2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2018

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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2018

Time: 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
Who was the Vice President of Viceroy’s Executive Council?
Answer:
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 2.
When was the State Reorganisation Committee formed?
Answer:
The State Reorganisation Committee formed in 1953.

Question 3.
What is the minimum age of voter in India?
Answer:
18 years.

Question 4.
Expand NOTA.
Answer:
None Of The Above.

Question 5.
Who was the first Dalit leader to enter Nasik Kalarama temple?
Answer:
Dr B. R. Ambedkar.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
When was the Domestic Violence Act enforced?
Answer:
2005.

Question 7.
What is post-poll alliance?
Answer:
Coalition government will be formed by the opportunist political leaders after elections it is called post-poll alliance.

Question 8.
What is the root word of terrorism?
Answer:
The word Terrorism is derived from the Latin word “terrere”.

Question 9.
What is meant by crony capitalism?
Answer:
A close relationships between business people and government officials to get benefit is called crony capitalism.

Question 10.
Who were the signatories of Simla Agreement?
Answer:
Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistan Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto.

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
How many state was Punjab divided into? Which are they?
Answer:
Punjab was divided into two states. They are Punjab and Haryana.

Question 12.
What is central services? Given an example.
Answer:
A group of officials who are appointed by the central government, working and regulated by the central government is called central services.
Example: Indian Railway Services, Indian Foreign Services.

Question 13.
What is “Maryada Hatya”?
Answer:
Due to modernisation youth are heading towards inter-caste and inter-religion marriages. Elders of tradition-bound families to maintain family honour and values, go even to the extent of killing the parties involved and their supporters. This honour killing is called Maryada Hatye’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
What is National Integration?
Answer:
A process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically is called National Integration.

Question 15.
Mention any two coalition partners of National Democratic Alliances.
Answer:

  1. BJP
  2. Shivasena.

Question 16.
What is Common Minimum Programme?
Answer:
The partners of the alliance set aside their political ideologies and accept one programme to run the coalition, it is called common Minimum Programme.

Question 17.
Mention any two terrorist groups of Afghanistan.
Answer:
Taliban and A1-Qaeda.

Question 18.
What is a power block? Given an example.
Answer:
After the second world war two blocks emerged on the basis of democracy and communism, it is called power block.
Example: America and USSR.

Question 19.
Name two members states of SAARC.
Answer:

  •  India
  • Srilanka.

Question 20.
Write any two causes for the liberation of Bangladesh.
Answer:

  1. Ignores the interests of East Pakistan.
  2. Not allow Mujibur Rehman to become Prime Minister.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 21.
What is “Perestroika” and “Glasnost”?
Answer:
Perestroika means economic rehabilitation and Glasnost means openness in administration.

Question 22.
Write any two principles of Indian Foreign Policy.
Answer:

  • Policy of non-alignment.
  • Anti-apartheid and racial discrimination.

III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)

Question 23.
Write a short note on interim government.
Answer:
The interim government of India was formed on 2nd September 1946. The Constituent Assembly had 389 members. It was drawn from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India. It had the task of assisting the transition of India and Pakistan from British rule to Independence.

It remained in force until 15th August 1947, India became Independent. The Constituent Assembly become a sovereign body and performed the role of legislature for the new state. It was responsible for framing the constitution and making ordinary laws as well.

Question 24.
Describe the accession of Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir.
Answer:
1. Junagadh:
The Nawab of Junagadh declared accession to Pakistan much against the wishes of the people of the state. They were in favour of joining India. After the declaration of accession, they rose in rebellion against the Nawab. As a result, he fled to Pakistan. A Plebiscite was held in which the people voted to accede to Indian Union. Later Junagadh was merged with Saurashtra.

2. Hyderabad:
Hyderabad, the largest of the Princely States was surrounded by Indian Territory. Its ruler the ‘Nizam’ wanted an independent status. He made a ‘Standstill Agreement’ with India in November 1947 to maintain the status quo which existed before 1947. But the Indian Government felt that an independent Hyderabad would pose security threat.

In the meantime, there was a movement against the oppressive rule of the nizam. The peasantry and the women joined in large numbers. His paramilitary forces named Razakars, raped, maimed, looted, murdered and targeted the non-Muslims.

To end this anarchy, the Indian army entered into Hyderabad in September 1948. This police action is known as ‘Operation Polo’. The Nizam surrendered and it was followed by complete accession of Hyderabad into Indian Union.

3. Kashmir:
Jammu and Kashmir was a Princely State. Its ruler Hari Singh, was a Hindu and the population was largely Muslims (77%). They did not merge with India or Pakistan but wanted an independent status for the state. There was a popular movement led by Sheikh Abdullah. They were against joining Pakistan also. They thought of themselves as Kashmiris.

In October 1947, Kashmir was invaded by tribal infiltrators of Pakistan. This forced the Maharaja to seek Indian military help. India reacted positively after ‘Instrument of Accession’ was signed on 26th October 1947. To resolve the crisis, the Constituent Assembly of India made a special provision through Art. 370, to provide a separate constitution to the state along with other provisions.

In 1951, the Constituent Assembly met in the state to frame a Constitution. In February 1954, the accession of the state to India was ratified by the constitution, legalising it. In November 1956, it adopted a constitution legalising the status of J & K as a unit of the Indian Union.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
Describe the powers and functions of Election Commission.
Answer:
Powers and functions:
According to Art. 324

1. The Election Commission:

  • Prepares electoral roll and its periodical revision.
  • Holds elections to Parliament, State Legislatures and offices of President and Vice President.
  • After the announcement of elections, it decides the time table.
  • It conducts by-election to vacant seats.
  • It grants recognition to political parties as National and State level parties.

According to Election Emblem Act 2000.

2. For National Party:

  • 6% of casted valid votes in 4 more states in Lok Sabha or Vidhana Sabha election and 4 Loka Sabha seats in any state or states (or)
  • Minimum 2% of Lok Sabha seats in 3 states.

3. For State Party:

  • 6% of valid votes in the Lok Sabha or Vidhana Sabha elections form the state and 2 Vidhana Sabha seats (or)
  • 3% seats of total Vidhana Sabha seats in the states or success at least in the 3 constituencies.
  • It scrutinizes the nomination papers.
  • It allots symbols to political parties and independent candidates.
  • It appoints officers and other staff members to conduct elections and make necessary arrangements.
  • It can order for re-poll in any constituency or any polling booth.
  • It can withhold the election results on valid grounds.
  • The President or the Governor acts on the advice of the election commission at the time of disqualification of members of the house.
  • It enforces the code of conduct for the candidates and political parties, i.e. the elections expenses and submission of accounts after elections environmental protection against noise pollution, etc. during elections.
  • As per the Representation of People Act (RPA) of 1950 and 1951 Election Commission of India conducts the process of election.

Question 26.
Discuss the features of Civil Service.
Answer:
Features of civil services are:-

1. Professional body:
As Herman Finer puts it, civil service is a professional body of officials who are, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole-time job and career service.

2. Hierarchy:
As per the scaler system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where higher-ranking administrative officers with discretionary powers supervises their subordinates. The authority runs from above and helps to make administration stable.

3. Political neutrality:
Civil servants refrain always from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.

4. Anonymity:
Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the government. Recognition for good work or censure for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to the civil servants.

5. Impartiality:
The civil servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favour, bias or preference to any groups or sections of the society.

6. Service motto:
They have to work for the welfare of the society. They must be humble and service-minded towards the public and not authoritative.

7. Permanent:
Civil servants are called permanent executives. They discharge duties till they attain the age of superannuation. Both at the central and in Karnataka State Services, the age of retirement is sixty years. Even though disciplinary action is taken as per rules, there is security of service.

8. Jurisdiction of Law:
Every civil servant has to function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If he crosses the limit, he is met with disciplinary action.

9. Special training:
Once the candidates are selected for top civil services, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration, like the Lai Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration located in Mussoorie for the training of the newly appointed IAS officers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Academy located in Hyderabad trains the newly appointed IPS officers.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 27.
What are the powers and functions of Union Public Service Commission?
Answer:
Article 315 provides for the establishment of the Union Public Service Commission. UPSC is an independent constitutional body entrusted with the work of recruitment on the basis of merit.

1. Composition:
At present, the UPSC is composed of a Chairman and 10 members. Members are appointed by the President. It provides for half of the members of the Commission to be administrators with a minimum of the 10 years experience in government service. Nothing is mentioned regarding the qualifications of the remaining members.

2. Tenure:
A member of the Union Public Service Commission holds office for a period of 6 years or till he attains the age of 65 years, whichever comes earlier. Chairman or members of the commission are not eligible for re-appointment after retirement.

The Chairman of the UPSC is also not eligible for further employment under central or State Governments, however, a member of the UPSC may be appointed as a Chairman of the UPSC or the state Public Service Commission.

3. Removal:
A Chairman and members of the UPSC can be removed from the office only by on order of the President, on the ground of misbehaviour proved by the Supreme Court. All these provisions have been made to make the Commission an independent and impartial body.

4. Functions:
Article 320 of the Indian Constitution enumerate the functions of the UPSC:

  • To conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union and All India Service.
  • To assist two or more states, on request for joint recruitment for any services.
  • To advise the government on matters relating to the methods of recruitment, promotions, transfers, disciplinary actions and inter-service matters.
  • To present annual report regarding its working to the President.
  • To exercise such additional functions as provided by an act of Parliament.
  • To serve all or any needs of the state government on request by the Governor and with the approval of the President.

Question 28.
What are the main causes for peasants movements?
Answer:
The main causes for peasants movements are as follows:

1. Feeling of deprivation:
Peasants are deprived of the facilities when compared to organized sectors like industry. They face problems like shortage of quality seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, lack of adequate price and support price, waiving of loans, subsidies for agricultural implements insurance for crops and the like. The demand for these have made farmers to unite together to agitate.

2. Negligence of farmers’ problem:
The British government neglected the problem of agriculture sector and peasants. At the same time, the Bengal Government banned the blue crop and acquired farmers lands. In addition to this, they imposed heavy taxes and enhanced the prices. Ail these caused for Kheda
Movement.

3. Unbearable debts:
Peasants raise loans from Bank and financial institutions but they are not in a position to repay it for reasons like market fluctuation, the tactics of brokers, etc. This intensifies the burden of debts and interest. All these force them to commit suicide. This adversely affects the family. Incidents like this creates horror among others and leads to protests.

4. Natural calamity:
Peasants depend more on monsoon which are usually irregular. Hence it is popularly known as ‘Indian agriculture is playing gamble with monsoons’. As a result floods and famine, diseases to crops, soil erosion leads to infertility of the soil. These situations force them to become victims and they go for agitation.

5. Unscientific Land acquisition:
In the wake of urbanization and industrialization, the governments are acquiring cultivable land of farmers. Many times, proper compensation is not given and they are not provided any alternate-, As a result, they become landless and unemployed. Such measures of government leads to movement.

6. Support price:
Amidst innumerable problems, farmers do not get adequate price to their, produce. At that time, the government has to intervene and announce support price to the farmers produce. When the government fails to do so, they intensify agitation.

Question 29.
Discuss the political implications of labour movement.
Answer:
1. Political implications:
To meet the demands of work and to provide welfare programme, the government have taken measures. They are:

2. Constitutional measures:
Part IV of the Indian Constitution which deals with the Directive Principles of State Policy directs state governments to adopt socialist measures like equal pay for equal work for both men and women, to provide leave facilities for pregnant women for both prenatal and postnatal care. The concurrent list empowers the governments to legislate on the workers welfare.

3. Government of India have made legislation on personal labour laws as follows:
The labour laws for 1970 have fixed the wages of workers appointed on contract basis. Workmen Compensation Act of 1923, Salary Payment Act of 1936, Weekly Holiday Act of 1942, Minimum Wages Act of 1948, Employees Provident Fund Act of 1952, Bonus Act of 1965.

Some Prominent Labour Organisations are :

1. All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC):
With the belief in socialistic pattern of society, it was started in 1920, It was working as a Labour Union and came under the grip of Communist after independence. It aims at nationalization of industries, protection of labour rights and labour welfare, etc.,

2. Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC):
Because of ideological differences, some congressmen came out of AITUC and started INTUC in May 1947, with the support of Congress Party on non-violent philosophy.

3. Bharateeya Mazdur Sangh (BMS):
Founded by Dattopanth Thengdi for upholding the patriotic spirit among the labour population during 1955 on the birthday of Sri Bal Gangadhar Tilak. It is not affiliated to any international trade union confederation. An estimated 5860 labour unions are affiliated to BMS and it is one of the largest central Trade Union of India according to the statistics of Ministry of labour in 2002.

4. Centre for Trade Union (CITU):
Communist leaders like S.A. Dange and EMS. Namboodiripad took the stand to oppose the imperialistic attitude. In 1964, Marxists started CITU because of the difficulties raised out of leftists and rightists in AITUC. West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura are the strong belt of Marxists.

5. Other major organizations:
Hindu Mazdoor Sabha (HMS), Hind Mazdoor Panchayath (HMP), United Trade Union Congress (UTUC) and other organization are struggling hard to protect the interest of labourers. Totally, Labour Movement are trying to improve the welfare and standard of living of workers. The success of these movements is seen through governmental programmes.

As Karl Marx said, “Unite the workers of the world, you are going to lose shackles of the slavery, but nothing else”. The celebration of May day throughout the world on the 1st of May every year proves the significance of labour force and the movement.

Question 30.
What are the causes of Casted based inequality?
Answer:
1. Caste-based inequality:
Inequality means denying opportunities and privileges to some classes, making discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, gender, birthplace etc., Discriminating people on the grounds is prevalent of caste is caste-based inequality. From the ancient period, caste-based inequality in Hindu Society.

Hindu society was divided into four vamas and the contents of Manu Smriti were followed. In modern society, inequality is based on the available privileges for upper and lower castes, which also has contributed to social inequality.

Varna System was based on the professions such as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vysyas and Sudras. Gradually it got converted into caste-based discrimination by the law of Manu. Later on, inequality prevailed in Hindu society.

2. Social Distance:
Due to lack of interaction individual among different castes, their cultures, traditions, folkways, mores, food habits, social intercourse and so on are not known to others and not appreciated or acknowledged. Hence, it is called a closed society. It has leads to strong caste bias amongst them.

3. Illiteracy and conservation:
Illiteracy and ignorance among people make them conservative and moulds them to narrow mindedness and superstitions. They believe in old customs and traditions. Such people are very orthodox in their nature. They oppose strongly to any change in society and consider their own caste as superior and others as inferior.

4. Sense of prestige:
The strong desire of the people belonging to a particular caste enhances the prestige of their own, to get benefits and privileges from the society. Other castes which get neglected remain unprivileged and suffer from social status inequality.

5. Marriage restrictions:
In this closed society, only endogamous marriages are accepted. Elders do not honour marriages fixed outside their subsects. In such a situation, strong caste feeling develops and leads to inequality.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
Explain the organisation and functions of Lokayukta.
Answer:
Though the institution of Lokayukta was introduced for the first time in Odisha it was not able to implement. Maharashtra was the first state to implement in 1973 and Karnataka in 1984. It investigates the allegation against officials like corruption, favouritism, nepotism, injustice and other grievances.

It does not include Judges, Speaker, Chairman, Accountant General, Chairman and Members of State Public Service Commission, Judges of civil and criminal court. The Lokayukta receives the petition from the public and conducts enquires. It has power to raid on the houses and offices of the corrupt officials.

Lokayukta in Karnataka:
The Government headed by Sri Ramakrishna Hegde adopted the institution of Lokayukta in 1984. It comprises of retired judge of the Supreme Court or Chief Justice of the High. Court is Upa Lokayukta.

The committee consisting of Chief Minister, Chief Justice of High Court, Speaker of the Assembly, Chairman of the Council and leaders of opposition are consulted by the governor regarding the appointment. They are appointed for 5 years. They can be removed from the office by the governor, on the charge of misbehavior or incapacity proved in the state Legislature.

Question 32.
What are the causes for the raise of identity politics?
Answer:
Identity politics is defined by one’s own identity based on race, ethnicity, gender, language religion. It is the politics of recognition and a movement to claim recognition. A person may have multiple identities but he perceives only a single identity at a time. Movements of lesbians, black civil rights, wave of feminists etc., have brought legitimacy to identity politics.
Causes for the rise of identity politics are as follows:

  1. Maladministration leads to the poor economic growth of a particular region or geographical backwardness of the people of a particular ethnic identity.
  2. The rise of regional parties has created the local awareness of language or region.
  3. Extreme poverty, exploitation, lack of opportunity and threat to existing group privileges to the ethnic groups.
  4. Ethnic groups’ fear of assimilation resulting in cultural dilution.
  5. Rise in standard of living, literacy and aspiration, socio-political awareness have led to identity politics.
  6. Lack of share in natural resources, fear of loss of land, political power and economic growth.
  7. Fear of losing scope in educational and employment fields.
  8. Fear of losing ethnic identities like language and culture.

Question 33.
What are the principles of United Nations Organisations?
Answer:
The basic principles mentioned in Article 2 of the Charter are:

  1. The UN is based on the sovereign equality of all its members.
  2. All members shall fulfill in good faith the UN charter obligations.
  3. They shall settle international disputes by peaceful means.
  4. They have to retain their international relations from the threat or use of force against other states.
  5. They have to extend all help to the actions being taken by the UN.
  6. The UN shall ensure that states who are not members, act in accordance with the principles of the UN.
  7. The organisation shall not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.

Question 34.
Write about Non-Alignment Policy of India.
Answer:
The basic principles of Indian Foreign Policy are Non-Alignment. After the II World War, the world was divided into two military blocs,
one led by USA and another by USSR. Many countries of the world became the allies of these two military blocs. But India was not aligned to any of the military blocs. India was the first country to speak of non-alignment and major contributor to the emergene of Non- Align Movement.

Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India, Gen. Sukarno President of Indonesia, Josif Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia, Kwame Nkrumah Prime Minister of Ghana and Gamal Abdel Nasser leader of Egypt were the founders of this movement. This first summit of NAM which was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1961 with 25 member countries. At present, it has 128 members. Recent NAM summit concluded in August 2012 at Tehran, Iran Venezuela will host the next 17th summit in 2015.

IV. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 35.
Explain the functions of political party.
Answer:
Functions:

1. Preparation of election manifesto:
The election agenda is arranged through a manifesto. Its main intention is capturing power with popular support. It reflects the ideological commitments of the party, which include voter’s requirements like good governance through infrastructure development.

2. Selection of the candidate:
The selection of the best candidate is made on the basis of popularity, acceptability and responsiveness to the grievances of people. Usually, all parties prepare a list of such candidates, to win the elections.

3. Political education and awareness:
Political parties impart political education to the people and make them realize their responsibilities. The ideologies along with the previous achievements are highlighted to attract the voters during electioneering. Through this, voters compare and contrast and decide their future course of action. Thus, the people have an opportunity to get political education and awareness about national and regional issues.

4. To contest elections:
Through proper filing of nominations and getting ‘B form’, it is ascertained that the candidature is official. It is filed in the respective offices of the Returning officers of the concerned constitutencies.

5. Election campaign:
The candidates who are in the fray are supported by their parties in all possible ways. Provision for election expenses, using public platform by speeches from the leaders of parties, and through electronic and mass media to win the election.

6. Formation of the government:
After the declaration of the results, the party which secures majority will form the government. The administration is carried on within the constitutional framework along with implementing the assurances mentioned in the manifes to at the time of elections. At the same time, it maintains discipline within the party by imposing party norms.

7. Acts as opposition party:
The political parties which fail to secure majority in the election, act as opposition parties. They apply the brake to the unconstitutional decisions and policies of the ruling party and help to streamline the administration. The opposition party is always ready to step into the shoes of the ruling party by highlighting the wrongdoings in the administration. It acts as the ‘watch dog’ of democracy.

8. Formation of Public opinion:
The political party acts as the best agency in formulating the public opinion. The achievements of the ruling party are published and highlighted through media and public platforms. Opposition parties organize rallies, conduct road shows and seminars to expose the failures of ruling party. Such activities of the parties enlighten the masses and lead to the formation of healthy public opinion.

9. Bridge between the government and the people:
Political parties act as bridge between the government and the people. The leaders of the parties try to reach the people through policies and programmes. They draw attention of the government towards the problems of the people and get remedies.

10. Promotes the National Interest:
It is the task of all the political parties to protect the unity and integrity of the nation. Whenever there is threat from internal violence and external aggression the parties have to unite themselves keeping aside their ideological and parochial differences.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 36.
Describe the hindrances and remedial measures to eliminate nation-building.
Answer:
1. Poverty:
Large sections of our societies live in the villages and their major occupation is agriculture. They rely upon monsoon which is quite irregular. Hence, the output is very low. As a result, more than 1 /5th of total population is living below poverty line. Poverty denies access to good health, sanitation facilities and basic infrastructure necessary for personalities development.

2. Population explosion:
Census Reports of 2011 prove that India is overpopulated (1.2 billion). Though a resource, it is not properly utilized to strengthen the nation. Population explosion has led to unemployment, housing shortage, shortage of food and other basic amenities.

3. Regional imbalance:
All the regions of our country are evenly developing. This leads to separatist tendencies that curbs national development. e.g. Marathawada and Vidharbha in Maharashtra, Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh, Korapaf and Kalahandi region in Odisha, North Eastern region and Gorkha hill areas.

4. Social and political disturbances:
In India, social and political disturbances have become common in recent years causing tension. Assam, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Kerala have become communally sensitive states. Likewise, caste conflicts, terrorism, the centre-state and inter-state disputes have affected nation’s march towards development.

5. Political crisis:
The coalition politics and the emergence of too many political parties, regional and sectarian feelings have created political parties, regional and sectarian feelings have created political crises on many occasions.

The vested interests have prevented the parliament and state legislatures to enact necessary laws for the development of nation. Money power and muscle power have led to the growth of leaders without principles and it has become a gainful employment.

Remedies

1. Political stability:
The government elected by the people has to continue for the full term so as to adopt and implement the policies for development. Frequent changes in government result in slow development and political uncertainty. In order to maintain political stability. The Constitution Review Commission headed by Justice M.N. Venkatachalaiah suggested the adoption of constructive vote of no-confidence system in 2002.

2. Selection of priorities:
The government has to choose the areas of priority necessary for nation-building. These priorities are to be decided on the basis of the needs of the people. Infrastructure, education, transport, employment, agriculture, industries and health services may be accorded priorities for national development.

3. Effective implementation of plans:
Since April 2012, Twelfth Five Year Plan is under progress. To fill gap of the previous plans, it is aimed at channelising the sources and implementing effectively.

4. Mixed economy:
Public and private partnership not only strengthens the economy but also contributes for its substance. The contribution of the private enterprises has been phenomenal in the economic front. Eg. Tata’s Birla’s Wipro, Infosys and other have not only generated employment but also contributed for economic progress.

5. Implementation of Directive Principles of State Policy:
Part IV of the Indian Constitution emphasizes the establishment of socio-economic democracy through the adoption of revolutionary policies. Concentration of wealth in a few hands is an obstacle for the development of SCs, STs and backward classes to implement the ideals of egalitarian type of society. Hence, implementation of Directive principles of State Policy is necessary at this juncture.

6. Role of civil society:
In India civil society organization are playing an important role in nation-building. They are fighting against political and administrative corruption, Red Tapism, political apathy and anti-people polices. These activities need to be strengthened to hasten the process of national development.

Movements like India against corruption, association for democratic reforms. Election watch and other NGOs are playing constructive role in this direction. Nation-building is a long and challenging process. It requires charismatic and dynamic political leadership, competent civil services, active participation of the people and vigilant media.

Question 37.
Explain the importance of globalization and its political implications.
Answer:
Globalisation is the process of inter grating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction. Integration and interdependence among people and organisation across borders. The strongest manifestion of Globalisation has been the increasing economics inter gration among the countries in trade and investment.

An important attribute of globalization is the increasing degree of openness, which has three dimensions, ie., international trade, international investment and international finance. It involves creation of networks and activities transcending economic, social and geographical boundaries.

The Economy of India had undergone significant policy shifts in the beginning of the 1990’s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the liberalization, privatizaton and globalisation(LPG) model.

The chain of reforms that took place with regard to business, manufacturing and financial industries targeted at the strengthening the economy of the country to a more proficient level. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner.

In brief, the salient points of Globalisation are

  1. Efficiency
  2. Transfer of technology
  3. Concept of a global village
  4. Mobility of labour force
  5. Global competition resulting in better performance
  6. Outsourcing and
  7. Optimum utilization of human resources.

The political implications of globalisation are as follows.

1. Power subjugation:
The effects of globalisation brought lots of changes in the world economy. For small countries it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the soverignty of a country in totality.

2. Affects the Soverignty:
As a result of globalisation in the fields of economy, trade, transportation etc., the sovereign countries are bound by decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the soverignty of a country in totally.

3. Cultural Invasion:
Culture is a complex whole and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalisation in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.

4. Enslavement of Lifestyle:
Globalisation has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behaviour, mutual relationships, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalisation.

5. Elimination of subsidies:
The major impact of globalisation is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture in a phased manner. The worst-hit are the peasants who are the back bone of the country.

6. Political Instability:
The impact of globalisation mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country. Hence development comes to a standstill.

Thus globalisation as a process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy has gone a long way.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 38.
Define International relations and its importance.
Answer:
International relations is a dynamic discipline which tries to explain political activities across the state boundaries. According to Ola Joseph, “ International relations are the study of all forms of interactions that exist between members of separate entities or nations within the international system”.

International relations is concerned with all the exchange transactions, contracts, flow of information and the resulting behavioural response between and among separate organised societies. International relations could encompass many different activities such as social, economic, religious and others.

According to H.J. Morgenthau, Power is the key to international relations. He viewed that international relations are the subjects that deal with those relations among nations which involve power status. External developments constantly influence the domestic policies. Nations are compelled to enter into dialogues, form alliances with Other nations. This is to ensure the power and prestige of nations in the international system.

It is of immense importance for the student of international relations to understand that the world of today is marked by two factors. One is to do with the nature of power in the nuclear age and the other concerned with the interdependence of mankind.

V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)

Question 39.
Prepare a report on “Karnataka Rajyotsava” celebration in your college.
Answer:
November 1st, every year is a great day. After independence, there were more than 500 provinces in India ruled by rebellious kings and nawabs. Sardar Patel persuaded them to form state according to their native language. In that way, Kannada speaking people residing in area called Kannada Nadu or Mysore State which was only 9 or 10 districts then came to be formed.

Later other areas were also added. Now 30 districts are there. In 1973, November 1st, Mysore was renamed to Karnataka. From the day onwards every November 1st Rajyotsava is celebrated. This is an official programme. Every school and college in Karnataka celebrate this function. In Bangalore, capital of the state, the celebration extends for the whole month.

In colleges, students celebrate with photo of Bhuvaneshwari. Kannada flag (yellow-red) will be hoisted and cultural programmes will be conducted. After distribution of sweets function will come to an end.

OR

Explain the importance of liberalisation.
Answer:
Liberalization is the “willingness to respect or accept behaviour or opinion different from one’s own; open to new ideas”. Liberalization is the process of liberating the economy from various regulatory mechanisms and elimination of customs and tariffs. Economic liberalization is the policy of relaxation over economic and trade policies.

Importance of liberalization are as follows:

1. Consumer-friendly:
This leads to lower costs and prices for consumers to get the goods and services according to their wishes. There are many number of companies which bring lots of quality products to suit the consumer’s interests and demands. In liberalised economy, consumer gets more benefits.

2. Free from government regulations:
Government provides free movement of ‘ trade and commerce where any private company can easily carry on their business activities without any restrictions. The companies need not undergo any procedural delay by the government.

3. Promotes competition:
Liberalisation extends competition within different company’s trade firms. Basically, they maintain the. standards but offer lower prices for the consumers. Competition promotes efficiency and avoids wastage of resources.

4. Promotes world business class:
Liberalization provides the business class and opportunity to share their knowledge and exchange technology with confidence at the international level. Business firms can learn and earn at global level. They can enrich their knowledge by equipping new machinery and tools for better performance as per international standards.

5. Provides for more private funding agencies:
Liberalization allows financial markets to provide loans to companies which previously were not able to access, loans that they can pay off, and it allows more financial private funding agencies like ICICI, HDFC and HSBC.

6. Improve the economy: ‘
Liberalization is expected to improve nation’s GDP growth. It helps nation’s economic development and improves the standard of living in a shorter period. Most of the developing nations adopt liberalised economy.

7. Promotes technological advancement:
Liberalisation makes new changes in an advanced technology and logistics for better services. That can be useful to save time, energy and money. It promotes for high quality of products and making the supplies in time.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
Write about disintegration of USSR and bilateral relations in Indo-Russian relation.
Answer:
In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev, the President of USSR introduced economic and political reforms of ‘Perestroika’ (restructuring) and ‘Glasnost’(openness). That stopped the arms race with US, withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan, helped the unification of Germany, ended the cold war.

Other weaknesses inherent in the Soviet Union led to the disintegration of USSR and formation of 15 new countries in 1991. India recognized all of them as sovereign states and established new diplomatic relations. Ten of them joined together to form new associations with Russia called CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States).

Bilateral relations:-
The new leadership in Russia and other Republics of erstwhile Soviet Union hold India in high regard due to India’s secular approach to politics, its stable democratic system assuring rights and equality to all its citizens, self-reliant industrial and economic base, and its genuine concern for vital global issues, e.g. peace disarmament, economic development, human rights and democratization of international organizations particularly of the UN and its agencies.

It continues its support to India to become permanent member in UN Security Council. India and Russia both have multifaceted relationship involving strategic and high-level co-operation. The process of bilateral annual summits has given great impetus to bilateral relations. Indo-Russia co-operation has continued to move stronger on the basis mutual interest, faith, friendship and past relations.

OR

Write a note on anyone Karnataka political leader.
Answer:
Sri Siddaramaiah:
Sri Siddaramaiah is acknowledged as the leader of the backward class and minorities in the Karnataka social strata. He was born on 12th August 1948 and was the 22nd Chief Minister of Karnataka from 2013 to 2018. He was the first Chief Minister to complete a full 5-year term in the top post in Karnataka in 40 years.

Siddaramaiah was a member of various Janata Parivar fuctions for several years. Earlier as a Janatha Dal (Secular) leader, he was Deputy Chief. Minister of Karnataka on two occasions. On 13th May 2013, he was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Karnataka.

Siddaramaiah is also regarded as the leader of ‘Ahinda’. His programmes are most popular and familar with relates to the sections of below poverty line. During the time of his rule as a Chief Minister, his main popular programmes are Anna Bhagya, Ksheera Bhagya, Shaadi Bhagya, Mythri Bhagya, Indira Canteen, Arogya Bhagya, etc. still he remained as an unquestionable leader in Indian National Congress.

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