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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2019
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
When did the Constitution of India come into force?
26th January 1950.
Name the Iron Man of India.
Sardar Vallabha Bhai Patel.
None of The Above.
Mention the Party system in India.
Multy Party System.
Which day is celebrated as “Labours’ Day”?
1st may as celebrated as The Labours Day.
Salumarada Thimmakka belongs to which district?
What is coalition government?
According to F.A.Ogg “Coalition is a system where members of multiple political parties unite to form a government or Ministry”.
What is the root word of Terrorism?
Latin word Terrere.
What is Privatization?
Privatization is the process of transferring ownership of a business, enterprise, agency, public service or public property from the public sector to private sector.
What is Apartheid?
Discrimination on the basis of colour is called Apartheid.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Give two examples of All India Services.
- Indian Administrative service.
- Indian police service.
What are the three popular slogans of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar?
Education, Agitation, Organisation.
Mention the caste based inequality.
Discriminating the people on the grounds of caste is called caste based inequality.
Name any two persons who identified the identity politics.
- L.A. Kauffman
- Barbara Smith.
What are the two hurdles to create corruption-free India?
- Lack of moral values
- Political criminalization.
What is globalisation?
A process of integrating the economy of a country with world economy is called globalisation.
Name two permanent members of the Security Council.
Mention two SAARC summits which are held in India.
- 2nd summit-1986-Bangalore (Nandi Hills)
- 14th summit-2007 – Delhi.
Write any two ‘Code names’ of nuclear tests conducted by India.
- 1974 nuclear test (smiling of Buddha)
- 1998 nuclear test (Sakti-I and Sakti-II).
What is ‘Perestroika and ‘Glasnost’?
Perestroika means restructuring and Glasnost means openness. It was introduced by the then President of USSR Mikhail Gorbachev.
Name the leaders who have signed ‘Panchsheel’.
Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese PM Zhou-en-Lai signed Panchasheel on 29th April 1954.
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Write the advantages of Elector’s Photo Identity Card.
The EPIC was introduced by the then Chief Election Commissioner, T.N Sheshan (1990¬1996) to conduct free and fair elections and to remove evil practices like corruption, impersonation (bogus voting), etc., It was introduced in India in 1993. The arrangements were made to issue EPIC to prevent impersonation of electors.
Initially, it was difficult to issue identity cards to all the voters due to some technical problems. But during the term of M.S.Gill, the possession of EPIC by the voters was made compulsory. It is an official document issued by the Election Commission to all the eligible voters. It consists of all the information like voters’ age, name, photo, gender, address, constituency, date of issue, etc.
Explain the features of civil service.
Features of Civil Services:
1. Professional body:
As Herman Finer puts it, Civil Service is a professional body of officials who are, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole time job and career service.
As per the scaler system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where higher ranking administrative officers with discretionary powers supervise their subordinates. The authority runs from above and helps to make administration stable.
3. Political Neutrality:
Civil Servants refrain always from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.
Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the Government. Recognition for good work or censure for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to. the civil servants.
The Civil Servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favour, bias or preference to any groups or sections of the society.
6. Service motto:
They have to work for the welfare of society. They must be humble and service minded towards the public and not authoritative.
Civil Servants are called permanent executives. They discharge duties until they attain the age of superannuation. Both at the central and in Karnataka State Services, the age of retirement is sixty years. Even though disciplinary action is taken as per rules, there is security of service.
8. Jurisdiction of Law:
Every Civil Servant has to function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If they cross the limit, they are met with disciplinary actions.
9. Special Training:
Once the candidates are selected for top civil services, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration, like the Lai Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration located in Mussoorie for the training of the newly appointed IAS officers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Academy located in Hyderabad trains the newly appointed IPS officers.
What are the causes for backward class movement?
1. Social discrimination:
These communities faced social discrimination like superior and inferior throughout the years. They were not allowed to come to the mainstream. Hence they started agitation to get the facilities and their due share in the post-independence period.
2. Economics Exploitation:
Exploitation leads to economic inequality among the backward classes. Many of these communities were Below Poverty Line (BPL) and were poverty-stricken. To get these facilities, they united together and started agitation.
3. Educational backwardness:
Upper caste monopolised the field of education and denied access to these communities. As education is fundamental for self-development these backward communities are against the upper caste and organised agitation.
4. Denial of Political representation:
A few communities dominated political field and other backward classes were totally neglected. During 1920, the agitation started in Mysore Province by Backward classes to get political participation to Non-Brahmins led by Sri Kantharaje Urs.
It is difficult to achive anything without any unity and integrity. Hence Backward classes who are more than 350 in number were unorganised and scattered. To unit them and to fight for their cause, movement was started.
Discuss the political implications of Peasant movement.
The successive Governments have taken measures to reduce the problems of peasants by the following methods.
1. Agricultural Loans:
- National Crop Insurance Programme (NCIP).
- National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS).
- Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme(WBCS).
- Primary Land Development Bank (PLD).
2. National Agriculture Scheme:
For agricultural improvements, National Development Council (NDC) has made enormous arrangements in 2007 and the National Agriculture scheme was implemented with a view to enhance 4% in agricultural production. The main objective of this plan is to determine agricultural policy of all the states and provide essential facilities.
3. Waiving of debts:
When farmers are not able to get the yield to their expectations they cannot clear the debts. To uplift the farmers from debts the Government have taken necessary measures to waive the debts of farmers. This has reduced the suicide and death rate of farmers.
4. Establishment of Peasant Liason centres:
To protect farmers from low quality seeds, fertilizers and protect crops from diseases, Peasant Liason centres are opened to provide necessary implements and information related, at Hobli level.
5. Veterinary services:
Government is proving veterinary services to the livestock which also supports agriculture. Though encouraging dairying and saavayava Krishi (Organic agriculture) which are allied sectors.
6. Land Reforms Act:
National Land Reforms Act was implemented in Karnataka in 1974 when Sri Devaraj Urs was the Chief Minister of Karnataka. Land reforms Act of 2013 provides more compensation to Landowners, rehabilitation and settlement facilities, retaining the ownership of land with farmers,
no forceful acquisition of agricultural land till the final settlement facilities, retaining the ownership of land with farmers, no forceful acquisition of agricultural lands till the final settlement. Providing the same quantum of land elsewhere in the case of SCs and STs.
Explain the various components of Nation building.
The process of Nation-building started with the attainment of independence. The leaders of modern India initiated the process in the right direction as they worked out the details in an orderly and systematic way. However, during implementation, they had to face numerous problems associated with national reconstruction resulting in a slow process.
The process of nation-building is an offshoot of the concept of nation-states. The idea of nation-states emerged after the signing of the treaty of West Phalia (1648) by Western Countries. The people of the common religious and traditional backgrounds living in a definite territory with like-mindedness and ‘we’ feeling form the nation. Common language, culture, and history aspirations help the common people to form nationality.
1. Components to community support:
To realise the process of nation-building, collective support and endeavour of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Disciplined work culture and patriotic feeling also contribute for nation-building. In a democracy, people are the kingmakers.
Hence, they are expected to elect competent and honest representatives. They formulate a sound public opinion on important national issues. As J.S. Mill said ‘Eternal vigilance is the price of democracy’.
2. Good Governance:
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility, and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance. India is one of the leading countries in the world in the adoption of the system-of e-governance.
3. Committed Leadership:
History depicts many examples of committed leadership. Eg. the US President F. D. Roosevelt solved the crisis of Economic depression by adopting the New Deal Policy and US became a superpower at global level after the II World War. In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of nation-building.
He formulated goals for nation-building and introduced planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modern India.
4. Political Culture:
Political Culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes, and behaviour towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behaviour to national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity, and statesmanship.
5. Power Sharing:
To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of authoritarianism and dictatorship.
As H.J. Laski rightly puts it “A decision which affects all must be decided by all” To attain this reservation is provided to the SCs and STs and women at different levels of Government. It ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio-economic democracy.
6. Universal Education:
For the development of a nation universal education is of paramount importance. It enables the person to understand his potentiality and strengthens dignity. As Gandhi said, “Education is the light of life”. It encourages people to develop the spirit of enquiry the ability to analyze the national problems and to work for national progress.
Education also equips the people to shun fanaticism, parochialism, communalism, casteism and religious fundamentalism. The Right To Education Act 2009 implemented in 2010 is a step in this direction.
7. National Character:
Nationalism and patriotism are the foundations to build a national character. Each country has its distinct national character which denotes one’s nativity-as the conservatism of UK, ‘Land of Liberty’ of US, Ethnicity of Africa, Aboriginal of Australia, cultural diversity of India. Love and respect for one’s country and national symbols such as national flag, national anthem, and national monuments are the prerequisites.
One has to acquire knowledge about the history of his motherland and its contributions to human civilizations. Realizing the significance of national character, the makers of the Indian constitution have asserted the supremacy of popular sovereignty in the preamble reading with the expression.” We the people of India”.
8. Mass Media:
Mass Media is regarded as the Fourth Estate in democracy as it plays a vital role in nation-building. It highlights the omissions and commissions of the government and acts as a bridge between the government and the public. It . is an effective instrument of political socialization, modernization, and development. In India, the ‘Freedom of Expression’ is a fundamental right under Art. 19 of the Constitution.
9. Responsible Intelligentsia:
The contribution of intellectuals is recognized all over the world. Research and innovations in important areas of human life have contributed to the national development. In India the development in the field of social sciences, M.N. Srinivas, Amartya Sen, S. Shettar, Gail Omvedt, Kancha, Ilaya, Vandana. Shiva, S.N. Balagangadhara, AshishNandy, Rajiv Malhotra and others.
In Science and Technology Sir M. Vishveshwaraiah, Sir C.V. Raman, Dr. Raja Ramanna, Dr. M.G.K. Menon, Dr. CNR Rao. Dr. U.R. Rao, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, and others have greatly contributed for India’s present position at global level.
10. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically, Sardar Vallabha Bai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri, J.B. Kriplani, Acharya Narendra Dev played a key role in the national integration. November 19th is being observed as National integration day, the birthday of Smt. Indira Gandhi.
How is illiteracy as an impediment to the Indian democracy? Discuss.
Illiteracy means inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of ‘unfreedoms’. According to the census report of 2001, a person who can read and write with understanding in any language may be called a literate person and a person who can only read but cannot write is not a literate person.
Illiteracy is both a curse and an impediment to democracy. Illiterates are easily exploited and mislead by politicians and vested interests to realize their goals. The successful working of democracy depends upon political awareness which can be acquired only through education.
The 2011 census report records the literacy rate in Kerala as 94%, Karnataka at 75.36% and Bihar at 61.80%.
1. Lack of Political Awareness:
Illiteracy contributes for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote, they do not understand the idealogies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party, election rules, and process.
2. Low Percentage of votes:
Since the first general election, the percentage of polling has not crossed 60%. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extend by low percentage of polling.
3. Money and Muscle Power:
The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people who are illiterate through dubious means like rigging and booth capturing and threatening the voters using muscle power. This has led to criminalization of politics.
4. Politics of Populism:
The voters in India are attracted by politics of populism. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the Government. They fail to understand that the populist programmes bring them into mainstream of the Society. Indulgence in politics of populism makes the people to depend on the Government for everything without becoming creative individuals. This becomes an impediment to national development.
5. Emergence of Dictatorship:
When people are not politically conscious, show apathy to vote, an ambitious leader transforms democracy into a dictatorship.
Explain the remedies for communalism.
Promotion of Secularism and National Integration are very good remedial measures.
The constitution makers adopted secularism in order to create sense of security and equality among different religious groups. The state also follows a policy of neutrality in religious matters. Article 26 provides every religious denomination or any section has the right to establish religious institutions and manage their affairs.
In December 2013, the Central Cabinet approved the “Prevention of Communal Violence (Access to justice and Reparations) Bill” to punish the offenders who instigate and indulge in communal riots. It is yet to be passed by parliament.
2. National integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally and politically. India is a land of diversity. It is in a limited sense to call this a single nation because it has various religion, languages, castes, cultures, etc. So for the success of Indian democracy, promotion of national integration is necessary.
To preserve and sustain National integration many provisions have been adopted in the Constitution, like National integration Council, Zonal Councils, National security Council and armed forces play a greater role in the protection of National integration.
3. Neighbourhood Peace Committees:
The aftermath of Babri Masjid demolition and subsequent communal riots and social tensions in different places and ineffective Governmental measures has made it vital to establish Neighbourhood Peace Committees with eminent or prominent people as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot prone or communally sensitive areas.
The main objectives are arresting and containing social tensions which may flare up communal riots in the neighbourhood areas taking precautionary measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes.
In the aftermath of conflict restoring normalcy and pacifying affected people. Establishing harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.
Explain the organisation and functions of Lokayukta.
Though the institution of Lokayukta was introduced for the first time in Odisha it was not able to implement. Maharashtra was the first state to implement in 1973 and Karnataka in 1984. It investigates the allegation against officials like corruption, favouritism, nepotism, injustice and other grievances.
It does not include Judges, Speaker, Chairman, Accountant General, Chairman and Members of State Public Service Commission, Judges of civil and criminal court. The Lokayukta receives the petition from the public and conducts enquires. It has power to raid on the houses and offices of the corrupt officials.
Lokayukta in Karnataka:
The Government headed by Sri Ramakrishna Hegde adopted the institution of Lokayukta in 1984. It comprises of a retired judge of the Supreme Court or Chief Justice of the High. Court is Upa Lokayukta.
The committee consisting of Chief Minister, Chief Justice of High Court, Speaker of the Assembly, Chairman of the Council and leaders of the opposition are consulted by the governor regarding the appointment. They are appointed for 5 years. They can be removed from the office by the governor, on the charge of misbehavior or incapacity proved in the state Legislature.
Describe the role of youth against terrorism.
1. Youth against Terrorism:
Terrorism is used in various forms like international terrorism, domestic terrorism, economic terrorism, cultural terrorism, cyber terrorism, etc., Terrorism means deliberately and violently targetting civilians by inflicting physical or mental agony, wound or death that creates fear psychosis for political gains.
2. Role of youth against terrorism:
The concept of minority leads to fear of attack and results in religious fundamentalism. Hence, both the youth and the society have to pressurise the Government concerned, to create awareness and educate those who are indulging in anti-national and inhuman terrorist activities. Particularly for the youth priority should be given to peace and security of the inhabitants of the country.
Youth have to develop patriotism that is national feeling and involve themselves in constructive activities like nation-building by helping the Government against terrorist and militant activities taking place in their neighbourhood which is their prime duty.
Youth have to take the initiative within the Jurisdiction of law, to fight against terrorism as it happened in Naxalite prone states like Bihar, Jharkhand, and Chattisgarh, where Salwajudum (village army) fought against the Naxalites.
Youth must understand the complicated and multi-faceted terrorism rationally. They have to isolate the terrorism and inoculate their potential recruits. A successful counter-terrorism action requires a combination of coercive and conciliatory policies.
It is the responsibility of the youth to spread the importance of education that saves the younger generation from the clutches of terrorism and communalism as it happened in the case of Ms. Malala Yusufa Zai of Pakistan, who survived the terrorist attack.
Discuss the meaning and importance of liberalisation.
Importance of liberalization is as follows:
a. Liberalisation believes in ‘free market economy’. Therefore, it implies the gradual reduction of government control. This means the abolition of a licence-raj. It results in the removal of red-tape, procedural delay and bureaucratic regulation of economic activities.
b. Liberalisation lays the foundations for multiplication of business, trade, and commerce. In a free market economy, diversification of business, trade, and organisation takes place.
c. As there is expansion of business and as more and more capital is injected into the economy, the use of technology and automation becomes necessary. This helps in mechanization of work and computerization of administrative processes. Efficiency and economy are ensured.
d. Under the process of liberalization, the consumer is benefitted in many ways. There is a wider choice of goods and services. There is a great improvement in quality of goods and after-sales services.
e. Liberalisation introduces a competitive market system. In every matter there is free competition. To the extent such competition is regulated by government, the competition is healthy. This ensures not only better standards of goods and services, but also reasonable prices.
f. Finally, liberalization in the long-run brings about economic growth and progress of the nation. Of course, there must be adequate, planned and goal oriented governmental regulation.
Mention the objectives of UNO.
The objectives of UN are incorporated in Article 1 of the UN Charter. They are:
- To maintain international peace and security.
- To develop friendly relations among the nations.
- To seek co-operation in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.
- To co-operate in promoting respect for human rights.
- To maintain freedom for all without discrimination on the basis of race, sex, languages or religion.
Write about Non-alignment.
The most important principle of Indian foreign policy is non-alignment. It means detachment from any military bloc and solving all international problems through mutual co-operation and peaceful methods. After the II World War, the world was divided into two military blocs, one led by USA and another by USSR. Many countries of the world became the allies of these two military blocs.
But India was not aligned to any of the military blocs. India was the first country to speak of non alignment and major contributor to the emergence of Non-Align Movement. India, Yugoslavia, Indonesia, Egypt, and Ghana were the original supporters of the movement.
IV. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Describe the Government of India Act 1935.
The reforms of 1919, failed to fulfill the aspirations of the people of India. The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi started agitation for ‘Swaraj’ to be attained through ‘Non-co-operation’.
As per the Government of India Act 1919, a statutory commission was to be appointed at the expiration of ten years after the passing of the Act for the purpose of inquiring into the working of the system and the development of representative institutions in India.
The British Government appointed a Statutory Commission (Simon Commission) in 1927, to enquire into the report of the 1919 Act. This was done as a concession to the Indian demand for an early revision of the Act. The commission headed by Sir John Simon consisted of 7 members from the British Parliament.
It did not have a single Indian as a member. It was taken as an insult to the self-respect of India and hence was boycotted. Amidst protests of, “Simon, go back”, the commission visited India. It announced in 1929, that ‘Dominion status’ was the goal of Indian developments.
Gandhi lead the 1st Round Table Conference held in 1930. Dr. Ambedkar lead the 2nd in 1931 and again the 3rd Round table Conference in 1932. The outcome of these conferences was announced in the form of ‘white paper’. It provided for –
- Educational facilities and reservation in politics for depressed classes.
- Universal Adult Franchise.
- Prohibition of social boycott.
- Communal representation.
- Separate electorate for the untouchables. Simon commission brought the report of the resolutions of the conferences, but Gandhi opposed the separate electorate for untouchables and decided to fast unto death.
Congress leaders met Gandhi in his regard, and he was convinced. The resolution was modified by providing reservations for depressed classes instead of separate electorate for the untouchables. This was popularly known as ‘Poona pact’ signed by Gandhi and Ambedkar.
A White paper was prepared on the results of these conferences. It was examined by the Joint select committee of the British Parliament and in accordance with its recommendations, the Government of India Act 1935 was passed.
The act contained 321 Articles and 13 schedules. The important provisions of the Act are:
The Act provided for the establishment of ‘Federation of India’. It consisted of provinces of British India and the Princely states as units. For the first time, an attempt was made to establish a Federal Government.
2. Distribution of power:
It divided legislative powers between the Central and Provincial legislatures. There was a threefold division.
a. Federal list:
It consisted of 59 subjects like external affairs, currency, defense, etc., over which the federal legislature had legislative power.
b. Provincial list:
It consisted of 54 subjects like police, education, etc., over which provincial legislatures had jurisdiction.
c. Concurrent list:
This consisted of 36 subjects like criminal law, civil procedures, marriage, and divorce, etc., over which both the federal and provincial legislatures had competence.
d. The Residuary powers were vested with the Governor-General.
3. Diarchy at the centre:
The Diarchy which was established in the provinces by the Act of 1919 was now adopted at the centre. The executive authority vested with the Governor-General included the following:
a. The administration of reserved subjects like defence, external affairs, etc. was done by Governor-General with the help of ‘Councilors’, who were appointed by him and not responsible to the legislature.
b. In the matters of transferred subjects, Governor-General acted, on the advice of ‘Council of Ministers’, who were responsible to the legislature.
4. The Federal Legislatures:
The central legislature was bi-cameral consisting of Federal Assembly and the Council of States.
a. The Council of States consisted of 260 members, of which 156 (60%) were elected from British India and 104 (40%) were nominated by the Princely States.
b. Federal Assembly consisted of 375 members, of which 250 (67%) were elected by the legislative Assemblies and 125 (33%) nominated by the Rulers of the Princely States.
The Council was to be a permanent body 1/ 3rd of its members were to retire after 3 years. The term of House of Assembly was 5 years. Indirect method of election was prevalent for the House of Assembly. There were Bi-cameral legislatures in Bengal, Bombay, Bihar and Madras and rest of the provinces had Unicameral legislatures.
5. Federal Court:
It provided for the first time, the establishment of Federal Court of India in Delhi. It was established in 1937 and consisted of a Chief Justice and 6 additional Judges appointed by his Majesty’s Government on the basis of high legal qualifications.
- It had original jurisdiction to decide disputes between the Centre and the Provinces.
- Appellate Jurisdiction over decisions of the High courts.
- Advisory Jurisdiction to advice the Governor-General on any point of Law.
It was the highest court in India. The Federal court functioned in India for about 12 years, till its transformation into Supreme Court of India in 1950, under the present constitution. The credit for its excellent works goes to Sir Maurice Gwyer, who guided the court in its formative years as its first Chief Justice.
6. Provincial Autonomy:
By this act, the provinces no longer remained as delegates of Central Government but became autonomous units of administration. The act introduced Provincial Autonomy. It was introduced in 11 provinces viz, Madras, Bombay, Bengal, the United Provinces, Punjab, Bihar, Central Provinces, Assam, the North Western Frontier Province, Orissa, and Sind.
The provinces were administered by the ministers. The differences between the reserved and 0- transferred subjects were dropped. All subjects were placed under the charge of ministers who were made responsible and removable by the Legislative Assembly. Thus, the executive was responsible to legislature.
The legislative relations between the Central Government and the Provinces were regulated according to three lists of subjects provided under this Act.
a. However, ‘Dominion status’ which was promised by the Simon Commission in 1929 was not conferred by this Act.
b. The intention to establish Federation of India did not materalize because opposition for the merger from the rulers of Princely states.
c. The degree of provincial autonomy introduced at the provincial level was limited as Central Government retained important powers and control. The Governor was given pivotal position, with discretionary powers on important matters. He was not bound by the advice of ministers. Thus, the claim of conferring provincial autonomy was very limited.
Explain the nature of party system in India.
The nature of the Indian party system can be traced back to the Indian National Movement. Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. It was a forum to unite the people of India to fight against the British Imperialism.
Due to ideological differences, Muslim League was founded in 1906. Other parties like Hindu Maha Sabha, Communist Party of India, Forward Block, and Praja Socialist Party, etc., emerged in the successive years. Later, in the post-independence period, Jan Sangh, Janatha Party, Bharatiya Janatha Party, Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party, have grown according to the needs of the time and they started to work to get power.
1. Extra Constitutional growth:
There is no reference in the Constitution of India about how many political parties are to be existed in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all citizens can have the freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties are established on the basis of this liberty. Hence, political parties have no constitutional base.
2. Prevalence of Multi-party system:
India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture, and traditions. This heterogeneity leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the mainstream of the country.
3. Spilt and merger:
It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contributed for this split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.
4. End of single-party era:
India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975-1977, forced small parties to unite and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to the single-party era.
5. Dissident activities:
The meanness of leaders like personal attitudes, favouritism, nepotism lead to dissident activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves was to political instability.
Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and other reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.
7. Leader worship:
Most of the political parties in India emphasize on the leaders rather than the ideologies of the parties. The leader decides the destiny of the political party e.g. Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi of Congress, A.B. Vajpayee of BJP. Leaders with charisma dominate the whole party.
8. Alliances without principles:
Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of power and make unholy alliances.
9. Dominance of Regional parties:
The presence of regional parties during the first general elections did not influence the voters and they were rejected. During the 1980s, they emerged very strong and dominated the political scenario, e.g. DMK, A1ADMK, Telugu Desam, Shiv Sena National, Conference, AGP, JD(S), RJD, SJP, BJD and other parties playing a significant role during the formation of Government.
10. Religious, Lingual and Regionalism:
The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like. e.g. Muslim league, Akalidal, Shiv Sena, DMK, A1ADMK, Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti (MES) Telangana Rastriya Samiti (TRS) and others. In spite of the rules of the Election Commission, such political parties exist.
11. Leftist and Rightist Parties:
Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies, e.g. CPI, CPI (M), Forward Block, RPI and Socialist parties who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system form the left front. Parties like Congress, BJP, SP, NCP, BSP, RJD, JD (U), JD (S) and others who believe in moderate changes in the system form the right front.
12. The era of coalition:
When no single political party secures absolute majority like-minded political parties come together and join as a single largest group to form a coalition Government. The era of coalition started during 1977 when Janata Party came to power headed by Sri Morarjee Desai as Prime Minister at the centre along with other parties. This was followed by National Front, United Front, NDA, UPA, etc.
Describe the democratic movement of Nepal.
21st century is known as the era of democratic movements. These movements in Afro-Asian nations started to overthrow despotic, autocratic and other authoritarian governments. Nepal was a small landlocked kingdom in Southern Asia lying between India to the south and Tibet to the north.
Monarchy was prevalent in Nepal since 18th centuries. During the rule of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, democratic Maoist movements started mainly because of the influence of India and China.
In 1980 limited democracy resulted in the creation of multi-party parliamentary monarchy. The political war was launched by the communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in 1996, with the overthrow of the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a people’s Republic. Maoist insurgency began in 1996 ended with the Communist victory in 2001. The comprehensive Peace Accord was signed on 21st November 2006. The Crown prince massacred king Birendra and the royal family.
Bringing the unpopular Gyanendra to the throne. Nepal witnessed a popular movement in 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. At the same time, the king reinstated old Nepal house of Representatives, with an assurance of permanent peace and the multi-party democracy. The king called upon the Seven Party Alliance (SPA) to bear the responsibility of taking the nation on the path of national unity and prosperity.
The popular Government assumed office on 18th May 2006 and withdrawn all the privileges given to the king unanimously. The bill included-Imposing tax on the royal family and its assets.
- Ending the Raj Parishad, a Royal Advisory council.
- Eliminating Royal references from army and Government titles.
- Declaring Nepal a secular country, not the Hindu Kingdom.
- Scrapping the national anthem until a new one is composed.
- Eliminating the king’s position as the supreme commander of the army.
This is popularly known as the “Nepalese Magna Carta”.
Explain the concepts of International relations.
The core concepts of International relations pertaining to politics are as follows:
1. State Sovereignty:
Jean Bodin has described the concept of Sovereignty in his work “De Republica”. He emphasizes on the state Sovereignty within their territorial jurisdiction. No State can dictate others and all States are equal in matters of status, dignity, and honour.
For instance, India under the British imperialism lost its sovereignty and gained its statehood only in 1947. Iraq during the Gulf war in 1990, is an example for aggression on the Sovereignty.
2. National Interests:
It is the action of the State in relation to other States. As Frankel opined, it refers to the aspiration of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of personalities and ideals of the decision-makers.
3. Power Blocs:
With the beginning of the cold war, two power blocs emerged, i.e., USA and USSR. President of U.S. Harry S. Truman believed in the spread of democracy whereas the Warsaw Pact under Soviet policy sought the spread of Communism. Capitalistic ideology spread in UK, France, Germany, and Communist ideology spread in Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungery.
Polarities in international relations refer to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bi-polarity during the cold war between the two superpowers.
The disintegration of the USSR has led to uni-polarity with the United States as the superpower. With rapid economic growth in 2010, China became the world’s second-largest economy. Combined with the respectable international position, China has emerged as a major power in the multi-polar world.
5. Balance of Power:
The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of States as actors in international relations, with its emphasis on the cultivation of power and the utilization of power for resolving the problems. Morgenthau used the term ‘Balance of Power’ as an approximately equal distribution of power. It is an inseparable part of the power politics.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Discuss the Chief Secretary and his functions.
Chief Secretary is the head of the Secretariat in every state. He is in charge of the administrative setup. His authority includes all departments of the Secretariat. By reason of his experience and standing, he is able to ease out difficulties and frictions to give general guidance to other officers.
Thus he gives leadership to the administrative setup of the state. He maintains rapport between the State government and the Union government and other State government.
The Chief Secretary performs the following functions:
- He is the Principal Adviser to the Chief Minister.
- He acts as the Cabinet Secretary and attends cabinet meetings.
- He exercises general supervision and control over the entire Secretariat.
- He looks after all matters beyond the purview of other secretaries.
- As chief of all the secretaries, he presides over a large number of committees and is a member of many others.
- He is the secretary by rotation, of the zonal council of which the state is a member.
- He has control over the staff attached to the ministers.
- He is the bridge between that State and Central or other state Governments.
- He receives confidential communication from the Government of India and conveys them to the Chief Minister.
As the head of the administrative Machinery, Chief of the Civil Services, Mentor and conscience keeper of civil services, he plays a significant role in the state administration.
Write about the 69th Republic day celebration in your college.
Republic Day a memorable ocassion for the nation; was celebrated in our college this year also. Under the guidance of the teachers, students had decorated the college ground one day before and erected the podium as well as a stage for cultural programmes.
Sri Shankaranarayana – an eminent freedom fighter and politician was invited as Chief guest. As per schedule time at 9 a.m. the Chief guest arrived at our College premises. Our Principal welcomed the guest with honour, respect. After invocation and prayer, the function took off on a smooth note. The Chief guest hoisted the tricoloured national flag. President of our College Union read out the welcome speech. Principal of our College presided over the function.
The Chief Guest in his guest speech highlighted the significance of Republic day celebrations and what were the problems faced by Vallabhabhai Patel in uniting the 502 provinces and division of states according to basis of language and culture. He also explained patel’s bold steps taken to unite Hyderabad, Junagadh and Jammu and Kashmir while migrating people faced many problems. The speech was very interesting and very useful to Political Science students.
After the function was over, there were some cultural programmes like singing, dancing, mime, mono acting and skit about people migrating to India or Pakistan. Their problems were highlighed in the skit. The programme was much appreciated. The function came to an end with a vote of thanks and distribution of sweets.
Explain the basic principles of India’s foreign policy in brief.
The basic principles of foreign policy are Non-Alignment. After the II World War, the world war divided into two military blocs, one led by the USA and another by USSR. Many countries blocs. But India was not aligned to any of the military blocs. India was the first country to speak of non-alignment and major contributor to the emergence of the Non-Align Movement.
Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India, Gen. Sukarno President of Indonesia, Josif Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia Kwame Nkrumah Prime Minister of Ghana and Gamal Abdel Nasser Leader of Egypt were the founders of this movement. The first summit of NAM which was held at Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1961 with 25 member countries.
At present, it has 128 members. Recent NAM Summit concluded in August 2012 at Tehran Iran. Venezuela will host the next 17th NAM Summit in 2015.
2. Opposition of Imperialism and colonialism:
As a colony of the British over 200 years, India firmly stood in opposition to any form of imperialism and colonialism. India. played a major role in liberating the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa from colonial shackles.
3. Faith in the UN:
As a founding members of 6N, India has played a major role in achieving world peace. India as a major democratic country in the world is collaborating with UN agencies viz: UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNIDO. Indian foreign policy supports and regards the UN as an agency for world peace.
It has always advocated for peaceful settlement of international disputes within the purview of the UN. India has contributed its troops to the UN peacekeeping force operations in the tense and conflicated areas and different regions, especially in diffcult missions of the world.
4. Fairness of means:
With the inspiration of Gandhian ideas, India has always emphasized fair means in resolving international disputes. India has supported peaceful and non-violent methods and opposed the war, aggression and power politics anywhere in the world. In the Asian relations conference, New Delhi on 2nd April of 1947.
Indian foreign policy expresses full faith in peaceful means for the settlement of dispues. India repudiates the use of force, it belives in peace achieved through peaceful means a good end through right and just means.
5. Anti – aparthied and racial discrimination:
India has stood by the principles of racial equality and opposes discrimination on the basis of race, religion caste, colour, and sex. India opposed and rejected the doctrine of white supremacy, it has been the most outspoken critic of racism. Equal and honourable treatment of all in the world in India’s goal. India is always against of the policy of apartheid followed in the South Africa and it’s broke off diplomatic relations with it as a protest to social discrimination.
Panchasheel continues to be another fundamental principle of Indian foreign policy. An agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Zhou-en-Lai on April, 29th 1954, sought to govern the relationship between India and China on the basis of five principles.
- Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-agression.
- Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefits.
- Peaceful co-existence.
It is a principle of peaceful co-existence with other nations, it guided the basis of relationship between 1954-57 marked by numerous visits and exchanges. This period is described as the Sino-Indian honeymoon.
7. Tie with the commonwealth:
Although India gets its independence from British imperalism she decided to remain within the common-wealth of Nations. The British Queen is the Head of the Commonwealth, it is made up of Britain and other countries which had once been her colonies, Traditionally India had many economic ties with the UK and other member countries of the Commonwealth Association.
In many commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGM) strident declarations were passed regarding the problem of social discrimination, apartheid, violation of human rights and other issues of democracy in the member countries and the world. The 23rd CHOGM was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka in November 2013. Next Summit will be designated at Tanzania in 2015.
Major concern of India’s foreign policy in the post-cold war period is disarmament and arms race in the world. As a leader of NAM, India established beyond doubt that arms race is at the expense of human development. Expenditure on arms and ammunitions depletes distorts economic progress, programs for removal of poverty, eradication of diseases spread of education and easy availability of basic needs.
9. Sympathy towards divided Countries:
Partition of India and Pakistan due to divide and rule policy of British in 1947, resulted in terrible communal riots, enormous sufferings of people who moved out of their homes and had to begin their life again as refugees. Because of the bitter experience of this incident. India is sympathetic towards the bifurcation of Palestine in Arab, South and North Korea, East and West Germany (Now unified) and Vietnam.
10. Concern towards small countries:
India’s foreign policy emphasizes its come towards small countries of the world. India supported Malasia (1948), Ghana (1957) and Bangladesh (1971) to encourage and emerge as independent nations. Most of the decolonized territories are mini and microstates, small both in area and popultion, got the membership in NAM because of India’s support.
Since its independence, India is extending economic assistance to small countries in the world and always in the forefront of reconstruction and rehabilitation of the war-torn or small nations affected by natural disasters.
11. Affinity towards Afro-Asian Countries:
Though India has the relations with all countries of the world, she has special affinity towards the countries in Asia and Africa which are very near and following the principles followed by her. India supported at the freedom struggle of African countries e.g. Namibia became independent in March 1990, Nelson Mandela the first black leader became the President of South Africa in May 1994. In the first Afro-Asian countries summit at Bandung in 1955.
12. Against Cold War:
Cold war began with the formation of two power blocs at the end of II world war viz. US and USSR. Rivalry between them resulted in the emergence of many military alliances eg: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) ANZUS (Australia New Zealand United States alliance) SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organisation). Bagdad Pact, CENTO (Central Treaty Organization). As a leader of NAM, it stayed away from the two blocs.
India’s policy was neither negative nor passive, as Pandit Nehru declared to the world that NAM was not a policy of ‘fleeing away!’ India tried to reduce the rivalry between two blocs and chose to involve other members of the non-aligned group, in this mission. With the disintegration of USSR the cold war ended.
Write about the Indo-Soviet relations.
Russia is the world’s largest country extending halfway around the globe. To the west, it borders Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, and Belarus. The much longer southern frontier extends into Central Asia. India’s relation with the former USSR has been a part of history, but it developed rapidly after the visits of Khrushchev and Bulganin to India and Nehru’s visit to the Soviet Union.
Since 1955, Indo- Soviet relations have reached a new scale and dimension and regarded as a good example of bilateral and inter-state relations. The Soviets have openly declared that Indo-Soviet friendship has become a part of their ‘tradition’. People to people relationship is a comer stone of their foreign policy.
Soviet Union contributed immensely for the development of industries and technology in India. The defence ties between the two countries helped India in building a credible defence structure. Its steadfast diplomatic support in the UN, on the Kashmir and Goa issues, is commendable. The use of Veto-power in the Security Council to support India in 1971 war with Pakistan was crucial.
Soviet Russia adopted the Communist ideology and India accepted Democratic Socialism. Despite the ideological differences, the two countries forged a long time Treaty of friendship for 20 years.
Factors of Indo-USSR close ties:
- Both India and USSR consider that the peaceful settlement of disputes between states as most crucial for the future of human race.
- Both believe in natural freedom and social equality as a prerequisite of just world order.
- Support to liberation movements across the world are recognized by both the countries.
- Both Countries opposed all forms of colonialism, imperialism, and racial discrimination.
Thus, India and USSR have realized geopolitical significance and the need to strengthen bilateral ties. This is to ensure the settlement of regional problems and establishment of global peace and prosperity.
1. Disintegration of Soviet Union:
In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev, the President of USSR introduced economic and political reforms of ‘Perestroika’(restructuring ) and ‘Glasnost (openness). That stopped the arms race with US, withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan, helped the unification of Germany, ended the cold war.
Other weaknesses inherent in the Soviet Union led to the disintergration of USSR and formation of 15 new countries in 1991. India recognized all of them as Sovereign states and established new diplomatic relations. Ten of them joined together to form a new associations with Russia called (CIS) (Commonwealth of Independent States).
2. Bilateral relations:
The new leadership in Russia and other Republics of the erstwhile Soviet Union hold India in high regard due to India’s secular approach to politics, its stable democratic system of assuring rights and equality to all its citizens, self reliant industrial and economic base and its genuine concern for vital global issues e.g. peace, disarmament, economic development, human rights and democratization of international organization particularly of the UN and its agencies.
Russia continues its support to India to become a permanent member in UN Security Council. India and Russia both have multi-faceted relationships involving strategic and high level cooperation. The process of bilateral annual summits has given great impetus to bilateral relations. Indo- Russia cooperation has continued to move stronger on the basis mutual interest, faith, friendship, and past relations.