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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Paper 2 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs
Max. Marks: 100
Section – A
I. Answer the following in one sentence each: ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
What is life expectancy?
The average period that a person may except to live is known as life expectancy.
What are Tertiary occupations?
It includes all kinds of services, retail, entertainment, banking, education, health care, transportation and communication. ‘
Which contienent has the highest density of rail network in the world?
Europe has the highest density of rail network in world.
What is city?
A densely populated area of considerable size in a city which is larger than town. An urban center with 1 lakh and more population is called city.
What are the inland waterways?
The movement of goods, passengers, through rivers, canals, lakes is known as inland waterways.
Which are the methods of rain water harvesting?
- In – situ method
- Ex – Situ method.
What is subsistence farming?
The production of crops for the purpose of domestic consumption and not for commercial use is called subsistence farming.
Name the atomic minerals in India?
Define the knowledge – based industry?
Information technology is the fastest growing industry therefore it is known as knowledge based industry’.
Which is the milk pipeline in India?
Gujarath, that is from Anand dairy to Ahmedabad.
Section – B
II. Answer any Ten of the following questions in two or three sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20
Write a short note on food gathering?
Gathering of products from nature to fulfill their basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. In some parts of the world, the people lead a simple life depending upon the nature for their livelihood like collect the wild fruits root, nuts, leaves for the food, bark of trees, leaves and grass for clothing, branches of tree, bamboo, leaves for making their homes for ex> few nomadic tribes in the world.
Give any four reasons, why “coniferous forest” is most suitable for the lumbering
- Single variety of trees are distributed in Large area
- Wood is utilized for the manufacturing of wood pulp, paper and building materials
- Modem scientific technology has helped in cutting the trees easily.
- Adequate transport facilities are available.
Define city and million city?
- city:- The urban center with 1 lakh and more population is called city.
- Million city: – Total population of 1 million and above the urban area is known as million city.
Name the four important programmes to control poverty and malnutrition?
- Sarva shikshana Abhiyana
- Anna Bhagya Yojana
- Ksheera bhagy a Yojana
- Coolygagikalu and Ba maralishalege.
Mention the four advantages of plant tissue culture in India?
- Rapid multiplication, means thousands of plants can be produced within a year starting from a single explant.
- Round the year multiplication as per demand.
- Easy transport due to miniaturization.
- Selective multiplication of desired plants,
Mention the factors necessary for thermal electricity?
- There must be coal, petroleum or natural gas in abundance
- Large space required for the construction of thermal plant
- Abundance supply of water.
What are the uses of minerals?
- Minerals supports metallic industries such as Iron, steel and aluminium etc.
- Many non – metallic minerals are essential for man act.
- Using of cement and chemical fertilizer.
Why Mumbai is known as Manchester of India?
Mumbai is the Leading cotton textile center of India. So it is known as Manchester of India and the “Cotton Police of India”
Mention the advantages of Radio? ‘
- It rely more and rapid information about isolated areas.
- It has a profound role to play in the fore casting of weather.
- It plays the direction of air craft, shipping and warning of unsual events such as hurricanes, snowfall and rainfall as well as floods.
Name the important international airports of India?
- Mumbai – Sahara
- Delhi – Indira Gandhi International
- Kolkata – Subash Chandra Bose
- Chennai – Anna
- Bangalore – Kempegowda International Airport
- Hyderabad – Rajiv Gandhi international Airport
Define the concept of land degradation?
Pressure on agricultural land increase not only due to the limited availability but also by deterioration of quality of agricultural land due to soil erosion water logging and salinization and alkalization which is called Land degradation.
What are the causes of deforestation?
- Expansion of agriculture
- Construction of roads, Railway and industries
- Establishment of human settlements, mining activities etc.
Section – C
III. Answer any eight of the following in 20 – 30 sentence each: ( 5 × 8 = 40 )
Human geography is the study of man environment relationship. Justify
Human geography studies the inter relationship between the physical and cultural environment. It emphasises on human creations and developments by the natural influences like relief, Drainage, soils, climate in which temparature, rainfall, humidity, wind etc vegetation, land forms are the elements of physical environment.
where as cultural environment such as houses, villages, cities, road, rail networks, industries etc’ these are created by human being through their activiites by human being through their activities based on the opportunities provided by the physical environment.
Thus, the physical environment has been greatly modified by human beings; at the same human life is also influenced by nature. Human being were able to develop technology through their struggle with the environment and better understanding a natural laws.
What is human development? Discuss the measurement of human development?
Meaning of Human development:
Human development is “development that enlarges people’s choice and improves their lives”. Standard of living & where people can live meaningful lives. Such as healthy, able to develop their talent, Participate in the activities of society etc.
Measurements of Human Development:
Human development is measured with –
I. The Human development Index.
II. The Human poverty Index.
I. The Human development index: It is measured in three dimensions.
- Health: Good health results of higher life expectancy means the people have a greater chance of living longer and health.
- Education: Based on the literacy rate development and status of a persons decides.
- Decent standard of living: It is measured in terms of purchasing power (in US dollars).
II. The Human poverty index: It measures the short fall in human development in following indices.
- The probability of not surviving till the age of 40.
- The adult illiteracy rate.
- The number of people who are not able drink pure water.
- The number of small children who are under weight.
What is migration? Explain the important causes of migration?
The movement of people from one place to another place is knowm as Migration.
Causes of Migration : Migration is caused by a variety of factors including economic, social and political factors. Some of them are briefly discussed below.
- Marriage : Every girl has to migrate to her husband’s place after marriage, thus the entire female population of India has to migrate over short or long distance.
- Employment : The agricultural base of rural areas does not provide employment to all the people living here. In contrast, urban areas provide vast scope for employment in industries, trade, transport & services. Hence people like to migrate towards the urban areas.
- Education : Educational facilities are very low in the rural areas especially those of higher education and rural people have to migrate to the urban centers for this purpose.
- Lack of security : Large number of people have migrated out of Jammu and Kashmir and Assam during the last few years due to disturbed conditions there. In this situation, people would like to migrate towards well secure areas.
Describe the importance of pipelines?
- Pipelines have become more popular for transporting certain products for lpng distances.
- USA has a large network of pipelines. They are transporting natural gas, petroleum and refined products.
- BIG INCH is the famous pipelines which carries pertroleum from Gulf of Mexico to the north-east states.
- About 17% of all commodities is carried through pipelines in USA.
- In Europe pipeline system was laid to distribute refined products from sea ports to inland markets.
- In Africa, Pipe lines are found in Nigeria and other countries to carry crude oil and natural gas production.
- In NewZealand Milk is being supplied through Pipelines from farms to factories.
- China has one of the most impressive networks of pipelines.
- India has good network of pipelines connecting oil ports and gas fields, refineries and markets.
- Turkmenistan in Central Asia. Asia has extended pipelines to Iran and also parts of china.
Explain the controlling measures of migration?
The Controlling measures of Migration are :
- Expand the civic amenties to villages as well as cities. It can control Rural to Urban migration.
- Develop transport facilities between the city and surrounding rural areas.
- Create more employment opportunities in the surrounding rural areas of the city.
- Develop satellite towns around big cities with all basic amenities.
- Encourage labourers to live in the satellite towns rather than in big cities.
- Develop Industrial areas outside the cities.
Discuss the factors which has the affected on human development index in India?
Factors influencing on HDI of India are discussed below:
- Birth and Death Rate : Declining of birth rate has been much slower than that of the death rate. This results in rapid increase of population. It affects on slow economic growth of the country. It is the main cause for declining of human development index.
- Life Expectancy : Life Expectancy has gone up 65.77 years for males 67.95 years females respectively in 2011-12. This is due to the consequence of the expansion of food security and medical facilities. It helps to raise the HDI in the country.
- Food and Nutrition : According to the 2011 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report, India has 15th rank among the leading countries with hunger situation.
- The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest-ranking countries in the World for the number of children suffering from malnutrition.
- It is adversely affecting the Human development.
- Literacy : Education is the key for socio-economic progress. The Indian literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011 from 12% at the end of the British rule in 1947. The large proportion of illiterate females is another reason for the low literacy rate in India. Due to this there is decline in the Human development Index of the country.
Explain the development and distribution of other types of irrigation?
Sprinkler Irrigation :
- The spraying of water to the crops through the pipe with nozzles under great pressure is called‘Sprinkler irrigation’.
- In this method water consuming is less but provides more moisture to the plants.
- The adoption of this system is more expensive.
- It is more popular in Punjab, Harayana, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Gujarat.
Drip Irrigation :
- A newly developed irrigation system, orginally developed in Israel is becoming popular in areas with water scarcity. This source of irrigation was introduced in India in the seven-ties.
- In 2005, the area under drip irrigation was 6.3 Lakh hectares.
- In this system a small amount of water passes through pipe falls drop by drop just at the position of roots or a limited area around the plant.
Give an account of water conservation and management?
Water Conservation refers to the action taken to use water effeciently. It involves the controlling, protecting, managing & planning for the wise use of our scarce water resources.
The following strategies can be adopted for conservation of water.
- Reducing run-off losses : It can be achieved by using contour cultivation, terrace fanning, mulching, water storage structures like farm ponds.
- Reduction of irrigation losses : It can be reduced by drip and sprinkler irrigation, use of lined or covered canals to reduce seepage.
- Re-use of water : The treated waste water can be used for watering .gardens, washing vehicles and floors of the building. It helps in saving fresh water.
- Prevention of wastage of water : Preventing by closing taps when not in use, repairing any leakage from pipes and using small capacity flush in toilets.
Explain the condition for growth and give reasons for the concentration of coffee cultivation in south India?
Conditions for Growth:
- Coffee is a tropical crop. So, it requires hot & humid climate.
- It requires high temperature ranging from 15°C to 30°C.
- Rainfall varying from 150 to 200 cms is necessary & it should be well distributed throughtout the year.
- Coffee plants require deep fertile soil, humus & nitrogenous contained soils are suitable, so cleared up forest land is most suitable for coffee cultivation.
- Coffee plants require shade, because sunrays & strong winds are harmful to coffee plants.
- Hill slopes are suitable for cultivation of coffee plants to avoid stagnant of water.
- Dry weather is necessary’ at the time of ripening of harries.
- Use of manures and fertilizers are required for coffee cultivation.
- Use of pesticides and insecticides are very essential, because coffee plant is susceptible to pests & diseases.
- It requires abundant supply of cheap & skilled labour for various operations.
Reasons for the concentration of coffee in South India :
The Coffee plant was first introduced in lndia by a muslim Fakir, Bababudan Sahib who brought some seeds from Mecca during 17th Century and planted the seedlings in Chandragiri Hills now. It is called Bababudan Hills in Chikmangalur district of Karnataka. Then it was spread to the neighbouring districts of TamilNadu, Kerala & other parts if the country.
Explain the important stratergies to achieve green revolution in India?
The important stratergies are as noted below:
- High yielding varieties : Which results of short maturing period, double cropping, short stems, resistance to wind damage etc.
- Use of Irrigation : An assured and regular supply of water to crops not only adds to production but also assures stability in production.
- Use of chemical fertilizers : The HYV seeds need a heavy dose of fertilizers along with irrigation to give high yield.
- Use of Insecticides & Pesticides : In order to meet the loss of 10% crop. It requires use of proper doses of insecticides, pesticides & weedicides.
- Role of Public institutions : The national seeds corporations have to setup to promote services to the farmers.
- Guaranteed Minimum Prices : Support Price Policy for food grains was adopted in 1964 all over the country.
- Facilities of agricultural credit: Now Co-operatives, Commercial banks, and regional rural banks extend loans to the farmers on easy terms.
- Rural electrification : It is very essential in modem agricultural system to lift water by tubewell, sprinkler, irrigation etc.
- Rural roads and Marketing : These are very important to connect the villages to the neighbouring markets and urban centres.
- Soil testing : Its main purpose is to know what type of fertilizers and seeds will be more fruitful in different regions.
- Multiple cropping programme : It aims at maximizing production per unit of land and per unit of time by taking two or three crops in a year.
- Farm of Mechanization : It saves on human labour & Quickens farm operations, there by adding to efficiency & productivity.
- Agricultural Universities : Engaged in agricultural research and pass on this information to the farmers.
Explain the Imports and exports of India?
Imports of India : Imports trade of India refers to buying goods from foreign countries and bringing them to home country.
The main items of Imports of India are :
1. Petroleum crude and products :
- It is the most important materials of Indian.Imports.
- In 2006-2007 India imported rupees 2,58,572 crores worth of crude oil and other petroleum products.
- It contributed 23% of our total imports.
2. Pearls precious and semi precious stones :
India imported rupees 33,881 crores worth of precious stone.
3. Capital goods :
In 2006-2007 India imported rupees 2,51,136 crores worth of capital goods.
4. Fertilizers :
India is a major importer of chemical Fertilizers. It is because the country is agrarian and the Internal production of fertilizers is insufficient. Potash fertilizers are largely imported.
Exports of India : Export trade of India refers to the sale of goods and services by India to other countries of the world.
The main items of our exports are as follows :
- Agricultural and Allied products: Products such as cereals, pulses tobacco, spices, nuts and seeds, oil meals, caster oil etc.
During 2011-2012 exports income is about US dollar 13300.63 million.
- Ores and minerals: Export of ores and minerals like Iron ore, Manganese, Micca was estimated at US dollar 4700.29 million during 2011-12.
- Gems and Jewellery: India imports gems and precious stones in their raw form and exports them after proper cutting and polishing.
- Electronic goods: Items under this group of consists of machinery, iron, steel and other engineering items.
- Petroleum products: Export of petroleum products increased to US dollar 34667.02 million.
Mention the processes that induce land degradation in India?
- The land serves as storage of water and materials for plants and other living micro macro organisms.
- Pressure on agricultural land increases not only due to the limited availability but also by deterioration of quality of agriculture land due to soil erosion, water logging, salinisation and alkalisation which is called degradation.
- The land degradation ultimately affect on agricultural productivity.
- In addition to degradation by natural process such as gullied or ravenous land deserted or coastal sands, barren rocky area land degradation is caused by man.
- These have caused water logged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity.
- Degraded shifting cultivation area and under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures and mining and industrial waste lands.
Section – D
IV. Answer any one the following: ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
Discuss the Importance, distribution and production of coal in India?
- Coal constitutes about 70 percent of the total commercial power consumed in India.
- Coal is a source of energy and raw material for many chemical industries.
- It provides many by products i.e., tar napthaline, ammonia gas, coal gas, benezol etc.
- These are used in the manufacture of synthetic fibres, rubber, plastic, explosives, dyes and insecticides.
- Currently the leading producer of coal in India are Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and
- Madhya Pradesh.
These four states contributes 84.33 percent of the India’s coal production.
1. Chhattisgarh : It is having first place in the production of coal in India.
- It produces 31.3 percent coal of India.
- Major coal fields of the state are located in the Northern part of the state i.e, Surgija, Bilasapur and Korba.
2. Jharkhand : Jharkhand is the second larg¬est producer of coal in India.
- It produces more than 20.3 percent of coal in 2011-2012.
- Jharia, Bokaro, Giridhi, Karnapur, Ramagarh are very important.
- Jharia is one of the oldest and richest coal fields of India. It has been recognised as the “Store house of the best metallurgical coal” in the country.
3. Odisha : It is the third largest producer of the coal and contributing 19.5 percent of the total coal production of the country.
Most of its coal deposits in Dhenkanal, Sambalapur and Sundaragh districts.
4. Madhya Pradesh : Jharkhand is the second largest producer of coal in India.
The main coal depoists are located in Sindhi, Shahdol, Betul, Narasingour and Chhindwara districts.
5. Andhra Pradesh :
- It produces about 9.7 percent of coal.
- It is found in Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal districts.
6. Maharashtra : The coal deposits of the state occur in Wardha valley, Ballarpur, Warora in Chandrapur district.
7. West Bengal :
- It has 4.48 percent of the total production of the country.
- Burdwan, Bankura, Purulia, Daijeeling and Jalpaiguri are the chief coal producing districts.
Production : The total reserves of all grade coal in India is 283.50 billion tonnes.
- India is producing 560.90 million tonnes of coal in 2012-13.
- So India ranks third among the coal producing countries of the world next to China and USA.
- It contributes 10.2 percent of the total world’s production of coal.
Give an account of auto mobile industry in India?
The term “Automobile” is applied to any self-propelled vehicle powered by an Internal combustion engine & designed to transport passengers and goods over roads and highways.
- At present, India has above 40 million passenger vehicles.
- More than 3.7 million Automotive vehicles are produced annually, making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world after China.
- According to the society of Indian automobile manufacturers, annual vehicles sales are projected to increase to 4 million by 2015.
The main factors favour the growth of automobiles industry are:
- Large supply of Iron & Steel, wood, glass, aluminium and fuels.
- Highly skilled labour.
- High degree of scientific and engineering skill.
- Large amount of capital.
- A large home market.
- Mumbai, Chennai, Jamshedpur, Jabalpur and Kolkata are the chief centres of automobile Industry.
- These centres produce almost all sorts of vehicles including trucks, buses, passengers, three wheelers and two wheelers.
- Motor cycles are also manufactured at Faridabad and Mysore.
- Scooters are also manufactured at Lucknow, Satara, Pune, Kanpur & Odhav (Ahmedabad district).
- In 2012-13, Automobile industry of India produced 20.6 million vehicles.
- India is the largest producer of two wheelers.
Section – E
IV. Answer any one the following: ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Construct a pie – diagram using the following data India : Area under selected Kharif crops [in Lakh hectere]
(a) Construct a line – graph by using following data
Karnataka ; Selected districts wise area under rice [in hectares]
(b) Construct a single bar graph by using following data India : Selected state wise rice production [in %]
(a) Explain the secondary source of data?
Meaning – The data those have been collected and analyzed already by some departments, organizations, NGO’s etc… are called Secondary data.
Types of Secondary sources of data:
1. Published sources – There are 5 types
- International publications: In this publications-year books, monographs and reports are published by different agencies of the united nations.
- Government publication: These publications comprise the census of India published by office of the register general of India.
- Semi Government publication : In this category the publications and reports of corporations, boards, urban development authorities etc …
- Private publication : The research reports, surveys, year-books and monographs are published.
- Newspapers and Periodicals : The daily news papers and periodicals or magazines are easily accessible.
2. Unpublished sources – There are 3 types.
- Government Documents : The reports, papers, findings, monographs and documents are prepared a$d maintained as unpublished records at different levels of Government.
- Government Records : The corporations, boards, district councils and civil departments prepare and maintain the periodical reports and the development plans.
- Private Documents : The companies, trade unions, different political and non-political organizations and resident welfare associations are having unpublished reports and records.
(b) Explain the functions of GIS?
- Capture data : Geographical data can be collected/captured from various sources like hard copy, map through top sheet, digital data, through GPS, Secondary data through published tables.
- Storing data : Geographical data once captured, it needs to transform from Analogy into digital format and to be stored in computer for further analysis. ,
- Query : Once you have a functional GIS containing your geographical information, you can begin to ask a simple questions.
- Analysis : There are 3 types
- Proximity Analysis : Proximity queries find features with in a certain distance of other features.
- Overlay Analysis : It is simplest, this could be a visual operation, but analytical operations require One or more data layers to be joined physically.
- Network Analysis : A network is a set of edges and junctions that are Topologically connected to each other.
- Display : Once analysis is done maps, diagrams, graphs and tables are to be designed and same has to be displayed over computer moniter.
- Output: This is final, stage of GIS function where in the maps, data tables etc…. can be printed to have hard copy as output.
(c) Explain the applications of GPS?
Applications of GPS
- Navigation : In navigation, by using GPS can save countless hours in the field. Any feature, even if it is under water, can be located upto one hundred meters simply by scaling coordinates from a map, entering way points & going directly to site.
- Remote sensing and GIS : GPS positioning can be intergrated into remote – sensing methods such, as Photogrammetry and aerial scanning, magnetometry, and video technology using DGPs techniques.
- Surveying/Mapping : The high precision of GPS’ carries phase measurements, together with appropriate adjustment algorithum, provides an adequate tool for a variety of tasks for surveying and mapping.
- Geodesey : Geodetic mapping and other control surveys can be carried out effectively using high grade GPs equipment.
- Military : The GPs was Primarily develped for real time military positioning. Military applications include airbone, marine and land navigation.