# 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2016

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### Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2016

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
State the average life expectancy of the world.
68.09 years

Question 2.
What are primary activities?
Primary activities such as food gathering, hunting, lumbering, animal rearing, fishing, agriculture & mining etc.

Question 3.
What is transportation?
Transport is the carrying of Goods & Passengers from one place to other by Human Animals and different kinds of vehicles

Question 4.
Which is the largest mega city in the world?
Newyork is the largest mega city in the world.

Question 5.
In which year was family planning program introduced in India?
The family planning program introduced in India in the Year 1952

Question 6.
What is the name of Bhakra Reservoir?
Govind Sagar.

Question 7.
Mention two important beverage crops of India.
Tea and coffee are important beverage crops of India

Question 8.
Why is Jharia famous for?
Jharia is “store house of the best Metallurgical coal.”

Question 9.
Name important agro-based industries of India.

• Cotton textile industries
• Jute industries
• Sugar industries

Question 10.
On which river bank is Kolkata Port located?
On the Hoogly river 148 Km from the sea

II. Answer any 10 of the following questions in 2 to 3 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
What are the different types of fishing?
The different types of fishing are:

• Fresh water fishing
• Coastal fishing and
• Open sea fishing

Question 12.
Write a short note on food gathering.
Gathering of products from nature to fulfill their basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. In some parts of the world, the people lead a simple life depending upon the nature for their livelihood like collect the wild fruits roots, nuts, leaves for the food, bark of trees, leaves and grass for clothing, branches of trees, bamboo, leaves for making their homes for example few nomadic tribes in the world.

Question 13.
Mention important pattern of rural settlements.
There are 5 important pattern of rural settlements.

1. Uniform Pattern
2. Clustered Patttem
3. RANDOM Pattern
4. Dispersed Pattern
5. Hamlets Pattern.

Question 14.
Give any four causes for high birth rate in India.
Immigration : is used for in-migration from across the international border where.
Emigration : is used for out-migration from one country to another.

Question 15.
What are the uses of sugarcane?

• Sugarcane is the main source of Sugar, Gur and Khandsari.
• It provides raw materials for manufacturing Alcohal.

Question 16.
Name the two important Gold producing regions of karnataka.

• Hutti gold field in Raichur districts and Bellary gold field in Tumkur in Karnataka.
• Ramagiri in Ananthpur district and Jonnagiri in Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh.

Question 17.
What are the geographical factors necessary for Hydro-electricity?

• The regular and uniform supply of water is essential.
• The water should fall from a sufficient height.
• It requires huge capital investment to purchase machines.
• A ready available market should be there.

Question 18.
Why is Mumbai known as ‘Manchester’ of India?
Mumbai is the leading cotton textile center of India. So it is known as “Manchester of India”.

Question 19.
Mention four important types of roads in India.

• National Highways
• State Highways

Question 20.
Mention the importance of satellites.
A satellite can be defined as a body that orbits the earth or other planet which has been sent from the Earth into space theses are of vital importance to life on earth.
1. The 20th century is also known as space age. With the advancement in science and technology artificial satellites has marked a new era in the history of global telecommunication.

2. The Geo-stationary satellites are positioned at a height of about 36,000 km in the sky.

3. Radio and Television networking over entire India are done through satellite technology. So, it is popularly called as ‘space age communication technique’.

4. The world’s first artificial satellite, the sputnik. I was launched by the soviet union in 1957.

5. Very recently India has launched a satellite IRS P-2 into the orbit successfully from the country’s space port at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.

6. Satellite construction and launching is carried out as a part of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The ISRO centre is located at Bangalore,

7. The satellite launching centres are located near Hassan in Karnataka.

8. National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) Hyderabad is responsible for reception, processing of data from remote sensing satellites

Question 21.
What are the effects of air pollution?

• Diseases are selacted to respiratory.
• Nervous and Circulatory systems.
• Urban smog, acid rain.
• Global wanning.

Question 22.
What are the causes of noise pollution?

• It is caused by from factories, demolition works.
• Noise from sirens landspeakers used in various festivals etc.
• The biggest Noise Pollution is produced by traffic and
• The sea traffic. The Noise Pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unload¬ing activities being carried.

III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each: (5 × 8 = 40)

Question 23.
Explain the scope of Human Geography.
Scope of human Geography:
As early societies became more successful in meeting their need within.permanent settlements.
1. The rise of agriculturing activities resource extra and manufacturing activities led to more complex economic and political boundaries were created and more settlement grew into towns and cities.

2. The physical environment also changed with the influence of modem urbanize and industrized world that we known today.

3. One of the greatest challenges faced by humans today is how to manage energy resource in a sustainable fashion without inflicting permanent damage to environment in the form of land, air, water, pollution and climatic changes.

Importance of Human Geography:

• It clarifies the societies and cultures in different ^locations.
• The great diversity reflects through the fashion life.
• Which realizes carrying capacity of the Earth.
• It helps us to understand circumstances affecting people and nation.

Question 24.
Discuss the distribution of population in the world.
The population of the world is unevenly distributed. The distribution of population is expressed in terms of density. The density is the ratio between the numbers of people in to the size of land.

Distribution of population of the world has been divided into three regions.
1. Area of high density: The three principal high density zones are:
(a) Eastern, Southern and South – Eastern part of Asia.
(b) North – Western part of Europe.
(c) North – Eastern part of USA and South Eastern part of Canada.

2. Area of high density: The population moderately dense in tropical regions of the world and moist temperature regions of the Argentina South-East Africa and Eastern Australia.

3. Area of low density: The areas which are nearest to the North and South poles hot and cold desertes and high rain fall zones near the equator have very low density of population.

• Asia is the most populous continent. It accounts about ‘61 percent’ of the world population.
• Africa is second most populated continent with 13 percent.
• Europe has 12 percent.
• South America 8.5 percent.
• Northern America 5 percent.
• Oceania is the least – populated region which has 0.5 percent.
• Antarctica is uninhabited permanently.

Question 25.
Write a note on sex ratio and age structure of the world.
The ratio between male and female population is called sex ratio. It is usual measured as “the number of females per thousand males.

• On an average, a sex ratio of the world was 986 females per 1000 males during 2010 it
• The highest sex ratio in the world has been recorded in ‘Latria and Estonia’ it was 1174 & 1170 per thousand.
• The lowest sex ratio was found in UAE which is only 468 females per thousand males.
• As per the united nations list in 139 countries females are more than the males. Where as 72 countries males are more than females.

Age structure:
Age structure represents the number of people in different age groups. It includes both male & female population.

• About 65.8% of population belongs to the age group of 15-65 years who are ‘adults’ .
• Above 65 years of age group is only 8%. They are called ‘aged’.
• Remaining about 26.2% is below the age group of 15 year called ‘infants’.
• Dependency ratio – The population ratio between the ages of 15 & 64 (Aults) and below 15,(infants) & above 64 (aged).

Question 26.
Write a note an the air routes of the world.
1. The North America – The Greatest air traffic is found in USA with internal and international flights. It has the top airports like Attanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, Dallas.

2. South America – It has far air routes.
The Major international airports are:
Rio-de-Janeiro, Brasilia, Saopaulo, Santiago and Buenos Aires.

3. Africa – It is served by 2 international Airlines.
(a) The East African air route through London, Rome, Cairo, Nairobi and Johannesbrug.
(b) SriLanka and South East Asia and the Central air route connects Paris, Capetown, logos.

4. Australia – It is a well developed internal and external air services. Sydney is an important international airport.

5. Asia – China has external links with other countries of the world. Its enroute location is between Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa.

6. The Russian International Air Routes: Russia and other countries of former Soviet Union are well connected by air service. All Countries of the World connects each other through airlines of different comers.

Question 27.
What are the problems caused with rapid growth of population? .
The Rapid growth of population has led to a number of problems as follows:- ‘
1. Unemployment and Under employment : It has been increasing from year to year. It has badly affected on young educated people both in rural and urban areas.

2. Shortage of food & -Malnutrition : A large number of people are poorly fed. Malnutrition is prevailing throughout the country. It is fatal for the development of the country.

3. Burden on Civic & Social Amenities : Education, health and medical, housing, drinking water, electricity and problems increases.

4. Low per capita income : The increase in per capita income is only 15% annually. Low per capita income has a direct impact on the economic condition of the people.

5. Increase of Unproductive population : Below 15 years (Infants) and above 60 years (old age) are unproductive. They are dependent on earning persons. Thus rapid growth has increased dependents rather than producers.

6. Others : Slow in economic development, mass poverty, low standard of living, political unrest and the social problems like theft robbery, immortality, corruption and the growth of slums, environment pollution are also directly related to the popualtion explosion.

Question 28.
Describe the effects of migration.
The Effects of Migration can be classified into two namely:-
1. Positive effects.
2. Negative effects.

1. Positive effects of Migration :

• Migration controls the high density of population.
• It helps the people to get employment.
• It reduces the problem of scarcity of Labour.
• Migration leads to the change in the demographic structure of a region.
• It helps to reduce the inequality of the society.

2. Negative effects of Migration :

• It affects on density and distribution of population.
• Large-scale migration from rural to urban centres results in creation of slums.
• It also leads to many social problems such as debauchery and immoral activities.
• Their will be pressure on civic amenties, like electricity etc.
• Migration causes ethnics, religious and language problems.
• It will effects on the job opportunities of local people.

Question 29.
Discuss the present situation of Tank Irrigation in India.
Tanks are natural or man hollows or depressions into which rain water is collected.

• Usually they are built by individuals or groups of farmers by raising bunds across sea-sonal stream.
• Tank irrigation is widely practiced in Andhra Pradesh (29.8%), TamilNadu and Karnataka states.
• Tank irrigation is an ancient method of irrigation in the country. But the area under tank irrigation has decreased in recent years due to some draw backs.
• The area under tank irrigation decreased from 4.6 million hectare in 1960 – 61 to 1.56 . million hectre in 2007 – 08.
• It accounts for only 3.2% of the total irrigated area in India. Tank irrigation is suffering from certain inherent drawbacks
• Tanks get silted up soon.
• Most of the tanks are non-perennial’and become dry during winter and summer seasons.
• They occupy large fertile areas which could have been used for cultivation.

Question 30.
Discuss about the rain water harvesting.
1. Controlling the runoff of rain water and make it to perculate to increase ground water table for future purpose.

2. It involves collection and storage of rainwater at surface or in sub-surface aquifier, before it is lost as surface runoff. It not only increases water availability but also checks the declining water table.

Objectives :
The following are the main objectives of rain water harvesting.

• It checks runoff water & avoid flooding.
• It replenishes the ground water table and enables the wells.
• It helps to overcome the adequancy of surface water to meet demand of water.
• If the ground water is blackish, it will reduce the salinity.
• It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.
• It helps to increase agricultural product and improves ecology of an area.

Methods of Rain Water Harvesting :
1. In-situ method The method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called In-situ rainwater harvesting.
For example –

• Infilteration pits : The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.
• Contour bunds and trenches : The Construction of bunds, trenches or check dams.
• Roof top water harvesting : The Rain water that falls on the roofs of buildings or in courtyards is collected and stored in underground. Sumps, or wells or in drums and used for domestic purpose such as cleaning, washing etc.

2. Ex-situ method : This method of rainwater harvesting involves storing of running water. It is collected in check dams, huge percolation tanks etc. It is an expensive method.

Question 31.
Give an account of the distribution and production of sugarcane in India.
Distribution of sugarcane in India : The distribution of sugarcane cultivation in India is uneven. Sugarcane is grown in almost in all the stats of the country. But it is mainly concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, TamilNadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Haryana & Uttaranchal.
1. Uttar Pradesh : Uttar Pradesh occupies first place both in terms of production & area under sugarcane in the country.

• The largest concentration is upper Ganga-Yamuna doab & Rohilkhand areas which together produce about 70% of the sugarcane produced in the state.
• Its share is about 36.02% under total production.

2. Maharashtra : Maharashtra is in second place both in area & production of sugarcane in the country.

• The production of sugarcane comes from Kolhapur, Pune, Ahmednagar, Nasik.
• Its share is about 22.89% under total production.

3. TamilNadu : TamilNadu is the third largest producer of sugarcane in India.

• It has highest yield per hectare in India.
• Arcot, periyar, salem, Tiruchirapalli & Coimbatore are the important sugaecane growing industries
• Its Shares is about 10.98% under total production

4. Karnataka : Karnataka is fourth largest sugarcane producing state in India.

• Most of the sugarcane is grown with the help of irrigation
• Belgaum, Mysore, Mandhya, Bijpur, Shimoga & Chitradurga are the important sugarcane producing districts.
• Its Shares is about 10.85% under total production

5. Andhra pradesh : Andhra pradesh is in fifth place of sugar cane production in India

• West & East Godavari, vishakapatnam & Nellore are the important sugarcane producing districts.
• Its Shares is about 4.68% under total production

6. Others : Gujarat, Bihar, Haryana etc
Production:

• India is second largest produces of Sugarcane next to Brazil. –
• The total cultivated area under sugarcane was reported as 5.09 million hectares in 2011-12.
• Theproductionis357.67million tonnes in 2011-12.

Question 32.
Explain the condition for growth and give reasons for the concentration of coffee cultivation in South India.
Conditions for Growth:

• Coffee is a tropical crop. So, it requires hot & humid climate.
• It requires high temperature ranging from 15°C to 30°C.
• Rainfall varying from 150 to 200 cms is necessary & it should be well distributed through out the year.
• Coffee plants require deep fertile soil, humus & nitrogenous contained soils are suitable, so cleared up forest land is most suitable for coffee cultivation.
• Coffee plants require shade, because sunrays & strong winds are harmful to coffee plants.
• Hill slopes are suitable for cultivation of coffee plants to avoid stagnant of water.
• Dry weather is necessary’ at the time of ripening of harries.
• Use of manures and fertilizers are required for coffee cultivation.
• Use of pesticides and insecticides are very essential, because coffee plant is susceptible to pests & diseases.
• It requires abundant supply of cheap & skilled labour for various operations.

Reasons for the concentration of coffee in South India:
The Coffee plant was first introduced in lndia by a muslim Fakir, Bababudan Sahib who brought some seeds from Mecca during 17th Century and planted the seedlings in Chandragiri Hills now. It is called Bababudan Hills in Chikmangalur district of Karnataka. Then it was spread to the neighbouring districts of TamilNadu, Kerala & other parts if the country.

Question 33.
Explain the development of Railways in India.

• The first railway line in India was from Bombay (V.T) to Thane, a distance of 34 km, opened on 16th April, 1853.
• It was followed by a railway line in 1856, from Madras to Arkonam (70 km).
• A Railway line in 1874 from Kolkata to Raniganj (180 km).
• Then gradually railway lines were constructed to link different parts of the country.
• At the time of Independence, the length of the railway line was 54,96 km.
• During post-Independence period, because of the Five year plans, the Indian railway has recorded spectacular progress.
• There were 43 steam, 4,963 diesel and 3585 electric locomotives 55,065 coaches 2,11,763 wagons.
• The trains moved everyday through more than 7,030 stations.
• On an average they carried 17 million passengers and 2.8 million lakh tones of freight everyday.
• At present all the rail operations in India are managed by Ministry of Indian railways.
• The country’s railways is about 64,460 km of length which is fourth largest railway network in the world and first in Asia.
• It has transported 7651 million passengers and 921 million tonnes of frieght annually.
• The Network operates 28 states and 3 union territories.

Question 34.
Explain about urban waste disposal in India.

• Urban centres are known for large amount of waste generation. It is a serious problem in India.
• In metropolitan cities likes Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore etc.
• About 90 percent of the solid waste is collected and disposed.
• The waste may be treated as resources and utilized for generating energy and compost.
• Untreated wastes permanently releases toxic bio gases to the atmosphere including methane.
• These wastes should be treated as resources and utilized for generating energy and compost

IV, Answer any one of the following questions : (1 × 10 = 10)

Question 35.
Explain the distribution and production of Iron-ore in India.
Importance:

• The Iron and Steel industry is described as a basic Industry.
• Iron and Steel supplied by this industry such as machineries, irrigation projects, ship building, power projects, construction of bridges, buildings, transport equipment, machine tools and so on.
• The Production and Consumption of Iron and Steel is an index level of the economic develpoment of a country.

Distribution:
There are nine major Iron and Steel industries in India.

• Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), Jamshedpur: It was established in 1907. It was the first largest steel plant of the country.
• Vishveswariah Iron and Steel Co. Ltd (VISL) Bhadravathi 11 was first established in 1923 by the princely state of Mysore located at Bhadravathi in Shimoga district of Karnataka.
• India Iron and Steel Company Ltd (IISCO) Bunpur:- It was established in 1919 at Bumpur in West Bengal. It was the second largest integrated steel plant after Tata Iron and Steel Ltd.
• Hindustan Steel Company Ltd, Rourkela:- It was completed with the German collaboration. The steel plant was comminssioned in 1955.
• Bhilai Steel Plant: It has the largest steel production plant of the public sector. It is located at Bilai near Raipur in Chhatisgarh.
• Durgapur Steel Plant: The steel plant in Durgapur in West Bengal was established with British collaboration and was commissioned in 1956.
• Salem Steel Plant: It is located at Salem in TamilNadu and the production was started from 1982.
• Vishakapatnam Steel Plant: Established by National Ispat Nigam Ltd in Andhra Pradesh.
• New Steel Plants Some private sectors plants are.
• Jindal Vijaynagar Steel Ltd (JVSL) This steel plant is located at Tomagal, Bellary district in Karnataka.
• Essar Steel Ltd (ESL) It is situated at Hazira in Gujarat.
• Ispat Insutries Ltd (IIL) It is situated at Dovi, Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra.
• Neelachal Ispat Nigam Ltd (NINL)It is a new steel plant located at Dubai, Odisha.
• Mini Steel Plants Presently, 199 lincensed electric ore furnace units with an installed capacity of 7.8 million tonnes have been commissioned and hence started commercial production.

Question 36.
Explain the Industrial Regions of India.
Industrial region refers to the continuous development of industrial landscape over a large area by concentration of a number of factories of different industries. In short, it is a wide area of manufacturing industries.

1. Mumbai-Pune Industrial regions: It is the biggest and most important industrial region of the country. Opening of the Bhorghat to Pune in 1830, opening of steamer service through Suez Canal in 1843, opening of first railway line of 32 km in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane etc. Supports lot of development of industries in this region by the British who got the Mumbai island as marriage gift of Catherine Braganza’s dowry, in 1661.

2. Kolkata-Hooghly Industrial region: It is an old and important industrial region of the country. Kolkata is the main centre for Hooglgly basin, port, rich hinterland of Ganga and Brahmaputra plain, Assam and Bengal tea plantations, coal and iron ore region of Chotanagapur plateau. Cheap labour from Weat Bengal Bihar, Orissa states, efficient transport by rail, road and waterways etc. are the important facilities supported to develop this region.

3. Ahmedabad-Vadodara Industrial region: It is thrid largest industrial region of the country. It is located in Gujarat and includes the areas around the Gulf of Khambhat and important industrial centres like Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Koyali, Baruch and Surat etp. Ahmedabad is the main centre for cotton.textiles, woollen and silk, textiles, paper, petrochemicals milk products, Engineering, diesel engines, oil refining etc., are the other important industries of this region.

4. Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore Indusrial regions: This region lies in Tamil nadu and Karnataka states. The Important centres are Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Sivakasi, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Mysore, Mandya, Bhadravathi etc. The region has diversified Industries like cotton textiles, silk, sugar, leather, chemicals, machinery, rubber, electrical equipments telephone, railway coaches, Information Technology’, BioTechnology etc.

5. The Chotanagapur Plateau Industrial regions: This region is located in the states of Bihar, parts of Jharkhand and West Bengal. This region is called the Ruhr of India on account of the growth of a number of iron and steel plants and various engineering industies. Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Chittaranjan, Sindri, Durgapur, Hazaribagh etc are the important industrial town in this region.

6. The Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala Industrial regions: This region covers Uttar Pradesh, parts of Haryana and Delhi. It includes Agra, Saharanpur, Faridabad, Ambala, Delhi, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Ferozabad, Noida, Meerut, Mathura, Panipat etc. Delhi is the most important centre for the Industries of cotton textiles, glass, chemicals, automobiles, engineering, paper, soap, vanaspati, sugar and oil refineries. The region is facing the problem of environmental pollution.

V. Answer the following questions: (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 37.
Construct a Pie-Diagram using the following data :

 Types percentages Single lane 21 Double lane 54 Four/six/eight lane 25 Total 100

Sinle lane = $$\frac { 21 }{ 100 }$$ × 360 = 75.6

Double lane = $$\frac { 54 }{ 100 }$$ × 360 = 194.4

Four/six/eight = $$\frac { 25 }{ 100 }$$ × 360 = $$\frac { 90 }{ 360 }$$

Question 38.
(a) construct a line-graph by using the following data of selected district-wise population (in lakh) Of Karnataka in 2011.

 District Population Belgium 47.8 Bagalkot 18.9 Bijapur 21.8 Bidar 17.0 Raichur 19.3 Dharwad 18.5

(b)
Construct a single-bar graph by using the following data of selected state-wise rice production in India in percentage :

 District production West bengal 15.80 Andhra Pradesh 12.71 Uttar Pradesh 11.91 Punjab 10.86 Orissa 7.31 Tamilnadu 7.08 Karnataka 3.70

For Blind Students only

Question 39.
Answer any two of the following : (2 x 10 = 20)

(a)
Write the importance of remote sensing.
Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area or phenomenon through the analysis of data aquired by a device that is not in contact with it. This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing and applying that information.

In much remote sensing, the process involves an interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest. This device can be a camera or a bank of sensors operated from an airplane or a satellite. Though satellite we can collect date related agriculture, forest, urban land use, water, natural calamities etc the satellite data is based for mapping, monitoring, studying the various phenomena related to earth’s surface.

(b)
Explain the function of GLI.S
1. Capture data : Geographical data can be collected/captured from various sources like hard copy, map through tophosheet, digital data, through GPS, Secondary data through published tables.

2. Storing data : Geographical data once captured, it needs to transform from Analogy into digital format and to be stored in computer for further analysis.

3. Query : Once you have a functional GIS containing your geographical information, you can begin to ask a simple questions.

4. Analysis : There are 3 types

1. Proximity Analysis: Proximity queries find features with in a certain distance of other features.
2. Overlay Analysis: It is simplest, this could be a visual operation, but analytical operations require One or more data layers to be joined physically.
3. Network Analysis: A network is a set of edges and junctions that are Topologically connected to each other.

5. Display: Once analysis is done maps, diagrams, graphs and tables are to be designed and same has to be displayed over computer moniter.

6. Output: This is final, stage of GIS function where in the maps, data tables etc…. can be printed to have hard copy as output.

(c)
Explain the functions of GPS.
There are three segments of GPS:-
1. The space segments : The satellites of GPS are launched and positioned at an altitude of approximately 20200 km which is almost more than three times of the earth’s radius. The space segment consists of a constellation of 24 functioning GPs satellites located in 6 orbital plane with 4 satellites in each orbital plane. The time for the satellite to complete one revolution around the earth is 11 hrs and 58 minutes.

2 . The control segment: The control segment consists of facilities necessary for satellites especially healthy monitoring, telemetry, tracking command and control clock error ‘ computation .of satellites. There are 5 GPS stations spread over the earths surface they arc –

• Hawaii