2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Origin and Growth of Indian Political System

Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Origin and Growth of Indian Political System

You can Download Chapter 1 Origin and Growth of Indian Political System, Notes, 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Political Science Origin and Growth of Indian Political System One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Name one of the ideals of National Movement.
Answer:
Popular Sovereignty’ is one of the ideals of National Movement.

Question 2.
State one of the problems that India faced after independence.
Answer:
Agriculture and industrial stagnation was one of the problems that India faced after independence.

Question 3.
When did East India Company established the Trade Centres in India?
Answer:
East India Company established its Trade Centres in India in 1600.

Question 4.
How long the East India Company ruled India?
Answer:
East India Company ruled India from 1757 to 1858.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Which Act transferred power from Company to the Crown? (July 2017)
Answer:
British Crown Act 1858 transferred power from Company to Crown.

Question 6.
When was INC formed? (July 2018)
Answer:
INC was formed in 1885.

Question 7.
State one of the reforms of the Act of 1909.
Answer:
Providing separate electorate to the Muslims was one of the reforms of the act of 1909.

Question 8.
Mention one of the reforms of Montagu-Chelmsford Report.
Answer:
Introducing Dyarchy in the British Provinces was one of the reforms of Montagu-Chelmsford Report.

Question 9.
State the reason for the Government of India Act 1935.
Answer:
Failure of 1919 Act to meet the needs of Indians was the reason for the Government of India Act 1935.

Question 10.
Why was Statutory Commission formed?
Answer:
The Statutory Commission was formed to review the 1919 Act and to report about the working of the system of Dyarchy.

Question 11.
What did Simon Commission recommend?
Answer:
The Simon Commission recommended the British Government to provide ‘Dominion Status’ to India.

Question 12.
When was the 3rd Round Table Conference held?
Answer:
The 3rd Round Table Conference held in 1932.

Question 13.
Mention one of the Provisions of 1935 Act.
Answer:
The Act provided for the establishment of Federation of India.

Question 14.
Which Act provided for the provisions of Federal system in India?
Answer:
1935 act provided for the provisions of Federal system in India.

Question 15.
Why did Gandhiji decided to ‘fast untodeath’ ?
Answer:
Gandhiji opposed separate electorate for untouchables and decided to ‘fast untodeath’.

Question 16.
When was Poona Pact signed? (July 2017)
Answer:
Poona Pact was signed on 24th September 1932.

Question 17.
Who are the signitaries of Poona Pact? (July 2017)
Answer:
Gandhiji and Dr.B.R. Ambedkar are the signitaries of Poona Pact.

Question 18.
Who exercised Residuary powers?
Answer:
Governor General can exercise the Residuary powers.

Question 19.
What is Dyarchy ? (March 2016)
Answer:
Dual government in the British Provinces is called Dyarchy.

Question 20.
Who was authorized to act upon transferred subjects?
Answer:
Governor General was authorized to act upon transferred subjects.

Question 21.
What was the term of Federal Assembly?
Answer:
The term of Federal Assembly was 5 years.

Question 22.
What was the total strength of Council of States?
Answer:
The total strength of Council of States was 260.

Question 23.
What was the total strength of the Federal Assembly?
Answer:
The total strength of the Federal Assembly was 375.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 24.
How many members were nominated by the rulers of the Princely States?
Answer:
125 members were nominated by the rulers of the princely States.

Question 25.
State the total strength of judges in Federal Court.
Answer:
The total strength of judges in Federal Court was one Chief Justice and 6 Additional Judges.

Question 26.
Who was the appointing authority to the judges of Federal Court?
Answer:
The British Government can appoint the judges of Federal Court on the basis of high legal qualifications.

Question 27.
What is the meaning of Original Jurisdiction?
Answer:
The authority to decide the disputes between the centre and the provinces is called Original Jurisdiction.

Question 28.
What is the meaning of Appellate Jurisdiction?
Answer:
The citizens can appeal over the decisions of the High Courts, it is called Appellate Jurisdiction.

Question 29.
What is the meaning of Advisory Jurisdiction?
Answer:
Advising the Governor General on any point of law is called Advisory Jurisdiction.

Question 30.
Which is called as the Court of Records?
Answer:
Federal Court is called as the Court of Records.

Question 31.
Who was the first Chief Justice of Federal Court?
Answer:
Sir Maurice Gwyer was the first Chief Justice of Federal Court.

Question 32.
How long did the Federal Court function?
Answer:
The Federal Court functioned in India for about 12 years.

Question 33.
What is Provincial Autonomy?
Answer:
The provinces no longer remained as delegates of Central Government but became autonomous units of administration, it is called Provincial Autonomy.

Question 34.
How many provinces introduced provincial autonomy?
Answer:
11 Provinces were introduced provincial autonomy.

Question 35.
Who administered the Provinces?
Answer:
Provincial Governors administered the Provinces.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 36.
When was the Drafting Committee set up?
Answer:
The Drafting Committee was set up on 29! August 1947.

Question 37.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
Answer:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.

Question 38.
Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chainnan of the Constituent assembly.

Question 39.
Who stood for a separate state of Pakistan?
Answer:
Mohamed Ali Jinna stood for a separate state of Pakistan.

Question 40.
Who was the Chairman of the Boundry Commission? (March 2018)
Answer:
Sir Cyril Radcliffe was the Chainnan of the Boundry Commission.

Question 41.
When was the Interim Government of India formed? (July 2017)
Answer:
The Interim Government of India was formed on 2nd September 1946.

Question 42.
Till when did the Interim Government remain in office?
Answer:
The Interim Government remains in office till 15th August 1947.

Question 43.
How long did the Interim Government worked?
Answer:
The Interim Government worked for 9 months 13 days.

Question 44.
Who was the Vice President of Viceroy’s Executive Council? (March 2016)
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru was the Vice President of Viceroy’s Executive Council.

Question 45.
When did the independent India accepted the Constitution?
Answer:
The independent India accepted the Constitution on 26th November 1949.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 46.
When did the Constitution of India came into effect? (July 2016)
Answer:
The Constitution of India came into effect on 26th  January 1950.

Question 47.
When were the first general elections held?
Answer:
The first general elections were held during October 1951 to February 1952.

Question 48.
Which country holds world’s largest democracy?
Answer:
India holds world’s largest democracy.

Question 49.
For how many seats in Loksabha, elections were held in the first general elections?
Answer:
Answer: For 489 seats in Loksabha, elections were held in the first general elections.

Question 50.
Who was the first speaker of Loksabha?
Answer:
Answer: G.V. Mavalankar was the first speaker of Loksabha.

Question 51.
Mention the number of electorates who exercised their franchise?
Answer:
Answer: 176 millions electorates exercised their franchise in the first general elections.

Question 52.
Mention the number of persons who actually exercised voting?
Answer:
Answer: 105.5 millions were actually exercised their voting in the first general elections.

Question 53.
What was the number of polling booths in first general elections?
Answer:
Number of polling booths in first general elections was 2.24,000.

Question 54.
What was the percentage of votes polled in first general elections?
Answer:
Answer: The percentage of votes polled in first general elections was 45%.

Question 55.
How many political parties were in the fray in the first general elections?
Answer:
Nearly 70 political parties were in the fray in the first general elections.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 56.
How many candidates contested for the first general elections?
Answer:
Answer: 1800 candidates were contested for the first general elections.

Question 57.
What is Paramountcy?
Answer:
The Princely States of India accepted British supremacy in the matters of External Affairs, but
enjoyed certain amount of freedom in their internal affairs, this is called Paramountcy.

Question 58.
What is meant by ‘Instrument of Accession’?
Answer:
An acceptance by the provinces to join with Indian Union, it is called ‘Instrument of Accession’.

Question 59.
How many princely states signed for ‘Instrument of Accession’?
Answer:
Nearly 565 Princely States have signed for instrument of Accession’.

Question 60.
Name one of the states which did not sign the ‘Instrument of Accession’.
Answer:
Hyderabad did not sign the instrument of Accession’.

Question 61.
What is meant by ‘Patel Scheme’?
Answer:
The process of integration of states were made in three-fold is known as ‘Patel Scheme’.

Question 62.
Who was the Architect of the ‘Reorganization of States’?
Answer:
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel w-as the Architect of the ‘Reorganization of States’.

Question 63.
What is ‘Operation Polo’? (July 2016)
Answer:
The Indian army entered into Hyderabad to end the anarchy of Nizam and to liberate the Hyderabad, it is known as ‘Operation Polo’.

Question 64.
Who was called as the ‘Man of Iron Will’? (March 2018)
Answer:
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was called as the ‘Man of Iron Will’.

Question 65.
Which Article of the Indian Constitution provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir?
Answer:
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 66.
Who was the Chairman of Linguistic Provinces Commission?
Answer:
Justice S.K. Dar was the Chairman of Linguistic Provinces Commission.

Question 67.
When was the States Reorganization Committee (SRC) formed?
Answer:
The States Reorganization Committee was formed in 1953.

Question 68.
When was States Reorganization Act enacted?
Answer:
The States Reorganization Act was enacted on November 4956.

Question 69.
Which new state was created in 2014?
Answer:
Telangana state was created in 2014.

Question 70.
When was Bombay bifurcated?
Answer:
Bombay was bifurcated in 1960.

Question 71.
When was Punjab bifurcated?
Answer:
Punjab was bifurcated in 1966.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Political Science Origin and Growth of Indian Political System Two marks questions and answers:

Question 1.
Name any two leaders of Indian Freedom Movement.
Answer:
The two leaders of Indian Freedom Movement are Dadabhai Naoroji and Gopala Krishna Gokhale.

Question 2.
Name any two challenges that India faced after Independence.
Answer:
Economic backwardness and poverty are the two challenges that India faced after Independence.

Question 3.
Name any two ideals of National Movement that are in the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
Civil liberties and self-reliant economy are the two ideals of National Movement that are in the Indian Constitution.

Question 4.
How many Articles and Schedules were there in the Act of 1935? (March 2019)
Answer:
The Act contained 321 Articles and 10 Schedules.

Question 5.
How many subjects were there in Federal list? Name one of them.
Answer:
There are 59 subjects in Federal list. Ex. External Affairs.

Question 6.
State the number of subjects in Provincial list and name one of them.
Answer:
There are 54 subjects in Provincial list. Ex. Police.

Question 7.
Name any two subjects that are in the Concurrent list.
Answer:
Criminal law. Civil Procedure, Marriage and Divorce are in the Concurrent list.

Question 8.
What is meant by Reserved Subjects? Give an example.
Answer:
The subjects which are dealt by Governor General with the help of Councilors who are appointed by him and not responsible to legislature is called Reserved subjects. Ex. Defence, External Affairs.

Question 9.
What is Bicameral Legislature?
Answer:
The central legislature was consisting of two houses called Federal Assembly and the Council of States, it is called bicameral legislature.

Question 10.
Name two houses of Central Legislature.
Answer:

  1. Federal assembly (Lower House).
  2. Council of States (Upper House).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
State any two provinces which had Bicameral Legislature.
Answer:

  1. Bombay
  2. Bihar.

Question 12.
When was Federal Court established and where? (March 2017)
Answer:
The Federal Court was established in 1937 at Delhi.

Question 13.
Write any two proposals of Sir Stafford Cripps.
Answer:

  1. Formation of Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution after the 2nd World War.
  2. Providing Dominion status to India.

Question 14.
State any two recommendations of Cabinet Mission.
Answer:

  1. Formation of Constituent Assembly with 389 members.
  2. Formation of Interim Government with the support of all political parties.

Question 15.
What is Mount Batten Plan?
Answer:
The agreement between Congress and Muslim League on the basis of partition and the Princely States can have liberty to join with India or Pakistan or to remain independent.

Question 16.
How many days and sessions did the first Loksabha meet?
Answer:
The first Loksabha met 14 sessions in 667 davs.

Question 17.
Which state was formed first on the basis of language and when?
Answer:
Andhra Pradesh was formed in 1953 on the basis of language.

Question 18.
As per the Act of 1956 how many States and Union Territories were formed?
Answer:
14 States and 6 Union Territories were formed as per the Act of 1956.

Question 19.
How many states was Bombay divided into? Which are they? (July 2015)
Answer:
Bombay was divided into 2 states. They are Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Question 20.
How many states was Punjab divided into? Which are they? (March 2016)
Answer:
Punjab was divided into 2 states. They are Punjab and Haryana.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Political Science Origin and Growth of Indian Political System Five marks questions and answers

Question 1.
Explain the contents of white paper after Round Table Conferences.
Answer:
The outcome of Round Table Conference are as follows:-

  • Educational facilities and reservation in politics for depressed class.
  • Universal adult franchise
  • Prohibition of social boycott.
  • Communal representation.
  • Separate electorate for the untouchables.

Question 2.
Explain the distribution of powers among states in the Act of 1935.
Answer:
It divided legislative, powders between the Central and Provincial legislatures. There was a three fold division.

  1. Federal list: It consisted of 59 subjects like External Affairs, Currency, Defence etc., over which the Federal Legislature had legislative powers.
  2. Provincial list: It consisted of 54 subjects like Police. Education etc., over which Provincial Legislature had jurisdiction.
  3. Concurrent list: It consisted of 36 subjects like Criminal law, Civil Procedure, Marriage and Divorce etc. over which both the Federal and Provincial Legislatures had competence.
  4. The Residuary powers were vested with the Governor General.

Question 3.
Write about the jurisdiction of Federal Court.
Answer:
The jurisdiction of the Federal Court are as follows:

  • It had Original Jurisdiction to decide disputes between the centre and the provinces.
  • Appellate Jurisdiction over decisions of the High Courts.
  • Advisory’ Jurisdiction to advice the Governor General on any point of law.
  • It also acts as a court of record. This means that its decisions are recorded for future reference.

Question 4.
List out the number of members of the Executive Council along with their portpolios
Answer:
2nd PUC Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Origin and Growth of Indian Political System - 1

Question 5.
Write a note on the Interim Government. (July 2018)
Answer:
The Interim Government of India was formed on 2nd’September 1946. The Constituent Assembly had 389 members. It was drawn from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India. It has the task of assisting the transition of India and Pakistan from British rule to Independence. It remained until 15[h August 1947, when India became independent. The Constituent Assembly became a sovereign body and performed the role of Legislature for the new state. It was responsible for framing the Constitution and making ordinary laws as well.

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Question 6.
How do you come to the conclusion that ours is the world’s largest free and fair election? (March 2015)
OR
Write a short note on First General election. (March 2019)
Answer:
India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic after the Constitution was adopted on 26th January 1950. General elections to the first Loksabha were held in India from October 1951 to February 1952 on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise. With this India emerged as the world’s largest Democracy. The provision of Universal Adult Franchise was an act of faith on the part of framers of the Constitution in the democratic process.

The holding of general elections was a bold implementation of that faith in man and democracy. The first general election was the most gigantic political experiment in the history’ of democracy. The Election Commission of India is empower to conduct free and fair election periodically. The Election Commission is a constitutionally autonomus body which is totally free from the control and influence of legislature and executive.

So all the voters who attained the age of 18 years can have the right to vote. The right to vote or franchise is the pivot of the dramatic system. This right is the individual expression of sovereignty. When it is collectively exercised by the people, it implies popular sovereignty. So ours is the world’s largest free and fair election.

Question 7.
State the results and the party position in the first general election.
Answer:
2nd PUC Science Question Bank Chapter 1 Origin and Growth of Indian Political System - 2

Question 8.
Explain the accession of Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir. (July 2018)
Answer:
Junagadh : The Nawab of Junagadh Mohbat Khan declared accession to Pakistan much against the wishes of the people of the state. They were in favour of joining India. After the declaration of accession, they rose in rebellion against the Nawab. As a result, he fled to Pakistan. A ‘Plebiscite’ was held in which the people voted to accede to Indian Union. Later Junagadh was merged with Saurashtra.

Hyderabad : Hyderabad, the largest of the princely States was surrounded by Indian Territory. Its ruler Nizam wanted an independent status. But the Indian Government felt that an independent Hyderabad would pose security threat. Through his paramilitary force named Razakars, the Nizam ostracized the people. To end this anarchy, the Indian army entered into Hyderabad. This police action is known as ‘Operation Polo’. The Nizam surrendered and it was followed by complete accession of Hyderabad into Indian Union.

Kashmir : Jammu & Kashmir was a Princely State. Its ruler Harisingh was a Hindu and the population was largely Muslims. They did not want to merge with India or Pakistan but have an independent status for the state. In October 1947. Kashmir was invaded by Tribal infiltrators of Pakistan. This forced Maharaja to seek Indian military help. India reacted positively after the merge of Kashmir into Indian Union. But still there is a problem and crisis.

Question 9.
Narrate the role of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in the event of integration of states. (March 2016) (July 2017)
Answer:
India became the independent democratic country on 15th August 1947 follow ing the partition as two countries like India and Pakistan. The British Indian Province were directly under the control of the British Government and thus transferred to India. The Princely States free to join India or Pakistan. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel took charge of the Indian States Department. He dealt with matters arising between Central Government and the Indian States.

All States except a few7 acceded to Indian Union in accordance with an ‘Instrument of accession’. Nearly 565 States except junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir acceded Indian Union. The process of integration was three-fold and known as Patel Scheme. Firstly merger of small states with adjoining provinces, secondly grouping of small states and thirdly integration into Chief Commissioner’s Province.

This process was taken place successfully by means of the virtual leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Question 10.
Language is a basis for the reorganization of states. Substantiate. (July 2015) (July 2016) (March 2018)
Answer:
Tanguage as basis for reorganization is important because:-

  • Language is close!} related to culture and customs of people.
  • Spread of education and literacy can occur only through medium of mother tongue.
  • To a common man. democracy can be real only when politics and administration are conducted in his language.
  • Linguistic states can provide education, administration and judicial activity in mother tongue.

Therefore, it was concluded that language is a basis for the reorganization of states.

Question 11.
What are the main features of the States Reorganization Act of 1956?
Answer:
The main features of the Act are:

  • Abolishing the distinction between Part A. B. C and D States.
  • Establishment of two categories of units i.e. (i) States (ii) Union Territories.
  • Abolition of Rajpramukhs.
  • The Act provided for creation of 14 States and 6 Union Territories.

Question 12.
List out the States and Union Territories in India at present.
Answer:
States

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam.
  4. Bihar
  5. Chattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  8. Haryana
  9. Himachal Pradesh
  10. Jammu & Kashmir
  11. Jharkhand
  12. Karnataka
  13. Kerala
  14. Madhya Pradesh
  15. Maharashtra
  16. Manipur
  17. Meghalaya
  18. Mizoram
  19. Nagaland
  20. Odisha
  21. Punjab
  22. Rajasthan
  23. Sikkim
  24. Tamil Nadu
  25. Tripura
  26. Uttarakhand
  27. Uttara Pradesh
  28. West Bengal
  29. Telangana

Union Territories

  1. Andaman & Nicobar
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra & Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman & Diu
  5. Delhi (NCT)
  6. Lakshadweep
  7. Puducherry

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Political Science Origin and Growth of Indian Political System Ten marks questions and answers:

Question 1.
Explain the Provisions of the Government of India Act 1935. (July 2017) (March 2018)
Answer:
The Government of India Act 1935 contained 321 Articles and 10 Schedules. The important provisions of the Act are as follows:
(a) Federation: The Act provided for the establishement of Federation of India. It consisted of Provinces of British India and Princely States as units. For the first time an attempt was made to establish a Federal Government.

(b) Distribution of powers: It divided legislative powers between the Central and Provincial legislatures. There was a three-fold division:-

  1. Federal list: Consisted of 59 subjects like external affairs, currency, defence etc. over which the federal legislature had legislative powers.
  2. Provincial list: Consisted of 54 subjects like police, education etc. over which provincial legislature had jurisdiction.
  3. Concurrent list: Consisted of 36 subjects like criminal law, civil procedure, marriage and divorce etc. over which both the federal and provincial legislatures had competence.
  4. The Residuary powers were vested with the Governor General.

(c) Dyarchy at the centre: The Dyarchy which was established in the Provinces by the Act of 1919 was now adopted at the centre. The executive authority vested in the Governor General included the following:

  1. The administration of reserved subjects like defence, external affairs etc. was done by Governor General with the help of Councilors, who are appointed by him and not responsible to legislature.
  2. In the matters of transferred subjects the Governor General acted on the advice of Council of Ministers who were responsible to the legislature.

(d) The Federal legislature: The central legislature was bi-cameral consisting of Federal assembly and the Council of States.

  1. The Council of States consisted of 260 members.
  2. Federal Assembly consisted of 475 members.

(e) Federal Court: It provided for the first time the establishment of a Federal Court for India in Delhi in 1937. Following were the jurisdiction of Federal Court:-

  1. It had Original Jurisdiction to decide disputes between the centre and the provinces.
  2. Appellate Jurisdiction over decisions of the High Court.
  3. Advisory Jurisdiction to advice the Governor General on any point of law.

(f) Provincial Autonomy:- As per 1935 Act, the provinces no longer remained as delegates of Central Government but became autonomus units of administration. The provincial autonomy was introduced in 11 provinces.

Question 2.
List out the Provisions of the Act of 1947. (july 2017)(March 2016)
Answer:
The main provisions of the Act 1947 are as follows:-

1. The Act provided that on 15Ih August 1947, two independent dominions India and Pakistan would be set up and the Act provided for complete transfer of power.

2. The dominion oflndia got the territory of Bombay, Madras, Uttar Pradesh. Central Province, Bihar, East Punjab, West Bengal. Assam, Delhi, Ajmer etc. and the remaining provinces called Sindh, Baluchistan, West Punjab. East Bengal, North West Frontier Province which became the territories of Pakistan.

3. For demarcating the boundries, Boundry Commission was formed with Sir Cyril Radcliffe as the Chairman.

4. The Crown was no longer the source of authority.

5. The Governor General and Provincial Governors were to act as constitutional heads. They lost extraordinary powers to legislate.

6. The office of the Secretary of State was abolished.

7. From 15lh August 1947, the British Crown lost all rights of Paramountcy over India and the Indian states were free to join either Indian Union or Pakistan.

8. The power in each dominion was transferred to the Constituent Assembly which became fully sovereign from 15th August 1947 and were absolutely free to frame the constitution.

Question 3.
Explain the Reorganization of States.
Answer:
Reorganization of States of Indian States was necessary because prior to 1947 the territories of India consisted of the British Indian Provinces and Princely States. The boundaries were drawn in a haphazard manner. There w ere above 500 Indian States which were merged before independence into a dozen units. The provinces were multi-lingual and multi-cultural. No heed was paid to linguistic or cultural cohesion.

With the introduction of the present constitution the territories were divided into four categories.

1. Part A States: Andhra Pradesh. Assam. Bihar. Bombay, Madhya Pradesh. Madras, Orissa, Punjab, United Provinces and West Bengal. These were the former British Provinces.

2. Part B States: Hyderabad. Jammu. Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Patiala. PEPSU. Rajasthan. Saurashtra. Travancore and Cochin. These were Princely States.

3. Part C States: Ajmer, Bhopal. Coorg, Delhi, Himachal. Pradesh. Kutch, Manipur, Tripura and Vindva Pradesh.

4. Part D States: Andaman and Nicobar.
The states under Part C and D were ruled by the President with the aid of Lt.Govemor or Chief Commissioners.

After independence, due to various regional issues, it was assumed that free India would base its boundaries on linguistic principles.

The States Reorganization Committee was constituted on December 1953, the recommendations of the Committee was passed on November 1956 and the following are enforced:-

  • Abolishing the distinction between Part A. B, C ad D States.
  • Establishment of two categories of units (a) States (b) Union Territories.
  • Abolishing the Rajpramukhs.

Question 4.
Describe the process of Integration of States. (july 2017)
Answer:
British India consisted of British Provinces and Princely States. The British Indian Provinces were directly under the control of the British Government and the Princely States accepted British supremacy on external matters but enjoyed certain powers in internal affairs. After independence on 15lh August 1947, the British Provinces transferred to India and the Princely States became independent and free to join India or Pakistan. About 565 Princely States have merged with Indian Union under the virtue and leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. The process of integration was three-fold and known as “Patel Scheme”.

1. Merger of Small States with Adjoining Provinces: About 216 states were merged with provinces adjoining them. Ex. Merger of 24 states of Orissa, 14 states of central province, Pudukkotah with Madras etc. These mergedstates were included in Part B of the Constitution.

2. Grouping of Small States: Many small states grouped themselves to form a big state with .the ruler of the most important one becoming the Rajapramukhs. Eg. Union of Saurashtra, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) etc., These Unions were called Part B States.

3. Integration into Chief Commissioner’s Provinces: About 61 States which were small and backward were converted into centrally administered areas. They were called Part C States. Eg. Elimachal Pradesh, Ajmer, Coorg, Cooch-Bihar, etc.

All the Princely States acceded Indian Union and grouped as above except Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir. These three Provinces have been handled in different ways and merged with Indian Union.

The Nawab of junagadh declared accession to Pakistan but people rose in rebellion against him. As a result he fled to Pakistan and Junagadh was merged with Saurashtra. Nizam of Hyderabad wanted an independent status. His paramilitary force Razakars created anarchy. The Indian army entered into Hyderabad. Finally Nizam surrendered and Hyderabad merged into Indian Union.

Jammu and Kashmir was a princely state ruled by Harisingh who was  Hindu and the population was largely Muslims. They did not want to merge with India or Pakistan but have an independent status for the state. In October 147, Kashmir was invaded by Tribal infiltrators of Pakistan. This forced Maharaja to seek Indian military help. India reacted positively after the merge of Kashmir into Indian Union. All the above spectacular events have been succeeded due to the personality of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

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