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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2016
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
What is Dyarchy?
Diarchy is Dual government.
Who was the Vice-President of the Viceroy’s Executive Council?
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was the Vice President of the Viceroy’s Executive council.
Who appoints the Election Commissioners of India?
The President of India appoints the Election Commissioners of India.
When did the Anti-Defection law come into existence?
Anti defection law came into existence on 1st April 1985.
Who started the newspaper ‘Mooka Naika’?
Dr. B.R Ambedkar.
Which day is celebrated as Labours day?
May 1st is celebrated as Labour day.
Write the meaning of coalition.
According to F.A.Ogg “Coalition is a system where members of multiple political parties unite to form a government or Ministry”.
What is the root word of corruption?
The word corruption comes from the latin ‘cor’ which means – altogether or with together and ‘rumpere’ which means to break Corruption can break or destroy one’s trustworthiness.
What is Liberalisation?
Liberalization is the “Willingness to respect or accept behaviour or opinions different from one’s own, being open to new ideas”.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
How many states was Punjab divided into? Which are they?
Two – Punjab and Haryana.
What is ‘Anonymity’ in Civil Services?
Civil Servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the Government. Recognition for good work or disrepute for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to the civil servants.
What is environment?
Environment is the sum total of all biotic and non-biotic (living and non-living factors) and conditions that surround and potentially influence organisms without becoming their constituent part.
What is National Integration?
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically. Sardar Vallabh Bai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri, J.B. Kriplani and Achaiya Narendra Dev played a key role in the National Integration. November 19th is being observed as National integration day.
Write the meaning of Identity Politics.
Identity politics is a pattern of belongingness, a search for comfort, an approach to community, to attain empowerment, representation and recognition of the social groups.
What is Common Minimum Programme?
When the partners of an alliance who have formed a Government, set aside their political ideologies to run a coalition Government on some common policies, it is called Common Minimum Programme.
What is Brain drain?
In most of the developing and underdeveloped nations, job opportunities are minimal. Educated persons, seeking better living conditions and earning options, migrate to developed countries. So the nations get drained of their intellectuals and face the problem of brain drain. These nations get deprived of their Scientists, Engineers and others.
Name any two organs of the UN.
- General Assembly
- Security Council.
Name any two members of the SAARC.
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India.
Write any two principles of Panchsheel.
- Mutual Non-aggression
- Peaceful co-existence.
Name any two military alliances.
SEATO ANZUS, NATO.
Who were the signatories of Simla Agreement?
Simla Pact was signed in 1972 at Simla. The signatories of this pact (agreement) were Smt. Indira Gandhi – Indian Prime Minister and Pakistan Prime Minister, Z.A. Bhutto.
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 15-20 sentences ehch: (8 × 5 = 40)
Explain the provisions of Indian Independence Act, 1947.
1. The Act Provided that on 15th August 1947, the appointed date, two independent dominions, India and Pakistan, would be set up and the Act provided for complete transfer of power.
2. The dominion of India got the territories of Bombay, Madras, UP, Central Provinces, Bihar, Assam, Delhi, Ajmer, Coorg etc., and the rest of India except Sindh, Baluchistan, West Punjab, East Bengal, North West Frontier Province and Sylhet in Assam, which became the territories of Pakistan. For demarcating the boundaries, a Boundary Commission was formed with Sir Cyril Radcliffe as the Chairman.
3. The Crown was no longer the source of authority.
4. The Governor General and provisional Governors were to act as constitutional heads. They lost extra-ordinary powers to legislate.
5. The office of the Secretary of State was abolished.
6. From 15th August 1947, the British Crown lost all rights of Paramountcy over India and the Indian states were free to join either Indian Union or Pakistan.
7. The power in each dominion was transferred to the Constituent Assembly which became fully sovereign from 15th August 1947 and were absolutely free to frame the constitution. The Constituent Assemblies had a dual role i.e. Constituent and Legislative. They functioned as Central Legislature, till the new Legislatures were formed.
8. Until the new Constitution was framed, the Act of 1935 would govern the Centre and the Provinces with necessary modifications.
Explain the features of Indirect Election.
Features of Indirect Elections are:
1. Selection of best candidates:
In this method, candidates are elected by intelligent voters. At the first instance General public elect their representatives to the electoral college and at the second instance the elected representatives in turn judiciously elect the final representatives of legislature or head of the nation. This method involves double election. Elected representatives act wisely with political acumen.
2. Prevents unhealthy campaigning:
It avoids all sorts of evils like dirty propaganda tricks and instigation of people lover petty issues to divide them. For example in the election of the President of India, the average voters are kept outside but only elected members of both the Houses of the Parliament participate. These intelligent and responsible members keep away from all sorts of party gimmicks.
3. Peaceful voting:
In this method, there is no scope for illegal activities or fights during the election as it happens in the direct election. In the electoral process only small members of enlightened voters peacefully exercise their votes judiciously. The elections are conducted according to well defined norms and values.
4. Little scope for emotions:
Elected representatives are not carried away by passions or sentiments nor can be influenced like an average voter. There is no chance for misusing sensitive issues for political gains. The higher level leaders are elected by people’s representatives who act with a sense of responsibility.
5. Suitable to developing nations:
Since majority of the voters are ignorant, not educated and intelligent, only a small group of politically educated and wise voters elect responsible and public spirited representatives.
Write a note on Central Services.
India is a Union of States and hence it provides for division of powers. Subjects mentioned in the union list are to be managed by a separate body of officials under central services. Art. 312 of the Constitution empowers the Parliament to create Central Services.
The officials appointed to these services come under the exclusive control of the Central Government. The Central Services are classified into Class-I, Class-II, Class-Ill and Class-IV:
Some of the Central Services are:
- Indian Foreign Services.
- Indian Audit & Accounts Sendees.
- Indian Revenue Services.
- Indian Railway Services
- Indian Defence Services
- Indian Information Services
- Indian Postal Services
- Indian Engineering Services
- Indian Economic Services.
Write a note on Chief Secretary.
Chief Secretary is the head of the Secretariat in every state. He is in charge of the administrative setup. His authority includes all departments of the Secretariat. By reason of his experience and standing, he is able to ease out difficulties and frictions to give general guidance to other officers. Thus he gives leadership to the administrative set up of the state. He maintains rapport between the State government and the Union government and other State governments.
The Chief Secretary performs the following functions:
- He is the Principal Adviser to the Chief Minister.
- He acts as the Cabinet Secretary and attends cabinet meetings.
- He exercises general supervision and control over the entire Secretariat.
- He looks after all matters beyond the purview of other secretaries.
- As chief of all the secretaries, he presides over a large number of committees and is a member of many others.
- He is the secretary by rotation, of the zonal council of which the state is a member.
- He has control over the staff attached to the ministers.
- He is the bridge between that State and Central or other state Governments.
- He receives confidential communication from the Government of India and conveys them to the Chief Minister.
As the head of the administrative Machinery, Chief of the Civil Services, Mentor and conscience keeper of Civil services, he plays a significant role in the state administration.
Explain the causes of Dalit movement,
Causes for Dalit Movement are as follows:
1. Social injustice:
As per the law of nature, all men are born equal. But in practice, equal treatment and equal opportunities have been denied. Exploitation in society was widespread. To get their legitimate rights and opportunities, dalits rebelled under the leadership of many reformers which took the form of movement against the injustice.
2. Economic inequality:
Dalits worked in the lands of high caste Elindus and were responsible for the wealth of the feudalist upper castes. Inspite of it, they were treated inhumanly and were not given proper share of wealth. Hence, their position was pathetic. Added to the this, they were victims of exploitation, atrocity, harassment and other heinous Acts. Their opposition was expressed in the form of agitations.
Discrimination was rampant in all walks of life. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar himself was the victim of such discrimination. He dared to enter the Kalaram Temple of Nasik against all opposition with his fellow dalits. He publicly used the water of Mahad tank. With this, he started democratic struggle against discrimination to attain social equality. This became the stepping stone for Dalit Movement.
4. Lack of awareness:
Dalits were deprived of educational facilities which lead to lack of awareness. Hence, exploitation atrocities mounted up. To get relieved of such situations and to create awareness, movements like Bahishkrith Hitakarini Sabha (1924), Dalit Sangharsh Samiti (1974) and others were initiated nationwide.
5. Political Backwardness:
Basically Dalits were kept away from political participation and decision making processes due to denial opportunities. Social boycott, exploitation and subordination were responsible for political backwardness. To come out of these barriers, Dalits were forced to organise agitations and protests which finally got converted into movements.
6. Political implications:
Dalit movement is named as Dalit Andolan in Karnataka, Asprushya (untouchable) Aandolan in Maharashtra, Adi Dravida Andolan in Tamilnadu, Pulaya Aandolan in Kerala, Adi Dharma Andolan in Punjab and Namasudra Aandolan in West Bengal.
As a result of Dalit Movements, in the post Independence period, several measures were taken to improve the status of Dalits. The Constituation of India has provided many provisions for the upliftment of Dalits to bring them into the main stream. Many rights have been incorporated to empower Dalits.
What are the causes of Feminist Movement?
The causes for Feminist Movement are as follows.
It is evident that Indian society is male dominated and preference is given to the male members. Though men and women are born equally and the Consitution also upholds the equality between the two, women are deprived of education, employment, decision making, and property rights. This has led to agitations.
2. The evils of dowry:
The evils of dowry have forced parents to become debtors, the girls to brothels and uneven ratio through female foeticide and infanticide. As a result of this uneven ratio of men and women in the society, rape and other heinous crimes are on the rise.
3. Denial of human rights:
The attrocities on women have denied them human rights and other rights like right to life, liberty, freedom of expression and others. Their existence and survival depends upon the mercy of the male members. Decision making is the birth right of men in matters of education, marriage, property rights and family issues.
4. Social strata based on gender:
Men have not spared any of the fields including cultural, social, religious, political and exercise their monopoly and continue their attrocities on women. Women are treated as slaves and bonded labourers. This has made the women to organize themselves and start an agitation.
5. Sexual abuse and molestation:
Irrespective of the age, time and place, the above heinous crimes are taking place. To regain the right to decide about children or to get aborted without the interference of husband or politicians through governmental policies, women are uniting together and fighting for justice.
6. Domestic violence:
Women shoulder the entire household responsibilites like raring and caring of children, domestic work and the related tasks. The cohabitants of the family become the victims of domestic violence because of irresponsible, illiterate and drunkard husbands who lack discreation. This may take the form of physical, mental, sexual harassment and finally it may take women’s life as toll. To avoid such violence, women organisations are established.
Explain briefly the various components of Nation building.
Nation building is the process whereby the State becomes a true nation-state, its people become a well organised, united and cohesive group and the society becomes democratic and developed. It also involves the process of making the political system autonomous and legitimate to meet the demands and aspirations of the people and overcome threats, crises and all other challenges. Thus, nation building is the transformation of a country into a great society or a powerful nation.
1. Community support:
To realize the process of nation building, collective support and endeavour of people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Disciplined work culture and patriotic feeling also contribute for nation building.
2. Good Governance:
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance.
3. Committed Leadership:
History depicts many examples of committed leadership. The US President F.D Roosevelt solved the crisis of Economic depression by adopting the new deal policy. In India, Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of nation building.
4. Political Culture:
Political culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes and behaviour towards political system. It requires an ideal political behaviour for national reconstruction.
5. Power sharing:
To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The consentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families, leads to the emergence of authoritarianism and dictatorship.
6. Universal education:
For the development of a Nation universal education is of paramount importance. It enables a person to understand their potentiality and strengthens dignity. As Gandhi said ‘Education is the light of life’, it encourages people to develop the spirit of enquiry, the ability to analyze the nation’s problems and to work for national progress.
7. National Character:
Nationalism and patriotism are the foundations to build a national character. Each country has its distinct national character which denotes one’s nativity as the conservatism of UK, ‘Land of Liberty’ of US, ethnic city of Africa, Aborigines of Australia and cultural diversity of India. Love and respect for one’s country and national symbols such as national flag, national anthem and national monuments are the prerequisites.
8. Mass Media:
Mass Media is regarded as the Fourth Estate in Democracy as it plays a vital role in nation building. It highlights the omissions and commissions of the Government and acts as a bridge between the Government and the public.
9. Responsible Intelligentsia:
The contribution of intellectuals is recognized all over the world. Research and innovations in important areas of human life have contributed to the national development. In India, the development in the field of social sciences by M.N. Srinivas, Amarthya Sen, Gail, Vandana Shiva, Ashish Nandy, and others and in science and technology, Sir M. Vishveshwaraiah, Sir C.V. Raman, Dr. Raja Ramanna, Dr. M.G.K. Menon, Dr. C.N.R. Rao, Dr.U.R. Rao, Dr. A.PJ. Abdul Kalam and others have greatly contributed for India’s present position at global level.
10. National Integration
It is process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically. SardarVallabhaBai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri. J.B. Kriplani and Acharya Narendra Dev have played a key role in the National Integration. November 19th is being observed as National integration day.
Socio-economic development is a remedy to terrorism. Discuss.
1. Socio-Economic Measures:
Socio economic development in the terrorist prone areas would provide a long-lasting solution to the problem.
2. Social acceptance:
Measures have to be taken to bring the terrorists back to the mainstream of social life. They should not be made to suffer the stigma of a terrorist.
Lack of nation oriented and moral education at the young age is a must youth are lured by terrorist adventurism. Providing proper education would help them to realize that there are other rational and human values to achieve their goals.
4. Employment opportunities:
Generation of employment at the right age to everyone avoids undemocratic and anti-national activities. By providing proper employment opportunities, youth can be effectively prevented from embracing terrorism.
5. Financial Assistance:
More and more youth should be encouraged to become self employed by financial assistance through banks and other non-banking financial institutions. Fundamentalists cannot achieve success in capturing the employed youth for their selfish motto.
6. Economic equality:
Government has to take initiatives, to formulate large scale economic measure to eliminate extreme poverty and exploitation and ensure economic equality.
Government has to undertake measures to immediately compensate the uprooted and evacuated people while executing large scale national policies and programmes.
8. Removal of Regional disparity:
Not all parts of the nation are equality developed. Government should take special measures and legislative actions to remove the regional disparity. Many terrorists originate from the regionally imbalanced and underdeveloped areas.
Explain various emergency provisions in our Constitution.
Part XVIII of the Constitution of India deals with three types of emergency provisions.
1. National Emergency:
Act 352 empowers the President to declare National emergency when there is threat of external aggression. Till now, it has been imposed thrice. In such circumstances, individual rights are suspended except Art. 21 (protection of life and personal liberty) and Art. 22 (protection against arrest and detention in certain cases).
2. State Emergency:
Art 356 authorise the President to declare President’s rule in a state on the recommendation of as Governor during the breakdown of the constitutional machinery in that state. Hitherto, it has been implemented.
3. Financial Emergency:
Article 360 empowers the President to declare financial emergency if the financial conditions of the nation are precarious.
Explain the importance of privatisation.
The political implications of Privatisation are as follows:
1. Concentration of Wealth:
Privatisation encourages concentration of wealth in the hands of big business groups. It results in great disparities of income and wealth. It goes against the principle of egalitarian society.
2. More profits:
Corporate sectors generate more profits. But they share a meagre percentage with the shareholders. They enjoy the lion’s share out of the shareholders’ investment. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor gets widened.
3. Bane to local industries:
Local people borrow money from indigenous banks and also get loans from government concerns with subsidised rates of interest to start an industry. Multi-national companies with good financial backup, survive even in case of loss.
4. Threat to national interest:
Key areas of Nation like Defence, Space, Science, and Technology are to be retained with the Government. Assigning these areas to the private sector may harm National interests.
5. Lack of service motto:
The private firms are concerned more about their profit rather than providing good service conditions to their staff and do not bother about extending welfare programmes to their employees and even to the society.
6. No job security:
Private companies extract work from employees as long as they are fit. They ruthlessly sack them when they suffer from ill health or fitness problems. In the long run, they become a burden to the Government. The employees of private sectors suffer from job insecurity and this results in psychological disorders.
Bring out the importance of International Relations.
1. The study of International relations enables us to understand the basic policies and principles which contribute the international sphere.
2. It provides concrete solutions for international problems, by means of dialogues, bilateral, multilateral, mutual cooperations and the like.
3. It substitutes internationalism to narrow nationalism which delimits the boundaries of States.
4. It avoids war, military actions or alliances, and international conflicts.
5. It considers the acceptance of the principles of collective security and disarmament, world peace and progress. It creates a global feeling among the citizens of the world and promotes universal brotherhood.
Explain briefly the basic principles of Indian Foreign Policy.
The foreign policy of a nation represents its external sovereignty and freedom. India adopted its own foreign policy after the emancipation from British colonialism and emerged as a sovereignty nation in the world.
India’s foreign policy is born of a country’s principles, interests and objectives. It is the result of interplay of complex forces like History, Geography, Domestic environment, Ideology and the influence of National Leaders. It emphasizes the glory of Indian freedom struggle, importance of India’s geographical location for its economic
development and patriotism.
An important fact of India’s foreign policy is the concern for Gandhian ideas of peace and non violence. India achieved its independence by using these weapons and succeeded in inspiring the world.
India’s foreign policy comprises of economic developments and political stability to ensure the unity and integrity of the country. National security was conceived to present aggression or threat of aggression to protect the independence, territorial integrity, self reliance and promote economic independence.
India belived in fostering friendly relations with her neighbours. She promotes good will, friendship and co-operation in the South Asian region for mutual benefit. India opposes big power intervention or interference in the internal affairs of South Asian region. India calls for making Indian ocean a peaceful zone to avoid big power naval confrontation.
India supports liberation on movements, democratic struggles for national independence and right of self determination. She is opposed to imperialism, colonialism, racism, authoritarianism and militarism in the world.
India supports the Human Rights as a basic condition for democratic world and for an egalitarian world. India believes in promotion of the principle of Panchasheel and strengthening of Non Align Movement (NAM) and UN for easing global tension. This is to build a world free from fear, hate, scarcity and inequality.
IV. Answer any two of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the nature of party system in India.
The nature of Indian party system can . be traced back to the Indian National Movement. Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. It was a forum to unite the people of India to fight against the British Imperialism. Due to ideological differences, Muslim League was founded in 1906. Other parties like Hindu Maha Sabha, Communist Party of India, Forward Block and Praja Socialist Party etc., emerged in the successive years.
Later, in the post independence period, Jan Sangh, Janatha Party, Bharatiya Janatha Party, Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party, according to the needs of the time and they started to work to get power etc were floated.
1. Extra Constitutional growth:
There is no reference in the Constitution of India about M how many political parties are to exist in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all citizens can have the freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties are established on the basis of this liberty. Hence, political parties have no constitutional base.
2. Prevalence of Multi party system:
India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture and traditions. This heterogeneity leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the main stream of the country.
3. Spilt and merger:
It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contributed for this split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.
4. End of single party era:
India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975-1977, forced small parties to unite and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to the single party era.
5. Dissident activities:
Meanness of leaders like personal attitudes, favouritism, nepotism lead to dissident activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves way to political instability.
Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and other reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.
7. Leader worship:
Most of the political parties in India emphasize on the leaders rather than the ideologies of the parties. The leader decides the destiny of the political party e.g. Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi of Congress, A.B. Vajpayee of BJR Leaders with charisma dominate the whole party.
8. Alliances without principles:
Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of power and make unholy alliances.
9. Dominance of Regional parties:
The presence of regional parties during the first general elections did not influence the voters and they were rejected. During 1980s, they emerged very strong and dominated the political scenario, e.g. DMK, ALADMK, Telugu Desam, Shiv Sena, National Conference, AGP, JD(S), RJD, SJP, BJD and other parties playing a significant role during the formation of Governments.
10. Religious, Lingual and Region alism:
The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like. e.g. Muslim league, Akalidal, Shiv Sena, DMK, AIADMK, Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti (MES) Telangana Rastriya Samiti (TRS) and others. In spite of the rules of the Election Commission, such political parties exist.
11. Leftist and Rightist Parties:
Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies, e.g. CPI, CPI (M), Forward Block, RPI and Socialist parties who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system form the left front. Parties like Congress, BJP, SP, NCP, BSP, RJD, JD (U), JD (S) and others who believe in moderate changes in the system form the right front.
12. The era of coalition:
When no single political party secures absolute majority, like minded political parties come together and join as a single largest group to form a coalition Government. The era of coalition started during 1977, when Janata Party came to power headed by Sri Morarjee Desai as Prime Minister at the centre along with other parties. This was followed by National Front, United Front, NDA, UPA etc.
Explain the causes of illiteracy. How does it threat Indian Democracy?
Illiteracy means inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of ‘unfreedoms’. According to the census report of 2001, a person who can read and write with understanding in any language may be called a literate person and a person who can only read but cannot write is not a literate person.
Illiteracy is both a curse and an impediment to democracy. Illiterates are easily exploited and mislead by politicians and vested interests to realize their goals. The successful working of democracy depends upon political awareness which can be acquired only through education.
The 2011 census report records the literacy rate in Kerala as 94%, Karnataka at 75.36% and Bihar at 61.80%.
1. Lack of Political Awareness:
Illiteracy contributes for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote, they do not understand the idealogies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party, election rules, and process.
2. Low Percentage of votes:
Since the first general election, the percentage of polling has not crossed 60%. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extend by low percentage of polling.
3. Money and Muscle Power:
The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people who are illiterate through dubious means like rigging and booth capturing and threatening the voters using muscle power. This has led to criminalization of politics.
4. Politics of Populism:
The voters in India are attracted by politics of populism. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the Government. They fail to understand that the populist programmes bring them into mainstream of the Society. Indulgence in politics of populism makes the people to depend on the Government for everything without becoming creative individuals. This becomes an impediment to national development.
5. Emergence of Dictatorship:
When people are not politically conscious, show apathy to vote, an ambitious leader transforms democracy into a dictatorship.
Explain the importance of globalisation and bring out its political implications.
Globalisation is the process of intergrating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction. Integration and interdependence among people and organisation across borders. The strongest manifestion of Globalisation has been the increasing economics intergration among the countries in trade and investment.
An important attribute of globalization is the increasing degree of openness, which has three dimensions, ie. international trade, international investment and international finance. It involves creation of networks and activities transcending economic, social and geographical boundaries. The Economy of India had undergone significat policy shifts in the beginning of the 1990’s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the liberalization, privatizaton and globalisation(LPG) model.
The chain of reforms that took place with regard to business, manufacturing and financial industries targeted at the strengthening the economy of the country to a more proficient level. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner.
In brief the salient points of Globalisation are
- Transfer of technology
- Concept of a global village
- Mobility of labour force
- Global competion resulting in better performance
- Outsourcing and
- Optimum utilization of human resources.
The political implications of globalisation are as follows:
1. Power subjugation:
The effects of globalisation has brought a lot of changes in the world economy. For small countries, it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of big countries, which leads to power subjugation.
2. Affects the sovereignty:
As a result of globalisation in the fields of economy, trade, transportation, etc., the sovereign countries are bound by the decisions of stronger countries. Hence it affects the sovereignty of a country in totality.
3. Cultural invasion:
Culture is a complex, wholesome and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalisation in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.
4. Enslavement of lifestyle:
Globalisation has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behaviour, mutual relationship, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalisation.
5. Elimination of subsidies:
The major impact of globalisation is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture, in a phased manner. The worst hit are the peasants who are the backbone of the country.
6. Political Instability:
The impact of globalisation mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country. Hence development comes to a stand still. Thus globalisation as a process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy has gone a long way.
Discuss the concepts of International Relations.
The core concepts of International Relations pertaining to politics are as follows:
a. State Sovereignty:
Jean Bodin has described the concept of Sovereignty in his work “De Republica”. He emphasizes on the state Sovereignty within their territorial jurisdiction. No State can dictate others and all States are equal in matters of status, dignity and honour. For instance, India under the British imperialism lost its sovereignty and gained its state hood only in 1947. Iraq during the Gulf war in 1990, is an example for aggression on the Sovereignty.
b. National Interests:
It is the action of the State in relation to other States. As Frankel opined, it refers to the aspiration of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of personalities and ideals of the decision makers.
c. Power Blocs:
With the beginning of the cold war, two power blocs emerged, i.e., USA and USSR. President of U S. Harry S. Truman believed in the spread of democracy whereas the Warsaw Pact under Soviet policy sought the spread of Communism. Capitalistic ideology spread in UK, France, Germany and Communist ideology spread in Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania and Hungery.
Polarities in international relations refer to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bi-polarity during the cold war between the two super powers. The disintegration of the USSR has led to uni-polarity with the United States as the superpower.
With rapid economic growth in 2010, China became the world’s second largest economy. Combined with the respectable international position, China has emerged as a major power in the multi-polar world.
e. Balance of Power:
The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of States as actors in international relations, with its emphasis on the cultivation of power and the utilization of power for resolving the problems. Morgenthau used the term ‘Balance of Power’ as an approximately equal distribution of power. It is an inseparable part of the power politics.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on ‘Kannada Rajyotsava’ day celebration of your college.
November 1st, every year is a great day. At the time of independence, there were more than 500 provinces in India ruled by rebellious kings and nawabs. Sardar Patel persuaded them to form states based on their native languages. In that way Kannada speaking people residing in the areas called Kannada Nadu or Mysore together to from the Mysore state, which was then only 9 or 10 districts came to be formed.
Later other areas were also added. Now there are 29 districts. On 1973 November 1st Mysore was renamed as Karnataka. From that day onwards, every November 1st Rajyotsava is celebrated. This is an official programme. All schools and colleges in Karnataka, celebrate this function. In Bengaluru, capital of the state, the celebration extends for the whole month.
In colleges, students celebrate with the photo on idol of Sri Bhuvaneshwari. Kannada flag (yellow-red) is hoisted and cultural programmes are conducted. After speeches and distribution of sweets, the function comes to an end.
What is Patel scheme?
Sardar Patel took charge of the Indian states Department and V.P. Menon became secretary on 5th July 1947. They dealt with matters arising between central Government and the Indian states. The biggest individual factor in the above spectacular event was the personality of Sardar Patel. The success of Integration is attributed to his astute statesmanship, intense patriotism and great administrative skill. He handled the Kings of Princely states with patience, tact and sympathy. He was a man of Iron will. The integration of states is his greatest contribution to independent India.
Write a note on any Indian political leader.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is acknowledged as the leader of the untouchables and underprivileged in the Indian social strata. For his work in piloting the Constitution of Independent India through the Constituent Assembly, he is also hailed as the Modem Manu.
Dr. Ambedkar was the 14th child of Ramaji Sakpal and Bhimabai of the Mahar community in Maharashtra. He was born on 14th April 1891. He lost his mother when he was only six and was brought up by his aunt. He had his school education in Satara. He completed his graduation in Bombay with the support of the Maharaja of Baroda. He did his M.A. and Ph.D degrees from Colombia University in 1915 and 1916 respectively.
Later he got his Law and D.Sc degrees also. In 1924, he started an asspciation for the welfare of the depressed classes. He also started the newspapers ‘Bahiskrit Bharat’ in Hindi and ‘Mooka Nayaka‘ in Marathi. These were to motivate the people to fight for independence and also to champion the cause of the depressed classes for social reforms. His important works were ‘Administration and Finance of the East India Company’, ‘Buddha and Karl Marx’ and ‘Caste in India’ among others.
He was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee for framing our Constitution. In the Interim government, he was the Law Minister in Nehru’s cabinet. He renounced active politics and embraced Buddhism. He spent the rest of his life propagating the message of Buddhism. He passed away on 6th December 1956. Dr. Ambedkar’s memory will remain long in our hearts.
Describe the similarities in Indo-USSR relations.
Russia is the world’s largest country extending half way round the globe. To the west it borders Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Belarus. The much longer southern frontier extends into Central Asia.
India’s relation with the former USSR has been a part of history, but it developed rapidly after the visits of Khrushchev and Bulganin to India and Nehru’s visit to Soviet Union. Since 1955, Indo- Soviet relations have reached a new scale and dimension and regarded as a good example of bilateral and inter-state relations. The Soviets have openly declared that Indo-Soviet friendship has become a part of their ‘tradition’. People to people relationship is a comer stone of their foreign policy.
Soviet Union contributed immensely for the development of industries and technology in India. The defence ties between the two countries helped India in building a credible defence structure. Its steadfast diplomatic support in the UN, on the Kashmir and Goa issues is commendable.
The use of Veto-power in the Security Council to support India in 1971 war with Pakistan was crucial. Soviet Russia adopted Communist ideology and India accepted Democratic Socialism. Despite the ideological differences, the two countries forged a long time Treaty of friendship for 20 years.
Factors of Indo-USSR close ties:
1. Both India and USSR consider that the peaceful settlement of disputes between states as most crucial for the future of human race.
2. Both believe in natural freedom and social equality as pre-requisite of a just world order.
3. Support to liberation movements across the world are recognized by both the countries.
4. Both Countries opposed all forms of colonialism, imperialism, and racial discrimination.
Thus, India and USSR have realized geo-political significance and the need to strengthen bilateral ties. This is to ensure the settlement of regional problems and establishment of global peace and prosperity.
Disintegration of Soviet Union:
In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev, the President of USSR introduced economic and political reforms of ‘Perestroika’(restructuring ) and ‘Glasnost (openness). That stopped the arms race with US, withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan, helped the unification of Germany, ended the cold war.
Other weaknesses inherent in the Soviet Union led to the disintergration of USSR and formation of 15 new countries in 1991. India recognized all of them as Sovereign states and established new diplomatic relations. Ten of them joined together to form a new associations with Russia called (CIS) (Commonwealth of Independent States).
The new leadership in Russia and other Republics of the erstwhile Soviet Union hold India in high regard due to India’s secular approach to politics, its stable democratic system of assuring rights and equality to all its citizens, self-reliant industrial and economic base and its genuine concern for vital global issues e.g. peace, disarmament, economic development, human rights and democratization of international organization particularly of the UN and its agencies.
Russia continues its support to India to become a permanent member in UN Security Council. India and Russia both have multi-faceted relationalship involving strategic and high-level cooperation. The process of bilateral annual summits has given great impetus to bilateral relations. Indo-Russia co-operation has continued to move stronger on the basis mutual interest, faith, friendship and past relations.