You can Download Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Chemistry Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 2nd PUC Chemistry Question Bank Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life
2nd PUC Chemistry Chemistry in Everyday Life NCERT Textbook Questions
Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways?
Drugs are to attack different targets which are the biomolecules from which our body is made. Moreover, the drugs also differ in action. Therefore, there is a genuine necessity to classify the drugs in different ways.
Explain the term, target molecules or drug targets as used in medicinal chemistry
Drugs interact with macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids thus these macromolecules are called drug targets. These macromolecules perform various functions in the body, for example, proteins perform several roles in the body. Proteins which act as biological catalysts are called enzymes, those which are involved in a communication system are called receptors. Carrier proteins carry polar molecules across the cell membrane. Nucleic acids have coded genetic information in the cell whereas lipids and carbohydrates form a structural parts of cell membranes.
Name the macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets
The macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Why should not medicines be taken without consulting doctors?
Some drugs can cause side effects when the drug binds to more than one type of receptor. Therefore, a doctor’s consultation is a must to choose the right drug that has the maximum affinity for a particular receptor site to have the desired effect. The dose of the drug taken at a time is also crucial because some drugs in higher doses act as poisons and may cause death.
Define the term chemotherapy
Chemotherapy means the treatment of the disease by means of chemicals that have a specific effect upon the disease-causing micro-organisms without harming the friendly micro-organisms or bacterias which the body needs.
Which forces are involved in holding the drugs to the active site of enzymes?
Either of the following forces can be involved in holding drugs to the active sites of enzymes.
- Ionic bonding
- Hydrogen bonding
- Dipole-dipole interaction
- Van der Waals forces
While antacids and antiallergic drugs interfere with the function of histamines, why do these not interfere with the function of each other?
Drugs are designed to cure some ailment in one organ of the body do not affect the other because they work on different receptors. For example, secretion of histamine causes allergy. It also causes acidity due to the release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Since antiallergic and antacids drugs work on different receptors, therefore, antihistamines remove allergy while antacids remove acidity.
A low level of noradrenaline is the cause of depression What type of drugs are needed to cure this problem? Name two drugs
Anti-depressant drugs are needed to counteract the effect of depression These drugs inhibit enzymes catalyzing the degradation of the neurotransmitters, noradrenaline As a result, the important neurotransmitters are slowly metabolized, and then it can activate its receptor for longer periods of time.
Two anti-depressant drugs are:
What is meant by the term ‘broad-spectrum antibiotics? Explain
The range of bacteria or other micro-organisms that are affected by a certain antibiotic is expressed as its spectrum of action. The term broad-spectrum antibiotics mean an antibiotic that kills or inhibits a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
It can be used for the treatment of typhoid, dysentery, acute fever, pneumonia, meningitis, and certain forms of urinary infections Two other broad-spectrum antibiotics are vancomycin and ofloxacin Ampicillin and Amoxycillin-synthetically modified from penicillin – are also broad-spectrum antibiotics
How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants? Give one example of each
Antiseptics are chemical substances which prevent the growth of micro-organisms and may even kill them but they are not harmful for human or animal tissues. For example, Dettol and savlon. They are generally applied on wounds, cuts, ulcers, and diseased skin surfaces. Furacin and soframycin are well-known antiseptic creams.
Disinfectants are chemical substances which kill microorganisms but are not safe to be applied to the living tissues. These are generally used to kill microorganisms present in the drains toilets, floors, etc. Some common examples of disinfectants are phenol ( 1% solution) and chlorine (0.2 to 0.4 ppm).
Why are cimetidine and ranitidine better antacids than sodium hydrogen carbonate or magnesium or aluminium hydroxide?
Antacids NaHCO3, Mg(OH)2, or Al(OH)3 neutralize the excess acid produced in the stomach but their prolonged use can cause the production of excess acid in the stomach, which is harmful and may result in ulcers. It means these drugs control only symptoms. Cimetidine and ranitidine work without such side effects (because they control the cause) as they prevent interaction of histamine with the receptors of the stomach wall as histamine stimulates the secretion of acid. Thus, these are better antacids than, NaHCO3, Mg(OH)2, or Al(OH)3.
Name a substance which can be used as an antiseptic as well as disinfectant
About 0.2 percent solution of phenol can act as antiseptic whereas about 1.0 percent solution of the same can act as a disinfectant.
What are the main constituents of Dettol?
Dettol is a mixture of chloroxylenol and terpineol.
What is the tincture of iodine? What is its use?
Tincture of iodine is a dilute solution of iodine (2 to 3 percent) prepared in ethanol.
It is a powerful antiseptic particularly in case of fresh wounds.
What are food preservatives?
Chemical substances which are used to protect the food against bacteria, yeasts, and molds are called food preservatives e.g., sodium metabisulphite, sodium benzoate.
Why is the use of aspartame limited to cold foods and drinks?
Aspartame is a very good sweetener for foods and drinks. But its use is restricted to cold stuff only. In case these are hot, the sweetener may decompose and it may not be effective anymore. It is a very successful and commonly used artificial sweetener. As stated above, it is nearly 100 times as sweet as cane sugar. However, it can be used in soft drinks and cold foods only since it decomposes upon heating. Chemically aspartame is the methyl ester of dipeptide formed by the action of aspartic acid with phenylalanine.
What are artificial sweetening agents? Give two examples
Artificial sweetening agents are the substances produced wholly or partially by chemical synthesis, which are added to food to impart a sweet taste.
Name the sweetening agent used in the preparation of sweets for a diabetic patient
Saccharine is a well-known sweetening agent which is more than 550 times sweet as compared to sucrose (or sugar). It is commonly used in the preparation of sweets for diabetic patients. Actually, it is not a carbohydrate. Now better sweetening agents are also available.
What problem arises in using alitame as an artificial sweetener?
Alitame is a high potency artificial sweetener, which has 2000 times sweeteners value in Comparison to cane sugar. Thus, the control of the sweetness of food is difficult while using it.
How are synthetic detergents better than soaps?
Detergents are called soapless soaps because they resemble soaps in their cleansing action but they do not contain the usual chemical contents of soaps i.e., sodium or potassium salts of long-chain fatty acids. In other words, we can say that they behave as soaps without being actually soaps.
Explain the following terms with suitable examples
(i) cationic detergents
(ii) anionic detergents and
(iii) non-ionic detergents
(i) Cationic detergents:
Cationic detergents are quarternary ammonium salts of acetates, chlorides, bromides This are called cationic detergents because the
What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable detergents? Give one example of each
Explain the cleansing action of soaps
Detergents are non-biodegradable in the sense that they cannot be degraded or decomposed by micro-organisms. They mix with water present in rivers, ponds, lakes, etc. such without getting decomposed and thus cause pollution problems. The biodegradable detergents are the ones which can be degraded. These are being synthesised by reducing the branching of the chain. Sodium n-dodecylbenzene sulphonate is a biodegradable detergent. Even soaps act as biodegradable detergents.
Why do soaps not work in hard water?
Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain fatty acids Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions When soaps are dissolved in hard water, these ions displace sodium or potassium from their salts and form insoluble calcium or magnesium salts of fatty acids The insoluble salts separate as scum.
this is the reason why soaps do not work in hard water.
Can you use soaps and synthetic detergents to check the hardness of water?
Soaps can be used to check the hardness of water as they give insoluble precipitates of calcium and magnesium soaps in hard water but synthetic detergents do not give precipitate, so they can not check the hardness of the water.
1. Anionic detergents: Anionic detergents are of two types:
(a) Sodium alkyl sulphates: These detergents are sodium salts of long-chain alcohols, they are prepared by first treating these alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid and then with sodium hydroxide Examples of these detergents include sodium lauryl sulphate (C11H23CH2OSO3 Na+) and sodium stearyl sulphate (C17H35CH2OSO3 Na+)
(b) Sodium alkyl benzene sulphonates: These detergents are sodium salts of long-chain alkyl benzene sulphonic acids They are prepared by Friedd-crafts alkylation of benzene with long-chain alkyl halides or alkenes The obtained product is first treated with concentrated sulphuric acid and then within sodium hydroxide Sodium 4 – (1 – dodecy) benzene sulphonate (SDS) is an example of anionic detergents.
2. Non-ionic detergents Molecules of these detergents do not contain any ions These detergents are esters of alcohols having high molecular mass They are obtained by reacting polyethylene glycol and stearic acid.
If the water contains dissolved calcium hydrogen carbonate, out of soaps and synthetic detergents which one will you use for cleaning clothes?
Calcium bicarbonate makes water hard. Soap (RCOONa) will react with the salt to form corresponding calcium salt which will be precipitated and wasted. The synthetic detergents are chemically different from soaps. They will not react with the calcium bicarbonate and can be used for cleaning dirty clothes without being precipitated. In other words, there will be no wastage when the detergents are used.
Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the following compounds
Sleeping pills are recommended by doctors to the patients suffering from sleeplessness but it is not advisable to make its dose without consultation with the doctor, Why?
Most drugs when taken in doses higher than recommended may carry harmful effects and sometimes, may even lead to death Hence, a doctor should always be consulted before taking any medicine.
With reference to which classification has the statement, “ranitidine is an antacid” been given?
The given statement refers to the classification of pharmacological effects of the drug This is because any drug that is used to counteract the effects of excess acid in the stomach is called an antacid.
Why do we require artificial sweetening agents?
A large number of people are suffering from diseases such as diabetes and obesity These people cannot take normal sugar ie sucrose as it is harmful to them Therefore artificial sweetening agents that do not add to the caloric intake of a person are required, Saccharin, aspartame, and ultimate are a few examples of artificial sweeteners.
Write the chemical equation for preparing sodium soap from glyceryl oleate and glyceryl palmitate Structural formulas of these compounds are given below
1. (C15H31COO)3C3H5 – Glyceryl Palmitate
2. (C17H33COO)3C3H5 – Glyceryl oleate
Following the type of non-ionic detergents are present in liquid detergents, emulsifying agents, and wetting agents Label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in the molecule Identify the functional group (s) present in the molecule
Functional groups present in the molecule are:
- Ether, and
- primary alcoholic group.
2nd PUC Chemistry Chemistry in Everyday Life Additional Questions
In order to wash clothes with water containing dissolved calcium hydrogen carbonate, which cleaning agent will you prefer and why: Soaps or synthetic detergents? Give one advantage of soaps – over synthetic detergents
Water containing calcium hydrogen carbonate is hard water Detergents are preferred over soaps for cleaning clothes in hard water because calcium salts of detergents are soluble in water while calcium salts of soaps are insoluble As a result, lot of soap is wasted
Disadvantage of using detergents: Soaps are biodegradable while detergents having branched hydrocarbon chains are not biodegradable and hence cause water pollution in rivers and waterways.
Account for following
(i) Aspirin drug helps in prevention of heart attack
Most of the heart attacks are due to blood clotting in the coronary arteries Aspirin helps to make the blood thinner and thus prevents the formation of blood clots in the coronary arteries thereby preventing heart attacks.
The doctor prescribed to use antacid for a person who was suffering from acidity in the stomach.
(i) What is the function of antacids?
(ii) Explain the reason for acidity in the stomach.
(iii) What are the commonly used antacids?
(i) Substances which remove the excess acid and help to raise the pH to appropriate level in stomach are called antacids.
(ii) Acid gastritis is associated with digestion. It is due to the presence of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice.
(iii) The commonly used antacids contain magnesium salts and aluminium salts, example: omeprazole, lansoprazole.
How does aspirin act as analgesic?
Aspirin inhibits the synthesis of erostaglandis which stimulate inflammation of the tissue and cause pain.
What are barbiturates? To which class of drugs do they belong?
55 derivatives of barbituric acid are called barbiturates They belong to class of tranquilizers.
What is salvarsan? To which class of drugs do they belong?
Salvarsan is an antimicrobial agent It is used for the treatment of disease called syphillis
Give one example of artificial sweetner used by diabetic patients
Saccharin (in form of sodium salt) is taken as artificial sweetner by diabetic patients.
Define a tranquilizer
Tranquilizers are drugs which act on central nervous system to help in reducing anxiety.
Tranquillizers are usually used for mental diseases.
(i) Explain the working of tranquillizers in a patient.
(ii) Write down the important tranquil lizers.
(i) Chemical substances used for treating mental diseases are called tranquilizers. They act on the central nervous system and induce sleep to the patients. They are also called psychotherapeutic drugs. Such compounds usually are constituents of sleeping pills.
Tranquilizers do not add anything to the individuals that is already not present. They help the individuals to regain capacities they already have, by alleviating symptoms of emotional distress.
(ii) The most commonly used tranquilizers are barbituric acid and its derivatives such as luminal and seconal. Equanil is another tranquilizer that is used in depression and hypertension.
Reser – pine, isolated from the plant Rauwolfia serpentina, is a powerful tranquilizer. It also slows down the pulse rate and lowers blood pressure.
Which alkaloid is used for
- Malaria fever?