2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2016

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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2016

Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100


I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
Who was the greatest King of Kushanas?
Kanishka was the greatest King of Kushanas.

Question 2.
Which inscription of Samudragupta reveals his expeditions?
The Allahabad pillar inscription.

Question 3.
Who was the greatest ruler of the Vardhanas?

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Which was the capital of Rashtrakutas?
Manyakheta or Malkhed.

Question 5.
Who was the commander of Alla-ud-din Khilji who led the southern expedition?

Question 6.
Name the ruler who started the Mysore Dasara.
Raja Wodeyar (1610 CE).

Question 7.
Name the philosophy of Madhwacharya.
Dwaita (dualism) philosophy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Who was called ‘The Tiger of Mysore’?
Tippu Sultan.

Question 9.
Who introduced the Permanent Revenue Settlement?
Lord Cornwallis.

Question 10.
Who started the Aligarh Movement?
Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan.


II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
Name any sites of the Neolithic age.
The neolithic sites are Maski in Raichur, Cauvery, basin, Bellary, and Mysore in Karnataka, Salem, and Tirunelveli in Tamilnadu, Hyderabad and Kurnool in A.P., Kathewar in Gujarat, Sindh, Bundelkhand, Kashmir, West Bengal, Orissa, etc.,

Question 12.
Name any two Vedas.
The four Vedas are,

  1. Rig Veda
  2. Yajur Veda
  3. Sama Veda
  4. Atharvana Veda.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
What is the importance of Maski edict?
Maski is located in Raichur District. This edict which refers to ‘Devanampriya Ashokasa’ confirms that Ashoka had the titles ‘Devanampriya’ and ‘Priyadarshi Raja’.

Question 14.
Mention any two works of Kalidasa.
Kalidasa was called as the Indian Shakespeare. He wrote Abhijnana Shakuntala, Raghuvamsha, Meghadhoota, Vikramorvashiya, etc.

Question 15.
Mention any two titles of Vikramaditya VI.
Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla.

Question 16.
Name any two famous musicians of Mughal period.
Tansen, Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas were the famous musicians.

Question 17.
Mention any two monuments of Adil Shahis of Bijapura.
Jami Masjid, Gol Gumbaz, Ibrahim Roza, Muhatas Mahal, Ganga Mahal, Sangeet Mahal, Anand Mahal, Mehtar Mahal, Bara Kaman etc are the important monuments of the Adil Shaihis.

Question 18.
Who founded Anubhava Mantapa and where?
Basaveshwara founded the Anubhava Mantapa at Kalyana (Bidar Dist.)

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
Name any two important saints of Chisti order.
Khwaja Abdul Chishti, Moinuddin Chishti, Fariduddin Shakar, SheikNizamuddin Auliya, Sheik Salim Chishti are some well-known saints.

Question 20.
What was the immediate cause for the first war of Indian independence?
The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The Indian soldiers refused to use these rifles because a rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian soldiers felt that the British were trying to spoil their religion.

Question 21.
Mention the newspapers published by Swami Vivekananda.
Prabuddha Bharata (English) and Udbodhana (Bengali).

Question 22.
Name any two extremist leaders.
Lala Lajpat Roy, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Bal GangadharTilak were the extremist leaders.


III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)

Question 23.
Discuss the contributions of foreign writers in reconstructing the history of India.
1. Foreign Accounts:
There are some interesting sources of information from the accounts narrated by foreign writers. India had attracted many foreign traders, pi Igrims, philosophers and invaders. Many of them left their records, impressions, and opinions about India. These help to fill in the gaps about important events.

2. Greek and Roman writers:
Megasthenes, the Ambassadar of the Greek Sovereign Seleucus to the court of Chandragupta Mourya, has left a detailed account of India during the Mauryan period, in his book ‘Indica’. Ptolemy, another greek, wrote a geographical account of India in the 2nd century AD.

He gave information regarding the commercial relations of Greece with ancient India. ‘The Periplus of the Erithrean sea’, a work by an unknown Greek author mentions many coastal towns, rulers, and products of India. Pliny wrote ‘Natural Historia’ (1st century AD) which gives some idea regarding Indo-Roman trade relations and the political conditions of India.

KSEEB Solutions

3. Chinese Accounts:
There were some notable Chinese pilgrims who visited India. Fahian visited India (The reign of Chandragupta-II) in early 5th century AD and has given a vivid picture of many cities and Ashoka’s palace. He also gives information about the Gupta administration.

Hiuen Tsang(629-645 AD) visited India in the 7th century AD. He left valuable information in his book ‘Siyuki’ (Records of the. western world). He visited the court 6f Harshavardhana and Pulikeshi-II.

He has given a vivid picture of the education, religion, society, and administration of their regimes. He has also mentioned the battle of Narmada and the defeat of Harshavardhana.

Itsing visited India during the end of the 7th century AD. He had travelled across India extensively and gives information regarding various cities of India like Rajagraha, Kasi, and Nalanda and describes the status of Buddhism in India at that period.

4. Arab and other writers:
Muslim writers and historians have given valuable contributions to the reconstruction of our history. Prominent among them were Firdousi’s (Ibn Hassan) ‘Shahanama’, ‘Babarnama’ by Emperor Babar, ‘Jahangirnama’ by Jahangir and ‘Akbarnama’ by Abdul Fazal and many more.

The Arab travellers, Sulaiman Alberuni (contemporary of Mohammad Ghazni) and Ibn Batuta, have left their records about India. Other travellers like Nicolo Conti of Italy, Abdul Razzak (Persia), Barbosa and Domingo Paes (Portugal) and Niketin (Russia) have given a lot of information regarding Vijayanagara and Bahamani Empires.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 24.
Explain the town planning of Indus civilization.
1. Town planning:
Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed.

Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well-laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.

2. Streets:
The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.

3. Buildings:
People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom.

Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually inside alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bathroom was constructed nearest to the street so that the wastewater drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.

4. Drainage system:
One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level.

The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus, people had perfected the underground drainage system.

5. The Great Bath (Public bath):
The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 × 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them. On all sides of the pool, there were steps.

KSEEB Solutions

Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and freshwater was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.

6. The Granary (Warehouse):
The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 × 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 × 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.

7. Dockyard :
Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people earned on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.

The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.

Question 25.
Describe the village administration of the Cholas.
1. Village (local self) Administration :
An important feature of the Chola administration was the village autonomy. People of a village looked after administration through their own elected bodies. The Chola inscriptions mention the existence of two types of villages Ur and Brahmadeya Villages. Ur had its own local assembly, consisting of all the male members of the village excluding untouchables.

It looked after all aspects of the village administration. The Brahmadeya villages (Agraharas) were granted by the King to learned brahmins. They had their own assemblies called Mahasabhas, which had complete freedom in governance.

Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka – I, gives us detailed information about the village administration. (Uttarameruru is in the Chengulpet district of Tamilnadu). The villages enjoyed complete independence in the management of local affairs. Two kinds of assemblies existed which were.

  • Ur or Urar (kuri) and
  • The Mahasabha.

According to the Uttarameruru inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into 30 parts (Kudumbu). One member from each unit was elected for a period of one year. The representatives of the people were elected through a lucky draw (Kuduvalai) system.

Villagers assembled in the temple and conducted an election through a lucky draw. The names of the candidates were written on palm leaves and put in a pot. Then a small boy was asked to pick out the leaves one after the other in the presence of the people and thus the representatives were elected.

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Elected representatives had to work in the Annual, Garden (Tottavariyam) and Tank Bund (Erivariyam) committees called ‘VariyamsU The representatives were called ‘Variya PerumakkaP. The village assemblies were autonomous and democratic institutions.

2. Duties of the committees :
The village committees performed duties like the protection of the village properties, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves, and forests, etc. The resolutions of the committees were written down. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration.

3. Minimum qualifications of members :
The Uttarameruru inscription deals with rules and regulations regarding the election, the qualifications and disqualifications of members. These committees worked for 360 days when fresh elections were held.

Qualifications needed for a member to be elected:

  1. The candidate should possess a minimum of 1/2 acre of taxable land.
  2. He should reside in his own house built on his own site.
  3. Candidate should be more than 35 years old and less than 70 years of age.
  4. Candidate should have knowledge of Vedas, Brahmanakas, and Commerce.
  5. Candidate should possess a good character.

Disqualifications of members :

  1. A member was disqualified for reelection, if he had been a member of any committee continuously for the previous 3 years.
  2. Those who were in the committee and who had not submitted accounts and their close relatives.
  3. Persons who were wicked, cheats, alcoholics, thieves, accused of murdering brahmins and committing adultery.

This way, certain minimum qualifications, and disqualifications were enforced in the village administration. Scholars have termed the Chola village administration as “Small Democratic States”.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
Illustrate the main features of the Hoysala Architecture.
1. Hoysala art and architecture:
Hoysalas occupy a unique place in the Indian architectural history. Hoysalas adapted the Vesara and Dravidian styles and developed a new style of architecture. So, it is nothing but the culmination of the Chalukyan architecture and is called ‘The Hoysala style’ of architecture.

The great sculptors who built most of the Hoysala temples were Dasoja, Chavana, Kedaraja, Nagoja, Jakkanna, Mallitamma, Byroja and others.

The main characteristics (Salient features) of the Hoysala temples :

1. Hoysala temples are star-shaped. The temples have a tower (sikhara) above the sanctum (Garbhagriha). This tower is in the form of a pyramid.

2. Hoysala temples are constructed on a, raised platform (jagati) of 4 to 5 feet. The walls of the basement are covered with stone carvings.

3. Just above the platform, space is left all around the temple, to do pradakshana of the temple, which is called Pradhakshinapatha.

4. The temples have carved stone windows with apertures and the walls are covered with ornamental sculptures.

5. The outer walls of the temples have stone carvings, The bottom portion consists of a row of elephants, horses, flower designs, swans, stories from the epics and puranas.

6. The doorways of the temples have beautiful carvings in stone and a pair of dwarapalakas stand on either side.

7. The centre of the ceiling of the hall has intricate carvings of Bhuvaneshwari. Above the pillars, on the brackets stand the statues of dancing girls in different poses.

8. Hoysala temples have been classified as per the number of cells (kutas) e.g., One cell (ekakuta) temples to five cells (panchakuta) temples. The sanctums (Garbhagriha) are small and simple square chambers.

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2. Hoysala temple constructions:
Hoysalas built more than 100 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Vishnuvardhana period was the ‘Golden age’ of temple building in the Hoysala Kingdom. Vishnuvardhana built, Kirthinarayana temple at Talakadu, Cheluvanarayana temple at Melkote, Channakeshava temple and Kappechenniga temples at Belur, Mallikarjuna and Rangantha temples at Huliyur, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag and Bankapura.

Channakeshava temple (Ekakuta) at Belur is the epitome of the Hoysala style. Ballala-Ill (1173-1220 CE) built AmrutheshWara and Ballaleshwara temples at Arasikere and Kedareshwara temple at Halebeedu. Narasimha-I and his deputy Ketamalla built the Hoysaleshwara (Dwikuta) temple (1121 CE) at Halebeedu.

Narasimha II built the Harihareshwar temple at Harihara, Lakshminarasimha temple at Bhadravati, and Someshwara and Keshava temples at Haradanahalli. Narasimha-III built Keshava temple (Thrikuta) at Somanathapura in 1268 CE., Lakshmi temple (chathuskuta) at Doddagaddavalli and Panchalingeshwara temple (Panchakuta) at Govindanahalli.

The Channkeshava temple (1117CE) built by Vishnuvardhana at Belur, The Hoysaleshwar temple (1121 CE) built by Ketamalla at Halebeedu and the Keshava temple (1268 CE) built by Narasimha – III at Somanathapura are the best examples of the best variety. According to Fergusson the famous historian, Hoysaleshwara temple can be termed as the ‘Jewel of Indian Architecture’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 27.
Describe the conquest of Shivaji.
1. Introduction:
The decline of Mughals led to the rise of independent states in different parts of India. Among them, the marathas were prominent. The main objective was protecting the Hindu religion and culture. The disunited people of Marathas were welded together and made a great political power opposing the Mughals.

Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom. The hilly tracts of the western edge of the Deccan plateau was the home of the Marathas. Geographical conditions had taught them the spirit of hard work, self-reliance. and independence.

2. Early life of Shivaji:
Shivaji was born at Shivaneridurga in 1627 C.E. His parents were Shahaji Bhonsle and Jijabai. Shahaji was serving under the Sultan of Bijapur, and he had left Shivaji and Jijabai at Poona. Jijabai showered all her motherly love and affection on Shivaji.

He was greatly influenced by his mother. She narrated stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha (Hindu epics), which made him courageous. His tutor and guide Dadaji Kondadeva also shaped his personality. He trained Shivaji in the art of administration, state craft and military activities.

Shivaji was also influenced by Guru Ramdas and Tukaram, By their teachings, he developed love towards his motherland. Shivaji mastered the art of guerilla warfare and the geographical feature of the western deccan also influenced Shivaji.

3. Political career of Shivaji:
Shivaji captured the Fort of Torana from the Sultan of Bijapur in 1646 C.E. He constructed a new Fort at Raigadh. He gained control over his father’s Jahagir. He occupied the Forts of Baramathi, Indapura, Purandar, and Kondana. His fame began to grow on account of these achievements.

4. Shivaji and Afzal Khan (Bijapur) 1659-1663 C.E :
The growing strength and popularity of Shivaji was a threat to the Sultan of Bijapur. Sultan decided to take action against Shivaji, and sent Afzal Khan against him. Shivaji very tactfully killed Afzal Khan in 1659 C.E. near Pratapagada and looted his camp. In 1661, the Sultan of Bijapur made peace with Shivaji and recognised his conquests.

5. Shivaji and the Mughals (Aurangazeb) (1663 C.E.):
Shivaji had occupied many territories belonging to Aurangazeb. To check his expansion, Aurangazeb despatched Shaista Khan. Khan succeeded in occupying a vast maratha territory including Poona. UnFortunately, Khan stayed at, Poona in the house where Shivaji had spent his childhood.

On the 15th April 1663, Shivaji attacked Shaista Khan in his bedroom at midnight. In the confusion, Khan lost his finger and his son Abul Fathe and a few khans from the Deccan. This incident increased the popularity of Shivaji.

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6. Attack on Surat (1664 C.E.):
In 1664, Shivaji attacked and plundered Surat. Aurangazeb deputed Raja Jai Singh of Amber against Shivaji. He led an expedition and surrounded Shivaji on all sides and captured many of his Forts like Purandhar, Raigadh etc. Shivaji was defeated and was made to sign the treaty of Purandar on 24th June 1665 C.E. According to the treaty of Purandar,

  • Shivaji surrendered 23 Forts to the Mughals and agreed to pay tribute to Aurangazeb.
  • His son, Sambhaji had to serve the Mughal government as a Mansabdar.

7. Visit to Agra in 1666 C.E.:
Due to the compulsion of Jai Singh, Shivaji visited the Mughal court at Agra in 1666 C.E. But Aurangazab did not show him any respect. Shivaji spoke to Aurangazeb in a bold manner and he was imprisoned. Shivaji, using his usual tact and intelligence, pretended to be ill and started sending baskets of sweets for distribution among the Brahmins and poor people.

When the watchmen were a little relaxed and not alert, Shivaji took advantage of it and escaped from the prison in a sweet basket and reached his Kingdom in the guise of a sanyasi. This incident compelled Aurangazeb to recognise Shivaji as a King. Shivaji reconquered all the Forts that were surrendered earlier to the Mughals as per the treaty of Purandar.

8. Shivaji’s coronation in June 1674 C.E.:
Shivaji was crowned as the Maratha King in 1674 C.E. His coronation took place at Raigadh with great pomp and as per vedic rites. He assumed the title ‘Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja’. After that, a new and strong Hindu Kingdom came up in Deccan. Shivaji died in April 1680 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 28.
Explain the life and teachings of Shankaracharya.
1. Early life of Shankaracharya (788-820 C.E.):
Shankaracharya was the exponent of Advaitha (Non-duality) Philosophy. He was born at Kaladi in Kerala in 788 C.E. His parents were Shivaguru and Atyambha. He was inclined towards spiritualistic life and became a sanyasi with the permission of his mother. Shankara went in search of a spiritual teacher.

He met his teacher Govinda Bhagwathpada on the banks of the river Narmada. He studied under him, and very soon his teacher found in Shankara, great qualities to attain the highest spiritual knowledge.

He toured the whole of India – from Kashmir to Kanyakumari three times on foot. Wherever he went, he expounded his Advaitha Philosophy. He made a spiritual conquest of India. He earned the titles of Sarvajna and Jagadguru.

2. Works of Shankaracharya:
Shankara wrote commentaries on Brahmasutra, the Upanishads and the Bhagvadh Geetha. He composed Viveka Chudamani, Shivananda Lahari, Ananda Lahari, Soundarya Lahari, Bhajagovindam, Badaramayana, Geetha Bhashya, etc.

3. Establishment of the four mathas :
To spread the Advaitha Philosophy, Shankaracharya established four mathas in the four directions of the country. They are:

  • Govardhana Peeth at Puri (Orissa – east),
  • Kalika Peetha at Dwaraka (Gujarath – west),
  • Jyothirmatha at Badarinath (U. P. – north),
  • Sharada Peetha at Sringeri (Karnataka – south).

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4. Advaitha (or Monoism) Philosophy:
Shankaracharya’s contribution to Indian culture is the Advaitha Philosophy. Advaitha means non-duality or monoism. The main features of the Advaitha propounded by Shakaracharya are:

1. The Universal Soul (God or Brahma) and the individual Soul are inseparable. They are one and the same.

2. By Jnana Marga (knowledge), individual Soul ultimately merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma). This may be called as salvation (Moksha). There is no duality between them.

3. The individual Soul has no independent existence. The individual Soul merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma) through Sadhana. It is a part of Brahma and the ultimate reality is Brahma. That is why Shankara said ‘I am Brahma’ (Aham Brahmasmi).

4. Brahma is the ultimate truth. It is Nirguna, which means it has no predefined or specific qualities. It is Nirakara which means it has no shape or form of any kind and Swaprakashaka which means self-evident.

5. ‘Brahma Sathya, Jaga Mithya’ – It means Universal Soul (Brahma) is the ultimate reality and world is an illusion or Maya. To an ordinary man, the world appears to be real, because of ignorance.

Shankaracharya advocated ‘Jnana Marga’ (path of knowledge), to attain salvation (Moksha). He combined the path of Karma and Bhakti with Jnana. He strived to unify the different cults, by giving equal importance to the worship of Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha, Kumara, and Shakti. Therefore he is called as ‘Shanmatha Sthapanacharya’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 29.
Write about the Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse.
a. Subsidiary Alliance :
The Indian rulers who had entered into this military alliance with the British had to keep a British army in their state and bear the expenses of the maintenance of that army. It was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798. Expansion of the British Empire in India was its main aim.

Conditions of the subsidiary Alliance :

1. The Indian state which joins it, must surrender its external relations to the care of the Company. They should not wage wars and their dealings should be conducted only with their the prior permission of the Company.

2. If any ruler was unable to pay the expenses, he had to cede a part of his Kingdom. The protection of that state was the responsibility of the Company.

3. A British Resident should be kept in the court of the King. The Company was not to interfere in the internal affairs of that state.

4. The Company should protect the Indian state against their enemies and no other European could be appointed in their administration without the permission of the Company.

Advantages to the Company :

1. The subsidiary Alliance disarmed the Indian states. They came under the mercy of the British. The grave consequences of the war were much reduced.

2. Indian states practically lost their independence and became financially weak.

3. The Kings neglected the welfare of their people. So Kings also lost their credibility. The Kings were protected by the Company.

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4. The Company was able to check the influence of the French over the Indian states. The Company gradually. brought the whole country under its control.

The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first to sign the Alliance. Later the rulers of Mysore, Oudh, Travancore, Baroda, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bharatpur, Nagpur, and Gwalior also signed the Alliance.

b. The Doctrine of Lapse :
According to this policy, when the Ruler of the protected state died without a natural heir, then that state would pass on to the British Empire, which was called the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’, (or) According to this policy, if a King died without a son or daughter, his estate lapsed. It should be noted that the King had no right to adopt a son under any circumstances.

The Doctrine of lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie. His aim was the expansion of the British Empire in India. By following this policy, the British annexed Sitara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Jhansi, Nagapur, Bhagatpur. Coorg, etc.

The doctrine of lapse was unjustified both on legal and ethical grounds, Whether right or wrong, two-third of the Indian territories came under the British rule by 1856. These factors contributed to the outburst of. the Indian anger in 1857 in the form of First war of the Indian Independence.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
Write about the role of Dayananda Saraswathi in socio-relgious movement.
Dayananda Saraswati acquired a deep knowledge of the Vedas and other sacred books of Hinduism. He found that the Vedas were the real knowledge of the world, and dedicated his entire life to the cause of truth, spreading of knowledge and to wipe out falsehood. In 1875,hefoundedtheAryaSamaj.

1. Religious reforms :
The ideas of Dayananda Saraswati was to unite all Indians religiously, socially and nationally. He wanted the Aryan religion to be the common religion of all. He believed that the Vedas contained the original seed of Hinduism. His watch word was ‘Go back to the Vedas’.

He tried to show that the Vedic civilization was the most ancient and highly developed one. He attacked the numerous blind beliefs like idol worship, going on pilgrimages, Polytheism, belief in black magic and charms, animal sacrifice, etc.,

2. Shuddhi movement:
Dayananda Saraswati tried not only to check conversion of Hindus to other religions, but also wanted to bring back the Hindu converts who had embraced other religions by Shuddhi Movement. His views were published in his work ‘Satyartha Prakasha’. He is hailed as the ‘Protector of Hindu religion’.

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3. Social reforms:
He advocated equality of social status to all members of the society and preached against untouchability and class differentiation in the spiritual and social lives of Hindus. He fought against the restrictions imposed on women and a section of the Hindu society, against the study of Vedas.

He bitterly opposed child marriages, purdah system and other pseudoreligious customs of the Hindu society. He worked for the upliftment of women by advocating the causes of widow remarriage and female education.


IV. Answer the following questions as indicated (5 + 5 = 10)

Question 31. A.
Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.

  1. Harappa
  2. Pataliputra
  3. Srirangapattana
  4. Agra
  5. Hampi
  6. Calcutta
  7. Bombay
  8. Jailianwaia Bagh

Instruction :
Out of the 20 places any 8 will be asked of which students have to mark 5 places on the outline map of India. Five marks will be awarded for marking the places correctly and five marks for writing the historical importance of each marked place in two sentences.
1. Harappa:
It is one of the important sites of Indus Civilization. It is located on the banks of the river Ravi, now in Montegomary district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dayarapi Sahani excavated this site in 1921. The great granary is an important building found here.

2. Pataliputra:
It is the capital of Bihar State, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.

3. Srirangapattana:
It is located on the banks of river Cauvery and is in the Mandya district. It was the capital of the early Wodeyars of Mysore, Hyder Ali and Tippu sultan. The town contains many historical monuments like the Fort, Daria Daulat place, Lalbag, Tombs of Hyder and Tjppu, Ranganatha Temple, etc.

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4. Agra:
It is situated on the banks of river Jamuna in U.P. It was founded by Sikandar Lodhi. It became the capital of Akbar. Taj Mahal is the most famous monument of Agra.

5. Hampi:
It is situated on the banks of river Tungabhadra (Bellary). It was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Virupaksha temple, Vijayavittala Swamy temple, Stone chariot, etc., are the noteworthy monuments here.

6. Calcutta:
It is the capital of West Bengal, situated on the banks of river Hoogli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British, in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.

7. Bombay:
It is the capital of Maharashtra. It was the main British settlement in India. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held here in 1885.

8. JalianWalabagh:
It is located in the city of Amritsar in Punjab. During the freedom movement, General Dyer massacred here unarmed people who were protesting the Rowlatt Act on 13th April 1919.
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated Question 31 (a) - 1
For Visually Challenged Students only

Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)

Explain the achievements of Pulikeshi II.
a. Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.):
He was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi – II was the son of Keertivarma -1. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died. Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration.

Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi – II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two. Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle. Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription, etc, give information about Pulikeshi – II.

This civil war was an unfortunate incident but became inevitable for Pulikeshi, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situation in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi – II.

b. Conquests of Pulikeshi – II:
1. Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs:
The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulikeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulikeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of river Bhima. Appayika. ran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi.

2. Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupasand Gangas:
After strengthening his power and resources, Pulikeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the Rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.

3. Attack on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras:
Pulikeshi – II set his eyes towards the North – west, on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras. As a result, these Rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories up to Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasiniha as the Governor of Gujarath.

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4. War with Harshavardhana:
The most significant and memorable of his military career was his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India, and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also. Pulikeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulikeshi – II.

But Pulikeshi who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow Harsha to cross the river. Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulikeshi in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E. Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulikeshi assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshinapathesh wara. Hieun Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulikeshi – II.

5. Expedition towards East:
After the Northern campaign, Pulikeshi turned his eyes towards east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.

6. Expedition in South:
The Pallava ruler Mahendravarma -1 had become powerful in the south. Pulikeshi invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendravarma – I in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E.

After these successful military campaigns, Pulikeshi returned to his capital and reigned in peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshinapathe¬shwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja, etc.,

7. Extent of his Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Pulikeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and up to river Cauveri in the south.

Due to the campaigns of Pulikeshi, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commercial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru – II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene). The Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited the court of Pulikeshi – II in 641 C.E.

He has given us a factual and reliable description about the King and his Empire. In his last days, Pulikeshi – II had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimha- varman -1. Pulikeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.

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Discuss the role of Gandhiji in Indian National Movement.
Gandhiji an Era-1920 to 1947:
The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperation to the British Government.

1. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) :
A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the cal I was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetlia, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya, etc., also joined the movement.

Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of national pride.

2. The Chowri – Chowra incident:
5th February 1922: Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. NonCooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison.

A violent mob at Ghowri Chowra (U.P.) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.

3. The Swaraj Party – 1923:
Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections.

But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but constitutional methods.

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4. Simon Commission in 1927:
The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any Indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.

5. Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929):
The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the & political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928.

Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha, and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.

At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement

6. Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930:
In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was – decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any postivie response, the British nationalised the production of Salt.

Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th  March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the sea water, violating the salt laws.

The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.

7. The first Round Table Conference 1930-31:
Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison.

A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government.

The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.

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8. Second Round Table Conference 1931:
Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes.

Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims.

The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.

9. 3rd Round Table Conference 1932:
This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935.

This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Governments. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.

10. Second World War and National Movement in 1939:
The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launced individual Satyagraha against the British. The British tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress.

Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constitiuent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.

11. Cripps Mission 1942:
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.

12. Quit India Movement in 1942:
The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned.

They did not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations, etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines. They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.

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13. The Cabinet Mission 1946:
During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, Lawrence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan.

The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnali called for ‘Direct Action Day and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lekar rahenge Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed, and killings. Aconstituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.

14. Independence and Partition: (June 1947)
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.

On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General.

Sardar Vailababhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.


V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 32.
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.

He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.

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He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit.

During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.

Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.

2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).

Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.

3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.

Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires.

Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.

Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.

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His four noble truths are:

  1. Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
  2. Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
  3. To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
  4. Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.

When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of

  1. Right faith
  2. Right thought
  3. Right speech
  4. Right conduct
  5. Right effort
  6. Right meditation
  7. Right livelihood and
  8. Right mindfulness.

Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas.

Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.

Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.

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Question 33.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammed-bin-Tughlak.
a. Administrative reforms (experiments) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne- with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.

1. Register of the land revenue:
Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.

2. Tax increase in Doab area:
The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine.

People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were, unique to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.

3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE:
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were:

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a. (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.

b. He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital.

Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony, etc resulted in death and sufferings of many.

The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.

4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE:
Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury.

Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the. Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert.

The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:

1. People could not grasp its real significance

2. Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.

3. Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.

4. People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.

Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.

Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences.

According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.

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Question 34.
Describe the literature and art and architecture of Vijayanagara period.
1. Patronage to Literature:
Krishnadevaraya was not only a great Ruler but also a great scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’ in Telugu, Jambavathi Kalyanam, Ushaparinayam, Madalasa Chari the and Rasamanjari in Sanskrit. He patronized eight Telugu poets popularly called as the ‘Ashtadiggajas’.

He honoured the great scholar Vyasateertha and Allasani Peddanna was conferred with the title ‘Andra Kavi Pitamaha’. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.

2. Education and Literature:
Mathas, Agraharas, and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa.

It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal, etc., were notable centers of education of that time.

Question 35.
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysuru’. Explain.
1. Introduction:
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.

2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivass Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.

He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.

3. Administrative reforms:
Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.

This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.

4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial work shop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.

Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.

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5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.

Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore.

His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.

6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.

He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.

7. Railway reforms:
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.

8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.

Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.


VI. Match the following: (5 × 1 = 5)

Question 36.
VI. Match the following Question 36 - 2
1 – (d) 23rd Thirthankara
2 – (e) Gho-Ko-Ki
3 – (b) Din-e-Ilahi
4 – (a) Subsidiary Alliance
5 – (c) Hindustan Sevadal

Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)

Question 37.
(a) Establishment of Brahma Samaja
(b) Unification of Karnataka
(c) Coronation of Ashoka
(d) Battle of Talikote
(e) Gupta Era.
(c) Coronation of Ashoka
(e) Gupta Era.
(d) Battle of Talikote
(a) Establishment of Brahma Samaja
(b) Unification of Karnataka

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