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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2015
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
What does the word ‘Mohenjodaro’ mean?
‘Mohenjodaro’ means ‘mound of the dead’ in Sindhi language.
Who was the founder of Jainism?
Rishabhanatha was the founder of Jainism.
Who wrote ‘Shakunthala’?
Kalidasa wrote the famous drama Shakunthala.
Which is the first Kannada inscription?
Halmidi inscription was the first Kannada inscription.
When did the First Battle of Panipat take place?
The first battle of Panipat took place in 1526 C.E.
Who built Madarasa at Bidar?
Mohammad Gawan built the Madarasa at Bidar.
Which was the birth place, of Basaveshwara?
Basaveshwara was born at Ingaleshwar in Bijapur district of Karnataka.
In which year did the first war of Indian independence occur?
The first war of Indian Independence occurred in 1857 C.E.
What is Shuddhi Movement?
To check the conversion of Hindus to other religions and to bring the converted Hindus back to Hinduism is Suddhi movement.
Who transferred the capital from Mysuru to Bengaluru?
Mark Cubbon shifted the capital from Mysuru to Bangaluru.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Name any two universities of ancient India.
Universities at Nalanda, Taxila, Ujjaini, Kashi, Vikramashila, etc. were the universities of ancient India.
Mention any two sites of the Paleolithic age.
Narmada and Tungabhadra valleys, Chota Nagpur(M.P), Tanjavun Trichinopaly, Arcot (T.N), Guntur, Kurnool, Chuddapah (A.P), Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, etc. are the sites of the Paleolithic age.
Name any two learned women of Vedic period.
Gargi, Vishwavara, Ghosha, Apala, and others were some of the learned women of Vedic period.
Write any two measures of Kanishka for the spread of Buddhism.
Kanishka gave royal patronage to Buddhism. A large number of missionaries were sent to foreign countries. He conducted the 4th Buddhist Council in Kashmir. These measures were taken by Kanishka for the spread of Buddhism.
Who erected the Gommateshwara statue and where?
Chavundaraya (P.M. of Rachamalla – IV erected the Gommateshwara statue at Shravanabelagola.
Name any two works of Ranna.
Ranna wrote Ajitanatha Purana and Gadhayuddha (Sahasa Bhima Vijaya).
Which were the two important faxes collected by Shivaji?
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the two taxes collected by Shivaji.
Who were the parents of Shankaracharya?
Shivaguru and Aryamba were the parents of Shankaracharya.
Between whom was the battle of Plassey fought?
Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal and Robert Clive (British).
Name any two Land Revenue Systems. introduced by British in India.
Permanent Land Revenue (Zamindari system), Ryotwari system and Mahalwari Revenue Systems were introduced by the British in India.
Name two important Commissioners of Mysuru.
Mark Cubbon and L.B. Bowring were two important Commissioners of Mysuru.
From where did Gandhiji start the ‘Salt March’ and where did it ultimately end?
M.K. Gandhi started the salt march from the Sabarmathi Ashram. It ultimately ended in Dandi (12th March to 6th April 1930).
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
Write a note on the contributions of foreign writers in reconstructing the history of India.
1. Foreign Accounts:
There are some interesting sources of information from the accounts narrated by foreign writers. India had attracted many foreign traders, pi Igrims, philosophers and invaders. Many of them left their records, impressions and opinions about India. These help to fill in the gaps about important events.
2. Greek and Roman writers:
Megasthenes, the Ambassadar of the Greek Sovereign Seleucus to the court of Chandragupta Mourya, has left a detailed account of India during the Mauryan period, in his book ‘Indica’. Ptolemy, another greek, wrote a geographical account of India in the 2nd century AD.
He gave information regarding the commercial relations of Greece with ancient India. ‘The Periplus of the Erithrean sea’, a work by an unknown Greek author mentions many coastal towns, rulers, and products of India. Pliny wrote ‘Natural Historia’ (1st century AD) which gives some idea regarding Indo-Roman trade relations and the political conditions of India.
3. Chinese Accounts:
There were some notable Chinese pilgrims who visited India. Fahian visited India (The reign of Chandragupta-II) in early 5th century AD and has given a vivid picture of many cities and Ashoka’s palace. He also gives information about the Gupta administration.
Hiuen Tsang(629-645 AD) visited India in the 7th century AD. He left valuable information in his book ‘Siyuki’ (Records of the. western world). He visited the court of Harshavardhana and Pulikeshi-II.
He has given a vivid picture of the education, religion, society, and administration of their regimes. He has also mentioned the battle of Narmada and the defeat of Harshavardhana.
visited India during the end of the 7th century AD. He had travelled across India extensively and gives information regarding various cities of India like Rajagraha, Kasi, and Nalanda and describes the status of Buddhism in India at that period.
5. Arab and other writers:
Muslim writers and historians have given valuable contributions to the reconstruction of our history. Prominent among them were Firdousi’s (Ibn Hassan) ‘Shahanama’, ‘Babarnama’ by Emperor Babar, ‘Jahangirnama’ by Jahangir and ‘Akbarnama’ by Abdul Fazal and many more.
The Arab travellers, Sulaiman Alberuni (contemporary of Mohammad Ghazni) and Ibn Batuta, have left their records about India. Other travellers like Nicolo Conti of Italy, Abdul Razzak (Persia), Barbosa and Domingo Paes (Portugal) and Niketin (Russia) have given a lot of information regarding Vijayanagara and Bahamani Empires.
State the social and economic conditions of Indus people.
Experts are of the opinion, that the Indus people belonged to a mixed (admixtured) race of Proto- austroloids, Alpines, Mediterraneans, and Mongoloids. Some other scholars believed, that Dravidians founded the Indus culture.
2. Social divisions (classes):
There was no caste system then. With the help of the excavations, historians have come to the conclusion that there was a fourfold division of the society based on occupations.
They were probably, as follows. The first class was made up of priests, physicians, astrologers, etc., the second that of warriors, the third class consisted of traders and various artisans and the fourth one comprising of manual labourers and agriculturists who were the majority.
3. Dresses and ornaments:
Both men and women used cotton and woollen threads as fabrics. Men wore an upper garment like shawl or cloak and their lower garment was dhoti.
Women used skirts and a garment to cover their upper body and a kind of fan-shaped head-dress. They were conscious about their physical appearance. Women used cosmetics like face powder, lipsticks, eye ointment and accessories like mirrors, combs, and hairpins.
Ornaments were worn by men and women, like necklaces, anklets, girdles, armlets and finger rings. Women alone used girdles, nose studs, earstuds, anklets, etc. Rich amongst them used gold, silver, ivory, and semi-precious stone ornaments and the poor used shell, bone and copper ornaments.
5. Household articles:
Highly sophisticated household articles were found at the Indus sites. They had used mud to make domestic vessels of different shapes and sizes, stands and storage jars. Vessels of copper, bronze, silver, and porcelain were also used and they knew how to make them. Toilet jars made of ivory, metal, pottery, and stones have been discovered at Harappa.
6. Food articles:
Indus people consumed wheat, barley, rice, other grains, vegetables, fruits, and milk. Animal produce like beef, mutton, pork, fresh and dried fish, etc., were also consumed.
The people had great love for indoor and outdoor games. Dice, balls, hunting^ animal and bird fight were their entertainment games. Toys were made of terracotta consisting of rattles, whistles, carts, birds, and figures of men and women. Chanhudaro was a centre for toy products.
Excavations have brought to light, weapons such as slings, maces, daggers, spears, bows, and arrows. No piece of iron has been discovered there and only weapons of defence have been found. Therefore, scholars hold the view, that Indus people were peace-loving people.
Economic conditions :
Agriculture was the main occupation followed by cattle rearing and dairy farming. In those days, the Indus basin must have been much more fertile and received more rain. They produced wheat, barley, peas, sesame, mustard, rice, fruits, and vegetables.
2. Domestication of animals:
The Indus people had domesticated a number of animals. They Were cow, oxen, sheep, goat, dog, pig, cat, elephant, camel, buffaloe, humped bull, etc. They reared a fine breed of cattle, both for milk and meat purposes.
At both Mohenjodaro and Harappa, several industries including home-spun cloth were developed. There were professionals like potters, carpenters, jewellers, ivory workers, gold smiths, weavers, blacksmiths, and dyers. Chanhudaro became a great centre for pottery and terracotta toys. They produced artistically made stone beads.
4. Trade and commerce :
Indus people had developed internal and external trade. External trade was with many countries of Western Asia, Egypt, Persia, Sumeria. Baluchistan etc., They used bullock carts as a means of transport to carry goods.
Harappa, Lothal, Rupar, Kalibangan, Surkotada, and Chanhudaro were the main centers of trade. They carried on their trading activities through a barter system. They also had knowledge of the decimal system.
The dockyard at Lothal (Gurajat) shows, that they carried on external trade through ships. They exported ivory, gold, beads, timber, etc, and imported precious stones, copper and tin.
The uniform seals and a regular system of weights and measures have helped commercial transactions. Weight ratios were 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 160,200,320 and 640. Measurement of the linear scale used was 13.2 inches.
Explain the conquests of Samudra Gupta.
Samudragupta (335 to 375 CE):
The most outstanding ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta, who was the son and successor of Chandragupta-I. He was an ambitious, ablest and most distinguished ruler and wanted to be an ‘Emperor’ (Chakravarthi).
The Allahabad pillar inscription (Prayag) throws much light on his conquests and personal qualities. The author of this edict was Harisena, the court poet as well as the commander – in – chief of Samudragupta. It is in Sanskrit prose and verse and contains 33 lines.
The inscription is in the nature of a prasasti (ponegric). The military conquests mentioned in the inscription may be divided into four distinct campaigns.
1. Northern campaign (Aryavartha):
The early years of his reign were spent in subduing the provinces of the Gangetic plain called ‘Aryavartha’. According to the inscription, he defeated nine Kings in his northern campaign and annexed their territories into his Empire. The Rulers who were defeated by Samudragupta were
- Mathila and
After the conquest, he performed Ashwamedha yaga and became the master of Aryavartha.
2. Conquest of the Forest Kingdoms (Central India):
Samudragupta conquered the forest Kingdoms of Abhiras, Madrakas, Kakas, Reva, Jabalpur, Nagapur and Bhaghelkhanda in the upper Vindya regions, many of whom surrendered to him voluntarily.
3. Southern Campaign:
After consolidating his authority in the north, he turned his attention towards the South and took an expedition. Samudragupta derived his name and fame by his compaigns in South India and he did not extend his direct rule over this region.
The inscription refers to the twelve Kings of the south who were defeated and later reinstated to rule under him. They were :
- Mahendra of Kosala,
- Vyagraraja of Mahaknathara,
- Mantaraja of Kowrala,
- Mahendra of Pistapura,
- Swamydatta of Kottura,
- Damana of Yarandapalli,
- Vishnugopa of Kanchi,
- Hasthivarman of Vengi,
- Neelaraja of Avamuktha,
- Jgrasenaof Palakkad,
- Kubera of Devarashtra and
- Dhananjaya of Kustalapura.
The southern states were far away from his capital Pataliputra, and so they could not be brought under his direct control. The defeated rulers accepted his sovereignty and paid him tributes. No territory was annexed.
4. Annexation of the frontier Kingdoms:
The frontier area also came under the control of Samudragupta. They accepted his authority and paid tributes to him. They were Kamarupa (Assam), Samataka (Bengal), Karthripura (Punjab), Devaka (Nepal) and Rohilkhanda.
5. Extended the Kingdom:
Samudragupta’s Empire had extended from Bengal in the east to Punjab in the west, Himalayas in the north and upto the Vindya mountains in the south. The fame of Samudragupta reached far and wide. He maintained friendly relations with Ceylon.
He was triumphant everywhere in India. Hence Dr. V.A. Smith the historian has called him as the ‘The Indian Napolean’. After his conquests, he performed ‘Ashwameda yaga’ (horse sacrifice) to commemorate his victories. He also issued gold coins of various denominations. He composed many poems and thereby earned the title ‘Kaviraja’.
Describe the village administration of the Cholas.
1. Village (local self) Administration:
An important feature of the Chola administration was the village autonomy. People of a village looked after administration through their own elected bodies. The Chola inscriptions mention the existence of two types of villages Ur and Brahmadeya Villages.
Ur had its own local assembly, consisting of all the male members of the village excluding untouchables. It looked after all aspects of the village administration. The Brahmadeya villages (Agraharas) were granted by the King to learned brahmins. They had their own assemblies called Mahasabhas, which had complete freedom in governance.
Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka -1, gives us a detailed information about the village administration. (Uttarameruru is in the Chengulpet district of Tamilnadu). The villages enjoyed complete independence in the management of local affairs. Two kinds of assemblies existed which were
- Ur or Urar (kuri) and
- The Mahasabha.
According to the Uttarameruru inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into 30 parts (Kudumbu). One member from each unit was elected for a period of one year. The representatives of the people were elected through a lucky draw (Kuduvalai) system.
Villagers assembled in the temple and conducted an election through a lucky draw. The names of the candidates were written on palm leaves and put in a pot. Then a small boy was asked to pick out the leaves one after the other in the presence of the people and thus the representatives were elected.
Elected representatives had to work in the Annual, Garden (Tottavariyam) and Tank Bund (Erivariyam) committees called ‘Variyams’. The representatives were called ‘Variya Perumakkal’. The village assemblies were autonomous and democratic institutions.
2. Duties of the committees:
The village committees performed duties like the protection of the village properties, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves, and forests, etc. The resolutions of the committees were written down. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration.
3. Minimum qualifications of members :
The Uttarameruru inscription deals with rules and regulations regarding the election, the qualifications and disqualifications of members. These committees worked for 360 days when fresh elections were held.
Qualifications needed for a member to be elected:
- The candidate should possess a minimum of 1/2 acre of taxable land.
- He should reside in his own house built on his own site.
- Candidate should be more than 35 years old and less than 70 years of age.
- Candidate should have knowledge of Vedas, Brahmanakas, and Commerce.
- Candidate should possess a good character.
Disqualifications of members :
- A member was disqualified for re-election if he had been a member of any committee continuously for the previous 3 years.
- Those who were in the committee and who had not submitted accounts and their close relatives.
- Persons who were wicked, cheats, alcoholics, thieves, accused of murdering brahmins and committing adultery.
This way, certain minimum qualifications, and disqualifications were enforced in the village administration. Scholars have termed the Chola village administration as “Small Democratic States”.
Write about the religious and Rajput policies of Akbar.
1. Akbar’s policy towards the Rajputs:
Rajputs were the powerful enemies of the Mughals. Akbar was a farsighted statesman and the realised the value of Rajput alliances in his task of building an Empire in India for setting up his dynasty.
He adopted a very liberal As he was born had a sense of gratitude and feeling of affection towards them. He tried to win their support by adapting measures like friendly relations,co-operation, matrimonial alliances and appointing many Rajputs as Mansabdars.
At the same time he did not show any weakness towards the Rajputs and never hesitated from taking armed action against them. Akbar settled for friendly alliances, with the Rajput states of Amber, Bikaner, Jodhpur, and Jaisalmer as those rulers accepted, unconditional submission to the Emperor.
He married Jodha Bai, daughter of Biharimal of Amber (Jaipur). RajaSurjan Rai of Ranathambore voluntarily accepted the overlordship of Akbar. Ramachandra, the ruler of Kalinjar surrendered to Akbar in 1569 C.E.
Some of the Rajputs were not willing to accept the sovereignty of Akbar. He attacked Chittor (Mewar) and defeated its ruler Uday Singh in 1568. Uday Singh and his son Rana Pratap Singh continued to fight the Mughals till their death. The important battle fought between the Mughals and Rana Pratap Singh was the battle of Haidighat in 1576.
Mewar was completely occupied by Akbar after the death of Rana Pratap Singh. Akbar freely admitted Rajputs in the royal service. Some of the important persons who held positions of trust and responsibility were Raja Todarmal, Raja Bhagwan Das, Raja Mansingh, and others.
Akbar’s Rajput policy drew the Rajputs closer to the muslims and helped in the growth of an Indo-muslim culture which represented the best elements of both.
2. Religious Policy of Akbar:
Akbar was the most enlightened ruler among the Muehals. He was liberal minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart, and bring about unity amongst them.
He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration (Sulah-i-Kul) and tried to eliminate the deep rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus.
He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. Akbar abolished the Pilgrimage tax in 1563 and the Jeziya in 1564, a tax imposed on non- muslims. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit.
For example, RajaTodarmal was appointed as the revenue minister and several other Hindus were appointed as Governors and mansabdars. He disestablished Islam as the state religion. He respected the sentiments of Hindus and banned cow slaughter. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali, and Shivaratri.
Akbar established the Ibadat Khana (Prayer Hall) at Fatehpur Sikri and held religious discussions. In 1582 C.E., he invited the different religious leaders for discussions, to understand the essence of their religions, like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Islam, and Zorastrian.
He tried to minimise the influence of the Ulemas. Akbar issued the infallibility decree in 1579 C.E. (Mehazar). According to it, Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Ilahi (Tauhid-i-Ilahi) in 1581 C.E.
It was an eclectic creed containing the good points of many of the religions. This religion was based on divine monotheism. It was an honest attempt to unite people of different faiths into a brotherhood based on generally accepted concepts. The Din-i-Ilahi was not a religion in the real sense, it was a socio-religious order.
Akbar’s concept of monotheism and divine religion can be described as “There is no God but Allah and Akbar is his Khalifa”. Its followers were awarded four grades. determined by sacrifice of property, life, honour and being religious, in the service of the Emperor.
Din-i-Ilahi was a national religion, but it did not become popular, because Akbar never forced anybody to join it. He encouraged intercaste marriages, he acted as a national ruler and not as the King of the Muslims. The followers of Ilahi were very small in numbers and after the death of Akbar, it vanished completely.
Describe the life and teachings of Ramanujacharya.
1. Early life of Ramanujacharya (1017-1137 C.E.):
Ramanuja was the great exponent of Vishishtadvaita or qualified monoism. He was born in 1017 C.E. at Sri Perambadur near Chennai (T.N.). His parents were Keshva Soinayaji and Kantimati. It is believed that Ramanuja was the incarnation of Adisesha.
He studied in Ranchi under Yadhavaprakasha. As per the wishes of his mother, he married Tangamma at the age of 16. His married life was very unhappy. As his wife did not co-operate with him in his spiritual exercises, he left his family and became a sanyasi.
He went to Srirangam. Later. Ramanuja became the head of Srirangam mutt and popularized Vaishnavism. This was not liked by Kulottunga-Chola, and Ramanuja left Srirangam and came to Karnataka.
2. Srivaishnava or Vishishtadvaita (qualified monoism) Philosophy:
This was propounded by Ramanuja. He differed from Shankaracharya’s views in many points. According to Ramanuja, the entire universe is divided into three parts. They are God (Brahma), individual Soul (Chit) and the world (Achit) The universe was controlled by God.
1. Vishnu is the supreme God, Sri Lakshmi is the mediator between God and humans. (Universal Soul) Vishnu may be called Brahma.
2. God is omniscient, permanent and possesses all the great qualities (God is Suguna) like mercy, beauty, justice, etc.
3. God is the creator of all things in the world. The individual soul and the world are controlled by God.
4. According to Ramanuja, the Soul does not have independent existence. The individual Soul has limited power and it can never become identical with God.
All Souls are the creations of God. In a state of salvation, the individual Soul becomes free from birth and rebirth and enjoys eternal bliss in the presence of God.
5. Ramanuja condemned the illusion (Maya vada) of Shankaracharya For Ramanuja, the world is not an illusion but is real.
6. Ramanuja advocated Bhakti Marga as the only path for the attainment of Salvation. Through Bhakti, the individual Soul gets redemption and attains salvation.
7. Ramanuja advocated the worship of Vishnu accompanied by Lakshmi. His Philosophy is known as Srivaishnava or qualified monoism. There are two elements in Ramanuja’s Bhaktimarga.
- Prapatthi – absolute surrender to God.
- Acharyabhimana- Subjugation to guru.
Ramanuja preached that irrespective of one’s caste, the sure way to salvation was through Bhakti. He was an enlightened saint who tried to wipe out the evils of the caste system. He was able to equate all human beings at par, by breaking down the artificial barriers of the caste system.
Discuss the personality of Swami Vivekananda.
1. Swami Vivekananda:
He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. Vishwanatha Datta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendra Nath Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
He studied both Indian and western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influnce of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).
2. World religious conferance at Chicago- 31st May 1893:
Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the world. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference’ at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries.
His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America….” This won over the hearts of the people. He described Hinduism as the mother of all religions.
He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization. He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts. For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.
3. Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 -Calcutta:
The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in the society.
The Mission started several Schools, Hospitals, Orphanages and old age Homes across the country. It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes, etc., Its branches have been established all over the world.
Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses. He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the widow’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth”.
4. Social and religious reforms:
Viveka Nanda condemned the caste system, rituals, ceremonies, and superstitions. He stressed the need for social reforms. He preached tolerance, equality, and co-operation among the people of all faiths. He gave importance to education, emancipation of women and eradication of poverty.
5. National Awakening:
Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous call “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal is reached”. He wanted India to be a great nation.
He has been popularly called as the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedantha Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, Prabhuddha Bharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).
Briefly discuss the unification movement of Karnataka.
The Independence to India Act of 1947 provided for the formation of India and Pakistan. 562 Princely States were given the option of either joining India or Pakistan or could remain Independent. Our first Home Minister Sardar Vallababhai Patel (Indian Bismark) persuaded the Princely states to join the Indian Union.
But the Rulers pf Hyderabad, Junagad and Kashmir refused to join the Indian Union. At that moment, Sardar Vallababhai Patel skillfully handled the situation and merged these Princely States into the Indian Union.
After the merger of Hyderbad, the ruling Government agreed to create Andhra Pradesh which would bring together all Telugu speaking people. Andhra province could not be formed. In Andhra, people started agitations for the formation of Andhra state and Potti Sriramalu undertook a fast unto death for this cause and he died (58 days) in 1952.
The unrest spread to many other provinces which wanted unification of provinces on the basis of linguistic and cultural unity. Kannada speaking regions also wanted unification and formation of a separate state.
Some important factors like newspaper editorials, Cultural and Political organizations, poets, Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee, recommendations of national leaders, etc., infused the provincal feeling in the minds of Kannadigas.
The Government appointed the Dhar Committee in 1948 to look into the question of the Re-organization of states. The committee’s report did not favour the formation of states on linguistic grounds and opined that it was detrimental to the national integration. The people were discontented and agitations continued.
The J.V.P. Committee (Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallababhai Patel, and Pattabi Sitharamaiah) was formed in 1949. That committee agreed to the formation of Andhra but refused the formation of Karnataka. Andanappa Doddameti resigned from the Bombay Assembly and started a fast demanding the unification of Kannada speaking regions.
State Reorganization Committee (S.R.C.) was formed in 195 3. It consisted of Fazl AI i as (Chairman) and H. M. Kunjru and K.M. Panikkar were its members. The Committee toured all over the state, interviewed thousands of people, studied their petitions and submitted its report on 30th September 1955.
As per its report, with some modifications the integrated Mysore State came into being on 1st November 1956. The first Chief Minister of Mysore state was S. Nijalingappa. Mysore state was renamed as Karnataka on 1st November 1973 under the Chief Ministership of D. DevarajaUrs.
Integrated Karnataka – 1956
The Kannada speaking areas that were integrated on 1st November 1956.
I. Mysore Provinces (Old Mysore State) had 9 Districts.
II. From Bombay Presidency:
- Karwar (North Canara)
III. From Madras Presidency (State):
- South Canara (Mangalore)
- Coorg (Kodagu)
IV. From Hyderabad Presidency (State):
V. From Independent States:
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated (5 + 5 = 10)
A. Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
It is the capital of Bihar State, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.
The early name of Badami was Vatapi and it was the capital of the Chalukyas. It is famous for rock-cut cave temples. It is in Bagalkote district of Karnataka.
It is presently the capital of India, located on the banks of river Jamuna. It was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Many monuments like Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Jami Masjid, etc., are located here.
4. Halebeedu :
It’s early name was Dhwarasamudra and it was the capital of the Hoysalas. The Hoysaleshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are found here. It is in Hassan district of Karnataka.
It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramandal coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected seawater and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.
It is the capital of West Bengal, situated on the banks of river Hoogli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.
It is in Maharastra. Alla-ud-din- Khilji led many expeditions on Devagiri. Mohammad-Bin-Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri for a short while. Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.
For Visually Challenged Students only
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
B. Explain the life and achievements of Ashoka.
1. Ashoka the Great:
Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Mauryas and one of the renowned Rulers of the world. He is mentioned in his edicts as ‘Devanampriya’ and “Priyadarshi’. He considered his subjects as his own children and considered that the Primary duty of the King was to promote the welfare of the people. He came to power in 273 BCE, but his coronation was celebrated only in 269 BCE.
2. Kalinga War (261 BCE):
Ashoka waged a war against the Kalinga Kingdom as he considered war and annexation as the rightful duty of a King. It was this imperialistic consideration that prompted Ashoka to conquer Kalinga. Rock Edict XIII of Ashoka tells us that the war ended with bloodshed and misery.
One lakh people died, 1.5 lakh were taken as prisoners of war. This event had a deep impact on his mind. Kalinga war was the turning point in the life of Ashoka becuase a After the war he embraced Buddhism by the influence of Upagupta and followed the principles of non-violence.
Ashoka was filled with sorrow at the sight of all that bloodshed, that this became his last war as he decided not to wage wars in future. He changed his foreign policy from ‘Digvijaya or Bherighosha’ (Beating of war drums) to ‘Dharmaghosha or Vijaya (winning the hearts of the people).
He declared that “The real conquest was the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. Ashoka did not wage any war further and dedicated his whole life for the propagation of Dharma and Peace.
Ashokan Empire extended from Kashmir and Afghanistan in the North to Karnataka in the South, from Bengal in the East to Sindu and Baluchisthan in the West.
3. Edicts of Asjioka:
Ashoka issued a number of Inscriptions which throw light on the religion, society, and administration of the Mauryans. Ashokan inscriptions are found throughout the extent of his Empire. The languages of these edicts were Pali and Prakriti and the script used was Brahmi and Kharoshti.
Brahmi script, which was a riddle for a long time was deciphered by James Princep in 1831. Ashokan inscriptions are found in places like Pataliputra, Rampurava, Rummindei, Sravasti, Bodhgaya, Bhabru, Barabara, Sanchi, Kausambi, Maski, Taxila, etc., The edicts are classified into
- Major rock edicts,
- Minor rock edicts,
- Pillar inscriptions and
- Cave inscriptions.
4. Edicts in Karnataka:
A number of Ashokan edicts have been discovered in Karnataka. They have been found at Maski (Raichur dist). Gavimatha and Palkigonda (Koppal Dist), Siddapur, Brahmagiri and Jatingarameshwar (Chitradurga dist) Nittur and Udayagollam (Bellary Dist) and Sannathi (Yadagiri).
Most of the edicts of Ashoka, preach moral values to the people and about the teachings of Buddha, the Maski and Calcutta edicts refer to King Ashoka as ‘Devanampriya Asokasa’. Thus these edicts helped in identifying the other edicts of Ashoka.
He wanted to inculcate the virtues of practical morality, compassion to animals, reverence and obedience to teachers, elders and parents, truthfulness, etc.
Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. He believed that a moral life was a pre-requisite of happy life. He propogated the ideas of developing virtues like truthfulness, purity of thought, kindness, honesty, gratitude, self-restraint, and compassion.
He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and leading a good moral life. The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha, and Dharma. Ashoka took many measures for the spread of Buddhism. He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha.
He constructed monasteries and gave liberal grants to them. He followed the policy of religious tolerance. He assumed the title ‘Devanniapriya’ (beloved of the Gods).
He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rock edicts throughout the Empire, lie appointed officers called Dharmama hamathras, Yukthas, Rajjukas, and Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatras to spread Dharma among the people.
Ashoka organised the 3rd Buddhist council at Pataliputra in 250 BCE, to settle the internal differences among the Buddhists. He took much interest and adopted special measures to propagate Buddhism. He sent Buddhist missionaries to far off lands to preach the Gospel of Buddha.
He deputed his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism. It was on account of his extensive propagation that Buddhism became a religion of the masses in India and also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma, and many South-East Asian Countries.
He took many welfare activities and made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled people. He was concerned with the moral and spiritual welfare of his people. H.G. Wells remarks that “Amidst the tens of thousands of Majesties and Royal Highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines and shines along like a Star”.
Trace the Indian National Movement from 1885 to 1920.
Role of the Indian National Congress:
The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 gave a clear warning to the British with regard to the rising national feeling among Indians. There was a need for a common national organisation, which included all classes of people. A. O. Hume (Allan Octavian Hume) inspired the national leaders to establish the Indian National Union in 1884, subsequently the Indian National Congress.
The first Indian National Congress session was held at Bombay on 27th December 1885, presided over by Womesh Chandra Banerjee. 72 delegates from different parts of India attended it and four of them were from Karnataka.
Aims and objectives of the Congress:
- Promotion of friendly relations among the nationalists and other political workers from different parts of the country.
- Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity, irrespective of caste, religion, province, etc.,
- Presenting the popular demands of the people before the British Government.
- Organisation of public opinion in the country.
- To politically educate the Indian masses and demand to include more Indians in the councils and civil services.
In the beginning, the British Government was friendly towards the Congress. But as its strength and popularity increased. Congress was in favour of a responsible Government in India and began to demand the same.
This irritated the British Government and it began to adopt a policy of favouring anti-Congress elements. Freedom movement in India can be divided into three stages, namely:-
- The first phase – The period of the Moderates – 1885-1905.
- The second phase – The period of the Extremists in 1905-1920.
- The third phase – The Gandhjan period or Era – 1920-1947.
The first phase – The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905 :
1. The early Congress (1885-1905):
Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji (The grand old man of India), Feroz Shah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjee, G. K. Gokhale, BadruddinTyabji, Madan Mohan Malaviya. Anandacharlu and others were the moderates.
2. Policy of the Moderates:
The Moderates were cordial towards the British, and they had strong faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They felt that India will get modernised and uplifted by the benevolent and liberal rule of the British.
Moderates followed the principles of Prayer, Petitions, and Protests to pressurize the British Government. They organized public meetings, submitted memorandums to the Government to redress the grievances of the people; If the Government was stubborn to their demands, they used to protest against it.
Dadabhai Naoroji established the East India Association in 1866. This Association took up the Indian issues at London and attempted to influence the British public and British legislators to enact policies and laws favoring Indians.
The British were hostile towards the Congress since its establishment and they developed a stern attitude towards the moderates. Their policy was nicknamed as ‘Political Mendicancy’ (begging for political concessions) by the Extremists.
They called the Congress as a ‘Factory of sedition’ and leaders as ‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘Disloyal Babus’. Moderates were true patriots and they brought political maturity to the Indians. They exposed the exploitative character of the colonial rule and policies of the British.
They were able to underline that the duty of the Government was to consider the interests of the Indians. The notable results of their demands was the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The Moderates played a very important role in the freedom movement in India. They sowed the seeds of liberalism and nationalist ideas in the minds of Indians.
Second Phase – The period of the Extremists – 1905-1920.
The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The Extremists were radical and militant in their approach in contrast to the Moderates. They believed that reforms could not be secured by mere talk, and only by action.
They blamed the British rule for all the prevailing problems and were called Extremists or Radical Nationalists.
Extremists convinced the public that Self-Government was essential for the sake of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country.
Extremists had grown in self – confidence. The leaders of the extremists were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Lala Lajpat Roy.
Important events during the Extremist’s Period :
1. Partition of Bengal in 1905:
In 1905, Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal. He justified the partition on administrative convenience, as Bengal was too big a province to be administrated by a single provincial Government. The real intention of the order was to curb the growing national feeling in Bengal.
The people staunchly opposed this and indulged in the anti-partition movement, boycott of foreign goods and usage of only swadeshi goods.
2. The Surat Split-1907:
The Extremists and the Moderates differed over issues like election of the President, setting goals and passing resolutions of the Congress. Finally, both the groups agreed to Dadabhai Naoroji for Presidentship of the Congress in 1906. But the Extremists were successful in making Dadabhai Naoroji to declare ‘Swaraj (Self Government) as the goal of the Congress.
The differences once again emerged at the Surat session in 1907. The Moderates wanted Rashbihari Ghosh and the Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be the President. Both the groups refused to compromise resulting in the split in the Indian National Congress.
This is commonly known as the ‘Surat Split’. The British undertook many repressive measures and also introduced many Acts to suppress the Extremists. Both groups reunited in the Lucknow Congress session.
3. Revolutionary Nationalism (Terrorism):
The repressive measures of the British encouraged revolutionary terrorism. The revolutionaries were radical nationalists who did not believe in passive resistance. They were ready for any violent activity in order to drive away the British from India.
They organised secret societies like Abhinav Bharat and Anusilan Samiti to achieve their goal. The revolutionaries were able to create a commotion but most of them were either imprisoned, exiled, killed or hanged.
4. Muslim League in 1906:
The All India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Aga Khan, Nawab Mohsim ul Mulk and others in 1906. The British tried to check the National movement by following a policy of divide and rule. The League followed a path contrary to that of Congress.
They supported the partition of Bengal and also demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims. The Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. The Hindu Maha Sabha like the All India Muslim League was also against the Indian National Congress.
5. Morley – Minto Reforms 1909:
This act increased the number of elected members to the Central and Provincial Councils and also introduced separate electorates to the Muslims. The number of seats so reserved was in an higher ratio for the Muslim population when compared to the Hindu population. Only Muslims were to vote to the reserved Muslim seats.
6. Home Rule League 1916:
The Home Rule Movement was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mrs. Annie Besant in 1916. The objective of the movement was to attain Self-Government within the British Empire by all constitutional means. The movement soon spread throughout India and became popular.
Tilak gave the popular slogan “Swaraj (Home rule) is my birthright and I shall have it”. Mr. Edwin Montague made a declaration on 20th August 1917. By this announcement, it was promised to give responsible Government to Indians, by degrees.
7. Montague – Chelmsford Reforms 1919:
(Government of India Act of 1919) This Act introduced Bi-Cameral legislatures (Diarchy). The Central Assembly (Lower house) consisted of 144 members, 104 elected and 40 nominated members. The Council of States (Upper House) was to have 34 elected and 26 nominated members.
8. Rowlatt act of 1919 and Jalian Walabagh Tragedy:
The British Government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. This Act empowered the Government to arrest and detain suspected persons without warrant and imprison them without any trial.
Indians protested against the Rowlatt Act. A huge meeting was held at Jalian Walabagh on 13th April 1919. About 10,000 unarmed people had gathered there. General Dyer with his troops surrounded the meeting place and opened fire on the innocent people and around 1000 persons were killed and many more were injured.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Describe the cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas.
1. Cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas: Religion:
Rashtrakuta rulers practised religious tolerance towards all religions. Even though they were followers of the Vedic religion, they also patronised Jainism and Buddhism. Amoghavarsha was a great devotee of Goddess Mahalaxmi. They granted liberal grants and endowments to all religious institutions.
Rashtrakutas constructed a number of temples in Malkehda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwar, Naregal, Jogeshwar, Ellora, etc., in different parts of their Kingdom. Brahmanas were engaged to perform yagnas and yagas. Kings respected them and gave them money generously.
2. Development of literature:
The Rashtrakuta period witnessed great literary activity in both Kannada and Sanskrit. Amogahavarsha himself was a scholar and he wrote ‘Prashnottara Ratnamala’ in Sanskrit.
He patronised scholars like Jjnasenacharya who wrote Adipurana and Parshwabhyudaya, Mahaveeracharya who wrote Ganita Sara Sangraha and Shakatayana who was the author of Shabdanushasana.
Srivijaya wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’, which was the earliest work of Kannada literature. It refers to the fact that Karnataka extended from Cauvery to Godavari. Asaga wrote Vardhamana Purana, Halayudha wrote Kavirahasya and Mruta Sanjeevini and Trivikrama wrote Madalasachampu.
3. Pampa was given patronage by Arikeshari -II:
Pampa is respected as the ‘‘Adikavi’ of Kannada. He wrote Vikramarjuna Vijaya (Pampabharatha) and Adipurana (Champu Work). Ponna was called ‘Ubhaya Kavichakravarthi’ and he lived in the court of Krishna – III. He wrote Bhuvanaika Ramabhyudaya, Jinaks- haramala, and Shanthinathapurana.
Pushpadantha wrote Mahapurana and Nayakumar Charite. Shivakotyacharya wrote Vaddaradhane, which is accepted as the first prose work of old Kannada. Harisena and Gunabhadra were other well-known writers.
4. Art and Architecture:
The contributions of the Rashtrakutas to the field of art and architecture are memorable. The architectural monuments of the Rashtrakutas are found at Ellora, Elephanta, Naregal, Malkheda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwara, Jogeshwari, Mandape- shwara, etc., The Pallava (Dravidian) style of architecture was adopted by the Rashtrakutas.
Temples were built consisting of Pradakshanapatha, Mukhamantapa, Sabhamantapa, Antarala, and Garbhagruha. The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock-cut (Cave) shrines at Ellora, Ajantha, and Elephanta. There are 34 cave temples at Ellora. They belong to Buddhist, Hindu and Jain deties.
5. The Kailasanatha Temple:
The most extensive temple is the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora, (Aurangabad Dist) built by Krishna – I in the 8th century C.E. The temple is divided into four main parts. It was carved out of a single rock. This storied temple is supported by life-size elephants at the base.
It is 276 ft long, 154 feet wide and 107 feet deep. On the walls of the temples are the figures like Ravana lifting mount Kailasa, adorned with Nandi, Vishnu, Bairava, Laxmi, Shiva and Parvathi which attracts one’s attention.
There are other such scenes of carvings in bas relief like Shiva in dancing pose and Vishnu and Lakshmi listening to the music. Some other noteworthy and famous rock cuts are Ravana’s cave Rameshwara cave No. 21. Neelakhanta cave, Jagannatha sabha. Dasavathara cave – 15 etc.,
6. Dashavatara Cave:
It consists of two storeys and the underground hall measures 97 ft × 50 ft. The sculptured figures of Vishnu and Shiva, and the scene of death of Hiranyakashipu are excellent.
7. Elephanta Caves (Trimufthi Temple):
Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It has a big hall, 130 feet long and 129 feet wide. It has three entrances leading to the hall. At the end of this hall is the garbhagruha with Linga. Opposite to the central hall at the back, is the gigantic image of Thrimurthi which is 25 feet high.
Dwarapalaka, Ardhanareshwara, Shiva – Parvathi and other bas – reliefs have been beautifully carved. The paintings in the cave temples of Ellora are a witness to the fact that the Rashtrakutas patronised paintings.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammad-bin- Tughalak.
a. Administrative reforms (experiments) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne- with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.
1. Register of the land revenue:
Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.
2. Tax increase in Doab area:
The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine.
People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were, unique to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE:
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were:
a. (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.
b. He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital.
Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony, etc resulted in death and sufferings of many.
The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.
4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE:
Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury.
Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the. Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert.
The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:
1. People could not grasp its real significance
2. Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
3. Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.
4. People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.
Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences.
According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.
Write a note on the achievements of Krishnadevaraya.
Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529 C.E.):
Krishnadevaraya of the Tuluva dynasty was the greatest Ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. He was the son of Tuluva Narasanayaka and Nagaladevi.
He came to the throne in 1509 G.E. The glory and prestige of the Kingdom reached its zenith during the rule of Krishnadevaraya. He got a good training under his Prime minister Timmarasa whom he called as Appaji.
Military achievements of Krishnadeva- Raya:
1. The war of 1510 C.E. :
Krishna- devaraya had to fight a war against Mohammed Shah of Bidar and Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur whose combined army attacked Vijayanagara. A battle took place in 1510 C.E. near Doni, in which the Muslim army was routed and it ran away from the battle field.
Krishnadevaraya pursued the enemy forces up to Govilkonda and once again defeated them. He then occupied the Fort of Raichur and the Krishna- Tungabhadra doab area.
2. Siege of Ummatturu – 1513 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya marched against the rebellious chief, Gangaraja of Ummatturu. Gangaraja was defeated and the forts of Shivanasamudra and Srirangapattana were captured. Krishnadevaraya created a. new province with its headquarters at Srirangapattana.
3. Kalinga (Orissa) expedition- 1513 – 1518 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya took an expedition to Kalinga to defeat the Gajapathi Ruler, Prataparudra, which was achieved in stages. Udayagiri Fort was captured first. Next, he seiged the Fort of Kondavidu and defeated the Reddies. The administration of the Krishna region of Andhra was entrusted to Salva Thimma.
Then he captured the Forts of Vijayawada and Kondapalli. Later, the rest of the Telangana region came under his rule. When the Vijayanagara army reached Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapathigg King Pratlaparudtadeva capitulated and settled for peace in 1518 C.E.
4. Battle of Raichur-1520C. E.:
When Krishnadevaraya was busily engaged in his Orissa campaign, Sultan Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapura recaptured the fort of Raichur. In 1520, Krishna-devaraya marched against the Sultan, defeated him and took back the Fort of Raichur. In this battle, the Portuguese musketeers helped the Vijayanagara army.
5. Captured the Fort of Gulbarga – 1523:
Krishnadevaraya went as far as Bijapura, From here, he went to Gulbarga and defeated Amir Barid. Then he went upto Bidar and released the Bahamani Sultan, who had been imprisoned by his own subordinates and placed him on the throne of Gulbarga and took the title ‘Yavanarajya Pratishtapanacharya’.
6. Relation with the Portuguese:
Krishnadevaraya maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese at Goa. He did not give help to Albuquerque to conquer Goa from the Bijapur Sultan in 1510 C.E. He gave permission to the Portuguese to build a Fort at Bhatkal.
Durate Barbosa (1514-1515 C.E.) and Domingo Paes (1520 C.E.) visited the court of Krishnadevaraya. They have given information about the Vijayanagara trade and the personality of Krishnadevaraya.
7. Peace in Ceylon:
There was political instability in Ceylon (Srilanka) There were revolts against King Vijayabahu. Krishnadevaraya intervened in its political affairs and peace was established. Bhuvanaikyabahu, the son of Vijayabahu was brought to power.
8. Extend of his Empire:
The Empire extended from river Krishna and Godavari in the North, to Kanyakumari in the South and from the Arabian Sea – in the West to the Bay of Bengal in the East.
9. Patronage to Literature:
Krishnadeva- Raya was not only a great Ruler but also a great scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’ in Telugu. Jambavathi Kalyanam, Ushaparinayam, Madalasa Chari the and Rasamanjari in Sanskrit.
He patronized eight Telugu poets popularly called as the ‘Ashtadiggajas’. He honoured the great scholar Vyasateertha and Allasani Peddanna was conferred with the title ‘Andra Kavi Pitamaha’. Krishna- devaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
He abolished the marriage tax. In memory of his mother Nagaladevi, he built a new city called Nagalapura and he built Purandara Mantapa at Hampi. He built many tanks and canals for both drinking water and irrigation purposes. He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati.
He had many titles like Kannadarajya Ramaramana, Kavipungava, Karnatakan dhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishtha panacharya, etc., The last days of Krishnadevaraya were unhappy. Due to his only son Tirumala’s death under mysterious circumstances in 1524C. E., Krishnadeva- Raya was much grieved and died in 1529 C.E.
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysuru’. Explain.
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.
2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivass Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.
He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909.
Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.
3. Administrative reforms:
Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.
This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.
4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial work shop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.
Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.
5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.
Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore.
His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.
6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.
He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.
7. Railway reforms:
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.
8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.
Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915.
In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
PART – F
VI. Match the following: (5 × 1 = 5)
1 – (e) Ashtanga Marga.
2 – (d) The first Kushana ruler
3 – (a) Adikavi
4 – (b) Chitradurga
5 – (c) Aligarh Movement.
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
(a) Coming of Aryans
(b) Shivaji’s coronation
(c) Fourth Anglo-Mysuru War
(d) Battle of Takkolam
(e) Battle of Talikote.
(e) Coming of Aryans (2000 B.C.E)
(d) Battle of Takkolam (949 C.E.)
(c) Battle ofTalikote( 1565 C.E)
(b) Shivaji’s Coronation (1674 C.E.)
(a) Fourth Anglo-Mysuru War (1799 C.E.)