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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 6 Population of India
2nd PUC Geography Population of India One Mark Questions with Answers
What is the total population of India according to 2011 Census?
According to 2011 Census, the total population of India was 121.01 crores.
Name the state recorded as highest literacy rate of India.
The state recorded as highest literacy rate of India is Kerala with 93.91%.
Which state has the highest density of population.
The state which has the highest density of population is Bihar with 1102 persons/sq km.
What is the average birth and death rate of India?
The Average birth rate is 22.22 per thousand persons in 2011. The Average death rate is 6.4 per thousand persons in 2011.
Which state has highest sex ratio?
Kerala (1084 females for every 1000 males) according to 2011 census.
Name the highest and lowest density states of India.
The highest density state is Delhi (11927) and lowest density state is Andaman and Nicobar Islands has lowest density (463) of population.
What is the average population density of India according to 2011 Census?
The average population density of India according to 2011 census is 382 persons per square km.
Which Union territory has highest population density?
The Union territory that has highest population density is Delhi (11297 persons / sq km).
In which year family planning programme was introduced in India?
The family planning programme was introduced in India in the year 1952.
Which decade is known as great divide in India census?
The decade which is known as great divide is 1901 – 1921.
What is the average literacy rate of India according to 2011 census?
The average, literacy rate of India is 74.4%.
What is migration?
The movement of people from one place to another is known as migration.
Which stream of internal migration is called as women migration?
Rural to Rural stream of internal migration is called as women migration.
What is the rank of human development index of India according to 2011?
The rank of human development index of India according to 2011 is 134th Rank.
Which decade has lowest population growth after the independence of India?
The Lowest population growth was recorded in the decade 2001-2011.
United Nations Development Programme.
In which year the first population census in India was conducted.
In which stage the growth rate of population is very high.
In third stage The population grew from 361 million (1951) to 686 million (1981).
Name the state recorded Lowest literacy rate of India.
B b w with 63.82% is the Lowest Literacy state.
What is the highest birth and death rate of India.
It was 49.2 births per thousand persons (highest birth rate)
It was 42,6 deaths per thousand persons, (highest death rate)
What is the average literacy rate of India as per 2011 Census?
As per 2011 census the average literacy rate of India is 74.4% (Male – 82.1%, Female – 65.5%).
Which state of country first birth control area project was started and when?
Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka, in the year 1973.
Name the highest and lowest density Union territories of India?
Delhi is highest (11297) whereas Andaman & Nicobar Islands have lowest density (463) of population.
Which state has lowest sex ratio?
Haryana (877 females per thousand males).
What is family planning?
It is a programme to reduce the number of persons in a family. The first camp is hold 1961 in Maharastra. ‘
Which is the most populous city in India?
Mumbai is the most populous city in India with 1.63 million population.
What is present life expectancy rate of India.
The present life expetancy rate of India is 65.77 year for males and 67.95 years for females.
State the percentage of Urban and Rural population in India.
23.6% lived in Urban areas
76.4% lived in Rural areas.
Who is called unproductive population in India?
Generally, below the age 0-14 years infants and above the 60 years old age considered as unproductive.
What is called as sterilization of males.
The clinical method of controlling births from male can be called sterilization of males.
For ex: Vasectomy.
What is ‘Brain drain’.
Highly calculated and skilled professionals have migrated from India to some of the most advanced countries like the USA, UK, Canada etc is known as brain drain.
2nd PUC Geography Population of India Two Marks Questions with Answers
What do you mean by Population explosion.
More number of births & less number of deaths. This leads to rapidity in the growth of population which is known as Population explosion.
What is Population density?
The total number of persons per square kilometers area is known as density of population.
Give any four causes for high birth rate in India?
The causes for high birth rate in India are:-
- Early Marriage
- Universal Marriage
- Religious and social supertitions
- Illiteracy etc.
What is the difference between immigration and emigration?
Immigration : is used for in-migration from across the international border where.
Emigration : is used for out-migration from one country to another.
Give any four causes for low death rate in India.
The causes low death rate in India are due to:
- Control of epidemics
- Expansion of medical facilities
- Control of infant mortality
- Spread of education.
What is the difference between Intra-State and Inter-State migration?
- Movement of people from one state to another is called ‘Inter-state migration’ for ex¬ample people can migrate from Karnataka to Goa.
- In Contrast movement of people within the state is called ‘Intra-state migration.
For example people can migrate from Chamarajanagar to Mysore or Bengaluru.
What are the four streams of Internal Migration.
The four streams of Internal Migration are:
- Rural to Rural
- Rural to Urban
- Urban to Urban
- Urban to Rural.
State any two Positive effects of Migration.
The two positive effects of migration are:
- It helps the people to get employment.
- It reduces the problem of scarcity of labour.
Name any two factor influenced on Human development Index in India.
The two factors influenced on Human development Index in India are:
- Birth and Death rate.
- Life Expectancy.
Name the states of highest and lowest HDI in India.
Kerala has highest and Chhattisgarh has lowest HDI in India.
What is Natural increase of Population.
Population explosion due to difference of high birth rate and low death rate. This kind of increase in population is called as natural increase of Population.
What is the meaning of Census?
It is an official periodic count of population. This includes the information such as Sex, age, occupation, etc is called census.
What are the different stages of growth of population in India.
The four Wellmarked stages in Census report 2011 are as –
- 1901 – 1921 : Stagnant population.
- 1921 – 1951 : Steady growth.
- 1951 – 1981 : Rapid growth.
- 1981 – 2011: High growth with definite signs of slowing down.
Name any two important journals of family planning programme.
- Centre calling in English and
- Hamaraghar in Hindi.
What are the birth rate and death rates?
- Number of births per thousand persons in a year is called birth rate.
- Number of deaths per thousand persons in a year is called death rate.
What are the ‘BIMARU’ States.
The most populated states namely Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan & Uttar Pradesh are called ‘BIMARU’ which literally means ‘Sick states’.
Literacy is defined as a person aged 7 years and above his ability to read and write with understanding short & simple statement in any language.
What do you mean by Grey India?
Life expectancy is projected to increase more by 2040 and more percentage of the population at this stage will have Gray hair. This situation is described as grey India.
Mention any four important causes of migration.
- Education &
- Lack of security.
Name the four important programmes to control poverty and malnutrition in India.
- Sarva Shikshana Abhiyana.
- Anna Bhagya Yojane.
- Ksheera Bhagya Yojane.
- Cooly gagi kalu &
- Ba Maralishalege.
2nd PUC Geography Population of India Five Marks Questions with Answers
Explain the trend of population growth in India.
The Population growth in India between 1901 and 2011 can be divided ‘into four stages as
- 1901 – 1921 Stagnant population growth.
- 1921 -1951 Steady growth.
- 1951 – 1981 Rapid high growth.
- 1981 -2011 High growth with definite signs of slowing down.
1. In the first stage: In this decade, population growth was naturally curbed with the outbreak of Plague, Cholera. Malaria, influenza and other epidemics. Thus the decade is considered as ‘the great divide in the history of Indian Census’
2. In the second stage: The population can be considered as moderate The population grow ing from about 251 million (1921) to 361 million (3951), an increase of about 110 million. The main reason was decline in death rate due to control of epidemics like Plague, Cholera etc.
3. The third stage: is very important, because of the growth rate of population is very high. The Population grew from 361 million (195 1) to 686 (1981). an increase of about 325 million The growth has been very rapid after independence. The government of India was implemented many Socio-Economical Programs in all sectors.
4. The fourth stage: It completely differs from other three stages. Here the trend of growth rate of population is gradually slowing down. We can easily justify that, the period from 1981 to 2011 is referred to as a high growth with definite signs of slowing down.
Describe the factors responsible for rapid growth of population in India.
1. High Birth Rate – High birth rate is the dominate factor in rapid growth of population
in India. It was 49.2 in 1901 and has declined to 22.22 per thousand in 2011.
Causes for high birth rate: There are several causes for high birth rate in India.
For example: Early marriage, Universal marriage, religious and superstitions, joint family system, illiteracy, polygamy, predominance of agriculture, poverty, slow urbanization process, tropical climate etc. All these factors have been caused directly or indirectly for high birth rate.
2. Low Birth rate : Death rate was very high (42.6) in 1901, but it was sharply declined to 6.4 per thousand persons) in 2011.
Causes for low death rate : There are many causes for declining trend of deathrate they are control of epidemics, decline in the incidence of Malaria and tuberculosis expansion of medical facilities, control of infant mortality, spread of education, improvement in the nutrition level etc, due to all of these programs and activities, death fate has been declining from one decade to another.
Explain the factors responsible for uneven distribution of population in India.
The important factors are
1. Physical features – The Mountain and hilly regions are emost unstable for human habitation. For example; Northern Mountain, Western and Eastern Ghats, North Eastern hilly regions are moderately populated. The fertile great plains of North India and the river deltas have high density of population.
2. Climate – The density of population is high in good climatic regions. But the-very hot or cold and very dry climatic regions have low density of population.
3. Soils – The fertile soil regions have high crop productivity. So, the Northern, Eastern
and Western coastal plains are most densely populated. In contrast, infertile sandy areas are less productive and they are low populated. :
4. Resources – Mineral and power resources promote rapid economic development. Therefore, such areas are densly populated. For example, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, West Bengal etc.
5. Industries, Trade and Commerce – Highly industrialized, Commercial and business areas of the country have densly populated. For example Mumbai, Surat, Bhilai, Duigapur, Bangalore etc.
6. Security – People like to stay in a good security of life and property. Hence it is also influenced on population distribution. For example, Border areas of Jammu and Kashmir and Rajasthan are sparsely populated.
Discuss the Composition of population in India.
The Composition of population includes the study of Sex ratio, Literacy, age structure rural and urban population etc.
1. Sex ratio – The number of females per 1000 males is known as ‘sex ratio’.
- As per 2011 census,the averages sex ratio of the country was 940 females for every 1000 males.
- There are 1084 females for every 1000 male in Kerala. In Contrast, Haryana has 877 females for every 1000 males
2. Literacy – In recent years, literacy rate has increased in the country. The average literacy in 1951 was only 18.33%. It has increased to (74.4%) in 2011. Kerala with 93.91%isthehighestliteracystateinlndia. In Contrast, Biharwith 63.82% is the lowest literacy state.
3. Age structure – On the basis of the age the entire population is divided into three major categories namely infants (0-14 year). Adults (15-59 years) and aged group (above 60 years).
- According to 2011 census, about 31.10% of the total population of the country is infants, 5.3% are old age and adults are only 63.60%.
- Infants and aged people have become unproductive.
- Thus, the number of working population is also increasing. It is highly favourable for the development of the country.
4. Rural & Urban population: According to 2011 census, in India 76.4% of the people lives in rural areas and 23.6 lives in Urban areas.
- Maharashtra has highest urban population.
- In Contrast, Sikkim has lowest urban population. Thus, Uttar Pradesh has more rural population and Mizoram has low rural population in the country.
What are the problems caused with rapid growth of population?
The Rapid growth of population has led to a number of problems as follows:-
(1) Unemployment and Underemployment : It has been increasing from year to year. It has badly affected on young educated people both in rural and urban areas.
(2) Shortage of food & -Malnutrition : A large number of people are poorly fed. Malnutrition is prevailing throughout the country. It is fatal for the development of the country.
(3) Burden on Civic & Social Amenities : Education, health and medical, housing, drinking water, electricity and problems increases.
(4) Low per capita income : The increase in per capita income is only 15% annually. Low per capita income has a direct impact on the economic condition of the people.
(5) Increase of Unproductive population : Below 15 years (Infants) and above 60 years (old age) are unproductive. They are dependent on earning persons. Thus rapid growth has increased dependents rather than producers. ‘
(6) Others : Slow in economic development, mass poverty, low standard of living, political unrest and the social problems like theft robbery, immortality, corruption and the growth of slums, environment pollution are also directly related to the popualtion explosion.
Explain the types of Migration.
The types of Migration are Internal Migration and International Migration.
1. Internal Migration :
Movement of people from one region to another within the same country’ is called internal migration. In India there are four streams of internal migration. They are
- Rural to Rural
- Rural to Urban
- Urban to Urban
- Urban to Rural
1. Rural to Rural: This is estimated that about 65.2% of total migration is of this category’.
Female migrants dominated in this stream. Thus it is an important example for matrimonal migration and it is called women migration.
2. Rural to Urban : Rural to Urban migration (17.6%) is second important type of migration. Rural – Urban migration is caused by both push of the rural areas as well as pull of the urban areas.
3. Urban to Urban : Generally, people like to move from small town with less facility to large cities with more facilities.
4. Urban to Rural : Urban areas are usually affected by the pollution.
The retired and aged people prefer to spend their old age life in nearby villages. Thus people move from Urban to Rural.
2. International Migration : Movement of people from one country to another across international borders is called International migration.
Describe the effects of Migration.
The Effects of Migration can be classified into two namely:-
- Positive effects.
- Negative effects.
1. Positive effects of Migration :
- Migration controls the high density of population.
- It helps the people to get employment.
- It reduces the problem of scarcity of Labour.
- Migration leads to the change in the demographic structure of a region.
It helps to reduce the inequality of the society.
2. Negative effects of Migration :
- It affects on density and distribution of population.
- Large-scale migration from rural to urban centres results in creation of slums.
- It also leads to many social problems such as debauchery and immoral activities.
- Their will be pressure on civic amenties, like electricity etc.
- Migration causes ethnics, religious and language problems.
- It will effects on the job opportunities of local people.
Explain the controlling measures of Migration.
The Controlling measures of Migration are :
- Expand the civic amenties to villages as well as cities. It can control Rural to Urban migration.
- Develop transport facilities between the city and surrounding rural areas.
- Create more employment opportunities in the surrounding rural areas of the city.
- Develop satellite towns around big cities with all basic amenities.
- Encourage labourers to live in the satellite towns rather than in big cities. .
- Develop Industrial areas outside the cities.
Discuss the factors affected on Human development index in India.
Factors influencing on HDI of India are discussed below:
1. Birth and Death Rate : Declining of birth rate has been much slower than that of the death rate. This results in rapid increase of population. It affects on slow economic growth of the country. It is the main cause for declining of human development index.
2. Life Expectancy : Life Expectancy has gone up 65.77 years for males 67.95 years females respectively in 2011-12. This is due to the consequence of the expansion of food security and medical facilities. It helps to raise the HDI in the country.
3. Food and Nutrition : According to the 2011 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report, India has 15th rank among the leading countries with hunger situation.
- The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest-ranking countries in the World for the number of children suffering from malnutrition.
- It is adversely affecting the Human development.
4. Literacy : Education is the key for socio-economic progress. The Indian literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011 from 12% at the end of the British rule in 1947. The large proportion of illiterate females is another reason for the low literacy rate in India. Due to this there is decline in the Human development Index of the country.
5. Poverty :
- India suffers from a lot of Poverty which means that many people here do not have enough money.
- Poverty has reflected in poor quality of life, hunger, malnutrition, illiteracy and consequent low level of human development.
Explain the measures to check the growth of population in India.
The government of India has taken several steps to control the growth of population in the country are as :
(a) Family Planning Programme : India was the first country in the world to adopt the family planning programme in the year 1952. The main aim is to control births by various means such as free sterilization (Vasectomy for males Tubectomy for females). Adopting contraceptives etc.
(b) Improvement of the status of women : The social, economic and political status of women have been improved through education and various women welfare scheme. For ex: In Karnataka free Education, Government jobs, Bhagyalaxmiyojana etc.
(c) Programmes to control infant mortality: The government of Karnataka has introduced many child welfare programmes to control infant mortality. For ex: Jananisurakshayojan, Madilu Prasooti Araike etc.
(d) Area Projects : Under this project health worker visit door to door and advise. In addition they are also motivating the people to adopt contraceptives and undergo sterilization. .
(e) Publicity : Broadcasting the benifits of small family through the Radio, Television and Newspapers etc.
Explain the distribution of density of population in India.
In India, the population is unevenly distributed. This is due to varied geographical & cultural -Matures. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country with 19975 million people in Contrast Sikkim with a population of 6.0 lakh has the lowest in the country.
Distribution of population in India has been divided into 3 Zones.
- High – density Zone
- Medium – density Zone &
- Low – density Zone.
Please draw the Density of population map. It is in textbook page no – 94.
- High density zone : The area which consists of more than 501 persons per square km either state or Union territories. Bihar (1102) West bengal (1030), Kerala (859), Uttar pradesh (828) states, Delhi (11297), Chandigarh (9252), Panduchey (2598) Union – Territories.
- Medium density zone : The area which consists of 251 to 500 persons per square km. It includes Jharkhand (414), Assam (397), Goa (3 94), Maharashtra (365), Tripura (350), Karnataka (319) etc.
- Low density zone : The areas which consists lessthan 250 persons per square lan, Madhya pradesh (236), Rajasthan (201), Uttarkhand (189), Chattisgarh (189), Meghalaya (132) and other northeastern states.
What is the meaning of Migration? Explain the impotant causes of Migration.
The movement of people from one place to another place is knowm as Migration.
Causes of Migration : Migration is caused by a variety of factors including economic, social and political factors. Some of them are briefly discussed below.
- Marriage : Every girl has to migrate to her husband’s place after marriage, thus the entire female population of India has to migrate over short or long distance.
- Employment : The agricultural base of rural areas does not provide employment to all the people living here. In contrast, urban areas provide vast scope for employment in industries, trade, transport & services. Hence people like to migrate towards the urban areas.
- Education : Educational facilities are very- low in the rural areas especially those of higher education and rural people have to migrate to the urban centers for this purpose.
- Lack of security : Large number of people have migrated out of Jammu and Kashmir and Assam during the last few years due to disturbed conditions there. In this situation, people would like to migrate towards well secure areas.