2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

You can Download Chapter 7 Directing Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 7 Directing

2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Text Book Exercises

2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Multiple Choice Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Which one of the following is not an element of direction?
(a) Motivation
(b) Communication
(c) Delegation
(d) Supervision
Answer:
(c) Delegation is not en element of direction.

Question 2.
The motivation theory which classifies needs in hierarchical order is developed by
(a) Fred Luthans
(b) Scott
(c) Abraham Maslow
(d) Peter F Drucker
Answer:
(c) Abraham Maslow gave the hierarchy of five human needs.

Question 3.
Which of the following is a financial incentive?
(a) Promotion
(b) Stock incentive
(c) Job security
(d) Employee participation
Answer:
(b) Stock incentive is a financial incentive which is a employee stock option with tax benefit.

Question 4.
Which of the following is not an element of communication process?
(a) Decoding
(b) Communication
(c) Channel
(d) Receiver
Answer:
(b) Communication is not an element of communication process. It is understood as a process of exchange.

Question 5.
Grapevine is
(a) Formal communication
(b) Barrier to communication
(c) Lateral communication
(d) Informal communication
Answer:
(d) Informal system of communication is referred as “Grapevine”.

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Question 6.
Status comes under the following type of barriers
(a) Semantic barrier
(b) Organisational barrier
(c) Non semantic barrier
(d) Psychological barrier
Answer:
(b) Status is related to organisation, Thus, it is a organisational barrier.

Question 7.
The software company promoted by NarayanaMurthy is
(a) Wipro
(b) Infosys
(c) Satyam
(d) HCL
Answer:
(b) NarayanaMurthy promoted Infosys.

Question 8.
The highest level of need in Need Hierarchy of Abraham Maslow
(a) Safety need
(b) Belongingness need
(c) Self actualisation need
(d) Prestige need
Answer:
(c) Self actualisation need is the highest level of need as it refers to the drive to become what one is capable of becoming.

Question 9.
The process of converting the message into communication symbols is known as
(a) Media
(b) Encoding
(c) Feedback
(d) Decoding
Answer:
(b) The process of converting message into symbol is known as Encoding.

Question 10.
The communication network in which all subordinates under a supervisor communicate through supervisor only is
(a) single chain
(b) inverted
(c) wheel
(d) free flow
Answer:
(c) In the wheel network, the communication takes place in such a manner that subordinates under a supervisor communicate through supervisor only.

2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Short Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Distinguish between leaders and managers.
Answer:
Difference between Managers and Leaders

Question 2.
Define motivation.
Answer:
According to Koontz and O Donnel “Motivation is a general term applying to entire class of drives, needs, wishes and similar forces”.

Question 3.
What is informal communications?
Answer:
Communication in which the interchange of information does not follow any formal or officially recognized channels i.e. the communication stretches in all directions irrespective of authority levels is known as informal communication or grapevine communication.

Question 4.
What are semantic barriers of communication?
Answer:
While communicating a message, misrepresentation of communication causes misunderstanding on account of use of wrong words, lack of vocabulary skills, faulty translations and different interpretations which is known as semantic barriers. It is concerned with the problems that arises in the process of encoding and decoding of message into words or impressions. Main causes of semantic barriers are listed below.

  • Badly expressed message
  • Symbols with different meanings
  • Faulty translations
  • Unclarified assumptions
  • Technical jargon
  • Body language and gesture decoding Question

Question 5.
Who is a supervisor?
Answer:
Supervision means instructing, guiding, monitoring motivating and observing the activities of employees from above. The person who is performing the work of supervision is known as supervisor. Supervisor is the link between management and subordinates. He is the person who translates the policies and plan of management to the subordinates and revert back the complaint, suggestions and feedback of subordinates to management.

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Question 6.
What are the elements of directing?
Answer:
Directing comprises of four elements
1. Supervision: It can be understood as the process of guiding and instructing the efforts of employees.

2. Motivation: The process of encouraging the employees in order to help them in achieving the desired goals is known as motivation

3. Leadership: It is the process of influencing the behaviour of people by making them strive voluntarily towards achievement of organisational goals.

4. Communication: It is the process of exchange of ideas, views, facts, feelings etc between or among people to create common understanding.

Question 7.
Explain the process of motivation.
Answer:
Motivation process is based on how the unsatisfied human need get satisfied and result in
reduction of tension.
The steps of motivation process are as follows

  1. Unsatisfied need: The need of an individual which is not satisfied.
  2. Tension: Unsatisfied need creates tension
  3. Drive: This tension creates drive and an Individual starts looking for alternatives to satisfy the need.
  4. Search Behaviour: Then the individual starts behaving as per chosen option.
  5. Satisfied Need: After opting for the chosen behaviour their need gets satisfied.
  6. Reduction of Tension : The fulfillment of need results in relieving of tension.

Question 8.
Explain different networks of grapevine communications.
Answer:
Grapevine communications may follow different types of network. They are as follows :

  1. Single strand network: Each person communicates to another in sequence.
  2. Gossip network: Each person communicates with all on non-selective basis.
  3. Probability network: The individual communicates randomly with some other individual.
  4. Cluster Network: The individual communicates with only those people whom they trust.

2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Long Answer Type Questions With Answers

Question 1.
Briefly explain principles of Directing.
Answer:
a. Maximum individual contribution: This principle emphasises that directing techniques must help every individual in the organisation to contribute to his maximum potential for achievement of organisational objectives. It should bring out untappted energies of em-ployees for the efficiency of organisation.

b. Harmony of objectives: Very often, we find that individual objectives of employees and the organisational objectives as understood are conflicting to each other.

c. Unity of Command: This principle insists that a person in the organisation should receive instructions from one superior only. If instructions are received from more than one, it creates confusion, conflict and disorder in the organisation. Adherence to this principle ensures effective direction.

d. Appropriateness of direction technique: According to this principle, appropriate motivational and leadership technique should be used while directing the people based on subordinate needs, capabilities, attitudes and other situational variables.

e. Managerial communication: Effective managerial communication across all the levels in the organisation makes direction effective. Directing should convey clear instructions to create total understanding to subordinates. Through proper feedback, the managers should ensure that subordinate understands his instructions clearly.

f. Leadership: While directing the subordinates, managers should exercise good leadership as it can influence the subordinates positively without causing dissatisfaction among them.

Question 2.
Explain the qualities of a good leader. Do the qualities alone ensure leadership success?
Answer:
Some of the qualities required by all leaders are the following:
a. Honesty: a leader should be honesty and his honesty will make his sub-ordinates follow him.

b. Ability to delegate: a successful leader should have qualities of delegating authority and responsibility to his sub-ordinates. So that they can participate in effective management.

c. Communication: a successful leader should be good at communication only then he can influence, motivate and direct his sub-ordinates.

d. Confidence: he should be self-confident and should be able to create confidence in his sub-ordinates.

e. Willingness to take risk: he should be willing to take calculated risk and should be ready for any unexpected happenings.

f. Positive attitude: a leader should have a positive attitude towards achieving the goals and also instil the same in his sub-ordinates.

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g. Creativity: a leader should think beyond the existing possibilities. New ideas many bring best results so he should have creative mind.

h. Emotional stability: leader must be able to control his emotions and sentiments. He should think intellectually and not sentimentally or emotionally.

i. Art of management: a leader should have the art of managing the sub-ordinates.

j. Passion: leader should be passionate about his work and he passes on this trait to sub-ordinates too.

k. Initiative: leader should lead by initiating the things he should not wait for things to happen.

l. Ability to listen: he should be a good listener. He should not only listen to the direction given by his superiors but also listen to subordinates.

Conclusion : Many times, the success of an organisation is attributed to the leader, but due credit is not given to the followers. Many follower related factors like their skills, knowledge, commitment, willingness to co-operate team spirit etc make a person an effective leader. It is said that followers make a person a good leader, by acceptance of leadership. Therefore both followers and leaders are playing an vital role in the leadership process.

Question 3.
Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory of motivation.
Answer:
a. Physiological Needs: They are food, clothing, shelter etc. These are basic needs and any person would give its preference to these needs. Once these needs are satisfied he thinks of next level of needs.

b. Safety needs: These needs are protection against danger, threat and need for job security. These needs will arise from an individual only when he is reasonable well satisfied with his physiological needs.

c. Social needs: These needs include belongingness, association, acceptance, friendship and love. They become important to an individual only after he is satisfied with physiological and safety needs.

d. Esteem needs: These needs include self-esteem, recognition status, achievement etc. They dominate an individual only when he is reasonably satisfied with safety needs.

e. Self-actualisation needs: These needs arise only when an individual is reasonably satisfied with esteem needs. They include the need to realise one’s capabilities and potentials by achieving specific goals.

Question 4.
What are the common barriers to effective communication? Suggest measures to overcome them.
Answer:
Physical barriers: internal structure of organisation and layout of office machines and equipment creates physical barriers in communication.
a. Distance: Communication is found obstructed in long distance. Like communication

b. Noise: Noise is a physical barrier to good communication since it interferes with the message being communicated

c. Physical arrangements: The physical arrangement of organisational sources like men, material and machine obstruct (effects) the Communication process.

Semantic barriers: The use of difficult and multiple uses of languages, words, figures and symbols create semantic barriers.
a. Language: some words have different meaning. As meaning sent by the sender can be quite different from the meaning understood by the receiver. Long sentences create problems in Communication process.
b. Jargons: technical or unfamiliar terms that are drawn from the literature, creates barriers to Communication.

Organisational barriers: These arise from the organisational goals, regulations, structure and culture.
a. Structure complexities: Difficult organisational structure creates barrier for free flow of information.
b. Status differences: Status of individual person in different levels of management has prestige. Hence it acts as barrier to effective Communication.
c. Organisational distance: Distance between sender and receiver also creates barriers to effective Communication.
d. Information overload: Too much information to the subordinates in short period will suffers from overloaded information which creates Barriers to effective Communication.
e. Timing: If the information is not provided in time it creates barriers in Communication.

Psychological barriers: these are barriers to effective communication creates due to lack of interest in people for whom the communication is meant. People do not pay attention to the communication in which they are not interested.
a. Perception: it is the process of accepting and interpreting the information by the receiver. The analysing and think process of individual also effectives Communication.
b. Filtering: Communication sometimes filers the information by the receiver knowingly or unknowingly.
c. Distrust: superiors provide information to the subordinates according to the trust of subordinates they acts.
d. Emotions: Emotions also creates barriers to effective communication like anger, jealousy, hatred etc.

Question 5.
Explain different financial and non-financial incentives used to motivate employees of a company.
Answer:
Financial incentives : Financial incentives refer to incentives which are in direct monetary form or measurable in monetary term and serve to motivate people for better performance. The financial incentives used in organisations are listed below
1. Pay and allowances : For every employee, salary is the basic monetary incentive. It includes basic pay, DA and other allowances. Salary system consists of regular increments in the pay every year and enhancement of allowances from time to time.

2. Productivity linked wage incentives: Several wage incentives aim at linking payment of wages to increase in productivity at individual or group level.

3. Profit sharing: Profit sharing is meant to provide a share to employees from the profits of the organisation This serves to motivate the employees to improve their performance and contribute to an increase in profits.

4. Co-Partnership/Stock option: Under these incentive schemes, employees are offered company shares at a set price which is lower than market price. The allotment of shares creates a feeling of ownership to the employees and makes them to contribute more for the growth of the organisation.

5. Retirement benefits: Several retirement benefits such as provident fund, pension and gratuity provide financial security to employees after their retirement. These act as an incentive when they are in service in service in the organisation.

6. Perquisites : In many companies perquisites and fringe benefits are offered such as car allowance, housing, medical aid, and education etc over and above the salary. These measures help to provide motivation to the employees/managers.

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Non-financial Incentives: Incentives which help in fulfilling one’s psychological, emotional and social needs are known as non-financial incentives Some of the non-financial incentives are given below.

1. Status: Status means ranking or high positions in the organisation. Whatever power, position and prestige an employee enjoys in the organisation are indicated by their status. Psychological, social and esteem needs of an individual are satisfied by status given to their job.

2. Organisational climate: This indicates the characteristics which describe an organisation and distinguish one from the other. Individual autonomy, reward orientation, consideration to employees, etc are some of the positive features of an organisation. If managers try and include more of these in an organisation it helps to develop better organisational climate.

3. Career Advancement Opportunity: Managers should provide opportunity to employees to improve their skills and be promoted to higher level jobs. Appropriate skill development programmes and sound promotion policy will help employees to achieve promotions. Promotions have always worked as tonic and encourage employees to exhibit improved performance.

4. Job enrichment: Job enrichment is concerned with designing jobs that include greater variety of work contentment and require higher of knowledge and skill, to give workers more autonomy level and responsibility and provide opportunity for personal growth and a meaningful work experience

5. Employee recognition programmes : Recognition means acknowledgement with a show of appreciation. When such appreciation is given to the work performed by employees, they feel motivated to perform/work at a higher level, e g.,
(a) Congratulate the employee on the completion of a difficult task.
(b) Displaying names of star performers
(c) Installing awards
(d) Distributing mementos’

6. Job Security: Employees want their job to be secure. They want certain stability about future income and work so that they do not feel warned on these aspects and work with greater zeal. There is only one problem with this incentive i.e., when people feel that they are not likely to lose their jobs, they may become relaxed.

7. Employee participation: It means involving employees in decision making about the issues related to them. In many companies, these programmes are in practice in the form of joint management committees, work committees, canteen committees etc.

8. Employee Empowerment: Empowerment means giving more autonomy and powers to subordinates. Empowerment makes people feel that their jobs are important. This feeling contributes positively to the use of skills and talents and the job performance.

2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Application Questions

Question 1.
The workers always try to show their inability when any new work is given to them. They are always unwilling to take up any kind of work. Due to sudden rise in demand a firm wants to meet excess orders. The supervisor is finding it difficult to cope up with the situation. Suggest ways for the supervisor to handle the problem.
Answer:
The supervisor can make use of monetary incentives to motivate the workers. Their wages can be linked to productivity. They can earn more incentives, besides wages by producing more goods. The supervisor should also play the role of a good leader and encourage them to accept any kind of work as it would lead to increase exposure to the industry and better job prospects.

Question 2.
Workers of a factory often come to the production manager with grievances. The production manager finds himself overburdened with so many tasks. Advise a way to relieve the production managers.
Answer:
To overcome the problem the production manager should take the following measures

  • Arrange necessary training programmes
  • Prepare a work schedule
  • Recommend the cases of the workers for promotion, rewards, transfer, punishment etc.
  • Proper availability of materials, machines and tools for the workers
  • Delegate sum of rus authorities (???)

Question 3.
In an organisation employees always feel they are under stress. They take least initiative and fear to express their problems before the manager. What do you think is wrong with the manager?
Answer:
The manager should adopt more friendly approach towards the workers. The manager should encourage a system of two-way communication, provide an outlet for workers to share their feelings, suggestions and problems.

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Question 4.
In an organisation, all the employees take things easy and are free to approach anyone for minor queries and problems. This has resulted in everyone talking to each other and thus resulting in inefficiency in the office. It has also resulted in loss of secrecy and confidential information being leaked out. What system do you think the manager should adopt to improve communication?
Answer:
Excess of everything is bad. More use of informal communication is resulting in this problem. A proper chain of command should be established. Only the necessary information should be passed through chain of command. The employees should not be allowed to communicate at all levels. This will save time and bring in more discipline.

2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Case Problems

Y limited is a Bank functioning in India. It is planning to diversify to increase business. Lately, the Government of India has allowed the private sector to gain entry in the insurance business. Previously, it was the prerogative of LIC and GIC to do insurance business. But now with liberalisation of the economy and to make the field competitive, other compnies have been given licenses to start insurance business under the regualtion of insurance Regulatory and Development Authority. Y limited plans to recruit high quality employees and agents and exercise effective direction to capture a substantial part of life and non-life insurance business.

Question 1.
Identify how the company can supervise its employees and agents effectively. What benefits will the company derive from effective supervision?
Answer:
The company can supervise its employees and agents by taking the following steps.

  1. Training programmes should be organised
  2. Make the staff and agent them understand the various policies so that they can convince their clients.
  3. Establishing targets for them and also monetary incentives. ,
  4. Regularised system for submission of periodical reports of their performance.

The benefits of the above steps will be as follows.

  1. Trained personnel will give better performance. They can Improve upon their skills
  2. Knowledge of the products of the Insurance company will ensure better satisfaction for the clients.
  3. They will compete to give better performance and earn higher incentives.
  4. It will help in identifying the areas where workers and agents need specialised training programmes.

Question 2.
What financial and non financial incentives can the company use for employees and agents separately to motivate them. What benefits company will get from them?
Answers:
Incentives for Employees
1. Financial
(a) Productivity linked wage incentive
(b) Bonus
(c) Co-partnership
(d) Employee stock option

2. Non financial
(a) Job – security
(b) Status
(c) Employee empowerment
(d) Employee recognition

Incentives for agent
1. Financial
(a) Commission
(b) Bonus like paid vacation

2. Non-financial Incentive
(a) Cordial relationship
(c) Job enrichment
(d) Recognition programmes like certificate of merit etc.
(e) Company achieves the motivation among the employees and they will contribute more in achieving targets.

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Question 3.
How can the company ensure that higher order needs i.e. esteem and self actualisation needs are met?
Answer:
The higher order needs can be satisfied through

  1. Career advancement opportunity
  2. Assignment of challengingjob
  3. Perquisites
  4. Participation in management decisions

Question 4.
Identify the qualities of leadership in this line of business that the company manager must possess to motivate employees and agents.
Answer:
The qualities of leadership which the manager of the Insurance company must possess are

  1. Intelligence
  2. Good communication skills
  3. Self confidence, integrity and honesty
  4. Being a good listener
  5. Pleasing personality

Question 5.
Give a model of formal communication system that the company can follow. Identify the barriers in this model. How can they be removed?
Answer:
The most suitable model for formal communication is given below – Barriers to effective Communication .
1. Barriers due to organisational structure : An organisational structure is complex with numerous levels in between which creates distance between the top management and the workers. With long lines of communication, there is a possibility of message losing its significance.

2. Psychological Barriers: Everyone perceives information in the light of their own experiences, prejudices and thinking.

3. Inability to communicate: The lack of ability to communicate leads to misunderstanding and confusion. Different people assume different meanings for the same words.

4. Status and Position : Sometimes, effective flow of communication is hampered by status and position of the sender and receiver.

Measures to overcome the Barriers :

  1. Clarity in the thoughts of the sender is a must for effective communication.
  2. The sender should try to make the message meaningful and understandable.
  3. Message should be precise and to the point.
  4. The sender should always take feedback from the receiver.

Question 6.
How can informal communication help to supplement formal communication model given by you in answer to question?
Answer:
Informal communication takes place outside the official channels of communication. It fills the gaps that might exist in the formal communication. Merits of informal communication are those.

  • It helps the members to discuss the matters which cannot be discussed at the official level.
  • It is a way of knowing the reactions and opinions of the people about a change.
  • It helps in building team spirit,
  • The information flows at a faster speed.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Additional Questions

2nd PUC Business Studies Directing One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
State any one style of leadership.
Answer:
Autocratic leadership

Question 2.
Write any one quality of as successful leader.
Answer:
Honesty

Question 3.
State any one barrier of communication.
Answer:
Clarity of ideas.

Question 4.
What is directing?
Answer:
Direction is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability. It includes making assignments, explaining procedures seeing that mistakes are corrected.

Question 5.
State any one feature of directing.
Answer:
Action Oriented.

Question 6.
State any one importance of directing.
Answer:
Coordination.

Question 7.
State any one importance of supervision.
Answer:
Planning & organizing the work.

Question 8.
What is communication.
Answer:
Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more person.

Question 9.
State any one importance of communication.
Answer:
Good Co-ordination or Smooth working.

Question 10.
What is direction?
Answer:
Direction is a continuous process through which managers interact with the employees of the enterprise and provide to necessary instructions, guide them in the process of achieving enterprise’s goal and objectives.

Question 11.
Name any one barriers of communication.
Answer:
Physical Barriers: Distance, Noise, Physical Arrangement.

Question 12.
State any one element of direction.
Answer:
Supervision.

Question 13.
State any one way to overcome the barriers of effective communication.
Answer:
a. Clarity of ideas
b. Ensure proper feedback
c. Be a good listener.

Question 14.
Name any one need of human being stated by Maslow.
Answer:
a. Physiological needs
b. Safety needs
c. Social needs
d. Esteem or ego needs.

Question 15.
Name the theory evolved by Maslow.
Answer:
Maslow’s theory hierarchy of needs.

Question 16.
State the assumption on which Maslow’s theory is based.
Answer:
Need have priority and they are arranged according to hierarchy of importance.

Question 17.
Name the origin of the word motivation.
Answer:
Motivation word derived from Latin word Movere which means to move.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Give the meaning of semantic barriers of communication.
Answer:
Semantic barriers are the use of different & multiple uses of languages, words, figure & symbols create semantic barriers.

Question 2.
Define communication.
Answer:
According to George Terry “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.

Question 3.
Define leadership.
Answer:
According to Louis Allen ”A leader is one who guides and directs other people. A leader gives the efforts of his followers a direction and purpose by influencing their behaviour”.

Question 4.
What is supervision?
Answer:

  • Supervision means overseeing the sub-ordinates at work to ensure that the work is being performed as required.
  • Supervision refers to the direct and immediate guidance and control of subordinates in perfor-mance of their tasks.

Question 5.
Name any two leadership styles.
Answer:
a. Autocratic Leadership
b. Democratic Leadership
c. Laissez Faire Leadership
d. Bureaucratic Leadership

Question 6.
What is formal communication?
Answer:
Communication which are associated with a formal organization structure and which are to be sent through the formal or officially recognized channels are called formal communications.

Question 7.
Define Direction.
Answer:
According to Koontz and O’Donnell Direction is the inter-personal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and contribute effectively and efficiently to the attainment of enterprise objectives.

Question 8.
What do you mean by Autocratic leadership?
Answer:
Autocratic leadership is a style of leadership where the leader tends to run the whole show by him. He does not delegate authority and wants his sub-ordinates to work according to his orders. Sub-ordinates cannot give suggestions or ideas.

Question 9.
What do you mean by Democratic leadership?
Answer:
In Democratic leadership the leader asks suggestions and opinions from his sub-ordinates and allows them to participate in decision making and in its implementation.

Question 10.
What do you mean by Laissez-faire leadership?
Answer:
In Laissez-faire leadership the leader is one who leaves his sub-ordinates free to decide things for themselves. All authority or power is given to staff and they determine goals, make decisions and resolve problems on their own.

Question 11.
What do you mean by Bureaucratic leadership?
Answer:
Bureaucratic leadership is a type of leadership where the leader goes “by the book”. Every thing is done in accordance with the procedure or policy and if anything is done which is not covered by the book, the same is referred to the next level above.

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2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Four Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain briefly the importance of supervision.
Answer:
Supervision refers to the direct & immediate guidance & control of subordinates in performance of their tasks. Supervision plays an important role as an element of direction.
1. Issue of order & Instructions: A supervisor guides the worker and helps them in clearing their doubts.

2. Planning & organizing the work: It guides the subordinates, lays down targets and determines the procedure for doing the work.

3. Vital link between workers & management: Supervision represents both workers & themanagement. It acts as a link between them. It communicates the policies of the management to workers and also provides the feedback of the workers to the management.

4. Motivating subordinates: It inspires team work & secures maximum cooperation from the workers.

5. Feed back to workers: It compares the actual performance of the worker with the standards and helps in identifying the weaknesses of the workers as a result, workers can improve their performance in future.

Question 2.
Explain the elements of directing
Answer:
a. Delegation: Delegation involves issuing orders or giving instructions by the superiors to the sub-ordinates.

b. Supervision: It is concerned with observing the work of sub-ordinates. It ensures the  work to be performed as per the plans and contributes for achieving organisational objectives.

c. Leadership: Leadership is the process of influencing the sub-ordinates to work willingly and enthusiastically for achieving goals of an organisation.

d. Motivation: Motivation is one more element of direction. It creates in men the desire and sense of belongingness to work for the organisation.

e. Communication: Communication is an internal part of direction. Through communication manager issues guidelines to the sub-ordinates as to what they should do and how they should do it.

f. Co-ordination: Co-ordination helps proper integration of activities of various members involved in achieving organisational goals.

Question 3.
Explain different styles of leadership.
Answer:
a. Autocratic or authoritarian style leader: It is a style of leadership where the leader tends to run the whole show by him. He does not delegate authority and wants his sub-ordinates to work according to his orders. Sub-ordinates cannot give suggestions or ideas.

b. Democratic or participative style leader: In this leader asks suggestions and opinions from his sub-ordinates and allows them to participate in decision making and in its implementation.

c. Laissez-faire or free run style leader: In this leader is one who leaves his sub-ordinates free to decide things for themselves. All authority or power is given to staff and they determine goals, make decisions and resolve problems on their own.

d. Bureaucratic leadership: It is a type of leadership where the leader goes “by the book”. Everything is done in accordance with the procedure or policy and if anything is done which is not covered by the book, the same is referred to the next level above.

Question 4.
Explain the qualities of successful leader
Answer:
a. Honesty: a leader should be honesty and his honesty will make his sub-ordinates follow him.

b. Ability to delegate: a successful leader should have qualities of delegating authority and responsibility to his sub-ordinates. So that they can participate in effective management.

c. Communication: a successful leader should be good at communication only then he can influence, motivate and direct his sub-ordinates.

d. Confidence: he should be self-confident and should be able to create confidence in his sub-ordinates.

e. Willingness to take risk: he should be willing to take calculated risk and should be ready for any unexpected happenings.

f. Positive attitude: a leader should have a positive attitude towards achieving the goals and also instil the same in his sub-ordinates.

KSEEB Solutions

g. Creativity: a leader should think beyond the existing possibilities. New ideas many bring best results so he should have creative mind.

h. Emotional stability: leader must be able to control his emotions and sentiments. He should think intellectually and not sentimentally or emotionally.

i. Art of management: a leader should have the art of managing the sub-ordinates.

j. Passion: leader should be passionate about his work and he passes oh this trait to sub-ordinates too.

k. Initiative: leader should lead by initiating the things he should not wait for things to happen.

l. Ability to listen: he should be a good listener. He should not only listen to the direction given by his superiors but also listen to subordinates.

Question 5.
Explain the importance or advantages of good communication
Answer:
a. Effective decision making: Communication plays a vital role in the decision making process. It helps in correct and complete information to reach the top management and to take best decision.

b. Managerial efficiency: Managerial functional like planning, control, co-ordination, motivation cannot be discharge without communication.

c. Co-operation: Co-operation among workers is possible only when there is an exchange of information between individuals and groups and between the management and the employees.

d. Increases productivity: A good system of communication helps the management to achieve maximum productivity with minimum cost, elimination of waste, reduction of cost etc .

e. Smooth working: Communication helps smooth the work in an organization. Smooth functioning depends on proper information supply. Communication is the essence of it.

f. Effective Leadership: There is always a continuous process of communication between leader and the follower. Success of leadership lies in good communication skill.

g. Co-ordination: co-ordination consists of many employees working towards common goals.co-ordination is importance to achieve the common goal by a group . Communication facilitates such co-ordination.

Question 6.
Explain the ways to overcome barriers of communication
Answer:
a. Clarity of ideas: the person sending the communication should be very clear in his mind about what he wants to say. He should know the objective of his message and, therefore, he should arrange his thoughts in a proper order.

b. Communicate according to the need of the receiver: the sender of the communication should prepare the structure of the message not according to his own level or ability’ but he should keep in mind the level, understanding or the environment of the receiver.

c. Be aware of language, tone and content of message: the sender should take care of the fact that the message should be clear and beautiful language. The tone and contents of the message should be clear and understandable.

d. Convey things of help and value to the listener: the subject matter of the message should be helpful to the receiver. The need and interest of the receiver should specially be kept in mind. Communication is more effective in such situation.

e. Ensure proper feedback: after the sending the information feedback is to find out whether the receiver has properly understood the meaning of the information received.

f. Follow up Communication: to make Communication effective the management should regularly try to know the weaknesses of the communication system.

g. Be a good listener: the essence of communication is that both the sender and the receiver should be good listeners both should listen to each other’s point of view with attention, patience and positive attitude.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Explain the barriers to effective communication.
Answer:
Physical barriers: internal structure of organisation and layout of office machines and equipment creates physical barriers in communication.
a. Distance: Communication is found obstructed in long distance. Like communication
b. Noise: Noise is a physical barrier to good communication since it interferes with the message being communicated
c. Physical arrangements: The physical arrangement of organisational sources like men, material and machine obstruct (effects) the Communication process.

Semantic barriers: The use of difficult and multiple uses of languages, words, figures and symbols create semantic barriers.
a. Language: some words have different meaning. As meaning sent by the sender can be quite different from the meaning understood by the receiver. Long sentences create problems in Communication process.
b. Jargons: technical or unfamiliar terms that are drawn from the literature, creates barriers to Communication.

Organisational barriers: these arise from the organisational goals, regulations, structure and culture.
a. Structure complexities: Difficult organisational structure creates barrier for free flow of information.
b. Status differences: Status of individual person in different levels of management has prestige. Hence it acts as barrier to effective Communication.
c. Organisational distance: Distance between sender and receiver also creates barriers to effective Communication.
d. Information overload: Too much information to the subordinates in short period will suffers from overloaded information which creates Barriers to effective Communication.
e. Timing: If the information is not provided in time it creates barriers in Communication.

Psychological barriers: these are barriers to effective communication creates due to lack of interest in people for whom the communication is meant. People do not pay attention to the communication in which they are not interested.
a. Perception: it is the process of accepting and interpreting the information by the receiver. The analysing and think process of individual also effectives Communication.
b. Filtering: Communication sometimes filers the information by the receiver knowingly or unknowingly.
c. Distrust: superiors provide information to the subordinates according to the trust of subordinates they acts.
d. Emotions: Emotions also creates barriers to effective communication like anger, jealousy, hatred etc.

Question 8.
State the any four Features of Motivation.
Answer:
1. Motivation is an internal feeling. The urge, drives, desires, aspirations, striving or needs of human being, which are internal, influence human behaviour.

2. Motivation produces goal directed behaviour.

3. Motivation can be either positive or negative. Positive motivation provides positive rewards like increase in pay, promotion, recognition etc., Negative motivation uses negative means like punishment, stopping increments, threatening etc.

4. Motivation is a complex process as the individuals are heterogeneous in their expectations, perceptions and reactions. Any type of motivation may not have uniform effect on all the members.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
State any four Importance of Motivation.
Answer:
1. Motivation helps to change negative or indifferent attitudes of employee to positive attitudes so as to achieve organisational goals.

2. Motivation helps to improve performance levels of employees as well as the organisation. Good motivation in the organisation helps to achieve higher levels of performance as motivated employees contribute their maximum efforts for organisational goals.

3. Motivation helps to reduce employee turnover and thereby saves the cost of new recruitment and training.

4. Motivation helps to reduce absenteeism in the organisation.

5. Motivation helps managers to introduce changes smoothly without much resistance from people.

Question 10.
State the features of leadership
Answer:

  1. Leadership indicates ability of an individual to influence others.
  2. Leadership tries to bring change in the behaviour of others.
  3. Leadership indicates interpersonal relations between leaders and followers.
  4. Leadership is exercised to achieve common goals of the organisation.
  5. Leadership is a continuous process.

Question 11.
Explain the Elements of Communication Process.
Answer:

  1. Sender: Sender means person who conveys his thoughts or ideas to the receiver. The sender represents source of communication.
  2. Message: It is the content of ideas, feelings, suggestions, order etc., intended to be communicated.
  3. Encoding: It is the process of converting the message into communication symbols such as words, pictures, gestures etc.,
  4. Media: It is the path through which encoded message is transmitted to receiver. The channel may be in written form, face to face, phone call, internet etc.,
  5. Decoding: It is the process of converting encoded symbols of the sender.
  6. Receiver: The person who receives communication of the sender.
  7. Feedback: It includes all those actions of receiver indicating that he has received and understood message of sender.
  8. Noise: Noise means some obstruction or hindrance to communication. This hindrance may be caused to sender, message or receiver.

Question 12.
Explain the importance of directing
Answer:
Importance of directing are:
Action Oriented: This involves delegation of authority & assigning of responsibility.
1. Integration of efforts: Employees at various levels by proper delegation of authority & responsibility which intern help in achieving organizational objectives.

2. Efficient use of resources: Directing involves bringing in proper methods of doing work. It helps in the efficient use of resources of the organization.

3. Essential element: Directing is essential for effective supervision, motivation, leadership & communication.

4. Efficiency: Proper Direction will help the employees to achieve their best as it provides clarity of work. It ensures efficiency.

5. Flexibility: Directing helps to bring flexibility in the organization. It helps the subordinates to accept the challenges which the management intends to bring in future.

6. Clarity: Directing gives clarity in authority & responsibility. This helps to bring discipline among the employees.

7. Discipline: It helps to maintain in discipline which results in smooth functioning of the work.

8. Co Coordination: It coordinates different activities of the management.

9. Creation of leaders: Good direction creates good leaders.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
What are semantic barriers of communication?
Answer:
While communicating a message, misrepresentation of communication causes misunderstanding on account of use of wrong words, lack of vocabulary skills, faulty translations and different interpretations which is known as semantic barriers.
Mention the causes for semantic barriers.

  • Badly expressed message
  • Symbols with different meanings
  • Faulty translations
  • Unclarified assumptions
  • Technical jargon
  • Body language and gesture decoding Question

2nd PUC Business Studies Directing Eight Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the importance of direction as a function of management?
Answer:
Importance of Directing are:

  • Action Oriented: This involves delegation of authority & assigning of responsibility.
  • Integration of efforts: Employees at various levels by proper delegation of authority & responsibility which intern help in achieving organizational objectives.
  • Efficient use of resources: Directing involves bringing in proper methods of doing work. It helps in the efficient use of resources of the organization.
  • Essential element: Directing is essential for effective supervision, motivation, leadership & communication.
  • Efficiency: Proper Direction will help the employees to achieve their best as it provides clarity of work. It ensures efficiency.
  • Flexibility: Directing helps to bring flexibility in the organization. It helps the subordinates to accept the challenges which the management intends to bring in future.
  • Clarity: Directing gives clarity in authority & responsibility. This helps to bring discipline among the employees.
  • Discipline: It helps to maintain in discipline which results in smooth functioning of the work.
  • Co Coordination: It coordinates different activities of the management.
  • Creation of leaders: Good direction creates good leaders.

Question 2.
Explain how supervision plays an important role as an element of direction?
Answer:
Supervision refers to the direct & immediate guidance & control of subordinates in performance . of their tasks. Supervision plays an important role as an element of direction.

  • Issue of order & Instructions: A supervisor guides the worker and helps them in clearing their doubts.
  • Planning & organizing the work: It guides the subordinates, lays down targets and determines the procedure for doing the work.
  • Vital link between workers & management: Supervision represents both workers & the management. It acts as a link between them. It communicates the policies of the management to workers and also provides the feedback of the workers to the management.
  • Motivating subordinates: It inspires team work & secures maximum cooperation from the workers.
  • Feed back to workers: It compares the actual performance of the worker with the standards and helps in identifying the weaknesses of the workers as a result, workers can improve their performance in future.
  • Proper assignment of work: Supervision helps in identifying the capabilities of workers . and assigns the work accordingly.
  • Maintain discipline: Supervision is directly responsible for enforcing the rules and regulation of the organization & to maintain disciple in the organization.

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