2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 10 Manufacturing Industries

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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 10 Manufacturing Industries

2nd PUC Geography Manufacturing Industries One Mark Questions with Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each:

Question 1.
What is Manufacturing industry?
Answer:
The process involved in conversion of raw materials into finished goods is known as manufacturing industry.

Question 2.
Which industry is called as “Mother of all industries” or “basic industries”?
Answer:
Iron and steel industry is called as “Mother of all industries” or “basic industries”.

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Question 3.
Which city is called Jawa of India?
Answer:
The Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh is known as Jawa of India.

Question 4.
Name the important agro-based industries of India?
Answer:

  • Cotton textile industries
  • Sugar industries
  • Jute industries.

Question 5.
What is Industrial region?
Answer:
A region which has a large concentration of different types of industries is known as industrial region.

Question 6.
Define knowledge-based industry?
Answer:
Utilization of skilled man power through the set of programmes is known as knowledge based industry.

Question 7.
Which city of India is known as Silicon valley?
Answer:
Bangalore is called the Silicon valley of India.

Question 8.
Name of the first Naptha-based chemical industry in India?
Answer:
The National organic chemical industrial limited [NOCIL] was the first Naptha based chemical industry at mumbai in India.

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Question 9.
Mention the biggest industrial region of India?
Answer:
Mumbai – Pune region.

Question 10.
What are the mineral based industry?
Answer:
The group of industries which are depending on mineral ores for the raw material purpose can be called as mineral industries for ex: iron and steel, aluminium, cement etc.

Question 11.
What are the Forest based industry?
Answer:
The group of industries which are depending on Forest products for the raw material purpose can be called as forest based industries.

Question 12.
Name the first large steel plant of the India?
Answer:
Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO). It is located at Jameshedpur of Jharkhand in 1907.

Question 13.
What is Soil?
Answer:
The Steel Authority of India Ltd (Soil).

Question 14.
Which is called the Manchester of South India.
Answer:
Coimbatore – in Tamilnadu.

Question 15.
Which state is the largest producer of cement in India.
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh.

Question 16.
Name the first Aluminium industry in India.
Answer:
Jayakanagar near Asansol in West bengal in 1942.

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Question 17.
In which year was STPI established in India.
Answer:
Software Technology park of India (STPI) was established in 1995.

Question 18.
Expand LPG.
Answer:
“Liberalization Privatization, and Globalization.

Question 19.
What is Economic globalization.
Answer:
It is an arrangement for the production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services.

2nd PUC Geography Manufacturing Industries Two Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
What is the difference between Pure and impure raw materials? Give example?
Answer:
The raw materials which looses much of their weight when they are processed in the industry are called ‘impure materials’.
Some of the raw materials do not loose their weight in the process of manufacturing. They are called Pure materials for ex : Cotton.

Question 2.
Why the Mumbai is known as “Machester of India”?
Answer:
Mumbai is the leading cotton textile center of India. So it is known as “Manchester of India”.

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Question 3.
Mention the importance of aluminium?
Answer:

  • Alluminium is the most widely used metal.
  • Its large ranges from manufacturing of small spoon to air craft’s.
  • It has special value in the manufacturing of transport equipment. Such as aircraft, railways, automobiles etc.
  • It is used in the paints.

Question 4.
States the future of computer software in India?
Answer:

  • Computer software is one of the important source of foreign exchange earnings.
  • It is a major field of employment opportunities.
  • There is a clear imbalance between demand and people.
  • This sector offers many opportunities for the supply.

Question 5.
Why automobiles Industry is tends to be located near Iron and Steel industry?
Answer:
The automobiles industry is tends to be located near Iron and Steel industry because steel is the basic raw materials used in the automobiles industry.

Question 6.
Cotton textile industry is known as Marketing – oriented industry, why?
Answer:
Due to easy transportation of raw cotton, the industries are established near the market areas they are known as market oriented industry.

Question 7.
Mention the uses of by-products of Sugar?
Answer:
The by-products of sugar such as Bagasse and Molasses are very useful. They are

  • The major raw materials of paper and alcoholic industries.
  • These are also supports plaramaceuticals and cardboard manufacturing bakery and confectionery.

Question 8.
Name any three steel plants being under the Private Sector?
Answer:

  1. Jindal Vijaynagar Steel Ltd (J V S L)
  2. Essar Steel Ltd (E S L)
  3. Ispat Industries Ltd (I I L).

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Question 9.
Why Iron and Steel industry is called.raw material oriented?
Answer:
To minimize the transportation cost of the Iron ore, the industries are. established nearest to the availability of raw materials itself it is called as raw material oriented industry.

Question 10.
Mention the four advantages of industries.
Answer:

  • Industries helps in removing poverty and unemployment. ‘
  • The economic strength of a country is judged by the develcfpment of its industries.
  • It contributes about 78 percent of our foreign exchange earning.
  • Industries involve from the making of Machines etjuipement and tools for the automobiles, ships, aircrafts etc.

Question 11.
Write the four important characteristics of industrial region.
Answer:

  • Large urban population and labour supply
  • Efficient network of transport, and communications
  • Wide and nearby market facilities and
  • Excellent banking and other financial facilities.

Question 12.
Mention the four important advantages of the Hoogly-Kolkata region?
Answer:

  1. A rich winterland of the Ganga ah(l Brahmaputra plains
  2. Availability of raw materials like jute, cotton, tea, minerals etc.
  3. Cheap labour from Bihar and Odisha
  4. Availability of vast market in and around Kolkata.

Question 13.
What are the raw materials of the cement industry?
Answer:
Lime stone, sea shalls, slag, silica alumina, clay and gypsum are the raw materials used in the cement industry.

Question 14.
Mention the important Aluminium companies in India.
Answer:

  • Hindustan Aluminium Company (HINDAICO)
  • Indian Aluminium Company (INDALCO)
  • National Aluminium Company (NALCO)
  • Bharath Aluminium Company (BALCO)
  • Madras, Aluminium Company (MALCO).

Question 15.
What are the petrochemical organization in India?
Answer:

  • Indian petrochemical corporation limited (IPCL)
  • Petrofils co-operative limited (PCL)
  • Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET).

Question 16.
Mention the four popular commercial vehicle producers in India.
Answer:

  • Tata Engineering and Locomotive Co. Ltd Andhra Pradesh
  • Premier Automobiles and Mahendra & Mahendra in Mumbai
  • Ashojka Leyland Ltd in Chennai and
  • Hindustan Motors Ltd is at Kolkata.

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Question 17.
Mention the major software and hardware producing companies in India.
Answer:

  • M/s Altos
  • HCL infosystems, Wipro
  • Digital equipment (India)
  • Zenith computers etc.

Question 18.
Write the objectives of Liberalization.
Answer:

  • Abolition of industrial licensing
  • Free entry to foreign technology
  • Foreign investment policy
  • Open trade.

Question 19.
What are the features of private investment.
Answer:

  • The industrial policy has been liberalized to attract private investor both domestic and multinations.
  • New sectors such as mining, telecommunication, highway construction and management are open to private companies.

2nd PUC Geography Manufacturing Industries Five Marks Questions with Answers

Question 1.
Discuss the factors which influence on the location of the industries.
Answer:
Some important factors are:-
2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 10 Manufacturing Industries - 1

  • Raw materials Industries are set up close to or in the regions where raw materials is available.
  • Power Resources Power is essential for running the machinery of industries and influences much on the industrial location.
  • Water supply Large quantities of water essential for the processing of raw materials or for cooling purposes. Therefore industries are usually localized near rivers or lakes.
  • Climate:- Industries are influenced by climate. For example Cotton textile industry requires humid climate.
  • Labour Cheap and efficient labour is required to work in the industries.
  • MarketNearness to market is essential for quick marketing of manufactured goods.
  • Transportation It is necessary to carry raw materials to the factories and to carry finished products to the markets as well.
  • Capital Development of Industries requires large capital investment.
  • Government:- Government must have favourable policies such as tax exemptions electricity and sites at concessional rates, subsidies, rail-link, improved roads etc.

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Question 2.
Give an account of Iron and Steel Industry in India.
Answer:
Importance:

  • The Iron and Steel industry is described as a basic Industry.
  • Iron and Steel supplied by this industry such as machineries, irrigation projects, ship building, power projects, construction of bridges, buildings, transport equipment, machine tools and so on.
  • The Production and Consumption of Iron and Steel is an index level of the economic develpoment of a country.

Distribution:
There are nine major Iron and Steel industries in India.

  • Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), Jamshedpur :- It was established in 1907. It was the first largest steel plant of the country.
  • Vishveswariah Iron and Steel Co. Ltd (VISL) Bhadravathi 11 was first established in 1923 by the princely state of Mysore located at Bhadravathi in Shimoga district of Karnataka.
  • India Iron and Steel Company Ltd (IISCO) Bunpur:- It was established in 1919 at Bumpur in West Bengal. It was the second largest integrated steel plant after Tata Iron and Steel Ltd.
  • Hindustan Steel Company Ltd, Rourkela :- It was completed with the German collaboration. The steel plant was commissioned in 1955.
  • Bhilai Steel Plant :- It has the largest steel production plant of the public sector. It is located at Bilai near Raipur in Chhatisgarh.
  • Durgapur Steel Plant :- The steel plant in Durgapur in West Bengal was established with British collaboration and was commissioned in 1956.
  • Salem Steel Plant:- It is located at Salem in TamilNadu and the production was started from 1982.
  • Vishakapatnam Steel Plant :- Established by National Ispat Nigam Ltd in Andhra Pradesh.
  • New Steel Plants Some private sectors plants are.
  • Jindal Vijaynagar Steel Ltd (JVSL) This steel plant is located at Tomagal, Bellary district in Karnataka.
  • Essar Steel Ltd (ESL) It is situated at Hazira in Gujarat.
  • Ispat Industries Ltd (IIL) It is situated at Dovi, Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra.
  • Neelachal Ispat Nigam Ltd (NINL)It is a new steel plant located at Dubai, Odisha.
  • Mini Steel Plants Presently, 199 lincensed electric ore furnace units with an installed capacity of 7.8 million tonnes have been commissioned and hence started commercial production.

Question 3.
Discuss the significance and distribution of sofware industries in India.
Answer:
Significance : Computer software industry in India are :

  • The Aptitude of Indians for mathematics.
  • Another reason may be the cost advantage of production in India.
    Global software firms are attracted to India’s large, skilled labour force.
  • It has the second largest number of English speaking scientific professionals in the world, after the U.S.
  • The Indian software industry focuses more on management information and decisions support systems, banking, insurance and financial applications, artificial intelligence etc.

Distribution :

  • The major software and hardware producing companies include M/s Altos, HCL, Infosystems, Wipro, Digital Equipment (India), Zenith Computers, Tata Honey well, Unicorp Industries, Eseda Industries, Infosys, BEL software, PSI Data are global software firms having manufacturing base in India.
  • Among the states of India Karnataka, particularly Bengaluru is the most important destination of Indian software industry so it is called Silicon Valley of India.
  • In addition to Bengaluru software industries are also, developing in many centres of Karnataka such as Mysore, Mangalore, Udupi, Hubli etc.

Question 4.
Describe the production and distribution of Petro-chemical industries in India.
Answer:
Distribution: Mumbai is the hub of Petrochemical industries. Other units are located in Auraiya (Uttar Pradesh), Gandhara, Hazira(Gujarat), Nagothare, Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), Haldia (West Bengal) and Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).
Three organizations are working in the petrochemical sector such as:

  1. Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited (IPCL).
  2. Petrofils Cooperative limited (PCL)
  3. Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET).
    • Synthetic Fibres Industries manufacturing nylon and polyester yams are located at Kota, Pimpri, Mumbai, Modinagar, Pune.
    • Polymers:- Polymers are made from Ethylene and Propylene.

Production :

  • The National Organic Chemical Industrial Limited (NOCIL) was the first naphta based Chemical Industry at Mumbai.
  • Other major producers of plastic materials are Mumbai, Barauni, Mettur, Pimpri and Rishra.
  • The present installed capaycity of these units is of the order 6-7 MT. The industry has an annual growth rate of 15 percent and employs three million people directly.
  • The industry process about 3.6 MT of prime or virgin polymers and 1.4 MT.

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Question 5.
Write the importance of knowledge – based industry and Explain briefly why these industries are located in major cities.
Answer:

Significance: Computer software industry in India are :

  • The Aptitude of Indians for mathematics.
  • Another reason may be the cost advantage of production in India.
    Global software firms are attracted to India’s large, skilled labour force.
  • It has the second largest number of English speaking scientific professionals in the world, after the U.S.
  • The Indian software industry focuses more on management information and decisions support systems, banking, insurance and financial applications, artificial intelligence etc.

Distribution :

  • The major software and hardware producing companies include M/s Altos, HCL, Infosystems, Wipro, Digital Equipment (India), Zenith Computers, Tata Honey well, Unicorp Industries, Eseda Industries, Infosys, BEL software, PSI Data are global software firms having manufacturing base in India.
  • Among the states of India Karnataka, particularly Bengaluru is the most important destination of Indian software industry so it is called Silicon Valley of India.
  • In addition to Bengaluru software industries are also, developing in many centres of Karnataka such as Mysore, Mangalore, Udupi, Hubli etc.

Question 6.
Discuss the advantages of Mumbai – Pune Industrial region.
Answer:
It is located in Maharashtra. It is the biggest Industrial agglomeration in India. It includes Mumbai Metropolis and its many suburbs namely Kurla, Ghatkopar, Vile Parle, Jogeswari, Andheri, Thane.

Advantages:

  • Early initiative of the British and the local Parsi and Baniya merchants.
  • Mumbai port facilities.
  • A good Network of transport by road and rail and good communications.
  • Availability of Raw cotton.
  • Development of hydro-electric power in the Western Ghats.
  • Supply of cheap labour from the Konkan area.
  • Availability of banking and financial facilities. ‘

A variety of industries are concentrated in this region. Cotton textile industry is well developed here. The other industries are woolen and skill textiles, synthetic fibres, chemicals, vanaspathi, soap, rubber, plastic, oil refining, sugar, cement, pharamaceuticals, cars, automobiles, bicycles etc.

Question 7.
Sugar Industry of India is moving southwards. Give reasons.
Answer:
In the recent years, there is remarkable change in the development of sugar industry. The sugar industry has developed more in the southern states, namely Maharashtra, TamilNadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. It is described as the geographical redistribution of sugar

The geographical shift is due to :

  • The Southern states located in the tropical region are highly suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
  • The yeild of sugarcane in these states is much higher than the Northern states.
  • Extension of irrigation in the southern states has brought large tracts under sugarcane cultivation. It has favoured the establishment of many sugar industries.
  • Being located in the tropical region, sugarcane ripening period and crushing period.
  • Supply of hydro-electricity, transport and market facilities.

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Question 8.
What are the effects of Globalization?’
Answer:
There are Positive effects and Negative effects:
1. Positive effects: Industry has brought in huge amount of foreign investments into the industry & they has boosted the economy quite significantly.

  • This has helped to provide employment to many people in the country.
  • This has helped to make the Indian Industry more technologically advanced.
  • It helps to reduce poverty in the country.

2. Negative effects :

  • The Negative effects of globalization on Indian industry are that it is increased computation in the Indian market between the foreign companies and domestic companies.
  • The foreign goods being better than the Indian goods, the consumer preffered to by the foreign goods. This reduced the amount of profit of the Indian industry companies.
  • Its effects are more on pharmaceutical, manufacturing, chemical & the steel industries.
  • The coming up technology the number of labour requried decreased and this resulted in many people being removed from their jobs. ‘

Question 9.
Give an account of automobile industry in India.
Answer:
The term “Automobile” is applied to any self-propelled vehicle powered by an Internal combustion engine & designed to transport passengers and goods over roads and highways.

Development :

  • At present, India has above 40 million passenger vehicles.
  • More than 3.7 million Automotive vehicles are produced annually, making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world after China.
  • According to the society of Indian automobile manufacturers, annual vehicles sales are projected to increase to 4 million by 2015.

Location Factors:
The main factors favour the growth of automobiles industry are:

  • Large supply of Iron & Steel, wood, glass, aluminium and fuels.
  • Highly skilled labour.
  • High degree of scientific and engineering skill.
  • Large amount of capital.
  • A large home market.

Distribution :

  • Mumbai, Chennai, Jamshedpur, Jabalpur and Kolkata are the chief centres of automobile Industry.
  • These centres produce almost all sorts of vehicles including trucks, buses, passengers, three wheelers and two wheelers.
  • Motor cycles are also manufactured at Faridabad and Mysore.
  • Scooters are also manufactured at Lucknow, Satara, Pune, Kanpur & Odhav (Ahmedabad district).

Production :

  • In 2012-13, Automobile industry of India produced 20.6 million vehicles.
  • India is the largest producer of two wheelers.

Question 10.
Mention the importance of cement industry development in India.
Answer:
Importance: The ‘Cement’ is the name given to the mixture of limestone, clay, silica and gypsum. This is essential for all types of construction activities.

  • Cement is essential for the development of all types of infrastructure facilities such as roads, bridge, dams, buldings canals etc. .
  • The production and consumption of cement is an indicator of the progress of a nation.
  • It is the fundamental requirement for the development of major economic sectors such as agriculture, industry, transportation, trade etc.
  • India is not olny one of the major cement producing countries of the world, at the same time, it is one of the largest cement consumer as well as exporter.

Development: The first cement plant was established by South Indian Industries at Ranipet near Chennai in 1904.

  • During 1914-16 two more cement plants were established at Katni in Madhya Pradesh & Lakheri of Rajasthan.
  • In 1934, 10 out of 11 existing companies merged together & established Associated Cement Company Ltd., (ACC) by 1947.
  • At present (2010) there are 153 large cement plants with a total production of 219.51 million tonnes. Besides the country have more than 99 mini cement plants with an installed capacity’ of 11.10 mmt.
  • It the last three decades the country has emerged as the second largest cement producing country of the world.

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Question 11.
Explain the importance and distribution of cotton textile industry in India.
Answer:
Importance:

  •  It provides employment to over 35 million people in the mills, power looms and hand loom sector.
  • Indirectly millions of people derives livelihood in cotton production, processing trade, garments and also in the textile machinery sectors.
  • It is the most important sector of employment in the country next to agriculture.
  • The export of cotton textiles contributes about 17 percent Our total export earnings etc.

Distribution of cotton textile industries:

  • Maharashtra: It is the largest producer of cotton textile in the country. It produces 39.38 percent mill cloth and 1079 percent yam of India. It has 169 mills – these are located at Mumbai, Pune, Sangli, Nagpur, Sholapur etc It is called ‘Manchester of India’ and the cottonopolice of India.
  • Gujarath: It is second largest producer of cotton in the country. It has 120 cotton mills which are located in Ahmadabad, Baroda, Rajkot, Bhuvanger, Surat etc.
  • Tamilnadu: It has highest number of textile industries in the country . They are about 893 mills on the state they are found in Coimbatore, Madurai, Salem, Tirpur etc. Coimbatore is the most important center with 323 cotton mills. It is called the ‘Manchester of South India’.
  • Karnataka: There are about 54 industries which are located at Davanagere, Hubli, Bellary, Gokak, Mysore, Bengaluru etc Davanagere is the chief center cotton textile in Karnataka.
  • Uttar Pradesh : Kanpur is the chief center of cotton mills in Uttar pradesh. Other important centers are Agra, Bareily, Aligarh, Moradabad, Varanasi etc.
  • Madhya Pradesh: There are 52 cotton textile industries in the state. They are located at Indore, Gwalior, Ujjain, Bhopal and Jabalpur.
  • West Bengal: The industries are elargely found in Kolkata Howrah.
  • Others : In Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh etc.

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 10 Manufacturing Industries - 2

Question 12.
Describe the Production and Distribution of aluminium industries in India.
Answer:
Distribution: Distribution of aluminium industries in India is closely related to the availability of cheap electricity and bauxite.
The country has 9 major aluminium plants:-

  1. Jayakanagar in West bengal
  2. Alupuram in Kerala
  3. Mettur in Tamilnadu
  4. Belagum in Kamataka
  5. Hirakudand
  6. Darnanjodi in Odish
  7. Renukut in U.P
  8. Korba in Chatiisgarh and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra.

These are functioning under five producers namely:

  • Hindustan Aluminium Company (HINDAICO) Renukut in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Indian Aluminium Company (INDALCO).
  • National Aluminium Company (NALCO) at Angul, Denkenel district of Odisha.
  • Bharath Aluminium Company (BALCO) at Korba, Korba District of Chattisgarh.
  • Madras Aluminium Company (MALCO) at Mettur, Mettur district of Tamilnadu.
  • Vedanta Alumninium Ltd at Jharsuguda in Odisha.

Production :

  • India produces only 3.4 percent of the tonnes of Aluminium in 2001 -02. It has increased to 16.3 lakh tones ‘ in2010-ll.
  • Now India is 6th largest producer of aluminium and 3rd largest producer of alumina.
  • Most of the output is consumed to meet the domestic demand. So, India imports aluminium and its products.

2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 10 Manufacturing Industries - 3

Question 13.
Explain the major features of Globalization,
Answer:
Major features of Globalization are as follows:

  • Globalization means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy.
  • Goods and services along with capital, labour and resources can move freely from one nation to another.
  • The thrust of globalization has been to increase to domestic and external competition.

In India contect, this implies:

  • Opening of the economy to foreign direct investment.
  • Removing restrictions and obstacles to the entry of Multinational companies in India.
  • Allowing Indian companies to enter into foreign collaboration.
  • Carrying out massive import by liberlization programs.
  • Bringing down the level of import duties considerably.
  • Instead of a set of export incentives, opting for exchange rate adjustments for promoting export.

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