations and it is ironical that only water knows it. The poet is showing an accusing finger at all those people who deny access to the Dalits to water in public places. The poet seems to ask the reader, ‘Don’t you know this?’

The idea is reiterated citing another instance of untouchability. The poet cites a Biblical incident in which Jesus, the Jew, goes to a Samaria woman (in a town called Sychar) and asks the woman for a drink. The Samaria woman belongs to an inferior race and Jesus, the Jew belongs to a superior race. Here the speaker seems to say that ‘water’ is essential to all, be it a Samaria woman or Jesus the Jew; similarly, water is essential for both the upper caste people and the untouchables. The same idea is reiterated in the next two lines. Even among the untouchables, there were sub-castes. ‘Leather’ refers to cobblers and the ‘spool’ refers to weavers. The speaker means to say that whether one is a cobbler or a weaver both of them need water. This fact is known to ‘water’, but why are people so cruel to give access to water to one and deny access to the other. Here, the ‘other’ refers to the untouchables.

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 14 Water image - 1

A Panchama does not have the right to draw water from a public well because he is untouchable. It is cruel and unfortunate that he is made to wait near the well until a Shudra arrives. Here again, it is ironical that the ‘Panchama’, who does not belong to varna, has to wait for a Shudra who is supposed to belong to the fourth rank in the social hierarchy. A Shudra, according to the ‘varna’ scheme, is unskilled labour and he does all the physical tasks as directed by the other upper caste people. Naturally, only when a Shudra comes to a pond to fetch water for an upper caste person can he give some water to the Panchama. It also means that the other upper caste people who normally do not fetch water from a well will not be able to give water to a Panchama. The speaker is once again referring to the cruelty of the ‘varna system’ and the practices associated with untouchability.

The speaker cites another cruel instance of untouchability. Normally, whenever a person belonging to one of the four varnas happens to give some water to an ‘untouchable’ (here it is a girl), he/she takes care to see that the giver and the receiver stand apart from each other and pours water from a distance, from a higher level to a lower level. On such occasions, some water is bound to fall on the receiver. Here, the receiver being a girl, waterfalls all over her. The speaker wants the reader to imagine the humiliation of the girl when someone throws water at her or on her. Here, the speaker is highlighting the cruel practice of untouchability.

The speaker recalls a heinous incident that happened in a place called Karamchedu. It is reported that on 16 July 1985, when two Kamma youths were washing dirty buckets (that had been used to feed – their buffaloes) in the drinking water tank in Madigapalle, a Dalit boy objected to it, which angered the youth. Consequently, when the youths were about to beat up the boy, Munnangi Suvartamma, a Dalit woman, tried to protect the boy from the attack. She lifted the vessel that she was carrying, to drive away from the attackers. This act of lifting the vessel in self-defence later resulted in a ghastly attack by the upper caste people on the Dalits.

However, the speaker states that ‘water’ knows the ’anger’ exhibited by Suvartamma by lifting her vessel (water pot) against the Kamma landlords, who asked her not to pollute the pond water. In the last two lines, the speaker asserts that ‘water’ has been the witness to centuries of social injustice.

KSEEB Solutions

The poet speaks in the first person and reminisces her painful experiences. The speaker says that whenever she sees water, she recalls that the people in her part of the village (Wada) would be suffering from severe thirst all day, not being able to get even a glass of water. She recalls sadly how they (the Dalits) would look forward to their weekly bath day, as if it was a wonderful festival day, while the upper caste people in the entire village enjoyed bathing luxuriously twice a day. Here the speaker intends to highlight the fact that while the Dalits were ‘deprived’ of water and were given water only once^a week, the other people had so much water that they bathed luxuriously twice a day.

The speaker recalls her childhood, when they had to walk miles and miles to fetch water from the big canal and carried back heavy pots with the muscles and veins in their necks straining and bursting.

The speaker narrates a fire accident in Malapalle. It was a locality where the Dalits lived in thatched huts. When their thatched roofs caught fire, the huts were completely destroyed in the fire for want of a pot of water to douse the fire.
The speaker expresses her opinion about the role of water in the life of the Dalits. She also expresses her view about how water is acting as an agent of social change at the local as well as at the global level.

The speaker states that for them (Dalits) water is a mighty movement itself and cites the instance of the Mahad struggle at the Chadar tank. (Mahad was a town in Colaba district in the then Mumbai state.) The Mahad municipality had passed a resolution to allow untouchables full/free access to all village waterfronts. But the local upper-caste population did not allow the Dalits to use the water and the resolution remained only on paper. On 19 March 1927, Dr Baba Saheb Ambedkar led a rally to the water reservoir at Mahad, drank water from that tank, and asserted the rights of the Dalits.

The speaker states that, for the Dalits, a single drop of water stands for tears shed by Dalits over several generations. She regretfully states that the Dalits had fought many battles for water in which they had shed their blood but had never succeeded in winning even a small puddle of water.

The speaker seems to hint that ‘water’ can act as an agent of social change and avenge the humiliation suffered by the Dalits. That is why she says, water is not a simple thing. It can give life but it can also devour lives. She categorically states that the water which should have been given to the Dalits to quench their parched throats later became the killer tsunami wave and swallowed village after village. In these lines the speaker seems to suggest that ‘water’ itself has acted as an agent of retribution, punishing the people for denying water to the Dalits. The theme of water as a mighty force and an agent of social change continues.

She recalls the suffering undergone by the poor people who get killed whenever there is a flood. The speaker remarks that poor people become playthings in the vicious hands of water and get killed in large numbers, often turning villages into dry deserts. Having expressed the harm caused by water to the untouchables, the speaker, in stanza thirteen, says that ‘water’ can become an issue of conflict between the village and the Wada, and between one State and another and be the cause of a bloody battle where people kill or hurt each other making the blood run in streams.

The speaker says that the very same water also can sit innocently in a Bisleri bottle appearing so innocuous. The poet traces the new avatar taken by water in the global market. She says that the very same ‘well water’ which the Dalits used to draw up from a well and carry in pots balancing them over their heads and hands now slowly and clandestinely dances its way into the Pepsi man’s bottle. Subsequently, it gets sold in its new name ‘mineral water’. The sale and origin of mineral water are also being vehemently debated. It is well known that Dalits depend on wells for their needs. But, owing to globalisation, many entrepreneurs have set up bottling plants for mineral water and other beverages. This has resulted in the depletion of groundwater which affects the Dalits directly.

KSEEB Solutions

The speaker seems to ridicule all those people who prevented the Dalits from polluting the water by their touch. She seems to make fun of them saying, ‘‘What happened to your social restrictions now?”

The speaker concludes declaring that ‘water’ is not an insignificant or trivial issue but is a multinational market commodity and it knows everything (omniscient). It contains the world, meaning, water has no boundaries. In the end, the speaker seems to challenge the oppressors that they can no longer deprive the untouchables of their share of water.

Water Summary in Kannada

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 14 Water image - 2
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 14 Water image - 3
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 14 Water image - 4
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 14 Water image - 5

Glossary:

  • Wada: locality where Dalits live
  • Samaria/Samaritan woman: A benevolent woman of the town of Sychar in Samaria, belonging to a caste lower than that of Jews
  • Panchama: fifth category in the varna system

Note: Karamchedu is a village in Chirala taluk in Prakasham District. On July 16, 1985, following a petty quarrel at a tank, members of the dominant community killed six Dalits.

This is how Katti Padmarao, a prominent Dalit writer and activist, describes the incident: Two youths were washing dirty buckets they had used to feed their buffaloes in the drinking water tank in Madigapalle. This was objected to by a Dalit boy which angered the youth. They were about to beat up the boy when Munnangi Suvartamma, a Dalit woman, who had come to the tank to collect water, tried to protect the boy from the attack. She lifted the vessel she was carrying to ward off the hunters. Her act of lifting the vessel in self-defence became a pretext for the dominant community. This led to a ghastly attack on Dalits.

2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 19 सूखी डाली

You can Download Chapter 19 सूखी डाली Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 19 सूखी डाली

सूखी डाली Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

I. एक शब्द या वाक्यांश या वाक्य में उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
मिश्रानी को किसने काम से हटा दिया?
उत्तर:
मिश्रानी को छोटी बहू बेला ने काम से हटा दिया।

प्रश्न 2.
मिश्रानी कितने वर्षों से मूलराज के परिवार में काम कर रही थी?
उत्तर:
मिश्रानी दस वर्षों से मूलराज के घर में काम कर रही थी।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 3.
नौकरों से काम लेने के लिए क्या होनी चाहिए?
उत्तर:
नौकरों से काम लेने की तमीज (या ढंग) होनी चाहिए।

प्रश्न 4.
हँसी के मारे मर जाने की बात कौन कहती है?
उत्तर:
हँसी के मारे मर जाने की बात मँझली बहू कहती है।

प्रश्न 5.
हर बात पर अपने मायके की तारीफ कौन करती रहती है?
उत्तर:
हर बात पर छोटी बहू बेला अपने मायके की तारीफ करती रहती है।

प्रश्न 6.
दादा जी का छोटा पोता परेश किस पद पर था?
उत्तर:
दादाजी का छोटा पोता परेश नायब तहसीलदार पद पर था।

प्रश्न 7.
मलमल के थान और अबरों को परेश किसके पास नहीं ले कर जाते?
उत्तर:
मलमल के थान और अबरों को परेश अपने दादा जी के पास नहीं ले जाता।

प्रश्न 8.
मूलराज के मँझले बेटे का नाम लिखिए।
उत्तर:
मूलराज के मँझले बेटे का नाम कर्मचन्द है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 9.
दादा जी के अनुसार उनका परिवार किस पेड़ के समान है?
उत्तर:
दादाजी के अनुसार उनका परिवार बरगद के पेड़ वट वृक्ष के समान है।

प्रश्न 10.
हल्की सी खरोंच भी दवा न लगने पर क्या बन जाती है?
उत्तर:
हल्की सी खरोंच भी दवा न लगने पर नासूर बन जाती है।

प्रश्न 11.
छोटी बहू के मन में किसकी मात्रा जरूरत से ज्यादा है?
उत्तर:
छोटी बहू के मन में दर्प की मात्रा जरूरत से कुछ ज्यादा है।

प्रश्न 12.
घृणा को किससे नहीं मिटाया जा सकता?
उत्तर:
घृणा को घृणा से नहीं मिटाया जा सकता।

प्रश्न 13.
बरगद का पेड़ किन लोगों ने उखाड़ दिया?
उत्तर:
मल्लू और जगदीश ने बरगद (वट-वृक्ष) का पेड़ उखाड़ दिया।

प्रश्न 14.
दादा जी ने परेश से छोटी बहू को कहाँ ले जाने के लिए कहा?
उत्तर:
दादाजी ने परेश से छोटी बहू को बाजार ले जाने के लिए कहा।

प्रश्न 15.
किसे दूसरों का हस्तक्षेप और आलोचना पसंद नहीं है?
उत्तर:
परेश की पत्नी बेला को दूसरों का हस्तक्षेप पसंद नहीं है।

प्रश्न 16.
व्यक्ति किन गुणों से बड़ा होता है?
उत्तर:
व्यक्ति बुद्धि और योग्यता जैसे गुणों से बड़ा होता है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 17.
पेड़ की छाया को बढ़ाने का काम कौन करती है?
उत्तर:
पेड़ की छाया को बढ़ाने का काम पेड़ की डालियाँ करती हैं।

प्रश्न 18.
दादा जी को किस कल्पना से सिहरन होने लगती है?
उत्तर:
पेड़ से अलग होने वाली डाली की कल्पना से दादाजी को सिहरन होने लगती है।

प्रश्न 19.
बरगद के पेड़ की कहानी किनका निर्माण करती हैं?
उत्तर:
बरगद के पेड़ की कहानी कुटुम्ब, समाज और राष्ट्र का निर्माण करती है।

प्रश्न 20.
दादा जी किसके हक में हैं?
उत्तर:
दादा जी पुराने नौकरों के हक में हैं।

प्रश्न 21.
किसने सारी-की-सारी छत फावड़े से खोद डाली?
उत्तर:
मालवी ने सारी की सारी छत फावड़े से खोद डाली।

प्रश्न 22.
बंसीलाल का लड़का गली के सिरे पर क्या कर रहा था?
उत्तर:
बंसीलाल का लड़का गली के सिरे पर खड़ा खम ठोंक रहा था।

प्रश्न 23.
बेला के अनुसार परिवार की सदस्या उससे किस प्रकार डरती हैं?
उत्तर:
बेला के अनुसार परिवार के सभी सदस्या उससे ऐसा डरते हैं, जैसे मुर्गी के बच्चे बाज से।

प्रश्न 24.
दादा जी ने सबको क्या समझाया था?
उत्तर:
दादाजी ने समझाया था कि सबको आपका आदर करना चाहिए।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 25.
‘सूखी डाली’ के एकांकीकार का नाम लिखिए।
उत्तर:
‘सूखी डाली’ के एकांकीकार हैं उपेन्द्रनाथ अश्क।

II. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
इन्दु को अपनी भाभी बेला पर क्यों क्रोध आया?
उत्तर:
छोटी बहू बेला अभी-अभी शादी कर घर आई है। वह बड़े बाप की एकलौती बेटी है। बहुत पढ़ी लिखी भी है। घर की अन्य महिलाएँ सीधी-साधी है। घर में इंदु ही सबसे अधिक पढ़ी-लिखी समझी जाती थी और घर में उसकी ही खूब चलती थी। लेकिन छोटी बहू बेला जब से घर में आई घर में तनाव बढ़ने लगे। दस साल से जो मिश्रानी उनके घर काम कर रही थी उसे बैठक साफ करने तक का सलीका नहीं है कह कर निकाल दिया। हमेशा वह अपने मायके की ही बढ़ाई करती है जैसे यहाँ के सब लोग मूर्ख और गँवार है। उसी बात को लेकर इंदु और बेला में झगड़ा हुआ। बेला का कहना था कि सिर्फ झाडू कारने से कमरा थोड़े ही साफ होता है, ऐसे फूहड नौकर को उसके मायके में दो घड़ी भी न टिकने देते। इन बातों से इन्दु को अपनी भाभी पर क्रोध आया।

प्रश्न 2.
रजवा ने छोटी भाभी से क्या कहा?
उत्तर:
रजवा मिश्रानी के घरवाले पीढ़ी-दर-पीढ़ी उनके घर में काम करते थे। खुद रुजवा दस साल से उनके घर में काम कर रही थी। वह घर भर की सफाई करती, बर्तन मलती, कपड़े धोती। छोटी बहू बेला के कमरे में सफाई करने गई रजवा को बहुत डाँट पड़ी। सिर्फ झाडू मारने से कमरा थोड़े ही साफ़ होता है कहकर उसे कल से मत आओ कहा तब रोती हुई रुजवा छोटी भाभी के पास आई और उसने कहा कि वह छोटी बहू का काम नहीं करेगी। इतने बरस हुए उसे उनके घर काम करते हुए किसीने इस तरह उसका ऐसा अपमान नहीं किया था। व वह रोने लगी।

प्रश्न 3.
बेला ने सारा फर्नीचर और सामान कहाँ रख दिया और क्यों?
उत्तर:
बेला ने सारा सामान और फर्नीचर अपने कमरे से निकालकर बाहर कर दिया था। वह अपने पति परेश से कहती है कि मैं इन टूटे-फूटे फर्नीचर को अपने कमरे में नहीं रहने दूंगी। परेश के बहुत कहने पर भी वह उसकी बातों को नहीं मानती है। वह आधुनिक विचारों की महिला है। इस वजह से उसके ख्याल परेश से नहीं मिलते। वह बात-बात पर अपने मैके की तारीफ करती है। वहाँ की चीजें ससुराल की तुलना में अच्छी हैं। इस बेडौल फर्नीचर से तो नीचे धरती पर चटाई बिछा कर बैठना-लेटना अच्छा है।

प्रश्न 4.
कर्मचन्द ने पेड़ से एक डाली टूटकर अलग होने की बात क्यों कही?
उत्तर:
कर्मचन्द दादाजी का मँझला लड़का था। वह उनके पास बैठा पाँव दबा रहा था। बच्चे आँगन में बरगद की पूरी डाल लाकर लगा रहे थे और उसे पानी दे रहे थे। दादाजी कहते हैं कि बच्चे नहीं जानते कि पेड़ से टूटी डाली जल देने से नहीं पनपती। एक बार पेड़ से जो डाली टूट गई, उसे लाख पानी दो, उसमें वह सरसता न आएगी। हमारा यह परिवार बरगद के पेड़ के समान है। इसे सुनकर कर्मचन्द कहता है शायद अब इस पेड़ से एक डाली टूट कर अलग हो जाए। दादाजी के पूछने पर कर्मचन्द कहता है कि छोटी बहू अलग होना चाहती है। उसके मन में दर्प की मात्रा कुछ ज्यादा है। मैंने जो मलमल के थान और रजाई के अबरे लाकर दिये थे वे उसे पसंद नहीं आये। वह अपने मायके के घराने को इस घराने से बड़ा समझती है और घृणा की दृष्टि से देखती है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 5.
दादा जी के ‘बड़प्पन’ के संबंध में क्या विचार थे?
उत्तर:
दादा जी बड़प्पन के संबंध में अपने मंझले लड़के कर्मचन्द से कहते हैं कि – बड़प्पन बाहर की वस्तु नहीं है। बड़प्पन तो मन का होना चाहिए। घृणा को घृणा से नहीं मिटाया जा सकता। छोटी बहू तभी अलग होना चाहेगी जब उसे घृणा के बदले घृणा दी जाएगी। यदि उसे घृणा के बदले स्नेह मिले तो उसकी सारी घृणा धुंधली पड़कर लुप्त हो जाएगी। महानता किसी से मनवाई नहीं जा सकती, अपने व्यवहार से अनुभव कराई जा सकती है। दूंठ वृक्ष आकाश को छूने पर भी अपनी महानता का सिक्का हमारे दिलों पर उस समय तक नहीं बैठा सकता, जब तक अपनी शाखाओं में वह ऐसे पत्ते नहीं लाता, जिनकी शीतल-सुखद छाया मन के सारे ताप को हर ले और जिसके फूलों की भीनी-भीनी सुगंध हमारे प्राणों में पुलक भर दे।

प्रश्न 6.
बेला की मानसिक दशा का वर्णन कीजिए।
उत्तर:
बेला एक उच्च परिवार से आयी थी। वह नए ख्यालों की पढ़ी-लिखी आधुनिक महिला थी। वह ससुराल में आने के बाद अपने को उसके अनुसार ढ़ाल नहीं पा रही थी। परिवार के सभी लोग उसकी निंदा करते थे। वह इसकी शिकायत अपने पति परेश से करती है। उसे ऐसा महसूस होता है कि वह पराये घर में आ गई है। उसे किसी का हस्तक्षेप, दूसरों की आलोचना पसंद नहीं है। वह अपनी गृहस्थी अलग बसाना चाहती है, जहाँ उसे कोई रोकनेवाला न हो, जहाँ वह सुख और शांति से रह सके। बेला की मानसिक दशा इस तरह थी।

प्रश्न 7.
दादा जी ने परेश को किस प्रकार मनाया?
उत्तर:
परेश ने दादा जी से कहा कि बेला अपनी अलग गृहस्थी बसाना चाहती है। उसका इस घर में मन नहीं लगता। अगर आप बाग वाले मकान का प्रबंध कर दें ….. जहाँ वह स्वेच्छापूर्वक जीवन बिता सके। दादा जी कहते हैं कि ये उनके जीते जी असंभव है। तुम चिंता न करो। मैं सबको समझा दूंगा – घर में किसी को तुम्हारी पत्नी का तिरस्कार करने का साहस न होगा। कोई उसका समय नष्ट न करेगा। ईश्वर की असीम कृपा से हमारे घर सुशिक्षित, सुसंस्कृत बहू आई है तो क्या हम अपनी मूर्खता से उसे परेशान कर देंगे? तुम जाओ बेटा, किसी प्रकार की चिंता को मन में स्थान न दो। मैं कोई-न-कोई उपाय ढूँढ निकालूँगा। तुम विश्वास रखो, वह अपने आपको परायों में घिरी अनुभव न करेगी। उसे वही आदर-सत्कार मिलेगा, जो उसे अपने घर में प्राप्त था। इस प्रकार दादा जी ने परेश को मनाया।

प्रश्न 8.
दादा जी ने किस अभिप्राय से सभी को बुलाया और क्या कहा?
उत्तर:
दादा जी अपने परिवार को बरगद के पेड़ के समान मानते थे। वे किसी भी कीमत पर अपने परिवार को बिखरते हुए नहीं देख सकते थे। जब उन्हें पता चलता है कि छोटी बहू बेला परिवार से अलग होना चाहती है तब वे परिवार के सभी सदस्यों को बुलाते हैं और उनसे कहते हैं कि छोटी बहू को वही आदर सम्मान मिले जो उसे अपने घर में मिलता था। वह एक बड़े घर से आयी है और अत्यधिक पढ़ी-लिखी है। मेरी इच्छा है कि सब लोग उसकी बुद्धि और योग्यता का लाभ उठाएँ। उससे परामर्श लें और हो सके तो उसका काम भी आपस में बाँट लो। उसे पढ़ने-लिखने का अधिक अवसर दो। उसे इस बात का एहसास न हो कि वह दूसरे घर में आ गई है। कोई भी उसका निरादर न करे और न ही उसकी हँसी उड़ाये ।

प्रश्न 9.
दादा जी की क्या आकांक्षा थी?
उत्तर:
दादा जी अपने परिवार को एक बड़े बरगद के पेड़ के समान मानते थे। अगर पेड़ की एक भी डाली टूट कर अलग हो जाए तो फिर चाहे उसे कितना भी पानी दो उसमें सरसता नहीं आ सकती। जब उन्हें पता चलता है कि परेश अलग होनेवाला है तो वे परिवार के सभी सदस्यों को बुलाकर समझाते हैं कि कोई भी छोटी बहू का अनादर न करे। दादाजी की आकांक्षा थी कि वृक्ष की सभी डालियाँ साथ-साथ बढ़ें, फलें फूलें, जीवन की सुखद शीतल वायु के परस से झूमें और सरसाएँ। पेड़ से अलग होनेवाली डाली की कल्पना उनके अंदर कंपन पैदा कर देती थी। वे परिवार को वटवृक्ष के समान देखना चाहते थे।

प्रश्न 10.
घर के लोगों के व्यवहार में बदलाव देखकर बेला की क्या प्रतिक्रिया थी?
उत्तर:
घर के लोगों के व्यवहार में बदलाव देखकर बेला की प्रतिक्रिया थी कि ये पहले तो ऐसे नहीं थे, अब कैसे बदल गये सभी-के-सभी। ‘जी’ कहकर पुकारना, काम न करने देना, आदर-सत्कार करना आदि…आदि। सचमुच बेला को भी लगा कि अब मुझे इनके साथ रहकर चलना होगा। दादा जी भी इससे खुश होंगे।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 11.
मालवी ने सारी-की-सारी छत क्यों और कैसे खोद डाली?
उत्तर:
मालवी को लगा कि इस घर में कोई आनेवाला है। अतः उसका विरोध जताने के लिए सिर्फ दो ही घंटे पहले मजदूरों तथा राज ने जो छत डाली थी, मालवी ने सारी-की-सारी छत फावड़े से खोद डाली। बंसीलाल महाशय मुँह देखते रह गये। उनके आने तक अंतिम ईंट भी उखड़ चुकी थी।

प्रश्न 12.
बेला अपने मायके क्यों जाना चाहती थी?
उत्तर:
बेला अपने मायके इसलिए जाना चाहती थी क्योंकि उसे ऐसा लगता था कि जैसे वह अपरिचितों में आ गयी है। कोई उसे नहीं समझता और वह किसी को नहीं समझती। जब वह जाती है तो बड़ी भाभी, मँझली और माँजी तक खड़ी हो जाती थीं। उसके सामने कोई हँसता नहीं। उससे अधिक समय तक कोई बात नहीं करना चाहता। सब उससे ऐसा डरती है जैसे मुर्गी के बच्चे बाज से। बेला अपने मायके जाना चाहती थी कि वह आदर, सत्कार, सुख, आराम चाहती थी।

प्रश्न 13.
इन्दु के मुँह से दादा जी की बात सुनकर बेला ने क्या कहा?
उत्तर:
इन्दु ने बेला से दादाजी की बात कही, तो बेला ने कहा – किन्तु उन्होंने यह सब क्यों कहा? मैंने तो कभी उनसे इस बात की शिकायत नहीं की? मैं आदर नहीं चाहती और मैं तो तुम सबके साथ मिलकर काम करना चाहती हूँ। आप लोगों ने मुझे कितना गलत समझा और मैंने आप लोगों को। अब मैं तुम्हारे साथ सब काम मिल जुल कर करूँगी।

प्रश्न 14.
बेला ने भावावेश में सैंधे हुए कंठ से दादा जी से क्या कहा?
उत्तर:
दादाजी जब देखते हैं कि बेला कपड़े धोने जा रही है तो वे इन्दु को डाँटने वाले रहते हैं कि उस पढ़ने-लिखने दो तब भावावेश में रुंधे कंठ से दादाजी से कहती है कि वे पेड़ की किसी डाली का टूट कर अलग होना पसंद नहीं करते लेकिन क्या वे चाहेंगे कि पेड़ से लगी-लगी वह डाल सूख कर मुरझा जाए।

प्रश्न 15.
दादा जी का चरित्र चित्रण कीजिए।
उत्तर:
दादाजी परिवार के मुखिया हैं। वे संयुक्त परिवार के पक्षधर हैं। घर का प्रत्येक व्यक्ति उनका आदर करता है। दादाजी की खूबी यह है कि घर के प्रत्येक सदस्य की समस्य का समाधान बड़ी ही चतुराई से करते हैं। परिवार को वे एक वट-वृक्ष मानते हैं और घर के सदस्यों को उस वट-वृक्ष की डालियाँ। इसलिए वे एक भी डाली को टूटने नहीं देना चाहते। यहाँ तक कि उन्होंने कहा – मैं इससे सिहर जाता हूँ। घर में मेरी बात नहीं मानी गई, तो मेरा इस घर से नाता टूट जायेगा। इससे निष्कर्ष निकाला जा सकता है कि दादाजी का चरित्र श्रेष्ठ, धवल एवं सिद्धांतों से जुड़ा हुआ है।

प्रश्न 16.
बेला की चारित्रिक विशेषताओं पर संक्षेप में प्रकाश डालिए।
उत्तर:
बेला एक प्रतिष्ठित तथा संपन्न परिवार की सुशिक्षित लड़की है। उसका विवाह परेश से हो जाता है। वह ससुराल में आकर अपने को नये घर के अनुसार ढाल नहीं पाती। वह पढ़ी-लिखी रहने के कारण सबको गँवार, नीच, हीन दृष्टि से देखती है। घर में छोटी बहू होने के कारण सब उसकी आलोचना करना व उसे आदेश देना अपना कर्त्तव्य समझते हैं। वह आजाद ख्याल की है। उसे दूसरों का हस्तक्षेप तथा दूसरों की आलोचना पसंद नहीं है। वह परेश से अलग गृहस्थी बसाने के लिए कहती है। दादा जी परिवार के सभी सदस्यों को बुलाकर कहते हैं कि कोई बेला का अनादर नहीं करेगा। परिवार के सभी लोग अब उसका आदर करने लगते हैं। वह आदर नहीं बल्कि सबके साथ मिल-जुलकर काम करना चाहती है। जब उसे पता चलता है कि यह बदलाव दादा जी के कहने से हुआ है तो वह भावावेश में दादा जी से कहती है – ‘आप पेड़ से किसी डाली का टूट कर अलग होना पसंद नहीं करते, पर क्या आप ये चाहेंगे कि पेड़ से लगी-लगी वह डाली सूख कर मुरझा जाय…..।’

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 17.
परेश के सामने कौन सी समस्या आ खड़ी हुई और उसका किस प्रकार से समाधान हुआ?
उत्तर:
परेश छोटी बहु बेला का पति है। उसकी पत्नी पढ़ी-लिखी है। घर में सभी उससे सही ढंग से व्यवहार न करने के कारण परेश धर्म-संकट में है। एक तरफ दादाजी का अनुशासन एवं कर्तव्य-पालन, तो दूसरी ओर पत्नी की समस्या। बेला का घर में मन न लगने से वह भी परेशान है। पत्नी के बारे में दादाजी से सब कुछ कह देता है। यह भी कि वह अलग घर बसाना चाहती है, जो दादाजी को पसंद नहीं। दादाजी संयुक्त परिवार का महत्व समझाते है, घर (परिवार). को वट-वृक्ष और सदस्यों को डाली बताते हैं। परेश दादाजी की सारी बातें मान लेता है। परिणाम भी अच्छा होता है। छोटी बहू में भी परिवर्तन हो जाता है। इस प्रकार हम कह सकते हैं कि परिवार में परेश जैसा सहनशील पुत्र, पति होना चाहिए।

प्रश्न 18.
इन्दु का चरित्र चित्रण कीजिए।
उत्तर:
इन्दु छोटी बहू (बेला) से कुछ नाराज थी। क्योंकि छोटी बहू सदा अपने मायके का गुणगान करती थी। बाकी लोगों को मूर्ख, गँवार और असभ्य समझती थी। मिश्रानी को काम से निकाल देने से भी इन्दु नाराज थी। वह भाभी को समझाती है कि नौकर से काम लेने की भी तमीज होनी चाहिए। इन्दु अधिकतर छोटी बहू के बारे में शिकायत करती रहती है- “सिर्फ जबान चलाने से क्या? काम भी तो करना चाहिए।” “क्यों, उसके हाथ नमक-मिट्टी के हैं, जो गल जायेंगे।” “उसे चौबीसों घंटे अपने मायके की पड़ी रहती है।” आदि… आदि…।

प्रश्न 19.
बड़ी बहू पर टिप्पणी लिखिए।
उत्तर:
घर में जो बड़ी बहू होती है, उसकी बड़ी जिम्मेदारी भी हुआ करती है। वह सास के बराबर मानी जाती है। अपने से छोटे-सभी का ख्याल उसे रखना पड़ता है। वह घर के सभी सदस्यों को छोटी बहू के बारे में कहती है – उसे हमारा खाना-पीना, पहनना-ओढ़ना पसन्द नहीं है, उसे हमारी हर बात से घृणा है। वह बेला से कहती है – हम आपसे छोटी हैं, वर्ग में भी और बुद्धि में भी…. वह सबके काम में हाथ भी बँटाती है। हँसी-मजाक भी खूब करती है। जैसे – “मैं तो फँस गयी मँझली की बातों में…. चलो…. चलो।”

प्रश्न 20.
मँझली भाभी पर टिप्पणी लिखिए।
उत्तर:
मँझली बहू सदा दूसरों की हँसी उड़ाने में ही आनंद लेती है। स्वयं बात-बात पर हँसती रहती है। भाई के बारे में कहती है- आज भाई परेश की वह गति बनी कि बेचारा अपना-सा मुँह लेकर दादा जी के पास भाग गया। जबान है छोटी बहू की या कतरनी….. जब अंग्रेजी बोलने लगती है तो कुछ समझ में ही नहीं आता। परेश बेचारा अपना-सा मुँह लेकर रह जाता है। जाने तहसीलदार कैसे बन गया। कचहरी में होंगे तहसीलदार, घर में तो अपराधियों से भी गये बीते हैं। मालवी और बंसीलाल का भी मजाक उड़ाने में मँझली भाभी कभी चूकती नहीं। इस प्रकार छोटी बहू बेला के बारे में तथा घर के अन्य सभी सदस्यों के बारे में टीका-टिप्पणी करने में महारत हासिल है मँझली भाभी को।

सूखी डाली एकांकीकार का परिचय :

प्रसिद्ध साहित्यकार उपेन्द्रनाथ ‘अश्क’ जी का जन्म 1910 ई. में पंजाब के जालन्धर शहर के एक मध्यवर्गीय परिवार में हुआ था। आपकी बहुमुखी प्रतिभा साहित्य की विविध विधाओं में प्रवृत्त हुई है। आप एकांकी कला क्षेत्र में यथार्थवादी परम्परा का सूत्रपात करनेवाले प्रमुख एकांकीकारों में से हैं। ‘अश्क’ जी की सभी एकांकी आज के जन जीवन से संपृक्त हैं जिनमें यथार्थवाद की ठोस अनुभूति एवं मानसिक भावों का सूक्ष्म विश्लेषण रहता है।

KSEEB Solutions

भाषा प्रयोग में ‘अश्क’ जी अत्यन्त निपुण हैं। वातावरण एवं पात्रानुकूल भाषा आपके समस्त एकांकियों में परिलक्षित होती है। आपने उर्दू एवं अंग्रेजी के शब्दों और वाक्यांशों का खुलकर प्रयोग किया है। 1965 ई. में श्रीमती इंदिरा गांधी द्वारा आपको केंद्रीय संगीत नाटक अकादमी की ओर से सर्वश्रेष्ठ नाटककार के सम्मान से अलंकृत किया गया।

गद्य की विभिन्न विधाओं कहानी, नाटक, एकांकी, उपन्यास, संस्मरण, समालोचना आदि में विशिष्ट योगदान के लिए 1972 ई. में आपको सोवियतलैंड नेहरू पुरस्कार से नवाजा गया। आपकी मृत्यु 1996 ई. में हुई।

प्रमुख रचनाएँ: एकांकी-संग्रह : ‘देवताओं की छाया में’, ‘तूफान से पहले’, ‘चरवाहे’, ‘पक्का गाना’, ‘साहब को जुकाम है’ आदि।
उपन्यास : ‘सितारों के खेल’, ‘गिरती दीवारें’, ‘गर्म राख’, ‘निमिषा’ आदि।

सूखी डाली एकांकी का आशय :

प्रस्तुत एकांकी ‘सूखी डाली’ में एक सम्मिलित परिवार का चित्रण है, जो शान्तिपूर्वक जीवन व्यतीत कर रहा था तथा जिसकी यह मान्यता थी कि सम्मिलित परिवार एक विशाल वट वृक्ष की हरी-भरी डाली के समान है। इसमें व्यक्ति, परिवार और समाज में व्यापक रूप से व्याप्त आधुनिक संघर्ष और मनोवैज्ञानिक स्थितियों को बड़ी सूक्ष्मता से नियोजित किया गया है। दादा जी के संयुक्त परिवार में छोटी बहू (बेला) के आ जाने से जो हलचल मच जाती है, वह सभी की चर्चा का विषय है। किन्तु दादा जी द्वारा समझाए जाने पर घर के सभी सदस्य जब उसके प्रति एक दूसरा ही व्यवहार आरम्भ कर देते हैं तो बेला को अपना दम घुटता-सा प्रतीत होता है और अंत में वह इन्दु के समक्ष आत्म समर्पण कर देती है। इस प्रकार दादा जी की परिपक्व बुद्धि द्वारा एक असहयोगिनी कितनी जल्दी गृह-कार्य में सहयोग देने लगती है।

श्री गंगा प्रसाद पाण्डेय का कथन कितना सार्थक है कि, दादा रूपी वट वृक्ष की छाया में परिवार के भीतर चलने वाले संघर्ष की चरम अभिव्यक्ति बेला (छोटी बहू) के इन शब्दों से स्पष्ट होती है-
“दादा जी पेड़ से किसी डाली का टूट कर अलग होना पसंद नहीं करते, पर क्या आप चाहेंगे कि पेड़ से लगी वह डाल सूख कर मुरझा जाए…’ संक्रान्ति काल की अस्त-व्यस्तता में व्यक्ति-वैचित्र्य की यथार्थ झाँकी प्रस्तुत करने में यह एकांकी पूर्ण रूप से सफल है।

सूखी डाली Summary in Hindi

पात्र-परिचय :

पुरुष पात्र

  • दादा
  • कर्मचन्द
  • परेश
  • भाषी
  • मल्लू

KSEEB Solutions

स्त्री पात्र

  • बेला (छोटी बहू)
  • छोटी भाभी (बेला की सास, इन्दु की माँ)
  • मँझली भाभी
  • बड़ी भाभी
  • मँझली बहू
  • बड़ी बहू
  • रजवा
  • पारो

सारांश :
वर्तमान युग को सन्धिकाल कहा जाता है। पुराने विचार, पुरानी परंपराएं अभी मिटी नहीं हैं, नये विचार, नये संस्कार अभी आ नहीं पाये है। नतीजा यह होता है कि पुराने और नये में सर्वत्र संघर्ष दिखाई देता है। प्रत्येक कुटुम्ब में बूढ़े लोग पुरानी परंपरा के हैं, नवयुवक और नवयुवतियाँ आधुनिक विचारों से प्रभावित है। फल यह होता है कि आये दिन उनमें खट-पट होती है और कहींकहीं तो गृह-कलह का रूप धारण कर लेती है।

दादा का एक भरापूरा परिवार है। कई बेटे है, कई बहुएँ है, बच्चे है। नाती भी बड़े हो गये हैं, एक का तो विवाह भी हो गया है। दादा का यह सम्मिलित कुटुम्ब पुराने आदर्शों की रक्षा करता हुआ आनंद के साथ जीवन बिता रहा है। घर की औरतें, लड़कियाँ कुछ ज्यादा पढ़ी नही हैं, परंतु प्रेम से गृहस्थी कैसे चलायी जाती है यह वे भली-भाँति जानते हैं।

कुटुम्ब में सब छोटे, बड़ो का आदर करते हैं। सब एक दूसरे की सहायता करते हैं। एक दूसरे को प्यार करते हैं। घर में सबसे बड़े बूढ़े दादा है जो एक विशाल वट-वृक्ष की तरह खड़े हैं। उनकी छाया में सब उसी तरह सुख से रहते हैं, जैसे वट की शाखाओं में घोसला बनाकर अनेक पक्षी रहते हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

दादा जी का आर्शिवाद सब पर हैं। दादा सब पर प्रेम की वर्षा करते हैं। सब की खोजखबर लेते हैं। दादा यह स्वप्न में भी नहीं सोंचते कि इस वट-वृक्ष रूपी कुटुम्ब की कोई डाली कहीं दूसरी जगह जाकर लगे। सम्मिलित कुटुम्ब के वे प्रबल पक्षपाती हैं। उसकी छत्र-छाया में सब सुखी हैं। कुटुम्ब में एक नाती परेश का विवाह हुआ। घर भर में परेश ही विशेष पढ़ा-लिखा व्यक्ति था। उसका विवाह अच्छी जगह हुआ। जो बहू आई वह ग्रेज्युएट थी।

वह बहू सम्पन्न घर से आई थी, पढ़ी-लिखी थी। यहाँ आकर देखा कि धर पुराने ढंग का, सामान पुराने ढंग का, रहन-सहन सब पुराने ढंग का। घर की स्त्रियों में कोई भी पढ़ी-लिखी नहीं, यहाँ तक कि ननद भी अल्पशिक्षित थी।

इस नये वातावरण में नई शिक्षित बहू को बड़ा अनोखा लगा। थोड़े ही दिन में उसका मुंह खुला और वह हर समय इस घरं की आलोचना करती और अपने मायके की तारीफ करती। नई बहू का इस प्रकार का व्यवहार भला किसको पसंद आता? नई बहू के व्यवहार की आलोचना होने लगी। परिणाम यह हुआ कि वह सबसे और सब उससे कटे कटे से रहने लगे।

नई बहू को इस घर के नौकर पसंद नहीं थे। रजवा नाग की एक नौकरानी को तो निकाल ही दिया। एक दिन कमरे का सब फर्नीचर बाहर डलवा दिया। उसे नई फैशन का फर्नीचर चाहिए था।

नई बहू ने अपने पति परेश से यह भी कह दिया कि मेरा तो इस घर में दम घुटता है। मेरा कोई आदर नहीं करता। सब लोग मेरा समय बरबाद करते है। मेरा पढ़ना नहीं हो पाता। इससे तो अच्छा है कि किसी दूसरी जगह जाकर रहें या फिर उसे उसके मायके भेज दिया जाय।

परेश ने अपनी पत्नी बेला को काफी समझाया मगर वह इन पिछड़े हुए लोगों के साथ रहने की अनिच्छा प्रकट करती रही।

बूढ़े दादा को इसकी खबर लग चुकी थी कि नई बहू इस घर में असंतुष्ट है और उसकी क्याक्या शिकायते हैं। एक दिन दादा ने घर के सब लोगों को इकट्ठा किया और समझाया कि नई बहू पढ़ी-लिखी है; वह सम्पन्न घर से आई है। उसका घर में सम्मान होना चाहिए। उसका समय नष्ट नहीं करना चाहिये। जिस तरह की चीजों से वह अपना कमरा सजाना चाहे, सजाने दें। उसको सम्मान देकर उसके ज्ञान का लाभ सबको उठाना चाहिये। दादा ने यह भी कहा कि उसका कुटुम्ब तो एक वट-वृक्ष की तरह है, इसकी शीतल छाया में सब रहेंगे। इसका कोई अंग अलग होकर नहीं रह सकता। जिस दिन ऐसा कोई प्रसंग आयेगा, वह स्वयं इस घर से निकल जायेंगे।

दादा की आज्ञा का कौन उल्लंघन करें? सबने वैसा ही किया।

इधर परेश दादा के पास पहुंचा और उसने कहा कि बाग वाला मकान खाली पड़ा है। आप उसे मुझे दे दें, तो हम वहाँ जाकर रहें। नई बहू को यहाँ रहना अच्छा नहीं लगता।

दादा ने परेश को समझा दिया कि तुम चिन्ता न करो। मैंने घर के सब लोगों को समझा दिया है। अब सब लोग नई बहू का सम्मान करेंगे। उसे अपने काम करने की छूट रहेगी। उसका समय कोई नष्ट नहीं करेगा। परेश चला गया।

अब घर का नक्शा ही बदल गया। जो औरतें नई बहू की आलोचना करती थीं, सम्मान देने की दृष्टि से उसकी प्रशंसा करने लगी थी। कोई भी काम उसको करने के लिए नहीं कहता था। उसका समय नष्ट न हो – इसका सब ध्यान रखते थे।

नई बहू की समझ में न आया कि यह क्या हुआ? सब के स्वभाव में यह परिवर्तन कैसे आ गया? नई बहू की सब इच्छाएँ पूरी कर दी गई थीं, फिर भी वह प्रसन्न न हो सकी। वह अपने ही घर में अपने को मेहमान-सी समझने लगी। घर के लोगों के बीच जो निकटता होनी चाहिए, उसके स्थान पर दूरी आ गई थी। नई बहू अब इससे परेशान थी।

KSEEB Solutions

नई बहू ने परेश से कहा कि उसे उसके मायके भेज दें। परेश ने फटकारा – ‘जो चाहती, थी सब मिल गया, अब भी असंतुष्ट?”

नई बहू को अपनी गलती समझ में आ गई। अब उसने सबके साथ हिलमिल कर रहना सीख लिया। घर के कामों में हाथ बँटाने लगी। सबका सम्मान करने लगी। सब उसे चाहने लगे। इस तरह कुटुम्ब का एक अंग, वट-वृक्ष की एक डाली, जो अलग होने जा रही थी, बच गई। दादा प्रसन्न हुए।

सूखी डाली Summary in Kannada

सूखी डाली Summary in Kannada 1
सूखी डाली Summary in Kannada 2
सूखी डाली Summary in Kannada 3
सूखी डाली Summary in Kannada 4
सूखी डाली Summary in Kannada 5
सूखी डाली Summary in Kannada 6

सूखी डाली Summary in English

Characters:

Male Characters:

  • Daada
  • Karmachand
  • Paresh
  • Bhashee
  • Malloo

Female Characters:

  • Bela (The younger daughter-in-law)
  • Younger sister-in-law (Bela’s sister-in-law and Indu’s mother)
  • The middle sister-in-law
  • Elder sister-in-law
  • Middle daughter-in-law
  • Elder daughter-in-law
  • Rajva
  • Paro

Summary:
This play, ‘Sookhi Daali’, written by Upendranath ‘Ashk’ tells us the story of a joint family.
The modern era is known as Sandhikaal’ (an era of peace). Old thoughts, old traditions have not yet been erased, while the newer thought and new governments have not yet been established: The result is a constant battle between the old and the new. In every family, the elders subscribe to the old traditions, whereas the youngsters believe in the new light (new/contemporary thoughts). The result of this is that there is a clash between these thought processes and sometimes these are the causes of a household being broken up.

Daada had a joint family and a large house, filled with people. He had many sons, and many daughters-in-law, even many children were part of the family. Some of his grandsons had grown up, and one of them was already married. This family of Daada’s believed in protecting the age-old traditions and lived a happy life in this manner. The women and girls in the household were not very educated, but they all knew very well how to run a household with love and affection.

KSEEB Solutions

In the family, all youngsters respected their elders. All of them would help one another. They loved one another. The oldest member of the house was Daada, who stood tall like a large banyan tree among the other members of the household. All the other members of the household lived happily under his care, just like the many birds who build their nests in the branches of the great banyan tree and live there happily.

Everyone was afraid of Daada. Daada showered love on everyone and he also kept a keen eye on what everyone in the house was doing. Even in his dreams, Daada could not imagine any branch of this family, which was like the great banyan tree, separating. He was a strong favourite of the entire joint family. Everyone was happy under his care. One of the grandsons of the family, Paresh, was getting married. Paresh was the most educated in the entire family and the household. He married into a good family.

The daughter-in-law who came to the household was from a well-to-do family and she was educated. After she arrived in the house, she saw that the house was of an old type, the items in the house were all of an old-style, and the lifestyle itself was of an older style. None of the women of the household was educated and even her sister-in-law was almost illiterate.

In this new environment, the new and educated daughter-in-law found it very strange. Within a few days, she began to open her mouth – she would criticize the household and praise her father’s household in comparison. Whoever would like this kind of behaviour from the new daughter-in-law, who had just come into the household? The behaviour of the new daughter-in-law began to be criticized by everyone. The result was that she became sort of distanced from everyone else in the household and everyone else became quite detached from her.

The new daughter-in-law did not like the servants of the household. One of the servants named Rajva was even removed from her job by the new daughter-in-law. One day, she removed all the furniture from her room and put it outside. She wanted furniture that was of the latest fashion.

The new daughter-in-law even went ahead and told her husband Paresh that she felt suffocated in that household. The new daughter-in-law felt that no one respected her and that everyone was wasting her time. She was not able to continue her studies. She felt that it would be better for thein to move out or for her to be sent back to her father’s house.

Paresh tried very hard to convince his wife Bela, but she kept expressing her unwillingness to live with the people of the household, who according to her were of a very orthodox nature.

The old Daada found out that the new daughter-in-law was not satisfied in their household and also knew what her complaints were. One day, Daada assembled all the members of the household and explained to them that the new daughter-in-law was educated and that she came from a well-to-do family. She must be respected in the household. Her time must not be wasted. She should be allowed to decorate her room with exactly the kind of things that she wanted and desired. She must be given respect and everyone must benefit from her knowledge. Daada also said that their family was like a large banyan tree and everyone would stay under its gentle shade. No part of that household should have to live separately. He also said that the day some problem like this should arise, he would himself leave the household.

Who would go against Daada’s orders? Everyone did as he had asked them to. Meanwhile, Paresh came to Daada and told Daada that if their other house that was empty was given to him, he and his wife would go and live there. His wife did not like living with the joint family under the same roof.

Daada told Paresh not to worry. He told Paresh that he had explained to everyone in the household. Now, everyone would respect the new daughter-in-law. She would be free to do the work that she desired. No one would waste her time. Paresh went away.

Now, the pattern of the entire household changed. The women who earlier criticized the new daughter-in-law now began to look at her with respect and praised her good qualities. She was not asked to do any work. Everyone was careful not to waste her time.

KSEEB Solutions

The new daughter-in-law could not understand what had happened. How was there a sudden change in everyone’s attitude? All the dreams and wishes of the new daughter-in-law were fulfilled, but still, she was not pleased. She started feeling like a guest in her own house. The closeness that should have been there among all the members of the family was instead, replaced with distance. The new daughter-in-law was now upset by this.

The new daughter-in-law asked Paresh to send her back to her father’s house. Paresh scolded and told her that she had got everything she had wanted and yet she was dissatisfied.

The new daughter-in-law understood her own mistake. Now, she learnt to stay with the other members of the household peacefully. She started helping with household chores. She started treating everyone with respect. Everyone grew fond of her. In this manner, one part of the household, one branch of the great banyan tree, which was about to be separated, was saved. Daada was pleased.

कठिन शब्दार्थ :

  • तानाशाही – अधिनायकत्व, निरंकुश;
  • वट – बरगद का पेड़;
  • बिफरना – नाराज होना;
  • सलीका – तमीज़, ढंग;
  • फूहड़ – गँवार, अत्यंत निकम्मा;
  • बरबस – जबरदस्ती;
  • चुपड़ी – तेल, घी या मक्खन लगी हुई रोटी;
  • बखान – तारीफ, प्रशंसा;
  • गुसल खाना – स्नानागार;
  • अबरा – लिहाफ के ऊपर का कपड़ा;
  • अहाता – चारों ओर से घिरा हुआ;
  • भृकुटि – भौहें;
  • नासूर – ऐसा घाव जिसमें से बराबर मवाद निकलती हो;
  • तबदीली – स्थानांतरण;
  • उद्विग्नता – परेशानी;
  • अन्यमनस्कता – अनमना;
  • दयानतदार – ईमानदार, सच्चा;
  • उकाब – बड़ी जाति का गिद्ध;
  • परस – स्पर्श, छूना;
  • सरसाना – शोभित होना|

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 8 To the Foot from its Child

You can Download To the Foot from its Child Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 8 To the Foot from its Child

To the Foot from its Child Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

To the Foot from its Child Comprehension I

Question 1.
What would the foot like to be?
OR
Mention one of the things that the child’s foot likes to be.
Answer:
The foot would like to be a butterfly or an apple.

Question 2.
‘The child’s foot is not yet aware it’s a foot’ (line 1 of the poem) conveys
a. the immense possibilities of life
b. the unrestricted nature of a child’s imagination
c. the child’s ignorance of harsh realities.
Answer:
(b) and (c) the unrestricted nature of a child’s imagination/the child’s ignorance of harsh realities.

Question 3.
What does time teach the child?
Answer:
Time teaches the foot that it cannot fly and also cannot be a fruit on the branch of a tree.

Question 4.
The line ‘stones and bits of glass, streets, ladders and the paths in the rough earth’
a. indicates hardships one has to face in life.
b. provides a mere description of a road.
c. suggests the good and bad experiences of growing up.
Answer:
(a) indicates hardships one has to face in life.

Question 5.
Why does the child’s foot feel defeated?
Answer:
The child’s foot feels defeated because it has to live like a prisoner, condemned to live in a shoe, and it can never be free to escape from the difficulties of life.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Mention the words that convey the real experiences of the foot.
Answer:
The words ‘stones and bits of glass, streets, ladders, and the paths in the rough earth’ convey the real experiences of the child’s foot.

Question 7.
Identify the lines in the poem that suggest the transformation of the foot.
Answer:
Lines 17 – 28 suggest the transformation of the foot.
“These soft nails
of quartz ………
…………………….
……………………
a coarsening hard to accept.”

Question 8.
“….. condemned to live in a shoe” suggests that the foot is
(a) a prisoner
(b) a criminal
(c) forced to give up its dreams.
Answer:
(a) and (c) a criminal/forced to give up its dreams.

Question 9.
What does the line ‘until the whole man chooses to stop’ mean?
OR
When does the foot stop to walk in Neruda’s poem?
Answer:
The line, ‘until the whole man chooses to stop’ means until the person dies.
OR
The foot stops to walk when the person dies.

To the Foot from its Child Comprehension II

Question 1.
We think of a foot as a part of the human body, but Neruda says ‘To the Foot From its Child’. Why?
Answer:
We think of a foot physically as belonging to a person but Neruda sees in a philosophical way and says “To The Foot From Its Child”. Though it belongs to a person physically, philosophically like the child who is the symbol of innocence, the foot also does know about its future. But in adulthood, it faces many challenges of life and gets an overall experience and leads a meaningful life until the end. Finally, it is attacked by diseases and surrendered to death.

Question 2.
Pick out the expressions that suggest the child’s imagination is fertile.
Answer:
The expressions, ‘to be a butterfly’, or ‘an apple’, ‘can not fly’, ‘cannot be a fruit bulging on the branch’ suggest that the child’s imagination is fertile.

Question 3.
What contrasting descriptions of the foot does the poem offer? Why?
Answer:
The poet Pablo Neruda presents a contrasting description of a child’s foot and an adult’s foot so as to delineate the changes that are seen in a person’s life as he or she changes from an infant into an adult, until his death. Initially, the child or the infant’s foot has soft nails of quartz and its toes are tiny, soft, and rounded at the tips like the petals of some flowers.

As the child learns to walk and starts walking on stones, bits of glass, streets, ladders and the rough surface of the earth, the child’s foot becomes aware of its role. It learns that it is a foot and cannot become a butterfly or a bulging fruit on a tree. Once it realizes that it is a foot, it is defeated in realizing its aspirations and gets imprisoned in a shoe. Inside the shoe, it tries to understand the world in its own way, alone, like a blind man groping in the dark. During this period its soft nails of quartz become opaque, are bunched together, and look like eyeless reptiles with triangular heads, grow callused, and are covered with faint volcanoes of death.

KSEEB Solutions

These changes happen because, once the child’s foot becomes an adult’s foot, it walks as the foot of a man or woman and keeps walking in the fields as a farmer, or as a grocer in the markets, or as a miner in the mines or as a church minister or a government worker, until its death. Thus, the foot experiences the hardships of life and loses its ‘soft’ and flowery petal-like form.

Question 4.
The poem begins with the idea that a child’s foot is not yet aware that it is afoot; at the end, the foot is unaware that it had ceased to be afoot. What is the poet trying to convey through these statements?
OR
Explain the similarity between the foot’s early life and its end as depicted in ‘To the Foot From its Child’.
Answer:
In this poem, ‘foot’ is a metaphor for ‘life’. The poet Neruda using the foot as a metaphor to explore ‘life’ through its various stages from infancy through childhood until death.

When the poem begins, the ‘foot’ is the infant’s foot which suggests man’s ‘childhood’. The child’s foot does not know that it is a foot. This state refers to the innocence of childhood where ‘Man’ has many dreams and aspirations. The child’s wish to become a butterfly or an apple stands for man’s aspirations and dreams. Once the child’s foot enters the real world, it starts walking over stones, bits of glass, streets, ladders, and the rough surface of the earth.

Thus, as the child grows over a period of time, the child’s foot realizes that it is only a ‘foot’ and cannot become fruit or a butterfly. Then, since it has to serve its role as afoot, it is imprisoned in a shoe. Inside the shoe, it tries to understand the world alone, in isolation. The child’s foot, as it grows old, serves as the foot of a man or a woman working in the fields, or market or mines or ministries and toils hard day and night until it dies. When it dies, the foot loses its human awareness and that is why when it is buried the foot again gets its child-like innocence. It again dreams of becoming an apple or a butterfly. It is this journey from childhood through adulthood and the final death that the poem focuses on.

Pablo Neruda is saying that life and death are part of a continuous cycle. Secondly, the poet wishes to say that the freedom of childhood is lost when a person becomes an adult and faces a life of constant work and struggle. Thus, life takes away people’s free spirits until they are freed again by death.

Question 5.
How does Neruda describe the busy life of the individual as represented by the foot?
Answer:
The ‘foot’ is used as a metaphor for life and the foot refers to the foot of an individual. Once the child develops into an adult, the adult keeps on walking without respite either as a man or as a woman. The individual spends his life working either as a farmer in a field, or as a miner in mines, or as a salesperson in the market or as a government servant or as a church minister. This way the individual toils hard in society until his death.

Question 6.
What does the last stanza of the poem mean? Can you think of parallels in nature?
Answer:
In this poem, ‘foot’ is used as a metaphor for ‘life’. Life refers to the life of a human being as seen from his infancy until his death. Pablo Neruda gives his view of ‘life’ and ‘death’ in this poem. The poem does not begin with the beginning of life in the womb of its mother but from the time after it has taken birth on the earth. The poem covers the period of its infancy to death and beyond. The ‘foot’ as portrayed in the poem refers to the child’s foot. Since a child is not aware of its limitations and lives in a dream world of imagination, the child’s foot wishes to fly like a butterfly or become a bulging apple on the branch of a tree. Over a period of time, it realizes that it is only a foot and its role is only to serve as a foot.

The poet then refers to the ‘adult food’ after death or an individual after death. Once a human being dies, he or she is normally buried. It is this burial of the dead body of the individual that is expressed in the line “it descended underground unaware, for there, everything was dark”. Once the ‘foot’ or the individual dies, it loses its human awareness and goes back to its child-like innocence. This is expressed in the sentence ‘It never knew it had ceased to be a foot’. That is why, like a child’s foot which is not aware that it is only a ‘foot’, it aspires to become a butterfly and fly or become an apple.

KSEEB Solutions

One can find several parallels in nature. All living beings born on the earth pass through the cycle of birth and death. A seed germinates to give a seedling. The seedling grows into an adult plant, may become a tree or a shrub, and die. Its seeds bring a similar plant to life again. Similarly, the eggs of animals hatch and bring forth their young ones which grow, mature, lay eggs and later die. Their eggs bring back similar animals to life again.

To the Foot from its Child Comprehension III

Question 1.
Examine how Neruda’s poem works out the contrast between colourful dreams and the humdrum reality of life.
OR
The poem ‘To the Foot From its Child’ represents the conflict between illusion and reality. Elaborate.
Answer:
The poem, ‘To the Foot from its Child’, presents a contrast between colourful dreams and the humdrum reality of life. The poet conveys his view of life through his description of a foot. The foot is a metaphor for expressing the crushing of a child’s spirit through the challenges and restrictions that life places upon him. One can undoubtedly infer that the poem is basically a criticism of how people force children to grow in society and forget all their dreams and imaginations.

With a view to delineating the forces that capture the child’s freedom and aspirations, the poet begins the poem making a statement directly that the child’s foot, which is not aware that it is a foot, would like to be a butterfly or an apple. From this one can infer that man’s spirit dreams of enjoying unlimited freedom in this world but it comes to know that it cannot enjoy unlimited freedom and has to pass through several obstacles before it matures into an adult.

But, in time, stones and bits of glass, streets, ladders, paths in the rough earth go on teaching the foot that it cannot fly. As the infant is growing and developing into a mature adult, he is exposed to the harsh realities of life which are metaphorically expressed as stones, bits of glass, ladder, street, etc. These are the problems and obstacles an individual has to face. Thus, once the child becomes a boy, an adolescent, and an adult, the problems of life teach the individual that he is a ‘mortal’ and his powers are limited and can only serve the society as a member like other human beings. This sense is expressed in the line ‘that it cannot fly, cannot become a fruit and is defeated, falls in the battle, is a prisoner condemned to live in a shoe’. Here, the ‘shoe’ can be taken to mean the human society that regulates his mind and activities.

Wearing the shoe refers to the infant becoming a mature adult. Soon after entering adulthood, the individual explores ‘life’ within the shoe. He loses touch with the reality of the outside world but experiences the world through the eyes of society. This again means that a lot of restrictions are imposed on the individual. Now that he is an adult he keeps on walking without respite through the fields, mines, markets, and ministries. The line ‘this foot toils in its shoe, scarcely taking time to bare itself in love or sleep’ expresses the fact that once he realizes that he is a man destined to live in a society, he learns to face the humdrum realities of life. He has no time to let his human spirit indulge in ‘love’ and ‘sleep’. He is a prisoner and keeps on working until he dies. Once he dies his spirit loses its human awareness and is once again as free as the children.

Question 2.
Neruda’s poem is a salute to the ordinary human being, who continues with life braving all odds. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Answer:
Yes. In this poem, Neruda tries to delineate the journey of human ‘life’ from its infancy to death and beyond. With a view to expressing the changes that the ‘life spirit’ undergoes through its journey from an infant to an adult and beyond death, Neruda uses ‘foot’ as a metaphor. That is why he calls ‘life’ during infancy as the infant foot and the life spirit of an adult as the adult foot.

The whole poem can be summed up as the ‘surrender’ of life force to societal pressures. During infancy, the child’s spirit dreams of infinite possibilities and hence dreams of becoming a fruit or a butterfly. Once it starts growing in society the harsh realities of life expressed as ‘stones, bits of glass, ladder, and rough surface of the earth’, teach the infant spirit that it is a ‘foot’ which means ‘you have a role’ to play in the society and ‘you are an individual subservient to the whims and fancies of the society’. Once the infant spirit gradually accepts its defeat and tries to live in conformity with the norms of the society, it becomes an adult. This is expressed metaphorically as the ‘foot being imprisoned in a shoe’.

Once you become a member of the society you learn to live like others, giving up your pleasures and gradually you get to know the realities of life. You go on slogging throughout your life without indulging in ‘love and sleep’ which symbolically represent your rights on this earth. You forego your rights and live like an adult and serve the society until you die and you get your freedom after your death. As long as your life spirit is in your body you have human awareness and you are aware of your limitations. Once you die you lose human awareness and your spirit is free to enjoy its freedom.

In the poem, Neruda does not speak of the possibilities of the human spirit ‘rebelling’. Nor does he say that human spirit is being crushed by oppressive forces; the human spirit does not commit suicide. On the contrary, he describes the journey of the human spirit as an infant’s foot until it becomes an adult foot and after its death how it becomes free again. From this, it can be argued that Neruda’s poem is a salute to the human spirit for braving all odds and completing one’s cycle of life and death peacefully, and not rebelliously.

Question 3.
Is Neruda criticizing how society crushes childhood dreams and forces people into rigid moulds?
OR
“Society crushes dreams of individuals and condemns them to live in captivity.” Explain with reference to ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
Yes, to some extent. In this narrative-descriptive poem, Neruda has attempted to delineate the predicament of man as a prisoner enslaved by society. Using ‘foot’ as a metaphor for ‘life’, he narrates the journey of life from that of an ‘infant foot’ to an ‘adult foot’ until its death and after. In the first two lines itself, the poet declares the wish of childhood. The infant’s foot is not aware that it is a ‘foot’ and hence would like to be a butterfly or an apple. These two objects – ‘butterfly’ and ‘apple’ – together suggest that the infant’s foot thinks of complete freedom to become whatever it wants. Being born a human being it cannot aspire to become a butterfly or an apple.

KSEEB Solutions

From this, we can infer that there is some restriction imposed on us by birth itself. This is expressed in the line ‘it is not aware that it is afoot’. The infant food, once it starts growing, is exposed to the ways and means of the world. We live in human society and nature, the words ‘stones, bits of glass, streets, ladders, and the paths in the rough earth’ refer to man’s ways of living. This exposure to man’s style of living brings awareness in the child that it is a foot. The poet suggests that the infant’s foot is engaged in a battle with the society and ‘adults’ crush the child’s playful spirit and imprison it in a shoe. This stage refers to the way the child gets acclimatized to living in human society.

Once it wears the ‘shoe’, which means, it accepts its identity as ‘man’, a member of the human society, he starts exploring the human world alone, groping in the dark like a blind man. There is a difference in the way an adult explores the world. As a child, it thinks of infinite possibilities; but, as an adult, it is aware of its limitations. This means the society has been successful in crushing childhood dreams and forcing the life spirit into the rigid moulds of society.

Since the whole poem only describes various changes undergone by the human spirit, we cannot say that Neruda is criticizing society for its stranglehold on the human spirit. Secondly, Neruda also says that the child’s foot does not know that it is a foot. This means, even Neruda knows that the child is born a human being and is going to live in human society. Thirdly, nowhere in the poem does Neruda say anything against societal forces. However, Neruda sympathises with ‘Man’ at one point. He says, ‘this foot toils in its shoe scarcely taking time to bare itself in love or sleep’. These lines indicate that Neruda only sympathises with man’s predicament and does not criticize society.

Question 4.
‘Foot’ is a keyword in the poem. Comment on Neruda’s skillful use of the word and its associations in terms of imagery to convey his ideas.
OR
Highlight the imagery used to bring out life’s hardships that deform the child’s foot.
Answer:
In this poem, as the title ‘To the Foot from its Child’ suggests, ‘foot’ is the keyword in the poem. The poet uses ‘foot’ as a metaphor for his view of ‘life’. The poet personifies the ‘foot’ and focuses his attention on the ‘life’ of man, using the ‘foot’ as the protagonist. ‘Life’ begins in infancy and so even in the poem, ‘life’ begins as an infant’s foot.

It is natural that children, who are naive and innocent, do not know that their foot is meant for walking and it has a function to discharge. Through the use of the ‘foot’ as a metaphor, the poet cleverly brings out the battle between harsh realities of life symbolically expressed as stones, streets, ladder, bits of glass, etc. The child dreams of becoming a butterfly or an apple. So naturally, the metaphor of foot helps the poet to convey his meaning through an imaginary battle fought between the child’s foot and the surfaces on which the child is likely to walk.

The child’s foot is sure to be hurt when it walks on a street laden with stones and bits of glass and paths in the rough earth and when it climbs the ladder pressing his soft foot on the pointed edges of the rungs of the ladder. Then it realizes that it is a ‘foot’. Here, the poet wants the reader to know that the adult world fights against the spirit of the child and makes him become aware of his role as an individual in human society. At this stage, the foot is imprisoned in a shoe, which means, the child’s consciousness reaches maturity and adulthood.

Adulthood is now represented as ‘adult foot’ enclosed in a shoe. The adult foot gropes in the dark and learns about the harsh realities of life like a blind man. Here, it means, unlike the child’s foot which had more .freedom than the adult’s, the adult foot has to work in a rigid mould given by the society. The ‘shoe’ represents this framework given by society. Here again, the ‘foot’ as a metaphor comes to his help. Therefore, the poet chooses ‘shoe’ as representing societal norms and traditions.

KSEEB Solutions

The blind adult foot now walks and works without respite until he dies. The different professions of men are mentioned. The adult foot may be a man’s foot or a woman’s foot and keeps walking through fields, markets, mines, and ministries, and finally toils hard scarcely finding time to enjoy ‘love’ and ‘sleep’. Here also the metaphor of the ‘foot’ facilitates the expression in the line ‘scarcely taking time to bare itself in love or sleep’. Finally, it ceases to be a ‘foot’ when a man chooses to stop working. Thus, the ‘foot’ as a metaphor has been skillfully used by the poet to evoke the right imagery to suit his meaning.

To the Foot from its Child Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase, or a sentence each:

Question 1.
What did the foot find when it descended underground?
Answer:
Everything to be dark (or darkness).

Question 2.
What would like to be a butterfly or an apple in the poem ‘To the Foot from its Child’?
Answer:
Foot/Child’s foot.

Question 3.
What does the foot do throughout life?
OR
Mention any one of the places through which the foot walks, in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
Throughout its life, the foot keeps walking without respite. It walks through fields, mines, markets, and ministries until death.

Question 4.
What does the phrase ‘condemned to live in a shoe’ mean?
Answer:
The phrase ‘condemned to live in a shoe’ means it has to live like other human beings, in human society.

Question 5.
Where did the foot descend after it ceased to be?
Answer:
It descended underground.

Question 6.
What did the foot find when it descended underground?
Answer:
When the foot descended underground, it found everything dark there.

Question 7.
What form do the detailed toes of a child take on as they grow?
OR
What form do the petal-like soft toes take inside the shoes?
Answer:
The petaied toes of a child grow bunched and out of trim, take on the form of eyeless reptiles with triangular heads, like worms.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
What do the soft nails of quartz change themselves into?
OR
How do the soft nails of the foot change as the child grows up?
Answer:
The ‘soft nails of quartz’ in the child’s foot gradually grow hard and change themselves into an opaque substance ‘hard as horn’.

Question 9.
Where is the child’s foot condemned to live?
OR
Where is the defeated foot condemned to live?
Answer:
The child’s foot is condemned to live in a shoe.

Question 10.
What teaches the foot that it cannot fly?
Answer:
As the child’s foot grows in time and starts walking on stones and bits of glass, streets, ladders, etc., it learns that it cannot fly.

Question 11.
Where did the foot descend?
Answer:
The foot descended underground after its death.

Question 12.
What does the foot not realize at the end of the poem?
Answer:
At the end of the poem, the foot does not realize that it is dead and has ceased to be a foot.

Question 13.
What, according to the speaker, is the child’s foot not yet aware in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
In ‘To the Foot from its Child’, the child’s foot is not yet aware that it is a foot.

Question 14.
What is out of touch with its fellow in the poem, ‘To the Foot from its Child’?
Answer:
In the poem, ‘To the Foot from its Child’, the child’s foot is out of touch with its fellow.

Question 15.
Who feels out life like a blind man in the poem, ‘To the Foot from its Child’?
Answer:
The child’s foot having been imprisoned in a shoe feels out life like a blind man.

Question 16.
What are the toes of the child compared to, in ‘To the Foot from its Child’?
Answer:
In ‘To the Foot from its Child’, the tiny toes are compared to the petals of a flower.

Question 17.
What does the blind thing refer to, in ‘To the Foot from its Child’?
Answer:
In ‘To the Foot from its Child’, the blind thing refers to the child’s foot imprisoned in a shoe.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Mention any one of the places through which the foot walks, in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
In ‘To the Foot from its Child’, the foot walks through markets.

Question 19.
How long does the foot walk, in ‘To the Foot from its Child’?
Answer:
In ‘To the Foot from its Child’, the foot walks until the whole man chooses to stop and descends underground.

Question 20.
In ‘To the Foot from its Child’, the foot scarcely takes time to bare itself in
(a) rest or peace
(b) love or sleep
(c) death or dream.
Answer:
(b) love or sleep.

Question 21.
In ‘To the Foot from its Child’, when descending underground, the foot finds everything
(a) dark
(b) rough
(c) coarse.
Answer:
(a) dark.

Question 22.
In ‘To the Foot from its Child’, the paths in the rough earth go on teaching the foot that it cannot
(a) become a butterfly
(b) bunch together
(c) live in a shoe.
Answer:
(a) become a butterfly.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80-100 words each:

Question 1.
Bring out the contrast between illusion and reality in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
Pablo Neruda presents his view of ‘life’ using the ‘foot’ as a metaphor for life. He explores life’s experiences as a traveller beginning as a child’s foot until it grows into an adult foot and finally dies. During the course of this journey from life to death as a cycle, the poet tries to delineate man’s ‘dreams’ and how they get crushed in the world by outside forces.

Initially, the infant’s foot is unaware that it is a ‘foot’ and is under the illusion that it can fly like a butterfly or be an apple on a tree. The very same infant’s foot then realizes that it can only serve as a ‘foot’ and it cannot fly like a butterfly or be a fruit. This is the reality. The infant’s foot thus, once it enters the society, is made aware of the reality and it loses its illusions.

Question 2.
Why does the poet refer to the foot’ as being a blind man?
Answer:
The infant’s foot tries to combat reality and faces stones, streets, bits of glass, ladder, paths in the rough earth, which teach the infant’s foot that it is only a ‘foot’ and they take him ‘prisoner’. The foot gets condemned to live inside a shoe. The shoe here stands for the society, the outside forces which discipline the individual in conformity with the norms and customs of the society. The poet refers to the ‘foot as being a blind man’ because once he is put inside the shoe he loses touch with its fellow and is not free to face reality as he »

Question 3.
Explain how the poet uses a foot as a metaphor for life.
OR
Describe how the foot represents an individual’s life, according to the poem.
Answer:
In the poem, Neruda uses ‘foot’ as a metaphor for ‘life’. We see different stages in life beginning with infancy or childhood, maturity, adulthood, old age, and finally death. These stages have been delineated in the poem using ‘foot’ as a metaphor. The poem begins with the infant’s foot. Here, like all children, the infant’s foot does not even know that it is only a foot. It has dream-like imagination and aspirations. That is why it dreams of flying like a butterfly with absolute freedom and enjoy the pleasures of life which are expressed as a wish to become an apple.

However, once the child’s foot comes to face the external world, it becomes aware that it is only a ‘foot’ and cannot become a butterfly. Then it matures into an adult and from adulthood grows old and dies.

KSEEB Solutions

The poet describes how the child’s foot which has soft, petal-like toes gets transformed into an adult foot which has toes which resemble eyeless reptiles, and are covered with nails which are calloused and bear faint volcanoes of death.

Finally, having become an adult, it slogs throughout life, relentlessly working in fields, markets, mines and ministries without respite and not enjoying the pleasures of life until it dies and is buried. Thus, the ‘foot’ as a metaphor serves the poet to express his view of life.

Question 4.
Why does the foot feel trapped and stifled inside the shoe?
OR
What happens to the foot when it is condemned to live in a shoe?
OR
Bring out the life of the foot in a shoe as presented in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
The child’s foot is born with a great deal of zest for life and hence it wishes to become an apple on a tree or fly like a bird. But, gradually, as it starts growing, it realizes that it is a ‘foot’ only and cannot become anything else. Then, its spirit loses its battle against the world. It is taken prisoner and is condemned to live in a shoe. Now, having been imprisoned in a shoe, it tries to understand the world, in its own way. It is alone and cannot communicate with its counterpart and gropes blindly in the dark like a blind man. Since it is not in the open, it is not in touch with reality directly.

The society decides what it should understand about ‘life’ or the world outside. Whatever ideas it forms about life have to be formed in the confined space of the shoe. It is here that the child’s spirit becomes aware of its limitations as a human being and understands its role as a social being in human society. That is why it feels trapped and stifled inside the shoe.

Question 5.
Explain the instances that make the child’s foot aware of the obstacles and hardships.
Answer:
The poem narrates the journey of a child’s foot until it becomes an adult foot and beyond until it dies. The journey of the child’s foot is similar to the ‘journey of life’. The poet personifies ‘foot’ and focuses? his attention on the ‘life’ of man, using the foot as the protagonist. ‘Life’ begins in infancy and so even in this poem, ‘life’ begins as an infant’s foot. It is natural that children, who are naive and innocent, do not know that their foot is meant for walking and it has a function to discharge. But, in its innocence, the child dreams of becoming a butterfly or an apple. Therefore, when the child starts walking on a street laden with stones, and bits of glass and paths in the rough earth, the child’s foot is naturally hurt.

Similarly, when it climbs the ladder pressing his soft foot on the pointed edges of the rungs of the ladder, it is hurt and it realizes that it is a foot. Thus, using the metaphor of ‘foot’, the poet conveys the imaginary battle fought between the individual and the realities of life one has to face in society. At this stage, the foot is imprisoned in a ’shoe’. The ‘shoe’ represents the societal norms and traditions. The ‘blind’ adult foot now walks and works without respite until it dies. The different roles or professions have taken up by an individual in society either as a man or woman are expressed metaphorically in the line:

“up above, down below, through fields, mines, markets, and ministries”.

The individual toils hard, scarcely finding time to enjoy ‘love and sleep’. Here also the metaphor of the ‘foot’ enables the poet to express his ideas as seen in the line:

“Scarcely taking time to bare itself in love or sleep”.

The impact of life’s hardships can be seen in the deformed toes of the child’s foe.. The soft nails of quartz become opaque, are bunched together, and look like eyeless reptiles wit1 triangular heads, grow callused, and are covered with faint volcanoes of death.

Question 6.
How are the contrasting image of a child’s foot and foot confined to a shoe brought out in the poem?
OR
Society crushes childhood dreams and confines them to society and its norms. Explain with reference to the poem ’To the Foot from its Child’.
OR
Explain how the foot toils in its shoe until the whole man chooses to stop in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
The child’s foot is naive, and innocent and not yet aware that it is only a foot. That is why it wishes to be a butterfly or an apple. But, as the foot grows, it starts walking and it trods on stones, bits of glass, streets, ladders, and the paths in the rough earth. It soon realizes that it is only a ‘foot’ and it cannot fly or cannot become a bulging apple on a tree. It loses its state of innocence. Its spirit gets crushed and is defeated in realizing its aspirations.

KSEEB Solutions

With this awareness and maturity, the child’s foot gets imprisoned in a shoe and gradually attains adulthood. Unlike a child, an adult cannot live as he/she likes. He/She has to live as a member of the society which imposes its own rigid framework on the individual. The shoe symbolizes societal norms and traditions. Inside the shoe, it tries to understand the world alone in isolation. It serves as the foot of a man or woman working in the fields, or market or mines or ministries and toils hard day and night until it dies. The poet wishes to say that the freedom of childhood is lost when a person becomes an adult and faces a life of constant work and struggle.

The impact of this life of struggle and hardships is seen in the differences one notices in a child’s foot and the foot of an adult. The soft nails of quartz seen in an infant’s foot become opaque, are bunched together, and look like eyeless reptiles with triangular heads, grow callused, and are covered with faint volcanoes of death.

Question 7.
How does the poet describe the monotonous life of the individual confined in a shoe?
OR
How does the poem ‘To the Foot from its Child’ bring out the plight of a person dictated by
society?
It is natural that children, who are naive and innocent, do not know that their foot is meant for walking and the ‘foot’ has a function to discharge. Through the use of the ‘foot’ as a metaphor, the poet cleverly brings out the battle between harsh realities of life symbolically expressed as stones, streets, ladder, bits of glass, etc. The child dreams of becoming a butterfly or an apple. So naturally, the metaphor of foot helps the poet to convey his meaning through an imaginary battle fought between the child’s foot and the surfaces on which the child is likely to walk.

The child’s foot is sure to be hurt when it walks on a street laden with stones and bits of glass and paths in the rough earth and when it climbs the ladder pressing his soft foot on the pointed edges of the rungs of the ladder. Then it realizes that it is a ‘foot’. Here, the poet wants the reader to know that the adult world fights against the spirit of the child and makes him become aware of his role as an individual in human society.

At this stage, the foot is imprisoned in a shoe, which means, the child’s consciousness reaches maturity and adulthood. Adulthood is now represented as ‘adult foot’ enclosed in a shoe. The adult foot gropes in the dark and learns about the harsh realities of life like a blind man. Here, it means, unlike the child’s foot which had more freedom than the adult’s, the adult foot has to work in a rigid mould given by the society. The ‘shoe’ represents this framework given by society. Here again, the ‘foot’ as a metaphor comes to his help. Therefore, the poet chooses ‘shoe’ as representing societal norms and traditions.

The blind adult foot now walks and works without respite until he dies. The different professions of men are mentioned. The adult foot may be a man’s foot or a woman’s foot and keeps walking through fields, markets, mines, and ministries, and finally toils hard scarcely finding time to enjoy ‘love’ and ‘sleep’. Here also the metaphor of the ‘foot’ facilitates the expression in the line ‘scarcely taking time to bare itself in love or sleep’. Finally, it ceases to be a ‘foot’ when a man chooses to stop working. Thus, the ‘foot’ as a metaphor has been skillfully used by the poet to evoke the right imagery to suit his meaning.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Trace the stages of the foot’s transformation as portrayed in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
OR
Bring out the changes that the foot undergoes after being condemned to live in a shoo-in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
‘To the Foot from its Child’ narrates the journey of a child’s foot until it becomes an adult foot and beyond until it dies.

In the first stanza, there are only two lines which express the innocence of the child and its wishes. The child wants to be a butterfly or an apple, but society is harsh and forces the child to become a responsible adult doing responsible adult things.

In the next stanza, the child’s foot walks in the real world and experiences the harsh realities of life. The words, ‘stones, bits of glass, streets, ladders, paths in the rough surface of the earth’ symbolize the forces in society.

When the child’s foot encounters them in a battle, it learns that its role is that of a foot only and it cannot become a butterfly or an apple. The foot is now imprisoned in a shoe, where it grows into an adult. It gets exposed to reality as filtered through the shoe. It suffers loneliness and gradually learns the realities of life groping in the dark like a blind man.

During this life inside the shoe, it loses all the beauty of a child’s foot. Its soft, nice, petal-like toes lose their beauty, become hard, callused, and look like eyeless reptiles.

The ‘foot’, now has grown into an adult foot, keeps on walking, works without respite in fields, markets, mines, and ministries. It toils hard giving up all its worldly pleasures and finally dies. It is then buried. But, as it descends into the ground, it loses its human awareness and does not know that it is not even a foot. So, in its spirit, it is like the child’s foot and dreams of becoming a butterfly or an apple.

Thus, the poet depicts his view of life in the metaphor of a foot, with a clear progression from infancy, to maturity, to adulthood, old age, and finally death.

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words each:

Question 1.
The poem ‘To the Foot from its Child’ depicts the progression from childhood through adulthood to old age and finally, death. Discuss.
OR
The poem ‘To the Foot from its Child’ is a comment on the journey of human life. Elucidate.
OR
Trace the stages of the foot’s transformation as portrayed in ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
In the poem ‘To the Foot from its Child’, Pablo Neruda expresses his view of life using the metaphor of ‘foot’. The poem begins with a description of the child’s naivety. The child’s foot does not know that it is a foot. It dreams of unlimited possibilities. It wants to become a butterfly enjoying unbridled freedom and enjoying the pleasures of life symbolized by the apple.

The poet expresses the experience of the child’s foot when it is exposed to reality in the real world. It walks over stones, streets, ladders, bits of glass, paths in the rough surface of the earth. All these symbolically stand for obstacles, problems, difficulties, and hurdles that one encounters in real life. When the child’s foot faces these realities, it attempts to fight them, and it becomes aware that it was in an illusory world and it does not have infinite possibilities in life but has to serve as a foot only.

It is also convinced that it cannot become a butterfly or an apple. The outside forces capture him and he is imprisoned in a shoe. Now, from that of an infant’s foot, it has grown to be an adult and now the adult has been forced to live like any human individual.

Then, we get a description of the changes that the child’s foot undergoes inside the shoe. Its nice, soft, petal-like toes lose their ‘lustre’ and the nails become harder, the toes grow bunched and look like eyeless reptiles, grow callused and are covered with faint volcanoes of death. Inside the shoe, the adult foot is like a blind man groping in the dark. This state depicts the helplessness of man when he faces the harsh realities of life as a member of society.

He slogs without respite and keeps on walking, until his death. He works in fields, markets, mines, and ministries either as a man’s or a woman’s foot. He does not find time to enjoy his rightful pleasures of life like ‘love’ and ‘sleep’. Finally, one day the foot ceases to walk when the man dies.

KSEEB Solutions

When he is buried the foot goes underground. But now he does not know that he is no longer a ‘foot’. In his consciousness, he is equal to the child’s consciousness and hence he again dreams of becoming a butterfly or an apple. Thus, the poet depicts his view of life, tracing its characteristics through different stages like infancy, reaching maturity, adulthood, old age, and finally death. Thus, the poem also brings out a cyclical view of life – birth, infancy, maturity, adulthood, old age, death, and rebirth.

Question 2.
Describe the various stages that the foot goes through and what the foot learns and how it changes at each stage.
Answer:
In the poem ‘To the Foot from its Child’, Pablo Neruda expresses his view of life using the metaphor of ‘foot’. The poem begins with a description of the child’s naivety. The child’s foot does not know that it is a foot. It dreams of unlimited possibilities. It wants to become a butterfly enjoying unbridled freedom and enjoying the pleasures of life symbolized by the apple.

The poet expresses the experience of the child’s foot when it is exposed to reality in the real world. It walks over stones, streets, ladders, bits of glass, paths in the rough surface of the earth. All these symbolically stand for obstacles, problems, difficulties, and hurdles that one encounters in real life. When the child’s foot faces these realities, it attempts to fight them, and it becomes aware that it was in an illusory world and it does not have infinite possibilities in life but has to serve as a foot only. It is also convinced that it cannot become a butterfly or an apple. The outside forces capture him and he is imprisoned in a shoe. Now, from that of an infant’s foot, it has grown to be an adult and now the adult has been forced to live like any human individual.

Then, we get a description of the changes that the child’s foot undergoes inside the shoe. Its nice, soft, petal-like toes lose their ‘lustre’ and the nails become harder, the toes grow bunched and look like eyeless reptiles, grow callused and are covered with faint volcanoes of death. Inside the shoe, the adult foot is like a blind man groping in the dark. This state depicts the helplessness of man when he faces the harsh realities of life as a member of society. He slogs without respite and keeps on walking, until his death. He works in fields, markets, mines, and ministries either as a man’s or a woman’s foot. He does not find time to enjoy his rightful pleasures of life like ‘love’ and ‘sleep’. Finally, one day the foot ceases to walk when the man dies.

When he is buried the foot goes underground. But now he does not know that he is no longer a ‘foot’. In his consciousness, he is equal to the child’s consciousness and hence he again dreams of becoming a butterfly or an apple. Thus, the poet depicts his view of life, tracing its characteristics through different stages like infancy, reaching maturity, adulthood, old age, and finally death. Thus, the poem also brings out a cyclical view of life – birth, infancy, maturity, adulthood, old age, death, and rebirth.

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Question 3.
Bring out the stages of hardships faced by the foot after being confined in a shoe.
OR
Explain the various stages of hardships faced by the foot after being confined in a shoe.
OR
Describe the different stages of transformation of the foot after it is condemned to live in a shoe.
OR
The foot is forced to play various roles and shoulder many responsibilities. Explain with reference to ‘To the Foot from its Child’.
Answer:
As the child learns to walk and starts walking on stones, bits of glass, streets, ladders and the rough surface of the earth, the child’s foot becomes aware of its role. It learns that it is a foot and cannot become a butterfly or a bulging fruit on a tree. Once it realizes that it is a foot, it is defeated in realizing its aspirations and gets imprisoned in a shoe. Inside the shoe, it tries to understand the world in its own way, alone, like a blind man groping in the dark. During this period its soft nails of quartz become opaque, are bunched together, and look like eyeless reptiles with triangular heads, grow callused, and are covered with faint volcanoes of death.

These changes happen because, once the child’s foot becomes an adult’s foot, it walks as the foot of a man or woman and keeps walking in the fields as a farmer, or as a grocer in the markets, or as a miner in the mines or as a church minister or a government worker, until its death. Thus, the foot experiences the hardships of life and loses its ‘soft’ and flowery petal-like form.

Question 4.
“The norms of the social control a man just as the foot is enclosed in a shoe”. How is this depicted in ‘To the Foot from its Child’?
Answer:
The poet Neruda uses the ‘foot’ as a metaphor and conveys his view of life. Thus, by personifying the foot, the poet expects the readers to compare the experience of the foot to the whole person’s hopes and dreams as well as to the realities of everyday life. By and large, one can say that the poem is basically a criticism of how people force children to grow in society forgetting all their dreams and aspirations. The child wants to be a butterfly or an apple, but society is harsh and forces the child to become a responsible adult doing responsible adult things.

As a child’s foot, it has relatively more freedom than the adult’s foot. As the infant’s foot starts walking in the real world outside, it steps over “stones and bits of glass, streets, ladders and the paths in the rough earth’’. It realizes that its role is that of a foot and it cannot become a butterfly or an apple. The moment it discovers that it is only a foot, its spirit loses its battle against the world. It surrenders itself to the dictates of the society. It is taken prisoner and is condemned to live in a shoe.

It also means that the child’s spirit becomes aware of its limitations as a human being and understands its roles, duties, and responsibilities as a social being in human society. It is true that “the foot is a symbol for the helplessness of an individual in the vice-like grip of an insensitive system”. This meaning is captured in the phrase ‘condemned to live in a shoe’. Once it gets imprisoned, it has to slog there until it dies. The society decides what it should understand about ‘life’ or the world outside. Gradually, the foot adapts itself to its world and learns to cope with the harsh realities of life.

The adult foot gets trapped in the routines of everyday life or the humdrum commonality of existence. It is now less capable of enjoyment and finds life difficult in every walk of life. It slogs and slogs either as a man’s foot or as a woman’s foot working in the field or market or mines or ministries day and night, scarcely finding time to enjoy the pleasure of love or sleep. It works without respite and finally meets with death.

To the Foot from its Child by Pablo Neruda About the Poet:

Pablo Neruda (1904-1973) is the pen name and, later legal name of the Chilean poet, diplomat, and politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftali Reyes Basoalto. In 1971 Neruda won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Neruda became known as a poet while still a teenager. He wrote in a variety of styles including surrealist poems, historical epics, overtly political manifestos, a prose autobiography, and erotically- charged love poems such as the ones in his 1924 collection ‘Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair’.

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Neruda’s poetry is renowned for its fantastic imagery and surreal use of language. The surrealists attempted to express in art and literature the workings of the unconscious mind and to synthesize. these workings with the conscious mind.

Neruda believes that our most intense experience of impermanence is not death, but our own isolation among the living. It is probably this idea that gets reflected in the poem ‘To the Foot from its Child’. According to Neruda, “it was through metaphor, not rational analysis and argument, that the mysteries of the world could be revealed”.

Background:

‘To the Foot from its Child’ is the translated English version of the original poem ‘Al Pie Desde Su Nino’ written by Pablo Neruda and translated into English by Alastair Reid. [The poem appears in the collection of poems titled ‘Estravagaris’ published in 1958. ‘Extravagaris’ (Book of Vagaries) is the English title given by Reid].

To the Foot from its Child Summary in English

‘To the Foot from its Child’ by Pablo Neruda is a narrative-descriptive poem which narrates the journey of a child’s foot until it becomes an adult foot and beyond until it dies. Besides narrating the experiences of the adult foot until its death, the poem also describes the changes that the child’s foot undergoes until it becomes an adult foot.

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 8 To the Foot from its Child image - 1

The journey of the child’s foot is similar to the ‘journey of life’. The poet uses the ‘foot’ as a metaphor and conveys his view of life. This metaphor helps the poet to convey the idea of how the child’s spirit gets crushed through the challenges and restrictions that life places upon him. Thus, by personifying the foot, the poet expects the reader to compare the experience of the foot to the whole person’s hopes and dreams as well as to the realities of everyday life. By and large one can infer that the poem is basically a criticism of how people force children to grow in society and forget all their dreams and aspirations. The child wants to be a butterfly or an apple, but society is harsh and forces the kid to become a responsible adult doing responsible adult things.

The transition of the child’s foot into an adult foot and then until its death can be studied under four stages conveniently. The four stages are

  1. Childhood
  2. Experiencing Reality
  3. Maturity and
  4. Death and Rebirth.

A brief description of each stage is given below:

1. Childhood (Lines 1 – 2):
The first stanza describes the characteristic features of the child’s foot. It is an infant’s foot and it does not know that it is a ‘foot’ at all. It lacks awareness and hence it dreams of unlimited possibilities. It would like to be a ‘butterfly’ or an ‘apple’. The foot has an optimistic view of life.

2. Experiencing Reality (Lines 3 – 16):
Here the poet highlights the impact of time on the child. As the infant’s foot starts growing in the outside world, it begins to experience the harshness and pain of life while walking. When it steps over, “stones and bits of glass, / streets, ladders / and the paths in the rough earth, it learns that its role is that of a foot the same way people become aware of their role in life. It realizes that it can neither fly like a butterfly nor become a bulged apple on the branch of a tree. The child’s foot has now discovered that it is only a ‘foot’, its spirit loses its battle against the world, is taken prisoner, and is condemned to live in a shoe. It also means that the child’s spirit becomes aware of its limitations as a human being and understands its role as a social being in human society.

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Now, having been imprisoned in a shoe, it gradually tries to understand the world, in its own way. It is alone and cannot communicate with its counterpart, and gropes blindly in the dark like a blind man. The ‘foot’ is not in the open and whatever ideas it forms about life, are formed in the confined space of the shoe. Here, it means, it is not in touch with reality directly. The society decides what it should understand about ‘life’ or the world outside. Gradually, the foot adapts itself to its world and learns to cope with the harsh realities of life.

3. Maturity (Lines 17 – 46):
In this part of the poem the poet gives a graphic description of the changes seen in the child’s foot during its transition from a child’s foot to ‘adult foot’. The ‘soft nails of quartz’ in the child’s foot gradually grow hard and change themselves into an ‘opaque’ substance ‘hard as horn’. The ‘tiny petaled toes’ of the child’s foot ‘grow bunched and out of trim’. The toes in the adult foot appear like ‘eyeless reptiles’. Later they grow harder and become callused.

In this stanza, the poet attempts to let the reader know that as the child grows into an adult it becomes less open to reality. It also means that people grow harder both physically and emotionally. The phrase ‘faint volcanoes of death’ suggests that the foot comes to appreciate ‘mortality’. Thus, we find that the child’s foot has now been transformed from a beautiful form into a warped and ugly one.

The poet then describes the journey of an adult foot until its death. It is now like an eyeless reptile. Hence he calls it a ‘blind thing’. The adult foot is now in the harsh world outside, suggesting that the adult gets trapped in the routines of everyday life or the humdrum commonality of existence. It is now less capable of enjoyment and finds life difficult in every walk of life. It slogs and slogs either as a man’s foot or as a woman’s foot working in the field or market or mines or ministries. It toils in the shoe, day and night, scarcely finding time to enjoy the pleasures of life or sleep. It works without respite and finally meets with death.

4. Death and Rebirth (Lines 47 – 53):
Soon after the death, the adult foot gets buried. It goes down into the underground. It finds everything dark there. It also does not know that it is dead and has ceased to be a foot. When the foot dies and is buried, its consciousness is childlike again. Therefore, the foot revisits the possibilities of flying like a butterfly or becoming an apple. Here it means that people consider the possibility of an after-life.

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To sum up, the freedom of childhood is lost when a person becomes an adult and is exposed to a life of constant work and struggle. Outside, uncontrollable forces have the power to direct one’s life and thus ‘life’ in society takes away people’s free spirits until they are freed again by death. The human promise is not fulfilled by those whom society enslaves and mistreats.

The poet imagines that the naked foot of a boy, innocent still of the habituations of social society does not know that it is a foot, or a butterfly or an apple.

Only through a long process of denial of our embodied natures, beginning with the simple act of wearing shoes and thus denying contact with the earth does the boy become a man. However, upon being buried, he still does not know if he will fly or become an apple.

To the Foot from its Child Summary in Kannada

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 8 To the Foot from its Child image - 2
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 8 To the Foot from its Child image - 3
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 8 To the Foot from its Child image - 4

Glossary:

  • Quartz: a hard white colourless mineral consisting of silicon dioxide
  • Opaque: not transparent
  • Petaled: like petals
  • Callus: thickened and hardened part of the skin
  • Respite: a short period of rest

2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 6 चीफ़ की दावत

You can Download Chapter 6 चीफ़ की दावत Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Gaurav Chapter 6 चीफ़ की दावत

चीफ़ की दावत Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

I. एक शब्द या वाक्यांश या वाक्य में उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
चीफ़ की दावत किसके घर पर थी?
उत्तर:
चीफ़ की दावत मिस्टर शामनाथ के घर पर थी।

प्रश्न 2.
शामनाथ की पत्नी ने माँ को कहाँ भेजने के लिए कहा?
उत्तर:
शामनाथ की पत्नी ने माँ को पिछवाड़े वाली सहेली के घर भेजने के लिए कहा।

प्रश्न 3.
शामनाथ माँ को कौन-से रंग के शलवार-कमीज़ पहनने के लिए कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
शामनाथ माँ को सफेद कमीज और सफेद शलवार-कमीज़ पहनने के लिए कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 4.
माँ के सब ज़ेवर क्यों बिक गए थे?
उत्तर:
माँ के सब जेवर शामनाथ की पढ़ाई के लिए बिक गए थे।

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प्रश्न 5.
माँ क्या टाल नहीं सकती थी?
उत्तर:
माँ बेटे के हुकुम को नहीं टाल सकती थी।

प्रश्न 6.
मेम साहब को क्या पसंद आये थे?
उत्तर:
मेम साहब को पर्दे, सोफा-कवर का डिजाइन तथा कमरे की सजावट आदि पसंद आये थे।

प्रश्न 7.
सभी देसी स्त्रियों की आराधना का केन्द्र कौन बनी हुई थी?
उत्तर:
सभी देसी स्त्रियों की आराधना का केन्द्र चीफ़ कि पत्नी बनी हुई थी।

प्रश्न 8.
माँ क्या गाने लगी?
उत्तर:
माँ एक पुराना विवाह का गीत गाने लगीं – हरिया नी मायँ, हरिया नी भैणे हरिया तें भागी भरिया ह!

प्रश्न 9.
किसने पार्टी में नया रंग भर दिया?
उत्तर:
माँ ने पार्टी में नया रंग भर दिया।

प्रश्न 10.
चीफ़ साहब बड़ी रुचि से किसे देखने लगे?
उत्तर:
चीफ़ साहब बड़ी रुचि से फुलकारी को देखने लगे।

प्रश्न 11.
चीफ़ साहब की खुशामद करने से शामनाथ को क्या लाभ हो सकता था?
उत्तर:
चीफ़ साहब की खुशामद करने से शामनाथ की तरक्की हो सकती थी।

प्रश्न 12.
माँ मन-ही-मन किसके उज्ज्वल भविष्य की कामनाएँ करने लगीं?
उत्तर:
माँ मन-ही-मन अपने बेटे शामनाथ के उज्जवल भविष्य की कामनाएँ करने लगी।

II. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए :

प्रश्न 1.
शामनाथ और उनकी धर्मपत्नी ने चीफ़ की दावत के लिए सुबह से क्या-क्या तैयारियाँ की?
उत्तर:
घर में चीफ़ की दावत थी तो शामनाथ और उनकी पत्नी को पसीना पोंछने की फुर्सत न थी। कुर्सियाँ, मेज तिपाइयाँ, नैपकिन, फूल सब बरामदे में पहुँच गये। ड्रिंक का इन्तजाम बैठक मे किया गया। घर का फालतू सामान अलमारियों के पीछे और पलंगों के नीचे छुपाया गया। परदे, सोफा कवर बदल दिए गए। उनकी पत्नी और माँ क्या पहने यह भी तय हुआ। इसतरह सुबह से उनके घर में तैयारियाँ चल रही थी।

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प्रश्न 2.
शामनाथ और उनकी धर्मपत्नी माँ को लेकर क्यों चिंतित थे?
उत्तर:
शामनाथ और उनकी धर्मपत्नी माँ को लेकर चिंतित थे। घर में चीफ़ की दावत थी श्यामनाथ को डर था। कही माँ के कारण उसे लाज्जित न होना। पडे। पहले तो वह उसे कही भेज दे या छिपाने की बात सोचता है। फिर माँ को सिर से पाँव तक देखते हुए सफेद कमीज, सलवार पहनकर दिखाने को बोलता है। हाथ में कुछ चूड़ियाँ बूडियाँ हो तो पहनने के लिए कहता है बरामदे में कोठरी के बाहर उसे कुर्सी पर बैठने को कहता है। कोठरी में भी उसे न सोने की सलाह देता है क्योंकि माँ को जोर-जोर से खर्राटे लेने की आदत थी। माँ को वह नंगे पाँव घूमने की मनाई करता है। वह खड़ाऊँ भी न पहनने की ताकीद देता है।

प्रश्न 3.
चीफ़ की दावत के समय माँ की मनोदशा का वर्णन कीजिए।
उत्तर:
शामनाथ की माँ सुबह से घर में चली तैयारी देख रही थी, उसका दिल घड़क रहा था। सोच रही थी बेटे के दपतर का बड़ा साहब घर पर आ रहा है, सारा काम सुभीते से चल जाए। शामनाथ जब उसे बरामदे में बैठने को कहता है वहाँ से गुसलखाने के रास्ते कोठरी में जाने को कहता है तो अवाक हाकर बेटे का चेहरा देखने लगी। खर्राटे की बात सुनकर लज्जित भी हुई। अचानक सामना जब चीफ़ से हुआ तो वह बहुत हडबडाई उससे भी जादा वह अपने बेटे के गुस्से से डर रही थी। बेटे ने जो कपड़े पहनने के लिए कहे थे वह पहनकर भी आई थी। कोठरी में बैठे वह रोती रही। आँखो से ठीक से न देख पाते हुए भी अपने बेटे के तरक्की की बात सुनकर फुलकारी भी बनाने का वादा करती है, वह माँ दिल-ही-दिल में बेटे के उज्जवल भविष्य की कामनाएँ करने लगी।

प्रश्न 4.
बरामदे में पहुंचते ही शामनाथ क्यों ठिठक गये?
उत्तर:
बरामदे में पहुंचते ही शामनाथ सहसा ठिठक गये। जो दृश्य उन्होंने देखा उससे उनकी टाँगें लड़खड़ा गयी और क्षण-भर में सारा नशा हिरन होने लगा। बरामदे में ऐन-कोठरी के बाहर माँ अपनी कुर्सी पर ज्यों-कि-त्यों बैठी थीं मगर दोनों पाँव कुर्सी की सीट पर रखे हुए और सिर दायें से बायें और बायें से दायें झूल रहा था और मुँह में से लगातार गहरे खर्राटों की आवाजें आ रही थीं। जब झटके से नींद टूटती तो सिर फिर दायें से बायें झूलने लगता। पल्ला सिर पर से खिसक गया था, और माँ के झड़े हुए बाल आधे गंजे सिर पर अस्त-व्यस्त बिखरे हुए थे।

प्रश्न 5.
चीफ़ और माँ की मुलाकात का वर्णन कीजिए।
उत्तर:
बैंठक से उठकर खाने के लिए जा रहे चीफ़ की नजर जैसे ही शामनाथ के माँ पर पड़ी उन्होंने माँ को नमस्ते कही फिर दाँया हाथ आगे बढाकर हाउ डू तू डू कहा दाँए हाथ में माला होने कारण माँ ने बाथों हाथ आगे किया। जब शामनाथ ने कहा कि उसकी माँ गाँव की है तो चीफ़ ने उन्हे गाँव के लोग बहुत पसंद है कहते हुए माँ को गाने का आग्रह किया। तो माँ ने एक पुराना विवाह गीत भी गाया। साहब ने बहुत तालियाँ पीटी। साहब ने पंजाब के गाँव की दस्तकारी के बारे में पूछा तो साहब को दिखाने वह पुरानी फुलकारी ले आई। पूरे समय वह धबराई और डरी हुई थी क्योंकि उसे अपने बेटे के क्रोध का पता था। लेकिन चीफ़ ने उससे मिलकर बहुत खुश था।

प्रश्न 6.
माँ को आलिंगन में भरकर शामनाथ ने क्या कहा?
उत्तर:
चीफ के कहने पर माँ की असहनीय स्थिति को जानकर भी मिस्टर शामनाथ स्वार्थवश होकर अपनी तरक्की के लिए माँ को फुलकारी बनाने के लिए मजबूर करता है। जैसे ही दावत हुई, सारे मेहमान जा चुके, तो काफी देर होने के बावजूद भी शामनाथ ने माँ की कोठरी में जाकर उसे आलिंगन में भरकर कहा कि – ‘ओ अम्मी! तुमने तो आज रंग ला दिया! साहब तुमसे इतना खुश हुआ कि क्या कहूँ? ओ अम्मी! ओ अम्मी!’ बेटे की स्वार्थी भावना देखकर माँ की आँखों में आँसू आ गए।

प्रश्न 7.
चीफ़ साहब पर टिप्पणी लिखिए।
उत्तर:
चीफ़ एक अंग्रेज अधिकारी है और वह शामनाथ के घर पर दावत के लिए आने वाला है। इसलिए स्वागत हेतु पति-पत्नी एड़ी-चोटी का जोर लगाकर एक कर देते हैं। उनकी दृष्टि में मेहमान के सम्मुख माँ एक अवरोध है, परन्तु चीफ साहब माँ को देखते ही ‘नमस्ते’ कहते हैं। उनका हाल-चाल पूछते हैं। घर की सजावट से प्रसन्न होते हैं। माँ की ‘फुलकारी’ को बहुत पसंद करते हैं। उसकी मांग भी करते हैं। चीफ़ को गाँव के लोग अधिक पसंद हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 8.
शामनाथ की चारित्रिक विशेषताओं पर प्रकाश डालिए।
उत्तर:
शामनाथ को पत्नी की बात भी माननी पड़ती है और माँ का ख्याल भी रखना पड़ता है। पत्नी की बात सुनकर कभी-कभी माँ का अनादर भी कर बैठता है, परन्तु माँ की सहनशीलता के सामने आखिर उसको नतमस्तक होना पड़ता है। अपनी नौकरी व तरक्की के लिए अंग्रेज चीफ़ की खुशामद करना जरूरी होता है। माँ के कारण चीफ़ साहब बहुत खुश होते हैं, तो वह माँ का ‘आलिंगन कर अपने आपको धन्य मानता है।

प्रश्न 9.
शामनाथ की माँ के स्वाभाविक गुणों का परिचय दीजिए।
उत्तर:
शामनाथ की माँ भोली-भाली तथा पुरानी परंपराओं व संस्कारों वाली हैं। वह साधारण रहन-सहन वाली महिला हैं। अपनी बहू व बेटे को सम्मान भी देती है तथा उनसे कुछ डरती भी हैं। बेटे की आज्ञा का पालन भी करती हैं। बैठना, उठना, खाना-पीना तथा पहनना आदि बातों में माँ विशेष ध्यान नहीं रखती थीं। माँ के इन व्यवहारों से आधुनिकता में लिप्त बहू-बेटे को चिढ़ थी। बेटे से कभी-कभी उपेक्षित भी होती, परन्तु नाराज नहीं होती। माँ खुद कष्ट झेलकर भी बहूबेटे की मंगलकामना करती हैं।

III. निम्नलिखित वाक्य किसने किससे कहे?

प्रश्न 1.
‘माँ का क्या होगा?’
उत्तर:
यह प्रश्न शामनाथ ने अपनी पत्नी से पूछा।

प्रश्न 2.
‘जो वह सो गयीं और नींद में खरटि लेने लगीं, तो?’
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य शामनाथ की पत्नी ने पति शामनाथ से कहा।

प्रश्न 3.
‘आज तुम खाना जल्दी खा लेना।’
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य शामनाथ ने अपनी माँ से कहा।

प्रश्न 4.
‘जब से बीमारी से उठी हूँ नाक से साँस नहीं ले सकती।’
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य शामनाथ की माँ ने शामनाथ से कहा।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 5.
‘सच? मुझे गाँव के लोग बहुत पसंद हैं।
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य चीफ़ साहब ने शामनाथ से कहा।

प्रश्न 6.
‘वह जरूर बना देंगी। आप उसे देख कर खुश होंगे।
उत्तर:
यह वाक्य शामनाथ ने चीफ़ साहब से कहा।

IV. ससंदर्भ स्पष्टीकरण कीजिए :

प्रश्न 1.
‘इन्हें पिछवाड़े इनकी सहेली के घर भेज दो।
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘चीफ़ की दावत’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक डॉ. भीष्म साहनी हैं।
संदर्भ : इसे शामनाथ की पत्नी ने अपने पति से कहा।
स्पष्टीकरण : शाम को मिस्टर शामनाथ के घर पर चीफ़ की दावत है। चीफ़ एक अंग्रेज थे। वे यदि इस दावत से खुश हुए तो शामनाथ को दफ़्तर में तरक्की मिलने की सम्भावना थी। इसलिए शामनाथ और उनकी पत्नी सुबह से तैयारियाँ करने में लगे हुए हैं। आखिर पाँच बजते-बजते सब तैयारियाँ खत्म हुईं। अचानक एक समस्या खड़ी हो गई – माँ का क्या होगा? पत्नी यह सुझाव देती है कि इन्हें पिछवाड़े इनकी सहेली के घर भेज दो।

प्रश्न 2.
‘चूड़ियाँ कहाँ से लाऊँ बेटा, तुम तो जानते हो, सब जेवर तुम्हारी पढ़ाई में बिक गए।
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘चीफ़ की दावत’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक डॉ. भीष्म साहनी हैं।
संदर्भ : जब शामनाथ अपनी माँ से कहता है कि कोई चूड़ियाँ-बूड़ियाँ हों तो पहन लो। उस वक्त माँ उत्तर देते हुए यह वाक्य कहती है।
स्पष्टीकरण : मिस्टर शामनाथ के घर पर चीफ़ की दावत है। शामनाथ और उनकी पत्नी जोर शोर से तैयारियाँ कर रहे हैं। इस दावत से अंग्रेज चीफ़ साहब के खुश होने पर शामनाथ को तरक्की की संभावना थी। लेकिन एक समस्या आ गई – माँ का क्या होगा? माँ गाँव की रहनेवाली अनपढ़ और अंग्रेजी रीतिरिवाज़ नहीं जानती थीं। शामनाथ ने अपनी माँ को सफेद कमीज़ और सफेद शलवार पहनने के लिए कहा। उसने अपनी माँ से चूड़ियाँ पहनने के लिए भी कहा। उस समय माँ उपरोक्त कथन कहती हैं कि सब जेवर तुम्हारी पढ़ाई में ही बिक गथे।

प्रश्न 3.
‘मेरी माँ गाँव की रहनेवाली हैं। उमर-भर गाँव में रही हैं।
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘चीफ़ की दावत’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक डॉ. भीष्म साहनी हैं।
संदर्भ : अपने साहब से शामनाथ अंग्रेजी में बोले – मेरी माँ गाँव की रहने वाली हैं। उमर भर गाँव में रही है इसलिए लजाती है।
स्पष्टीकरण : मिस्टर शामनाथ के घर पर शाम को चीफ़ की दावत थी। सुबह से शामनाथ और उनकी पत्नी ने खूब तैयारियाँ कीं। चीफ़ साहब एक अंग्रेज़ थे। शामनाथ की एक ही चिन्ता थी – माँ अंग्रेजी रीति-रिवाज नहीं जानती थीं, अनपढ़ थीं। यदि चीफ़ साहब की भेंट माँ से हुई तो क्या किया जाए? फिर भी माँ को अच्छे कपड़े पहनाकर उन्हें कुछ हिदायतें देकर उसके कमरे के बाहर कुर्सी पर बिठाते हैं। लेकिन जो डर था वही हुआ। ड्रिंक पार्टी समाप्त कर जैसे ही वे खाने के लिए बरामदे में पहुंच रहे थे, माँ कुर्सी पर सोकर जोर से खरटि ले रही थीं। माँ को देखते ही देसी अफसरों की स्त्रियाँ हँस पड़ी। माँ हड़बड़ाकर उठ बैठीं। चीफ़ साहब ने उन्हें नमस्ते किया। तब शामनाथ अपनी माँ का परिचय देते हुए यह वाक्य चीफ से कहते हैं।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 4.
‘क्यों, माँ, साहब को फुलकारी बहुत पसंद हैं, इन्हें एक ऐसी फुलकारी बना दोगी न।
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘चीफ़ की दावत’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक डॉ. भीष्म साहनी हैं।
संदर्भ : जब चीफ़ साहब ने फुलकारी देखी और पसंद की, तो शामनाथ ने अपनी माँ से यह वाक्य कहा। – स्पष्टीकरण : साहब बड़ी रूचि से फुलकारी देखते है। पुरानी फुलकारी थी। जगह-जगह से उसके धागे निकले थे, कपड़ा भी फटनेलगा था। साहब की रूचि देखकर शामनाथ ने कहा यह फटी हुई है, साहब मैं आपको नई बनवा दूंगा! क्यों, माँ, साहब को एक ऐसी ही फुलकारी बना दोगी न?

प्रश्न 5.
‘ओ अम्मी! तुमने तो आज रंग ला दिया।
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘चीफ़ की दावत’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक डॉ. भीष्म साहनी हैं।
संदर्भ : इस वाक्य को शामनाथ ने अपनी माँ से कहा।
स्पष्टीकरण : शामनाथ के घर पर चीफ़ की दावत थी। चीफ़ साहब इस पार्टी से खुश हुए तो शामनाथ को तरक्की मिलने की संभावना थी। शामनाथ और उनकी पत्नी जोर-शोर से तैयारियाँ करते हैं। उन दोनों के लिए एक ही चिन्ता का विषय है – माँ। शामनाथ की माँ गाँव की रहनेवाली हैं, अंग्रेजी रीतिरिवाजों से अपरिचित थीं। यदि चीफ़ साहब की भेंट माँ से हुई तो, अथवा देसी अफसर, उनकी स्त्रियाँ माँ को देखकर हँसने लगे तो किया धरा मिट्टी में मिल जाएगा। लेकिन चीफ़ साहब माँ से बहुत खुश हो जाते हैं। उनसे पंजाबी लोक गीत गवाते हैं और ‘फुलकारी’ बनाकर देने के लिए कहकर पार्टी से खुश होकर लौट जाते हैं। शामनाथ को सबसे ज्यादा संतोष होता है। अपनी माँ की कोठरी में जाकर ‘अम्मी’ को गले लगाकर कहते हैं “ओ अम्मी! तुमने तो आज रंग ला दिया।’

प्रश्न 6.
‘जानती नहीं, साहब खुश होगा, तो मुझे तरक्की मिलेगी?’
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘चीफ़ की दावत’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक डॉ. भीष्म साहनी हैं।
संदर्भ : इस वाक्य को शामनाथ ने अपनी माँ से कहा कि साहब खुश होंगे तो मेरी तरक्की होगी।
स्पष्टीकरण : चीफ़ साहब के चले जाने के बाद शामनाथ खुशी से झूमते हुए माँ को आलिंगन में भर लिया। माँ तुमने तो रंग ला दिया। साहब तुमसे इतना खुश हुए कि क्या कहूँ। माँ साहब को खुश रखेगें, तो मुझे तरक्की भी मिलेगी।

प्रश्न 7.
‘तो मैं बना दूंगी, बेटा, जैसे बन पड़ेगा, बना दूंगी।’
उत्तर:
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य गौरव’ के ‘चीफ़ की दावत’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक डॉ. भीष्म साहनी हैं।
संदर्भ : जब बेटे शामनाथ ने अपनी माँ से आग्रह करते हुए कहा, तब माँ ने बेटे से यह वाक्य कहा।
स्पष्टीकरण : पुरानी फुलकारी दिखाने पर अंग्रेज चीफ़ को फुलकारी पसंद आई। वैसी ही फुलकारी बनाकर देने के लिए जब बेटे ने माँ से आग्रह किया, तब माँ ने बेटे से उक्त वाक्य कहा। वह जैसे-तैसे फुलकारी बनाकर देने के लिए मान जाती है।

V. वाक्य शुद्ध कीजिए :

प्रश्न 1.
आज मि. शामनाथ के घर चीफ़ का दावत है।
उत्तर:
आज मि. शामनाथ के घर चीफ़ की दावत है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 2.
मेहमान लोग आठ बजे आएगा।
उत्तर:
मेहमान लोग आठ बजे आएगें।

प्रश्न 3.
तुम्हारे खर्राटों की आवाज़ दूर तक जाता है।
उत्तर:
तुम्हारे खर्राटों की आवाज़ दूर तक जाती है।

प्रश्न 4.
माँ धीरे से उठीं और अपना कोठरी में चली गयीं।
उत्तर:
माँ धीरे से उठीं और अपनी कोठरी में चली गयीं।

प्रश्न 5.
चीफ़ के चेहरे पर मुस्कुराहट था।
उत्तर:
चीफ़ के चेहरे पर मुस्कुराहट थी।

VI. अन्य लिंग रूप लिखिए :

श्रीमान, विधवा, साहब, लड़का, बूढ़ा।

  1. श्रीमान – श्रीमती
  2. विधवा – विधुर
  3. साहब – साहिबा
  4. लड़का – लड़की
  5. बूढ़ा – बुढ़िया

VII. अन्य वचन रूप लिखिए :

कुर्सी, चूड़ी, गुडिया, कोठरी, मौका।

  1. कुर्सी – कुर्सियाँ
  2. चूड़ी – चूड़ियाँ
  3. गुडिया – गुडियाँ
  4. कोठरी – कोठरियाँ
  5. मौका – मौके

चीफ़ की दावत लेखक परिचय :

भीष्म साहनी प्रगतिशील कहानीकार हैं। आपका जन्म 1915 ई. को रावलपिंडी में हुआ था। लाहौर से अंग्रेजी में एम.ए. करने के पश्चात आपने पंजाब विश्वविद्यालय से पीएच.डी. की उपाधि प्राप्त की। आप दिल्ली कालेज में अंग्रेजी के वरिष्ठ प्रवक्ता के पद पर कार्यरत रहे। आपकी विचार दृष्टि राष्ट्रीय एवं समाज परक थी। मध्यमवर्गीय परिवारों की समस्याओं और विसंगतियों को आपने प्रभावशाली ढंग से चित्रित किया है। यांत्रिक जीवन के तनाव, व्यक्ति की स्वार्थ भावना, विभाजन की पीड़ा, राजनैतिक जीवन, भ्रष्टाचार आदि आपकी कहानियों के विषय बने और इनके विश्लेषण के द्वारा भीष्म साहनी ने सामाजिक बदलाव एवं मानव स्वभाव में परिवर्तन लाने का प्रयत्न किया। आपकी मृत्यु 11 जुलाई 2003 ई. को हुई।

KSEEB Solutions

आपकी प्रसिद्ध रचनाओं में ‘बसन्ती’ और ‘तमस’ बहुचर्चित उपन्यास हैं। ‘पहला पाठ’, ‘भाग्यरेखा’, ‘मेरी प्रिय कहानियाँ’ आदि कहानी संकलन हैं। ‘तमस’ को साहित्य अकादमी द्वारा 1975 में पुरस्कृत किया गया।

चीफ़ की दावत पाठ का आशय :

प्रस्तुत कहानी में वृद्धों की समस्याएँ, समाज का दिखावापन तथा मनुष्य की उधेड़बुन वर्णित है। शामनाथ के घर पर चीफ़ की दावत में जो घटनाएँ घटती हैं उनसे पता चलता है कि जो माँ पार्टी के लिए बाधा समझी जाती थी उसी के कारण शामनाथ को तरक्की मिलने की सम्भावना हुई।
बुजुर्गों के प्रति आदरभाव रखने तथा माँ की ममता का परिचय देने हेतु इस कहानी का चयन किया गया है।

चीफ़ की दावत Summary in Hindi

चीफ़ की दावत मिस्टर शामनाथ के घर पर थी। शामनाथ और उनकी श्रीमती मेहमानों के आगमन के लिए अपने घर में सभी प्रकार की तैयारियाँ करने लगे। साफ-सफाई, टेबल-कुर्सियाँ, तिपाइयाँ, नेपकिन, फूल आदि बरामदे में पहुँच गये। ड्रिंक की व्यवस्था की गई। कमरे की सजावट की गई।

शामनाथ को इस बात की चिंता सता रही थी कि यदि मेहमान आ जाएँगे, तो माँ का क्या होगा? उन्हें कहाँ छुपाएँ? चीफ के सामने उनकी उपस्थिति पति-पत्नी को अच्छी नहीं लगती थी। क्योंकि उनकी माँ जब सोती है, तो जोर-जोर से खर्राटों की आवाज आती है। इसलिए उन्हें कमरे में बंद कर दिया जाय अथवा पिछवाड़े वाली सहेली के यहाँ भेज दिया जाय।

बहू और बेटे के इस तरह के व्यवहार माँ कुछ उदास थी, परन्तु बेटे से कुछ नहीं कहती है। सब कुछ सहन कर जाती है। पत्नी के कारण वह माँ की उपेक्षा भी कर देता है। आखिर चीफ़ साहब आ ही गए। माँ को अव्यवस्थित रूप में देखकर शामनाथ को क्रोध आया।

चीफ के आते ही माँ हड़बड़ाकर उठ बैठी। सिर पर पल्ला रखते हुए खड़ी हो गई। वह सकुचाती हुई काँप रही थीं। चीफ़ के चेहरे पर मुस्कराहट थी। उसने माँ को नमस्ते कहा। हाथ मिलाने के लिए कहा। माँ घबरा गई। देसी अफसरों की स्त्रियाँ हँस पड़ी। दोनों ने अंग्रेजी में ‘हाउ डू यू डू?’ कहा। चीफ को गाँव के लोग बहुत पसंद थे। उसको कमरे की सजावट अच्छी लगी। यहाँ तक कि फुलकारी देने तक कह दिया। चीफ़ ने माँ से गाना भी सुना। वे बहुत खुश थे।
शामनाथ इन सारी बातों से माँ पर रीझ गए। कुछ हद तक अनादर की भावना मिट गई। चीफ़ की खुशामदी से उसे तरक्की होनेवाली थी। चीफ़ के लिए माँ फुलकारी बनाकर देने के लिए तैयार हो गई। मेहमानों के जाने के बाद शामनाथ झूमते हुए आए और माँ को आलिंगन में भर लिया | “ओ मम्मी! तुमने आज रंग ला दिया | ” कहते हुए खुशी जाहिर की | उसने कहा – माँ, साहब तुमसे बहुत खुश हुए। माँ की काया बेटे के आलिंगन में छिप गई।

चीफ़ की दावत Summary in Kannada

चीफ़ की दावत Summary in Kannada 1
चीफ़ की दावत Summary in Kannada 2
चीफ़ की दावत Summary in Kannada 3
चीफ़ की दावत Summary in Kannada 4
चीफ़ की दावत Summary in Kannada 5
चीफ़ की दावत Summary in Kannada 6

चीफ़ की दावत Summary in English

Shyamnath, eager to impress his boss and climb the corporate ladder, had invited his American boss and some senior colleagues for dinner. The dinner, in honour of the boss, was to be held in the house of Shyamnath. Shyamnath and his wife began to make preparations for the arrival of the guests. Chairs, a table, stools, napkins, and flowers had all arrived on the verandah. The drinks had been arranged in the sitting room. Now all unnecessary domestic articles were being hidden behind cupboards and under beds.

KSEEB Solutions

Suddenly an obstacle appeared before Shyamnath: What to do with mother? Neither he nor his capable wife had directed their attention to this matter. He thought it would be a severe embarrassment for him and a dampener on the party if the guests, especially his American boss, chanced upon her. He wondered what he could do to keep her away from the guests.

The behaviour of her son and daughter-in-law made the mother sad but she never said anything to her son. She endured everything. Sometimes, because of his wife, Shyamnath had even insulted her. But she said nothing and agreed to whatever he asked her to do.

Eventually, the boss arrived at Shyamnath’s house. Soon Shyamnath’s party had begun to touch the summit of success. The conversation was flowing as swiftly as the glasses were being filled. And in this flow of drinking and offering drinks, the clock struck half-past ten. Finally, everyone drained the last drops of their glasses, rose for dinner, and left the sitting room. Shyamnath was in front, showing the way, behind him the boss and the other guests.

Stepping on the verandah, Shyamnath suddenly stopped dead. What he saw made him stumble, and in a moment his intoxication took flight. On the verandah, right in front of her room, his mother was sitting on her chair just as she had been. But both her feet were on the seat of the chair, and her head was lolling from side to side, and from her mouth issued loud snores. The moment he saw her, Shyamnath was enraged. He felt like dragging her to her feet and shoving her into her room, but this was not possible; the boss and the other guests were standing nearby.

When they saw his mother, some of the wives of the Indian officials began to giggle. At once mother hastily sat up straight. Seeing so many people in front of her she was so alarmed she could say nothing. She immediately pulled her dupatta over her head, stood up, and began to stare at the ground. There was a smile on the boss’s face. He greeted his mother. He then stretched out his right hand for a mother to shake. Mother was even more alarmed. In her confusion, she put her left hand in the Sahibs. Shyamnath was annoyed. The wives of the Indian officers tittered.

The sahib took control of the situation. The atmosphere became less tense. People began to laugh and joke with one another. Shyamnath began to feel slightly less agitated. The sahib even enjoyed a song that the mother sang. He just wouldn’t stop clapping. Shyamnath’s annoyance turned into joy and pride. His mother had brought a new colour to the party.

Next, the sahib enquired as to how phulkaris are made. Shyamnath promised to get his mother to stitch one for him. The sahib thanked him and made his way towards the dining table. When they had sat down and everyone’s eyes had turned from her, the old lady slowly stood up and, avoiding notice, went into her room. The moment she sat down there, her eyes flooded with tears. She wiped them with her dupatta, took the name of God, and prayed for long life for her son.

Once the guests had eaten and left, Shyamnath came to his mother’s room and embraced her. He said that the sahib was impressed and that she had done wonders that night. Tears welled up in her eyes. Then the mother said that she wanted to go to Haridwar. Suddenly Shyamnath’s anger began to build up. He said that he did not want her to go to Haridwar and be disgraced by people that he had sent her away as he did not want to take care of her.

He then reminded her about the phulkari which he had promised his boss. He said that if they made the sahib happy, then he would probably be given a better job. Hearing this there was a glow on her face. She agreed to do it for him. And in her heart she again longed for a bright future for her son.

KSEEB Solutions

कठिन शब्दार्थ :

  • फेहरिस्त – सूची, तालिका;
  • मुकम्मल – पूरा किया हुआ;
  • सुभीते – सुगमता, सहूलियत;
  • उधेड़बुन – ऊहापोह, सोच-विचार;
  • खड़ाऊँ – पादुका;
  • तरतीब – क्रमानुसार;
  • तिनककर – बिगड़कर;
  • लंडूरा – कटी हुई पूँछ वाला पशु (बेकार, निकम्मा);
  • हिमायत – तरफदारी;
  • लरजती – काँपती, हिलती;
  • दस्तकारी – हाथ की कारीगरी;
  • फुलकारी – साधारण मलमल पर रंगीन रेशम से बूटियाँ काढ़ा हुआ कपड़ा;
  • खिदमत – सेवा, शुश्रूषा;
  • टप्पे – एक प्रकार का लोक गीत।

मुहावरे :

  • टाँग अड़ाना – बाधा डालना;
  • आँखें फाड़े देखना – चकित होकर देखना;
  • दिल बैठ जाना – व्याकुल होना;
  • रंग बदलना – स्वभाव बदलना।

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 13 Where there is a Wheel

You can Download Where there is a Wheel Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 13 Where there is a Wheel

Where there is a Wheel Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

Where there is a Wheel Comprehension I

Question 1.
What does cycling as a symbol of social mobility mean?
Answer:
Cycling through the word evokes minute meaning, it is broader when it comes to society. Social mobility has two meanings literally. It moves society from one place to another, which means the transportation of people, and it also connotes the progress of society. When women want to go for a market they do not want to wait for men they could go on themselves.

Question 2.
When Jameela Bibi says, “It is my right. We can go anywhere”, she is
a. asserting her right to move freely.
b. suggesting mobility leading to liberation.
c. expressing her indifference to dirty remarks.
d. boasting about her cycling skill.
Answer:
(a) asserting her right to move freely.

Question 3.
What does bicycle represent for the rural women?
OR
Mention any one of the symbols which bicycling represents for the women.
Answer:
For the rural women bicycle represents ‘freedom’.

Question 4.
What is common between neo-literates and neo-cyclists?
Answer:
Cycling as a social movement was first popularized by the neo-literates. These neo-literates are the ones who became neo-cyclists.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
‘Enforced routine’ and ‘male imposed barrier’ refer to
a. confining women to the kitchen.
b. subjecting women to drudgery.
c. status of women in a patriarchal society.
d. lack of freedom of movement
Answer:
(c) status of women in a patriarchal society.

Question 6.
How did the men react to women taking to cycling?
Answer:
Initially, women had to put up with vicious attacks on their character. Some of the men made filthy remarks. But later, once it got social sanction from the Arivoli organization, some menfolk became less hostile and some of them even encouraged the women to learn cycling.

Question 7.
What do the phrases ‘flags on the handlebar’ and ‘bells ringing’ suggest?
Answer:
The phrases ‘flags on the handlebar’ and ‘bells ringing’ refer to the women’s cycle rally organized on International Women’s Day in 1992 in which 1500 female cyclists took Pudukkottai by storm.

Question 8.
Why did UNICEF sanction mopeds to Arivoli women activists?
Answer:
The UNICEF sanctioned fifty mopeds to Arivoli women activists in appreciation of their work of initiating more than 70000 women to display their cycling skills at the public ‘exhibition-cum-contests’ in a single week in 1992.

Question 9.
Why is the cycle called ‘the humble vehicle’?
Answer:
The word ‘humble’ means ‘poor’, the lowest in rank. The writer calls the cycle a humble vehicle because it is the most common and ubiquitous vehicle seen even in the most remote of places, a common man’s vehicle.

Where there is a Wheel Comprehension II

Question 1.
What is the role of Arivoli Iyakkam in liberating women?
Answer:
In Pudukkottai district there is an organization called Arivoli Iyakkam (Light of Knowledge Movement) which spearheaded the district’s vigorous literacy drive. N. Kannammal is the central coordinator of Arivoli. This literacy organization conducted literacy campaigns among rural women and created a good number of neo-literates. Later, the Arivoli literacy activists, led by N.

Kannammal pioneered the cycling learning movement and thus gave cycling a social sanction. Later, at Kilakuruchi village, the Arivoli activists conducted a cycling training camp for their neo-literates as well as other women enthusiasts. A large number of those who learnt cycling come to train new learners, as master trainers, and this way they helped nearly 70000 rural women to learn cycling. Thus, by teaching them to read and write along with ‘cycling’, the Arivoli organization liberated a vast majority of the rural women in the Pudukkottai District.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
In what different ways has the cycle empowered rural women?
OR
Discuss how the cycling movement has empowered the rural women of Pudukkottai.
Answer:
‘Cycling’ empowers women in many ways. It gives them ‘confidence’ which results from being self-dependent and free to carry out their duties and responsibilities without depending on the menfolk. For example, womenfolk can fetch water from even the remotest source and cart provisions on their own. In this way, cycling emancipates womenfolk psychologically. Cycling also empowers women economically and politically. Cycling boosts their income. Some of the women who sell agricultural or other products within a group of villages can save a great deal of time by going to such places on their bicycles.

Secondly, it gives them much more time to focus on selling their produce. Thirdly, it enlarges the area they can hope to cover. Finally, if they choose to enjoy their leisure, cycling gives them a lot of leisure also. These women, besides performing these jobs, can also perform other chores. Finally, to top it all, it gives them self-respect. They can also participate in political work.

Question 3.
Why does the author describe the Arivoli ‘cycling training camp’s unusual experience?
Answer:
One of the pioneers in encouraging ‘cycling’ and giving it a social sanction was the Arivoli activists. These activists conducted a ‘cycling training camp’ in Kilakuruchi village. The writer, who visited the camp, calls it an unusual experience because, on that Sunday, all the prospective learners had turned out in their Sunday best. The author remarks that one could not help being struck by the sheer passion of the pro-cycling movement. The learners exuded so much enthusiasm and passion for learning cycling.

Question 4.
Do you think neo-literate women taking to cycling contributes to the literacy movement?
Answer:
Yes. Women taking up cycling is as significant as their taking up literacy because cycling gives them mobility, freedom, and independence which together give the women confidence to stand on their own legs. Initially, Sheela Rani Chunkath, a district collector, in 1991 intended to train female literacy activists so as to enable them to spread literacy among women in the interior. Therefore, she included mobility as a part of the literacy drive.

However, cycling played a much more significant role than literacy in the lives of the womenfolk. It gave them confidence, freedom, and independence to eke out an independent existence. Cycling helped them stay attached to their children and family and yet be financially independent. It also helped the women to share family responsibilities with the menfolk.

Question 5.
How does Sheela Rani Chunkath, the district collector, promote the empowerment of women?
OR
Bring out the role of Sheela Rani Chunkath in the empowerment of women in Pudukkottai.
Answer:
In 1991, Sheela Rani Chunkath was the district collector of Pudukkottai. As a part of the female literacy drive, she wanted to train female literacy activists so that literacy would reach women in the interior. She had realized that the lack of mobility among women played a big role in undermining their confidence. Therefore, she included ‘mobility’ as a part of the literacy drive. Naturally, literacy activists learned cycling first. This inspired the neo-literates also to learn cycling. This, in turn, inspired every woman in the village to learn cycling.

The literates, having become neo-cyclists, encouraged every woman in the district to learn cycling, by organizing ‘cycle training camps’. Thus, Sheela Rani Chunkath became instrumental in ‘cycling’ becoming a social movement in the Pudukkottai district. This way Sheela Rani Chunkath should be commended for promoting ‘freedom’ of women by including ‘cycling’ in her literacy project.

Question 6.
How did the women react to the shortage of ladies’ cycle?
Answer:
Once ‘cycling’ as a symbol of women’s liberation caught the imagination of the womenfolk in the Pudukkottai district, every woman in the district volunteered to learn cycling. Not surprisingly, this led to a shortage of ‘ladies’ cycles. These women enthusiasts did not hesitate. They volunteered to buy even ‘gents’ cycles and learned cycling. Later on, many women started preferring the ‘gents’ cycle because it has an additional bar from the seat to the handle and that way it enabled them to go out along with a child also. Even to this day thousands of women in Pudukkottai district ride ‘gents’ cycles. ‘

Where there is a Wheel Comprehension III

Question 1.
How does P. Sainath show that cycling brings about changes beyond economic gains?
Answer:
P. Sainath presents an eye-witness report of ‘cycling’ becoming a social movement. He tells us how tens of thousands of women in the Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu got initiated to learn cycling.

The Arivoli activists led by N. Kannammal pioneered the ‘cycling’ movement. As a part of their vigorous literacy drive, these activists learned cycling. Later, they organized ‘cycling training camps’ for other women. Thus, it got social sanction. Once the movement became a big force, every woman in Pudukkottai volunteered to learn cycling. Towards the end of the article, Sainath says, besides giving women freedom, mobility, and independence, it also has definite economic implications.

It boosts their family income. Sainath reports that a section of the women sells agricultural or other products within a group of villages. For them, cycling cuts down on time wasted in waiting for buses. Secondly, it gives them much more time to focus on selling their produce. Thirdly, it enlarges the area they wish to cover. Lastly, it can increase their leisure time.

In conclusion, he says, cycling brings about changes beyond economic gains also. ‘Cycling’ gives them a sense of self-respect which is vital to their sense of well-being. Thus, Sainath says that this humble vehicle has become a metaphor for freedom for these women.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
‘O sister come learn cycling, move with the wheel of time…’ How does the song suggest that the cycle could be an instrument of social change and progress?
Answer:
In the article titled ‘Where There is a Wheel’, Sainath, the writer, reports an important social movement that took place during 1992-94 that stunned the people of the Pudukkottai district in Tamil Nadu.

There was an organization named ‘Arivoli lyakkam’ which led the female literacy movement in Pudukkottai. These Arivoli activists learned ‘cycling’ so as to enable themselves to spread the message of literacy among rural women in the interior. Once the activists learned cycling, they, in turn, taught their neo-literates cycling. These neo-literates, neo-cyclists trained women in cycling, all over the district. During this period Muthu Bhaskaran, an Arivoli activist, wrote a famous song to encourage rural women to learn cycling. The song is intended to call upon the womenfolk to learn cycling.

The song conveys a simple message and when it is sung in Tamil, the mother tongue of these rural women, its meaning is easily understood. It only calls upon the woman to set in motion her own wheel of life. Until then, the woman could not move out of the house, because her ‘mobility’ depended on her being able to find money to go by bus. Going by bus also depended on the permission of the menfolk. The woman needed the help of her menfolk even to sell the agricultural produce which grew on her land. This way the woman could not break the male-imposed barriers. Once she learned cycling she got the freedom to move to any place she wanted and the freedom to do any work she wished to.

This song invites the woman to learn cycling and set in motion the wheel of her life. Here, the ‘wheel’ refers to ‘progress’. So, it tells the woman to learn cycling and be responsible for her own progress.

Where there is a Wheel Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase, or a sentence each:

Question 1.
Name the person who wrote the famous cycling song.
OR
Name the Arivoli activist who wrote/penned the famous cycling song.
Answer:
Muthu Bhaskaran.

Question 2.
In which district of Tamil Nadu, according to P. Sainath, has cycling been a social movement?
OR
Where was cycling started as a social movement, according to P. Sainath?
Answer:
Pudukkottai district in Tamil Nadu.

Question 3.
What is Fatima by profession?
Answer:
A secondary school teacher.

Question 4.
What is the literacy movement of Pudukkottai called?
Answer:
Arivoli Iyakkam.

Question 5.
What does Arivoli Iyakkam mean?
Answer:
Light of Knowledge movement.

Question 6.
What is Arivoli Iyakkam mentioned in ‘Where There is a Wheel’?
Answer:
Arivoli Iyakkam, which means, Light of Knowledge movement, is the literacy movement of Pudukkottai.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Name one of the pioneers of the cycling movement in Pudukkottai.
Answer:
N. Kannammal, the Arivoli central coordinator.

Question 8.
Who is the central coordinator of Arivoli?
OR
Who was the central coordinator of the cycling movement in ‘Where There is a Wheel’?
Answer:
N. Kannammal.

Question 9.
Who was the brain behind the cycling movement?
OR
Who is Sheela Rani Chunkath?
OR
Whose brainchild is the cycling movement, according to P. Sainath?
Answer:
Sheela Rani Chunkath, a former district collector, was the brain behind the cycling movement.

Question 10.
When and why did Sheela Rani start the cycling movement?
Answer:
In 1991, Sheela Rani Chunkath started the cycling movement in the Pudukkottai district with the intention of training female literacy activists so that literacy would reach women in the interior.

Question 11.
What did Sheela Rani add as a part of the literacy drive?
Answer:
Sheela Rani added ‘mobility’ as a part of the literacy drive.

Question 12.
Why did Sheela Rani include mobility as a part of the literacy drive?
Answer:
Since lack of mobility among women played a big role in undermining their confidence, Sheela Rani included mobility as a part of the literacy drive.

Question 13.
In which year and on what occasion was the all-women’s cycle rally held?
Answer:
The all-women’s cycle rally was held on International Women’s Day in 1992.

Question 14.
Who is the owner of Ram Cycles?
Answer:
S. Kannakarajan.

Question 15.
Who was the male Arivoli activist who encouraged the cycling movement?
Answer:
Muthu Bhaskaran was the male Arivoli activist who encouraged the cycling movement.

Question 16.
Who trains women in cycling in Kudimianmalai?
OR
Name the quarry worker and Arivoli volunteer who trains other women.
OR
Name one of the women who has trained young women from their community in the art of cycling.
Answer:
Manormani.

Question 17.
Who is Manormani?
Answer:
A quarry worker and an Arivoli volunteer.

Question 18.
Name the quarry worker and Arivoli volunteer who trains other women to learn cycling.
Answer:
Manormani is the quarry worker and Arivoli volunteer who trains other women to learn cycling.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
Which movement helped the ‘neo-literates’ to become ‘neo-cyclists’?
Answer:
The literacy movement helped the ‘neo-literates’ to become ‘neo-cyclists’.

Question 20.
Name the organization that sanctioned fifty mopeds for Arivoli women activists.
Answer:
The UNICEF sanctioned fifty mopeds for Arivoli women activists.

Question 21.
What is the chosen medium for the rural women ofPudukkottai?
Answer:
Cycling is the chosen medium for the rural women of Pudukkottai.

Question 22.
Why did some women prefer to buy gents’ cycles?
Answer:
Some women preferred to buy gents’ cycles because there was not only a shortage of ladies’ cycles, but they could also seat a child on the additional bar.

Question 23.
Name the male Arivoli activist who wrote the famous cycling song.
Answer:
Muthu Bhaskaran, a male Arivoli activist, wrote the famous cycling song.

Question 24.
What had stunned the inhabitants ofPudukkottai on International Women’s Day?
Answer:
The all-women’s cycle rally in which 1500 female cyclists participated, had stunned the inhabitants of Pudukkottai on International Women’s Day.

Question 25.
Which vehicle is called ‘humble’ in ‘Where There is a Wheel’?
Answer:
The writer calls the bicycle a humble vehicle.

Question 26.
What is meant by ‘neo-cyclists’ mentioned in ‘Where There Is A Wheel’?
Answer:
The term ‘neo-cyclists’ in the lesson ‘Where There is a Wheel’, refers to all those rural women in the Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu, who have taken to bicycling as a symbol of independence, freedom, and mobility.

Question 27.
Name one of the three women who trained other women in cycling in ‘Where There Is A Wheel’.
Answer:
Jameela is one of the three women who trained other women in cycling, in the lesson ‘Where There is a Wheel’.

Question 28.
Who has benefited the most by cycling, according to P. Sainath?
Answer:
According to P. Sainath, the neo-literate rural women in the Pudukkottai district have been benefited the most by cycling.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 29.
Who took to ‘cycling’ as a social movement in ‘Where There Is A Wheel’?
Answer:
As stated in ‘Where There is a Wheel’, tens and thousands of neo-literate rural women in the Pudukkottai district took to ‘cycling’ as a social movement.

Question 30.
What, according to the speaker, has brought a change in the lifestyle of the women of Pudukkottai?
Answer:
According to the speaker, learning to ride a bicycle has brought a change in the lifestyle of the women of Pudukkottai.

Question 31.
In which official position was Sheela Rani Chunkath, according to P. Sainath?
Answer:
According to Sainath, Sheela Chunkath was then the district collector.

Question 32.
Who was S. Kanakarajan mentioned in ‘Where There Is A Wheel’?
Answer:
As mentioned in ‘Where There is a Wheel’, S. Kanakarajan was the owner of Ram Cycles, a shop in Pudukkottai which sold bicycles.

Question 33.
Mention one of the reasons for women buying gents’ cycles, according to P. Sainath.
Answer:
According to P. Sainath, a shortage of ‘ladies’ cycles was one of the reasons for women buying ‘Gents’ cycles.

Question 34.
What led to a shortage of ladies’ cycles in Pudukkottai, according to P. Sainath?
Answer:
According to P. Sainath, ‘cycling’ became a social movement for the rural women in Pudukkottai district. The district’s literacy activists learned cycling. Then, every one of the neo-literates became a neo-cyclist. This encouraged ‘everywoman’ in the district to learn cycling. Consequently, all the ‘ladies’ cycles stocked in the market got sold resulting in a shortage of ‘ladies’ cycles.

Question 35.
Where did the rural women display their new cycling skills, according to P. Sainath?
Answer:
According to P. Sainath, the rural women displayed their new cycling skills in an all women’s cycle rally held in Pudukkottai on International Women’s Day in 1992.

Question 36.
What did banks provide the women of Pudukkottai with, according to P. Sainath?
Answer:
According to P. Sainath, banks provided loans to the women of Pudukkottai for buying bicycles.

Question 37.
What, according to P. Sainath, played a big role in undermining women’s confidence?
Answer:
According to P. Sainath, lack of mobility among women played a big role in undermining their confidence.

Question 38.
Who gave social sanction to cycling in ‘Where there is a Wheel’?
Answer:
According to P. Sainath, it was the Arivoli that gave social sanction to cycling.

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each:

Question 1.
Bring out the nature of freedom gained in Pudukkottai with the introduction of the cycle.
Answer:
The introduction of cycling has brought freedom, mobility, and independence to more than 100000 rural women in the Pudukkottai district. There were quite a few rural women who used to go by bus to sell their agricultural products within a group of villages. Now, these women have learnt cycling can go to such places on cycle, and cut down on time, and also cover a larger area.

KSEEB Solutions

Secondly, these women needed the help of menfolk to reach even the bus stop. Moreover, they had to rush back early to tend to the children and perform other chores like fetching water. With the introduction of cycling, they have become mobile and independent. They have a lot of freedom to plan they’re occupational as well as their domestic duties and enjoy leisure too.

Question 2.
How has the cycle transformed the lives of many women in Pudukkottai?
OR
Comment on how cycling reduced women’s dependence on men with reference to Sainath’s essay.
OR
What benefits, according to P. Sainath, has cycling brought into the lives of rural women?
OR
How has a bicycle brought a total change in the lives of rural women?
OR
How did cycling transform the lives of women in the Pudukkottai district and help them change with the times?
Answer:
The introduction of cycling in the Pudukkottai district has brought about a tremendous change in the lives of rural women. Cycling has offered a way out of enforced routines around male- imposed barriers. The rural women, in particular, have gained a great deal of confidence on account of their learning cycling. Earlier, they used to be burdened with economic as well as social or familial obligations. Many young mothers had to help the menfolk in earning the family income as well as do domestic chores like tending to children and fetching water from remote places. Even to sell their agricultural produce in nearby villages, they had to carry their produce to the bus stop with the help of their menfolk.

Secondly, they had to come back within a fixed time to tend to little kids at home and to store or fetch water from remote places. Naturally, though they were capable of doing all these duties on their own, their ‘immobility’ created a big hurdle. They had to walk long distances to fetch water and sell their produce. After learning cycling, such women became free and independent. This gave them a lot of confidence. Moreover, the ability to ride a bicycle gave them a lot of self-respect.

Question 3.
Why does P. Sainath say that visiting an Arivoli cycling training camp is an unusual experience?
Answer:
Sainath, the writer, says that visiting an Arivoli ‘cycling training camp’ is an unusual experience because one day when he went to Kilakuruchi village to see the camp he was amazed to see all the prospective learners turned out in their Sunday best. The writer tells us that one cannot help being struck by the sheer passion of the pro-cycling movement. There was a look of determination on their faces.

Question 4.
What role did Sheela Rani play in the cycling movement?
OR
How did Sheela Rani promote the cycling movement?
Answer:
Sheela Rani Chunkath was the district collector of Pudukkottai. In 1991 as a part of the female literacy drive, she wanted to train female literacy activists so that literacy would reach women in the interior. She had realized that the lack of mobility among women played a big role in undermining their confidence. Therefore, she included ‘mobility’ as a part of the literacy drive.

KSEEB Solutions

Naturally, literacy activists learned cycling first. This inspired the neo-literates also to learn cycling. This, in turn, inspired every woman in the village to learn cycling. The literates, having become neo-cyclists, encouraged every woman in the district to learn cycling, by organizing ‘cycle training camps’. Thus, Sheela Rani Chunkath became instrumental in ‘cycling’ becoming a social movement in the Pudukkottai district.

Question 5.
How does the author show that cycling is linked to the literacy movement in the district?
OR
How did Sheela Rani Chunkath empower the women of Pudukkottai by including cycling in the literacy drive?
Answer:
Sheela Rani Chunkath was the district collector of Pudukkottai in 1991. As a part of the female literacy drive, she wanted to train female literacy activists so that literacy would reach women in the interior. She had realized that the lack of mobility among women played a big role in undermining their confidence. Therefore, she included ‘mobility’ as a part of the literacy drive.

Naturally, literacy activists learned cycling first. This inspired the neo-literates also to learn cycling. This, in turn, inspired every woman in the village to learn cycling. The literates, having become neo-cyclists, encouraged every woman in the district to learn cycling by organizing ‘cycle training camps’. Thus, cycling came to be linked to the literacy movement in Pudukkottai.

Question 6.
What are the economic implications of cycling?
OR
Discuss how cycling has had definite economic implications on women’s status.
Answer:
Cycling brought many benefits to rural women in Pudukkottai. Besides instilling a lot of confidence in rural women, it also helped them economically. A large section of the rural womenfolk were small producers who used to wait for buses to carry their produce to sell in other villages.

Even to carry their produce to the bus stop they had to depend on fathers, brothers, husbands or sons.
Once these women learned cycling, they became mobile and independent. Learning cycling enabled them to visit a number of villages and sell their produce. Secondly, after learning cycling they were able to combine different tasks with nonchalance. Consequently, one can see many a young mother riding a cycle with a child on the bar and the produce on the carrier. She could also be seen carrying two or three pots of water hung across the back and cycling towards work or home.

Question 7.
How has cycling swept across the district of Pudukkottai?
Answer:
It is not an exaggeration to say that cycling has swept across the district of Pudukkottai. It is not surprising to see even rural agricultural workers riding a bicycle carrying water, their products, and also their children on the bicycle. In fact, cycle-riding women have become ubiquitous in the Pudukkottai district.

Apart from women agricultural workers, quarry labourers, and village health nurses have also taken to cycling. Joining the rush are balwadi and Anganwadi workers, gem cutters and school teachers, and also grama services and mid-day meal workers as well.

Ques 8.
Why was there a shortage of ladies’ cycles in the district of Pudukkottai? How was the problem overcome?
OR
How did the women react to the shortage of ladies’ cycles?
OR
Why was there a shortage of ladies’ cycles in Pudukkottai? How did the women react to it?
Answer:
Once the idea of learning cycling as a sign of women’s emancipation caught on among the womenfolk of Pudukkottai, there was a huge demand for ‘ladies’ cycles. Once the stocks of ladies cycles got exhausted there was a shortage of ‘ladies’ cycles. Consequently, women did not hesitate to buy ‘gents’ cycles as well. In fact, some women even preferred ‘gents’ cycles because the gent’s cycles have an additional bar from the seat to the handle. That way the women realized that they could seat a child on the bar. Consequently, the shortage of ladies cycles was solved by going in for gents cycles.

Question 9.
How has cycling inculcated a sense of self-respect in the women of Pudukkottai?
Answer:
The writer says that it would be very wrong to emphasize only the economic aspect of learning cycling. He says that learning cycling brings a sense of self-respect to the individual. He quotes the opinion of Fatima, a secondary school teacher. She opines that learning cycling is not economic in her case at all. She cannot afford a bicycle, yet she hires one every evening just to feel the goodness, that independence. What she means to say is, when a woman learns to ride a bicycle, she enjoys a sense of achievement.

Women do not need to depend on their husbands to help them physically in carrying their produce to the market. Secondly, nothing can bind them to their homes. They go out, fetch water and provisions, and come back home to attend to their domestic duties and responsibilities at the right time. This way they enjoy a lot of freedom. It is this feeling that gives women a sense of self-respect.

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words each:

Question 1.
How has cycling become a metaphor for freedom in Pudukkottai?
OR
How does the speaker highlight the freedom and empowerment accomplished due to cycling?
OR
In what different ways does the bicycle help rural women in ‘Where There Is A Wheel’?
Answer:
The idea of empowering women giving them ‘mobility’ came from Sheela Rani Chunkath, the District Collector of Pudukkottai in 1991. She included ‘mobility’ as a part of the literacy drive so as to facilitate female literacy activists to reach rural women in the interior. Once the literacy activists learned cycling, they taught the neo-literates cycling. Once the neo-literates learned cycling, every other woman in the district volunteered to learn cycling. Later, the Arivoli activists organized a ‘Cycling Training Camp’ and created ‘Master trainers’ who in turn conducted several cycling training camps. This way, in a short period of time, over 100,000 rural women in the Pudukkottai district learned cycling.

The author opines that ‘cycling’ gave these women freedom, mobility, and independence. Consequently, these women stopped depending on the menfolk to transport their agricultural produce to bus stops. They themselves carried the produce and sold them in the neighbouring villages and this way covered a larger area. Secondly, they also took care of the young ones at home and completed household chores in time as a result of the proper utilization of time. They could also fetch water from far off places and cart provisions on their bicycle. Thus, ‘cycling’ empowered rural women in many ways. Furthermore, the ability to carry on all the duties and responsibilities on their own gave the women a sense of achievement and self-respect. Thus, the author who witnessed this silent revolution concludes that the humble vehicle – the bicycle – has become a metaphor for freedom, in Pudukkottai.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
How does the essay ‘Where There is a Wheel’speak about women and empowerment?
OR
How is ‘wheel’ symbolic of a change in ‘Where there is a wheel’?
OR
A humble vehicle can be a tool for women’s empowerment. Discuss.
OR
A humble vehicle can work wonders in empowering rural women. Explain with reference to ‘Where There Is A Wheel’.
Answer:
In this essay titled ‘Where There is a Wheel’, Sainath reports how learning to ride a bicycle became a social movement and eventually became a symbol of women empowerment in the Pudukkottai district of Tamilnadu. Here, the ‘wheel’ of the cycle has become a symbol for the empowerment of women. The introduction of cycling has brought about tremendous change in the lives of rural women. Cycling has offered a way out of enforced routines around male-imposed barriers.

The rural women, in particular, have gained a great deal of confidence on account of their learning cycling. Earlier, they used to be burdened with economic as well as social or familial obligations. Many young mothers had to help the menfolk in earning the family income as well as do domestic chores like tending to children and fetching water from remote places. Even to sell their agricultural produce in nearby villages, they had to carry their produce to the bus stop with the help of their menfolk.

Secondly, they had to come back within a fixed time to tend to little kids at home and to store or fetch water from remote places. Naturally, though they were capable of doing all these duties on their own, their ‘immobility’ created a big hurdle. They had to walk long distances to fetch water and sell their produce. After learning cycling, such women became free and independent. This gave them a lot of confidence. Moreover, the ability to ride a bicycle gave them a lot of self-respect.

Apart from women agricultural workers, quarry labourers, and village health nurses have also taken to cycling. Joining the rush are balwadi and Anganwadi workers, gem cutters, school teachers, grama services, and mid-day meal workers as well.

It would be very wrong to emphasize only the economic aspect of learning cycling. Learning cycling brings a sense of self-respect to the individual. The writer quotes the opinion of Fatima, a secondary school teacher. She opines that learning cycling is not economic in her case at all. She cannot afford a bicycle, yet she hires one every evening just to feel the goodness, that independence. What she means to say is, when a woman learns to ride a bicycle, she enjoys a sense of achievement. She feels that she does not need to depend on her husband to help her physically in carrying her produce to the market.

Secondly, nothing can bind her to her home. She becomes mobile. She goes out, fetches water and provisions, and comes back home to attend to her domestic duties and responsibilities at the right time. This way she enjoys a lot of freedom. It is this feeling that gives a woman a sense of self-respect.

Question 3.
Justify the statement ‘Wheel brings progress’ with reference to ‘Where There is a Wheel’.
Answer:
In ‘Where there is a Wheel’, P. Sainath, the writer, refers to the ‘wheel’ of the bicycle to document the spectacular progress achieved by rural women in the Pudukkottai district of Tamilnadu. The title symbolically conveys the ‘progress’ achieved by rural women over a period of one and a half years. ‘Wheel’ is a commonly accepted symbol for progress or movement or mobility. ‘Wheel’ also means continuous progress or movement. While stagnation indicates decay and deterioration, mobility indicates dynamism.

The writer remarks that “people find curious ways of hitting out at their backwardness, of expressing defiance, a hammering at the fetters that hold them”. All these phrases make a reference to how the rural women of Pudukkottai district defied the challenge of the male bastion and broke the fetters that chained them to the confines of their homes by learning to ride a bicycle. These rural women, which included agricultural workers, quarry labourers, village health nurses, ballad is and anganwadis, gem cutters, school teachers, mid-day meal workers, and gram sevikas, had to depend on the male persons at-home – brother, husband, father – to go to the market to sell their produce and to go to their workplaces in addition to doing household chores like carrying water from the village well, cooking, taking care of infants and washing clothes and utensils.

Today, women can be seen doing many tasks on their bicycles. They can be seen carrying water from the well along with their small kids sitting on the bar of their cycle in the front. Many of them bicycle their way to villages to sell agricultural products or to work in the quarries.

Question 4.
People find curious ways of hitting out at their backwardness. How is this brought out in ‘Where There Is A Wheel’?
Answer:
P. Sainath, in his essay ‘Where There is a Wheel’, remarks that “people find curious ways of hitting out at their backwardness, of expressing defiance, a hammering at the fetters that hold them”. All these phrases make a reference to how the rural women of Pudukkottai district defied the challenge of the male bastion and broke the fetters that chained them to the confines of their homes by learning to ride a bicycle.

KSEEB Solutions

Sheela Rani Chunkath was the district collector of Pudukkottai. In 1991 as a part of the female literacy drive, she wanted to train female literacy activists so that literacy would reach women in the interior. She had realized that the lack of mobility among women played a big role in undermining their confidence. Therefore, she included ‘mobility’ as a part of the literacy drive. Naturally, literacy activists learned cycling first. This inspired the neo-literates also to learn cycling. This, in turn, inspired every woman in the village to learn cycling. The literates, having become neo-cyclists, encouraged every woman in the district to learn cycling, by organizing ‘cycle training camps’. Thus, Sheela Rani Chunkath became instrumental in ‘cycling’ becoming a social movement in the Pudukkottai district.

Cycling brought many benefits to rural women in Pudukkottai. Besides instilling a lot of confidence in rural women, it also helped them economically. A large section of the rural womenfolk were small producers who used to wait for buses to carry their produce to sell in other villages. Even to carry their produce to the bus stop they had to depend on fathers, brothers, husbands, or sons. Once these women learned cycling, they became mobile and independent. Learning cycling enabled them to visit the number of villages and sell their produce. Secondly, after learning cycling they were able to combine different tasks with nonchalance.

Consequently, one can see many a young mother riding a cycle with a child on the bar and the produce on the carrier. She could also be seen carrying two or three pots of water hung across the back and cycling towards work or home. Besides helping the women economically, cycling brought a sense of self-respect to them. He quotes the opinion of Fatima, a secondary school teacher.

She opines that learning cycling is not economic in her case at all. She cannot afford a bicycle, yet she hires one every evening just to feel the goodness, that independence. What she means to say is, when a woman learns to ride a bicycle, she enjoys a sense of achievement. Women do not need to depend on their husbands to help them physically in carrying their produce to the market. Secondly, nothing can bind them to their homes. They go out, fetch water and provisions, and come back home to attend to their domestic duties and responsibilities at the right time. This way they enjoy a lot of freedom. It is this feeling that gives women a sense of self-respect.

Where there is a Wheel Vocabulary

A. Idioms and Phrases:

An idiom is the special use of language. Idioms do not give the literal meaning of the individual words used in the idiom.
E.g. ‘a change of heart’ would literally mean a heart transplant. However, idiomatically it would mean ‘a change in one’s attitude or feelings’.
i. Look at the following pairs of idiomatic expressions. The meanings of the first pair are given in brackets. Find out the missing ones.

Question 1.
a. to the day (exactly)
b. to this day (even now)

Question 2.
a. take by storm (capture by the sudden or violent attack)
b. the calm before the storm ( ______)
Answer:
A quiet period immediately before a period of great activity or trouble.

Question 3.
a. for all one knows (considering how little one knows)
b. before one knows where one is ( _______ )
Answer:
(or before one knows it) with baffling speed.

Question 4.
a. at/behind the wheel (in control of the situation)
b. put a spoke in somebody’s wheel ( _______ )
Answer:
spoil someone else’s plans and stop them from doing something

Question 5.
a. turn out in one’s best (be well-dressed)
b. as things turned out ( _______ )
Answer:
how something develops/ends.

ii. Identify the sentences in which these expressions have been used in this lesson.

  1. And to this day, thousands of women here ride ‘gents’ cycles.
  2. Flags on the handlebars, bells ringing, over 1,500 female cyclists took Pudukkottai by storm.
  3. For all he knew, I was an undercover agent of the sales tax department.
  4. (Note: This usage is not found in the lesson.)
  5. In Kilakuruchi village all the prospective learners had turned out in their Sunday best.

B. Phrasal verbs are expressions which have a combination of a verb and a preposition.

Some of the phrasal verbs used in this article are given below. With the help of the teacher/ dictionary find out their meanings and use them in sentences of your own.
Take to, give up, run into, hit out at, sweep across, put up with.

  • Take to: to start doing something as a habit
  • give up: stop doing something
  • run into: to meet someone when you did not expect to
  • hit out at: to fight something vigorously
  • sweep across: to extend or spread in a wide range
  • put up with: to accept unpleasant behaviour by someone or an annoying situation without complaining, even though you do not like it.

Additional Exercises

A. Passive Voice:

Question 1.
The rural women of Pudukkottai found a way of hitting out at their backwardness. Cycling ____ (choose) as a medium in doing so. Cycling ______ (learn) by over one-fourth of all rural women. The new skill _______ (display) by over 70,000 of these women.
Answer:
was chosen; was learnt; was displayed.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Arivoli played an important role in the cycling movement. A number of training camps _____ (arrange) by Arivoli. In order to encourage bicycling, songs _____ (sing) by neo-cyclists. The UNICEF ______ (impress) and sanctioned fifty mopeds for Arivoli women activists.
Answer:
were arranged; were sung; was impressed.

Question 3.
Cycling gained momentum gradually. Though dirty remarks _____ (make), women paid no attention. Scores of young women _____ (train) by Jameela and her friends. A direct link ______ (see) by a neo-cyclist woman between cycling and her personal independence.
Answer:
were made; were trained; was seen.

Question 4.
Now we often see a woman doing a four-kilometre stretch on her bicycle to collect water. Even carting provisions from other places ____ (do) on their own. But, when this began, filthy remarks ______ (make). Even then social sanction ______(give) to cycling by Arivoli.
Answer:
was done; were made; was given.

Question 5.
Gents’ cycles have certain advantages. These ______ (prefer) by some women as these have an additional bar from the seat to the handle. A child _____ (can, seat) on it. Carting provisions _____ (can, do) on their own.
Answer:
are preferred; can be seated; can be done.

Question 6.
It was the occasion of International Women’s Day in 1992. Pudukkottai _____ (take) by storm. The town’s inhabitants _____ (stun) by the all-women’s cycle rally. However, it ______ (approve) by all males.
Answer:
was taken; were stunned; was approved.

Question 7.
In no time cycling became a way of life in Pudukkottai. It _____ (introduce) as a tool of social change. Mobility, facilitated by cycling _____ (include) as a part of literacy drive. The idea ______ (propose) by Sheela Rani Chunkath, the district collector.
Answer:
was introduced; was included; was proposed.

Question 8.
Cycling brought a mighty change in the life of women in Pudukkottai. They started moving on their own. Dependence on men _____ (reduce) to some extent. Provisions too _____ (cart) from one place to another and a four-kilometre stretch ____ (cover) on their cycles to fetch water.
Answer:
was reduced; were carted; was covered.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
The District Collector’s main aim was to make literacy reach the interior. So mobility _____ (include) as a part of literacy drive. Loans _____ (provide) by banks for women to buy cycles. Specific duties ______ (allot) to each block to promote this drive.
Answer:
was included; were provided; were allotted.

B. Fill in the blanks by choosing the appropriate expressions given in brackets:

Question 1.
Sheela Rani Chunkath included mobility ______ the literacy drive. People made dirty remarks but the neo-cyclists _____ to these remarks. (turned a deaf ear, to come off, as a part of)
Answer:
as a part of; turned a deaf ear.

Question 2.
A lot of women were unable to wait for ladies’ cycles. Therefore they had to _____ men’s cycles. They knew that bicycles would ______ time wasted in waiting for buses. (cut down on, put up with, go in for)
Answer:
go in for; cut down on.

Question 3.
Cycling has _____ Pudukkottai. It has become a movement. It was the ______ of Sheela Rani Chunkath who was the former District Collector. (brainchild, swept across, go out)
Answer:
swept across; brainchild.

Question 4.
In the heart of rural Pudukkottai, young women _____ the roads on their bicycles. Jameela Bibi, who has ______ cycling, told the reporter that it was her right. (taken to, give up, zip along)
Answer:
zip along; taken to.

Question 5.
In Kilakuruchi village all the prospective learners had in ______ their Sunday best. You can’t help ____ the sheer passion of the pro-cycling movement. (a way out, being struck by, turned out)
Answer:
turned out; being struck by.

C. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linkers:

Question 1.
Cycling made women independent _______ it reduced their dependence on men. _____ it gave them a sense of freedom. _____ they had to put up with vicious attacks on their character. _____ all women in Pudukkottai learnt cycling. (moreover, as, even then, but)
Answer:
as; Moreover; But; Even then.

Question 2.
Cycling has had very definite economic implications. It boosts their income. ______ for sellers it cuts down on time wasted in waiting for buses. ______ it gives them much more time to focus on selling their produce. _______ it enlarges the area they hope to cover. _____ it increases their leisure time, too. (thus, first, furthermore, on top of that)
Answer:
First; Furthermore; On top of that; Thus.

Where there is a Wheel by P. Sainath About the Writer:

Palagummi Sainath (born 1957) is an Indian journalist and photojournalist focusing on social problems, rural affairs, poverty and aftermath of globalization in India. He is the Rural Affairs Editor of The Hindu. A regular contributor to The Telegraph in Kolkata, he also writes for the fortnightly Frontline and the daily Business Line in Chennai.

Sainath has received close to forty national and international journalism awards and fellowships in thirty years as a journalist, including the Ramon Magsaysay journalism award in 2007, the European Commission’s Natali Prize in 1994, the Boerma journalism Prize from the UN FAO in 2001, the Amnesty International global award for human rights journalism in 2000, and the B.D. Goenka Award for excellence in journalism in 2000. In June 2011, Sainath was conferred an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree (DLitt) by the University of Alberta, the university’s highest honour.

Where there is a Wheel Summary in English

This lesson is an article taken from a book titled ‘Everybody Loves a Good Drought’, by P. Sainath, a popular photo-journalist. Besides giving a brief history of ‘cycling’ as a social movement in Pudukkottai, he also reports how a group of women initiated the remaining women in the village to learn ‘cycling’ so as to use it as a symbol of independence, freedom and mobility. Finally, he also comments on the general impact of this on women’s lives in the Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu.

The author begins the article commenting that when people hear the caption, “Cycling as a social movement”, it may sound far-fetched to them, but it is true. Then the author remarks that “people find curious ways of hitting out at their backwardness, of expressing defiance, a hammering at the fetters that hold them”.

The author then quotes statistics to prove his point. He reports that over the past eighteen months, 100000 rural women have taken to bicycling as a symbol of independence, freedom and mobility, and their number constitutes over one-fourth of all rural Women in Pudukkottai. Among them over 70000 of them have taken part in public exhibition-cum-contests to proudly display their skills, yet the desire to learn ‘cycling’ and the ‘training camps’ continue.

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 13 Where there is a Wheel image - 1

The author then tells us how two of the participants Jameela Bibi, and Fatima, a secondary school teacher, feel about their achievement in cycling. The author quotes Jameela Bibi, who says, “It’s my right, we can go anywhere. Now I don’t have to wait for a bus”. Similarly, he quotes Fatima also. Fatima says, “There is freedom in cycling. We are not dependent on anyone now. I can never give this up!” Jameela, Fatima and their friend Avakanni, all in their early twenties, have trained scores of other young women in the art of cycling.

The author remarks that “Cycling has swept across this district; women agricultural workers, quarry labourers and village health nurses are among its fans. They are now being followed by balwadi and Anganwadi workers, gem cutters, school teachers, gramasevikas and mid-day meal workers. The vast majority are those who have just become literate”. The district’s vigorous literacy drive led by Arivoli Iyakkam (Light of Knowledge Movement) has been quick to tap this energy. The author has spoken to every one of these ‘neo-literate’, ‘neo-cyclist’ women and asserts that there is a direct link between cycling and the neo-cyclists’ personal independence.

Then he reports the opinion of the coordinator who says that the “cycling training has given confidence to women and it has reduced their dependence on men”.

The author says that he often sees a woman doing a four-kilometre stretch on her bicycle to collect water, sometimes with her children. He opines that women can cart provisions from other places on their own. Initially, these women had to put up with vicious attacks on their character. Even filthy remarks used to be made by men. He praises the ‘Arivoli’ organisation for volunteering to give social sanction to cycling.

KSEEB Solutions

Next, he mentions the ‘Cycle Training Camp’ that he had seen in Kilakuruchi village. He says that it was an unusual experience to see all the prospective learners who had turned out in their Sunday best. They appeared to be determined to learn cycling. The Arivoli activists produced songs for the neo-cyclists to encourage bicycling. The author quotes a line which says, “O sisters, come learn cycling, move with the wheel of time”.

Then, we learn that those who got trained in cycling came back in large numbers to help new learners. They worked free of charge for Arivoli as ‘master trainers’. Then, he comments that there is not only a desire to learn but a widespread perception among them that ‘all women ought to learn cycling’.

In the next part of the report, the writer gives a brief historical background to cycling as a social movement. He reports that in 1991 a former district collector by name Sheela Rani Chunkath hit on the idea of training female literacy activists so as to reach women in interior villages. She also included ‘mobility’ (for women) as a part of the literacy drive, because lack of mobility among women played a big role in weakening the confidence of women. It is reported that Chunkath paid personal attention to this idea and motivated the banks to give loans to women to buy cycles. Each block was assigned specific duties in promoting the drive. The district collector met with great success in her plan. Due to the initiative taken by her, the literacy activists learned cycling.

This encouraged the neo-literates, and their example was followed by every woman in the village to learn cycling. This led to a shortage of ‘ladies’ cycles. Then the women started using ‘gents’ cycles. In fact, some women even preferred ‘gents’ cycles because it has an additional bar from the seat to the handle. The author then says, even to this day thousands of women here ride ‘gents’ cycles.

On the International Women’s Day in 1992, over 1500 female cyclists with flags on the handlebars, bells ringing, took Pudukkottai by storm. The towns’ inhabitants were stunned by this all women’s cycle rally.

The writer describes the reactions of the men to this social movement. The author gives the opinion of S. Kanakarajan, owner of Ram Cycles. The cycle dealer says that he had seen a rise of over 350 per cent in the sales of ‘ladies’ cycles in one year. But the author believes that the percentage of increase mentioned by the cycle agent is incorrect because a lot of women have gone in for ‘gents’ cycles as they could not wait for ‘ladies’ cycles. Then the writer remarks that not all males were hostile and some men were even encouraging in their attitude. For instance, Muthu Bhaskaran, a male Arivoli activist, wrote the famous cycling song that has become their anthem.

The writer cites the example of Manormani to illustrate how learning to ride a bicycle can help stone quarry workers also. The twenty-two-year-old Manormani is a stone quarry worker and Arivoli volunteer. She works in Kudimianmalai’s stone quarries. According to her, it is vital for her co-workers to learn cycling because their working places are a little cut off from the main road. Those who learn cycling can be mobile (which means they can go home after work and come back the next day, otherwise, they will have to stay there alone in a new place facing a lot of problems or travel by bus every day). The writer says that in 1992, more than 70000 women displayed their cycling skills at the public ‘exhibition-cum-contests’ run by Arivoli. The UNICEF, who were impressed with the achievement of these activists, sanctioned fifty mopeds for Arivoli women activists.

The writer gives his views about cycling as a social movement. He says that cycling boosts income. Some of the women sell agricultural or other produce within a group of villages. For such people, cycling saves time. Secondly, cycling gives you more time to focus on selling your produce. Thirdly, it helps you to cover a larger area. Lastly, it can increase your leisure time too. Earlier, small producers had to carry their produce only by bus and had to depend on fathers, brothers, husbands, or sons even to reach the bus stop. They could cover only a limited number of villages to sell their produce as they had to do so on foot.

Moreover, these women had to rush back early to tend to the children and perform other chores like fetching water. Those who had bicycles now combined these difficult tasks without any anxiety or tension. Even now one can see along some remote road, a young mother, with a child on the cycle bar and, produce on the carrier. She could also be seen carrying two or even three pots of water hung across the back, and cycling towards work or home.

Finally, the author opines that for these neo-literate/neo-cyclist women, more than the economic aspect, the sense of self-respect it brings is vital. The author admits in a confessing tone that never before had he seen that humble vehicle (cycle) in that light – the bicycle as a metaphor for freedom. Before concluding, the writer quotes Kannammal who opines that for rural women it is a Himalayan achievement like flying an aeroplane.

KSEEB Solutions

In the last paragraph, the author adds a postscript. He says that in April 1995, when the author returned to Pudukkottai, the craze for learning cycling was still on (three years later). Then he adds that a large number of women were unable to afford bicycles which then cost around Rs. 1400 each. He concludes saying that Pudukkottai remains unique among Indian districts for the stunning proportion of women who have taken to cycling and the enthusiasm for gaining the skill among the rest.

Where there is a Wheel Summary in Kannada

2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 13 Where there is a Wheel image - 2
2nd PUC English Textbook Answers Springs Chapter 13 Where there is a Wheel image - 2
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Glossary:

  • neo-literates: new literates
  • gramsevikas: women social workers in villages
  • phenomenon: a fact or an event in nature or society
  • brainchild: an idea or invention of one person
  • non-chalance: indifference; unmoved
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