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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2017
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Who wrote ‘Buddacharita’?
Buddacharita was written by Ashwagosha.
Name the stone used by paleolithic man?
Paleolithic (old stone age) people used rough and undressed stones fitted to a stick. These hard stones were called quartzite, and so they were also known as quartzite men.
What was the main occupation of the Aryans?
Agriculture was the main occupation of the Aryans.
Who was the 23rd Thirthankara?
Parshwanatha was the 23rd Thirthankara.
Who composed the Aihole inscription?
Aihole inscription was composed by Ravi Keerthi.
Which was the new religion introduced by Akbar?
Din-e-llahi was the religion introduced by Akbar in 1581 C.E.
Who is the founder of Sikhism?
Gurunanak is the founder of Sikhism.
Who introduced the “Doktrine of Lapse’ in India?
Lord Dalhousie in 1848 C.E.
In which year did the first war of Indian Independence occur?
The first war of Indian Independence occurred in 1857 C.E.
Who founded the Kannada Sahitya Parishat?
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah in 1915 at Bangalore.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
What is the extent of Karnataka according to Kaviraja Marga?
According to Kavirajamarga, in the ancient times, Karnataka extended from Cauvery in the south to Godavari (AP) in the north.
Name any two women scholars of vedic period.
Gargi, Maitreyi, Shashwati, Lopamudra, Apala, Arundhathi, Ghosha, Vishwavana were some of the famous learned women of the vedic period.
Which are the sects of Jainism?
The Shwetambaras (who wear white clothes) and the Digambaras (who do not wear any clothes).
Who was Kautilya? Which is his famous work?
Kautilya was a Statesman, Scholar, and teacher of Chandragupta Maurya. He is famous for his work Arthashastra which explains the art of governance of a country.
When and between whom did the battle of Takkolam take place?
The battle of Takkolam was fought between Cholas and Rastrakutas in 949 C.E.
Name any two works of Pampa.
Pampa hailed as the first poet (Adikavi) of Kannada, wrote Adipurana, Pampabharata or VikramarjunaVijaya.
Give any two causes for the transfer of capital by Mohammad-bin Tughalak.
- Devagiri occupied a central location in India, and it was nearly equidistant from Delhi and other important cities in his Empire.
- He wanted his capital to be secure from the mongol invasions.
Which were the two important taxes collectede by Shivaji?
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the two taxes collected by Shivaji.
Where is Golgumbez and who built it?
Gol – Gumbaz is in Bijapur. It was built by Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah.
Between whom was the battle of Plassey fought?
Sirajud-Daulah, Nawab of Bengal and Robert Clive in 1757 C.E.
When and where was Swami Vivekananda born?.
Swami Vivekananda was born on January 12th 1863 at Calcutta.
Who signed the Poona Pact?
In 1932 – It was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
Explain briefly the impact of Geography on Indian History.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sc.km) with different climatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country.
India is a land, where we see unity in diversity. “India” is the epitome of the world. On the basis of its physical features, India can be broadly divided into 5 geographical divisions. They are,
- The Himalayan regions,
- The plains of Hindustan or the Northern plains,
- The Deccan plateau or plains,
- The coastal region or coastline and
- The Thar desert.
1. The Himalayan region:
The Himalayas separate India from the rest of Asia. These are the highest mountain ranges in the world. The Himalayas have played a very important role in the Indian history.
They prevent the cold winds and invaders from the north. The snow-capped mountain ranges have given birth to the north Indian rivers (Sindhu, Ganga, Yamuna, and Brahmaputra). They are rich in minerals and natural wealth.
2. The Northern Plains:
It is located between the Himalayas in the north and the Vindhya mountains to the south. From Assam in the east to Punjab in the west it runs over 2400 kms.
This region is watered by the great rivers like the Sindhu and her tributaries in the west, Ganga and Yamuna in the center and Brahmaputra valley in the east, These rivers have made the plains rich and fertile, and they were the cradles of civilizations and Empires.
The great Indus valley civilization and vedic culture developed in this region. The Aryan culture was brought up in the Indo-Gangetic plain. The northern passes such as Khybar, Bolan, etc., have helped Indians to have commercial and cultural relations with the outside world.
3. The western desert and the dense forests of the Deccan plateau :
This region includes the Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rann of Kutch (Rajastan). It stretches almost upto and beyond the Aravalli range, which is now almost dry in the hot weather. So, this region has turned the inhabitants into hard-working and warlike.
4. Deccan Plateau:
It is a tringular peninsula or ‘V’ shaped land. It is surrounded by the Vindhyas in the north and by sea on the other three sides (Bay of Bengal in the east, Arabian sea in the west and the Indian ocean in the south). They have helped develop the commerical and cultural relations with the west.
The geographical diversity and existence of various races like Dravidian, Alpine, Mongolian and different tribes have led to the development of different languages and cultures. The river valleys in the north and south have made the country agrarian. They have also influenced the rise and fall of many dynasties and growth of many religious, cultural, educational and commercial centres.
Eastern (Coromandel coast) and western (Malabar) coastal plains are traversed by many big rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Cauvery. Abundance of rain and favourable climate has resulted in the growth of rich flora (plants of a particular region) and fauna (Animals of a region).
Excluding the Himalayas, hills, and the desert area, the whole country falls in the tropical climate zone. The atmosphere is conducive for the all-round growth of mankind.
Explain the town planning of Indus civilization.
1. Town planning:
Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed. Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with Well laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.
The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.
People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom.
Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually in side alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bath room was constructed nearest to the street, so that the waste water drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.
4. Drainage system:
One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level.
The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus people had perfected the underground drainage system.
5. The Great Bath (Public bath):
The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 × 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them.
On all sides of the pool, there were steps. Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and fresh water was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.
6. The Granary (Warehouse):
The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 × 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 × 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.
Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people carried on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.
The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage-system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.
Give an account of the political condition of Aryans.
1. Political condition:
During the early vedic age, their organisation was tribal in character. Some of the important tribes were the Bharatas, the Purus, Yadus, Anu, etc. They were called ‘Janas’. The primary unit of the administration was the village (Grama) and Gramini was the head of the grama. Next administrative unit was the ‘Vis’ headed by ‘Vispathi’. The King (Rajan) was the head of the state.
2. Duty of the Kings:
The tribes quarrelled with each other over cattle ownership and territories. The primary duty of the King was the protection of his tribe and he received gifts from the people. King (Rajan) was assisted by the purohita, sangrahatri, senapati, vispathis and graminis in the administration.
Sabha (group of elders) and Samithi (group of experts) acted as a check on the possible misuse of power by the King. Sabha and Samithi were two powerful bodies, who acted on democratic lines and decisions were taken by a majority of votes. The laws were based on customs and traditions.
During the later vedic period, the Kingdoms were divided into provinces and further sub divided into gopas, vishyas, and gramas. Kingship became hereditary. Kuru, Panchala, Kashi, Videha, Vidharbha, etc., were the important Kingdoms. Imperialism came into existence.
Kings began to perform (yagas) sacrifices like Rajasuya, Ashwamedha, and Vajapeya for establishing their political supremacy. The Kings were assisted by a council of ministers and officers. The sabha and Samithi also continued to monitor.
The military consisted of infantry, elephant riders, and the cavalry. Simple weapons of the early vedic age were replaced in the later vedic age by improved war weapons like bows and arrows, swords, spears, maces, axes, etc. Helmets and armours used for protection made their appearance.
Explain the achievements of Kanishka.
Kanishka was the greatest of the Kushana Emperors. There are controversies about the date of Kanisnka’s accession. The most probable date is 120 C.E. Another school of thought projects Kanishka as the founder of the Saka era (78 CE). Purushapura (present Peshawar in Pakistan) was his capital.
1. Conquests (Expeditions):
Kanishka was a great warrior, ambitious and imperialistic Ruler. He extended his Empire in different directions very rapidly. His Empire consisted of Bactria, Persia, Afghanistan, Punjab and a large portion of Sindh.
Kanishka annexed Kashmir during his early reign and founded a city called Kanishkapura (the present day Srinagar), where he built many monuments.
3. Expeditions on Magadha, Saka, and Sathrapas:
He conquered Kashmir, occupied Punjab, Mathura, Saketa, and Benaras. Then he turned towards the famous city of Pataliputra (Patna). After a glorious victory, he returned to his capital Purushapura along with the famous buddhist scholar, Ashvaghosha.
Towards the west, Kanishka marched against the Parthians and got victory over them, and established his supremacy over a very large area.
4. War with China:
After the conquest of the northern India, Kanishka turned his attention towards China. Kadphises-II (Kushana) had suffered defeat at the hands of the Chinese general Pan-Chao and as a result of this defeat, the Kushanas had to pay a heavy annual tribute to the Chinese King.
Kanishka stopped paying the tribute and invaded China, but the Chinese general Pan- Chao defeated him. After making renewed preparations, he attacked China once again but the Chinese general Pan-Chao had died by then and his son Pan-Chanang, the new general was defeated by Kanishka and he annexed three Chinese provinces into his Empire.
Kanishka was the first Indian ruler who established territories outside India. His Kingdom extended to Kashgar in the north, Sindh in the south, Benaras in the East and Afghanistan in the west.
5. Religion (Kanishka’s religious policy):
The Kushanas who belonged to the Yueh-Chi tribe, followed tribal religious customs. After their settlement in India, they adopted Indian culture and Hinduism. Kanishka was also a follower of Hinduism.
In course of time, he was attracted towards Buddhism by the influence of Ashwaghosha. Kanishka attempted’ to serve and spread Buddhism in China, Tibet, Japan, and other central Asian countries.
He organised the 4th buddhist council in Kashmir. The main purpose of the council was to settle the dispute existing in Buddhism at that time. During his rule. Buddhism split into Hinayaa and Mahayana sects.
6. Patronage to art (Gandhara art):
Kanishka was a great lover of art and literature. He patronished Sanskrit language and had great scholars like Ashwaghosha, Vasumitra, Nagarjuna, and Charaka in his court. Ashwaghosha wrote Budda charita and Sutralankara. Nagarjuna wrote Madhyamika sutra and Charaka wrote a treatise on Ayurveda.
Kanishka was a great builder, and fine buildings of architectural beauty are found at Gandhara, Mathura, Kanishkapura, and Taxila. The Kushana period was important for the growth of Gandhara art. It became the meeting ground of eastern and western cultures, known as the Greco-buddhist style.
Combining Indian and Greek styles, there arose a new school of art called ‘The Gandhara School of Art’. This style originated in the Gandhara region, now in Afghanistan.
Explain the reforms of Allauddin Khilji.
Administrative reforms :
1. Kingship (Sultan):
Allauddin followed an independent policy regarding political matters. He was a strong and efficient ruler. He set up a strong central administration. He was the supreme authority in the state and combined civil and military talents in remarkable measures.
He did not permit the interference of religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine origin of Kingship and cherished the ideas that the King was the representative of God (Shadow of God). He once said “I. issue orders as I conceive to be, for the good of the state and benefit of the people”.
2. Espionage :
He established a spy network, to get information regarding the activities of all the nobles of his court. He also tried to prevent outbreak of rebellions within the Empire and formation of any conspiracy against him. He deprived the Nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the Nobles, even in their houses.
3. Prohibition of drinking :
He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs in Delhi and drastic punishment was meted out to those who were guilty of violation. He knew that gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.
4. Military reforms: The standing army:
Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal order and prevent the invasion of the Mongols. He personally supervised the activities of the soldiers and paid them salaries regularly.
The state maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system. Ariz – i – Mumalik was the incharge for the appointment of soldiers.
5. Revenue reforms :
- Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land, for the asssessment of land revenue.
- He imposed heavy taxes on the Sardars, Jagirdars and Ulemas.
- He imposed Jazia, pilgrim, octroi and other taxes on non – muslims.
- He appointed a special officer called “Mustakhraj ’ to collect land revenue from the peasants.
- In order to check bribery and corruption among revenue officials and to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials, their salaries were increased.
6. Market regulation :
The most remarkable of all these, was an attempt to control the market, by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all articles of common use were fixed. A separate department and officers were appointed to regulate the market prices of commodities on a daily basis.
Evaluation of Allauddin :
He is renowned not only for his conquests, but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. He established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. His resourcefulness, energy, and capacity for work, his unbounded courage tempered with calculation and penetrating common sense stand out.
What were the causes and result of the Battle of Talikote?
The decisive battle of Talikote was founght in 1565 C.E. between the Vijayanagara (Aliya Ramaraya) Rulers and the combined forces of Shahi Kingdoms on the Banks of river Krishna.
Causes for the Battle :
1. Supremacy over the Doab region :
The fertile doab area between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra became a bone of contention between the two powers and hence responsible for that battle.
2. Religious difference :
The religious and cultural differences between the Hindu Vijayanagara and the Muslim Shahi Kingdoms was one of the causes for the battle.
3. Foreign policy of Aliya Ramaraya :
Aliya Ramraya interfered in the internal disputes of the Shahis. He followed the policy of divide and rule with the Shahis of Bijapura and Ahmadnagar. The Shahis forgot their enmity and united through various alliances.
The Sultans of the Deccan (Bijapura, Ahmadhagar, Golkonda, Bidar) realized that Ramaraya’s power had increased immensely due to the lack of unity among themselves. They decided to sink their differences and unite in the name of the religion against the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara.
4. Immediate Cause :
Ali Adil Shah of Bijapura demanded the return of Raichur. But Ramaraya refused and asked the Sultan to fight and win it in the battle field. This was the immediate cause for the battle.
5. Course of the battle:
Bahamani Sultans set aside their differences and organized a confederacy against Vijayanagara. The combined forces of Bidar. Bijapura, Ahamadnagar and Golkonda marched and crossed the river Krishna and camped at a place between the villages Rakkasagi and Tangadagi.
Aliya Ramaraya decided to meet this challenge with all his might. Ramaraya personally led the army with his two brothers. The battle took place on 23rd January 1565 C.E. In the beginning Vijayanagara forces gained upper hand. But during the course of the battle, Ramaraya was captured by the Shahi soldiers and beheaded and his head was paraded in the battle field.
This created panic among the Vijayanagara soldiers. They ran away from the battle field. The Shahis won the battle. Venkatadri and Tirumala hurriedly went back to Vijayanagara, took as much wealth as they can carry and fled to Penugonda. This debacle led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Results of the battle :
1. Vijayanagara Empire lost its glory. The successful Shahi army looted the city of Vijayanagara.
2. Aravidu dynasty continued under the name of Vijayanagara with its new capital afPenugonda in Andhra Pradesh.
3. The Golkonda and Bijapur Sultans captured the northen territories. The feudatories of Vijayanagara like Nayakas and Palegars proclaimed themselves independent. This led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
4. The destruction of the capital city and decline of the Vijayanagara Empire adversely affected the Portuguese trade in India.
Discuss the struggle of Tippu Sultan with the British.
Anglo-Mysore wars (1767-1799) :
1. The first Anglo-Mysore war (1767-1769):
The British after establishing supremacy in Bengal, waged war against Mysore to expand their Empire. Tippu had participated in his father’s campaigns and had gained sufficient military experience.
In 1766, he fought against the Paliagars of Balam. In 1767-1769, in the first Anglo-Mysore war, he took his army towards Madras. Later, he helped his father capture the forts of Tirupattur and Vaniyambadi.
2. The second Anglo-Mysore war (1780-1784):
Hyder Ali died in 1782. His son Tippu Sultan continued the war. Tippu defeated the British at Wandiwash in 1783, and marched against Mangalore and besieged the fort. Negotiations for peace started between Tippu and British through signing the treaty of Mangalore in 1784. and the second Anglo-Mysore war ended with that.
3. Third Anglo-Mysore war (1790-1792) :
The third Anglo-Mysore war was again fought between Tippu Sultan and the British. Tippu’s rise caused fear and jealousy among the Britishers. Tippu was trying to get the help of the French to expel the British from India. War broke out with Tippu’s unprovoked attack on Travancore in 1789, whose ruler was an ally of the British.
British Governor-General, Lord Cornwallis was waiting for a pretext to wage a war against Tippu. He formed a coalition consisting of the British, the Nizam and the Maratbas against Tippu, and attacked Sirangapattana.
Tippu could not fight this combined army arid he began to lose ground. They besieged his capital Srirangapattana in 1792. Forced by circumstances, Tippu signed the most humiliating treaty of Srirangapattana in March 1792.
4. Treaty of Srirangapattana in 1792 :
The terms of the treaty were:
- Tippu had to surrender half of his Kingdom to the British and their allies.
- Tippu agreed to pay a war indemnity of 3.5 crores (30 lakh pounds) to the British. As he did not have enough money, he had to send two of his sons to the British as hostages.
5. Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1798-1799):
Tippu could not reconcile to the defeat and humiliation in the third Anglo-Mysore war and was determined to drive out the British from India. He again started negotiations with France, Turkey, Kabul, Afghanistan, etc.
By sending his delegations but he could not get any help. Lord Wellesley forced him to sign the subsidiary Alliance, which he refused, As a result war became inevitable.
Lord Wellesley sent a powerful army along with the Marathas and Nizam. Tippu was defeated in the battle of Siddeshwara and Malavalli. On fourth May 1799, the British besieged the fort of Srirangapattana. The fort was bombarded and the enemy entered the fort. Tippu died fighting in the battle and the British captured Srirangapattana.
After the death of Tippu, his territories were divided among the British, the Marathas and the Nizam. A portion of his Kingdom was given to the Wodeyars of Mysore. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – III became the King of Mysore.
Explain drain theory.
1. The Drain of Wealth:
The British were not interested in the development of Indian agriculture. They were interested only in safeguarding their commercial interests. They forced Indian farmers to produce commercial crops like cotton, tea, Indigo, etc., which were in great demand in the European markets. They converted India into a source for raw materials and a market for their finished goods.
Indian handicrafts could not compete with the machine made products and the British had not started any industres in India. The impact of the Drain was that employment within the country was scarce and artisans and craftsmen turned into labourers. Hence the stability and development of Indian villages also suffered.
The British exported India’s enormous wealth to England through various means and that India did not get any economic and material benefit in return is known as drain of wealth.
Dadabai Naoroji explained the drain theory in his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’ (1876 C.E.). He declared that drain was the basic cause of India’s poverty and fundamental evil of the British rule in India.
2. Source of the Drain:
India’s enormous wealth flowed into England in the form of salaries and pensions of civil, military and railway officers, interest on loans, profits by British capitalists and expenditure on administration. Excess taxes were imposed on Indian export goods and less taxes were levied on British imports.
Results of the Drain:
- The most important results of the drain was that India became poor.
- The impact of the drain on income and employment within the countiy was harmful.
- The drain produced shortage of capital in the country. This hindered Indian industrial development.
- Since the drain was mainly paid out of land revenue, it hit the peasantry the most and made them poor.
- Nearly 12% of interest (6,30,000 pounds) was being paid out of Indian resources, for the loans raised by the English to construct Railways and seaports. Loans on unproductive items were also included.
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated (5 + 5 = 10)
Question 31. A.
Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
Out of the 20 places any 8 will be asked of which students have to mark 5 places on the outline map of India. Five marks will be awarded for marking the places correctly and five marks for writing the historical importance of each marked place in two sentences.
1. Taxila (Takshashila) :
It was the capital of the Gandhara Province now in Pakistan. Takshashila University was an important educational centre in ancient India. Kautilya (Chanukya) was a teacher in this University.
It is situated on the banks of river Tungabhadra (Bellary). It was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Virupaksha temple, Vijayavittalaswamy temple, Stone chariot, etc., are the noteworthy monuments here.
It is in Maharastra. Alla-ud-din- Khilji led many expeditions on Devagiri. Mohammad-Bin-Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri for a short while. Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.
It is presently the capital of India, located on the banks of river Jamuna. It was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Many monuments like Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Jami Masjid, etc., are located here.
It is the capital of West Bengal, situated on the banks of river Hoogli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.
6. Kanchi (Kanchipuram) :
It is near Chennai in TamilNadu. It was the capital of the Pallavas. The city is famous for Shaiva and Vaishanava temples. The famous Kamakshi temple is located here.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected sea water and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.
8. Bijapura (Vijapura):
It was the capital of Adil Shahis. Monuments like Golgumbaz, Ibrahim Rauza, Asar Mahal, Barakaman etc are found here.
For Visually Challenged Students only
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
Describe the achievements of Akbar.
1. Military achievements of Akbar :
i. The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.
ii. Conquest of Malwa:
He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior, and Jaunpur efFortlessly, because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.
iii. Conquest of Gondwana:
In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was. annexed to the Mughal Empine.
iv. Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567 :
Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. But Udaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were killed in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568.
But Ranapratap Singh (Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.
v. Conquest of Gujarat in 1572 :
The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.
vi. Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir:
Ranathambore from Roy Surjenhara, and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir, and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.
vii. Extent of the Kingdom :
The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.
viii. Conquest of Deccan :
Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.
2. Religious policy of Akbar :
Akbar was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus.
He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali, and Shivaratri.
Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions.
Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i- Ilahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.
Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state.
The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers. The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Ali, Mir Bakshi, Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister.
Kingdom was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar’. Province was divided into Sarkars, Paraganas, and Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.
4. Mansabdari system:
Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status, and salary, etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required.
It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a mansabdar in charge of 10 to a mansabdar controlling 10,000. The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote arid dismiss Mansabdars at his will.
The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, They were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries.
There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.
5. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System):
Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs.
Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar, and Banjar. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. Raja Todarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments.
This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’. The state maintained the documents, Patta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regaring the land, onwnership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.
6. Literature, Art, and Architecture:
Akbar was a patron of literature. Abdul Fazl wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer. The Tabakat- i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharvaveda and Leelavathi. (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi, etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion.
Some popular Hindi scholars were Tulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court.
They were –
- Abdul Rahim
- Abul Fazal,
- Hamid Human
- Raja Mansingh
- Shaikh Mubarak
- Raja Todarmal.
Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘Humayun Tomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri.
The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan – i – Khas, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.
Describe the achievements of Pulakeshi II.
Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.) :
Pulikeshi – II was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi – II was the son of Keertivarma – I. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died.
Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration. Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi – II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two.
Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle. Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription, etc, give information about Pulikeshi – II.
This civil war was an unfortunate incident, but became inevitable for Pulikeshi, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situation in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi – II.
Conquests of Pulikeshi – II :
1. Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs :
The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulikeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulikeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of river Bhima. Appayika ran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi.
2. Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupas, and Gangas :
After strengthening his power and resources, Pulikeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the Rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.
3. Attack on Lata, Malwa and Gurjaras:
Pulikeshi – II set his eyes towards the North – west, on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras. As a result, these Rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories upto Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasimha as the Governor of Gujarath.
4. War with Harshavardhana:
The most significant and memorable of his military career was his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also.
Pulikeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulikeshi – II. But Pulikeshi who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow Harsha to cross the river. Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulikeshi in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E.
Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulikeshi assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshinapatheshwara’. Hieun Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulikeshi – II.
5. Expedition towards East:
After the Northern campaign, Pulikeshi turned his eyes towards east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.
6. Expedition in South:
The Pallava ruler Mahendravarma -I had become powerful in the south. Pulikeshi invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendravarma – I in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E.
After these successful military campaigns, Pulikeshi returned to his capital and reigned in peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshinapatheshwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja, etc.,
Extent of his Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Pulikeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and upto river Cauveri in the south.
Due to the campaigns of Pulikeshi, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commereial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru – II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene).
The Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited the court of Pulikeshi – II in 641 C.E. He has given us a factual and reliable description about the King and his Empire. In his last days, Pulikeshi – II had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimhavarman – I.
Pulikeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the life and achievements of Ashoka
1. Ashoka the Great:
Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Mauryas and one of the renowned Rulers of the world. He is mentioned in his edicts as ‘Devanampriya’ and “Priyadarshi’. He considered his subjects as his own children and considered that the Primary duty of the King was to promote the welfare of the people. He came to power in 273 BCE, but his coronation was celebrated only in 269 BCE.
2. Kalinga War (261 BCE):
Ashoka waged a war against the Kalinga Kingdom as he considered war and annexation as the rightful duty of a King. It was this imperialistic consideration that prompted Ashoka to conquer Kalinga. Rock Edict XIII of Ashoka tells us that the war ended with bloodshed and misery.
One lakh people died, 1.5 lakh were taken as prisoners of war. This event had a deep impact on his mind. Kalinga war was the turning point in the life of Ashoka becuase after the war he embraced Buddhism by the influence of Upagupta and followed the principles of non-violence.
Ashoka was filled with sorrow at the sight of all that bloodshed, that this became his last war as he decided not to wage wars in future. He changed his foreign policy from ‘Digvijaya or Bherighosha’ (Beating of war drums) to ‘Dharmaghosha or Vijaya (winning the hearts of the people).
He declared that “The real conquest was the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. Ashoka did not wage any war further and dedicated his whole life for the propagation of Dharma and Peace.
Ashokan Empire extended from Kashmir and Afghanisthan in the North to Karnataka in the South, from Bengal in the East to Sindu and Baluchisthan in the West.
3. Edicts of Ashoka:
Ashoka issued a number of Inscriptions which throw light on the religion, society, and administration of the Mauryans. Ashokan inscriptions are found throughout the extent of his Empire. The languages of these edicts were Pali and Prakriti and the script used was Brahmi and Kharoshti.
Brahmi script, which was a riddle for a long time was deciphered by James Princep in 1831. Ashokan inscriptions are found in places like Pataliputra, Rampurava, Rummindei, Sravasti, Bodhgaya, Bhabru, Barabara, Sanchi, Kausambi, Maski, Taxila, etc., The edicts are classified into
- Major rock edicts,
- Minor rock edicts,
- Pillar inscriptions and
- Cave inscriptions.
4. Edicts in Karnataka:
A number of Ashokan edicts have been discovered in Karnataka. They have been found at Maski (Raichur dist). Gavimatha and Palkigonda (Koppal Dist), Siddapur, Brahmagiri and Jatingarameshwar (Chitradurga dist) Nittur and Udayagollam (Bellary Dist) and Sannathi (Yadagiri).
Most of the edicts of Ashoka, preach moral values to the people and about the teachings of Buddha. The Maski and Calcutta edicts refer to King Ashoka as ‘Devanampriya Asokasa’. Thus these edicts helped in identifying the other edicts of Ashoka. He wanted to inculcate the virtues of practical morality, compassion to animals, reverence and obedience to teachers, elders and parents, truthfulness, etc.,
Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. He believed that a moral life was a pre-requisite of happy life. He propogated the ideas of developing virtues like truthfulness, purity of thought, kindness, honesty, gratitude, self-restraint, and compassion.
He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and leading a good moral life. The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha, and Dharma. Ashoka took many measures for the spread of Buddhism. He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha. He constructed monasteries and gave liberal grants, to them. He followed the policy of religious tolerance.
He assumed the title ‘Devanmapriya’ (beloved of the Gods). He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rock edicts throughout the Empire. He appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras, Yukthas, Rajjukas, and Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatras to spread Dharma among the people.
Ashoka organised the 3rd Buddhist council at Pataliputra in 250 BCE, to settle the internal differences among the Buddhists. He took much interest and adopted special measures to propagate Buddhism. He sent Buddhist missionaries to far off lands to preach the Gospel of Buddha.
He deputed his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism. It was on account of his extensive propagation that Buddhism became a religion of the masses in India and also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma and many South-East Asian Countries.
He took njany welfare activities and made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled people. He was concerned with the moral and spiritual welfare of his people. H.G. Wells remarks that “Amidst the tens of thousands of Majesties and Royal Highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines and shines along like a Star”.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammed-bin-Thghalak.
Administrative reforms (experiements) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.
1. Register of the land revenue :
Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.
2. Tax increase in Doab area :
The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine.
People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were unable to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE :
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were :
1. (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.
2. He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital.
Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital. Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad.
The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony, etc resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the Court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people.
The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.
4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE :
Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury.
Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert.
The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:
1. People could not grasp its real significance.
2. Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
3. Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.
4. People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.
Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences.
According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictons’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.
Briefly explain the Carnatic war.
British and French were rivals in India, because the objective of the British which was to establish complete monopoly over trade and commerce in India brought them into conflict with the French. They fought for seventeen years (1746-1763) to establish their supremacy in the Deccan. This rivalry with the French led to the Carnatic wars.
1. First Carnatic war (1746-1748) :
The first Carnatic war took place between the British and the French during 1746-1748 in the Carnatic area. This war was a part of the European war, between the two countries over the Austrian succession issue (1740-1748) in Europe.
2. Course of the war:
British commander Burnett captured some French ships. At this juncture Dupleix appealed to Anwaruddin, the Nawab of Arcot to prevail upon the British to desist from hostile action. British did not take any action. In 1746, Dupleix (French Governor) besieged and captured Madras.
British sought the help of Anwaruddin who ordered the French to free Madras. Dupleix refused to free it. So, Anwaruddin sent an army against the French. A battle was fought at St. Thome (battle of Adyar), in which the French were defeated. The Austrian succession war came to an end in Europe by the treaty of Aix-la-Chaipel in 1748. Thus, the first Carnatic war also came to an end.
Result: Treaty of Aix-la-Chapel in 1748.
1. The British and the French agreed to stop their hostilities in India forthwith.
2. The French agreed to return Madras to the British and prisoners of war were released from both the sides.
3. Second Carnatic war (1748-1754) :
The second Carnatic war broke out due to two succession disputes – one at Hyderabad and the other at Arcot, for which the British and the French took sides.
There were civil wars of succession between Anwaruddin and Chandasaheb at Arcot and Nasir Jung and Muzaffar Jung at Hyderabad. Dupleix and the French supported Chandasaheb (Arcot) and Muzaffar Jung (Hyderabad) whereas the British supported Anwaruddin (Arcot) and Nasir Jung (Hyderabad) This struggle led to the second Carnatic war (1748-1754).
4. Course of the war:
The French troup defeated and killed Anwaruddin in the battle of Amber. His son Mohammad Ali fled to Trichinapalli. Dupleix proclaimed Chandasaheb as the Nawab of Arcot. Dupleix was equally successful in Hyderabad.
Nasir Jung was killed and Muzaffar Jung was made the Nizam of Hyderabad.
Dupleix and Chandasaheb besieged Trichinapalli to kill Mohammad Ali, The British were aware that Chandasaheb was an ally of the French and his succession to throne would adversely affect the British trade. Robert Clive (British) laid siege to Arcot.
Chandasaheb rushed to protect his capital. He was defeated and killed in the battle of Arcot in 1752. As a result, British crowned Mohammad Ali as the Nawab of Arcot. Dupleix was defeated in the war and was recalled by the French Government.
The war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754. Both the parties agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Indian states. They also agreed to return the territories conquerred from each other.
5. Third Carnatic war (1758-1763) :
The seven years war (1756-1763) was fought between the French and the British in Europe. The tension between the two in India also increased and ultimately took the shape of the third Carnatic war.
6. Course of the war :
Robert Clive (British) captured Chandranagore, a French settlement. The French were determined to end the British settlements in India and sent Count-de-Lally as Governor to India. He launched an attack on Madras and recalled Bussey from Hyderabad to help him.
The British attacked Hyderabad and captured it. Count-de-Lally was defeated by the British (Sir Eyrecoote) in the battle of Wandiwash in 1760. In 1761, the British captured Pondicheny and other French settlements in India. The seven years war came to an end by the treaty of Paris in 1763. The war in India also ended.
7. Treaty of Paris in 1763 :
- The trading centres of the French were returned with restrictions, that they would not fortify them.
- The Anglo-French rivalry in India ended with the success of the British and failure of the French.
Discuss the role of Gandhiji in Indian National Movement.
Gandhiji an Era -1920 to 1947:
The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperaction to the British Government.
1. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22):
A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the call was unprecedented.
Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetha, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya, etc., also joined the movement. Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed.
Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of National pride.
2. The Chowri – Chowra incident:
5th February 1922: Non-Coopration Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. Non-Cooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison.
A violent mob at Chowri Chowra (U.P.) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policeman were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.
3. The Swaraj Party -1923 :
Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but consititutional methods.
4. Simon Commission in 1927:
The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any Indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.
5. Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929):
The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928.
Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha, and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.
At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement.
6. Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930:
In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands.
Without any postivie response, the British nationalised the production of Salt. Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930.
On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the sea water, violating the salt laws. The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.
7. The first Round Table Conference 1930-31:
Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison.
A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government. The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
8. Second Round Table Conference 1931:
Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes.
Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims. The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’.
This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar. This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.
9. 3rd Round Table Conference 1932:
This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935.
This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Governments. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.
10. Second World War and National Movement in 1939 :
The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launched individual Satyagraha against the British.
The British tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress. Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constitiuent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.
11. Cripps Mission 1942:
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.
12. Quit India Movement in 1942:
The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians.
The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned. They did not know what to do next. As a result, people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations, etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines.
They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.
13. The Cabinet Mission 1946:
During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, Lawrence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan.
The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnah called for ‘Direct Action Day’ and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lekar rahenge Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed, and killings.
A constituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.
14. Independence and Partition: (June 1947)
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.
On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan.
Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General.
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.
PART – F
VI. Match the following: (5 × 1 = 5)
1 – (c) Mudrarakshasa
2 – (e) Gho-Ko-Ki
3 – (a) Kailasanatha Temple
4 – (b) Chatrapati
5 – (d) Karnataka Kesari
Arrange the following in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
(1) Second Battle of Panipat
(2) British East-India Company established
(3) Belgaum Congress Session
(4) Partition of Bengal
(5) Basaveshwara born.
(2) 1556 C.E
(3) 1600 C.E
(5) 1925 C.E