2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 8 International Relations and Politics

Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 8 International Relations and Politics

You can Download Chapter 8 International Relations And Politics, 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Political Science International Relations and Politics One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is the meaning of International relations?
Answer:
A dynamic discipline which tries to explain political activities across the state boundaries is called international relations.

Question 2.
Who used the term International relations for the first time?
Answer:
The term ‘international’ was used for the first time by Jeremy Bentham.

Question 3.
Name the work of Jean Bodin.
Answer:
Dc Republica.

State one importance of International relations.
Answer:
It substitutes internationalism to narrow nationalism which delimits the boundaries of states.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
What is State Sovereignty?
Answer:
The obligation of sovereign states to respect the sovereignty of other states is called State Sovereignty.

Question 6.
What is National Power?
Answer:
The sum total of the strength and capabilities of state harnessed and applied to the advancement of its national interests and the attainment of its national objectives is called National Power.

Question 7.
What Polarity refers to?
Answer:
Polarity refers to the arrangement of power with in the international system.

Question 8.
When was the treaty of West Phalia signed?
Answer:
The treaty of West Phalia was signed in 1648.

Question 9.
When was the treaty’ of Utrecht signed?
Answer:
The treaty of Utrecht was signed in 1713.

Question 10.
When did the League of Nations come in to existence?
Answer:
The League of Nations was came into existence in 1920.

Question 11.
Who was the architect of the League of Nations?
Answer:
President of USA Woodrow Wilson was the architect of League of Nations.

Question 12.
Name one of the objectives of the League of Nations.
Answer:
To protect the world from the destruction of war and restoration of peace.

Question 13.
When did the United Nations came into existence?
Answer:
The United Nations was came into existence on 24th October 1945.

Question 14.
Give an important reason for the establishment of UN.
Answer:
The important reason for the establishment of UN was maintenance of international peace and security.

Question 15.
Where is the headquarters of the UN situated?
Answer:
The headquarters of the UN is situated in New York of USA.

Question 16.
Flow many members signed the UN charter originally?
Answer:
51 member countries including India signed the UN charter originally.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 17.
Which article of the UN charter deals with the basic principles of UN?
Answer:
Article 2 of the UN charter deals with the basic principles of UN.

Question 18.
What is the total membership of the UN at present?
Answer:
The total membership of the UN at present is 193 countries.

Question 19.
How many representatives can participate in the UN general assembly from each member country?
Answer:
5 representatives can participate in UN General Assembly from each member country.

Question 20.
Which is the most powerful organ of the UN?
Answer:
General Assembly is the most powerful organ of the UN.

Question 21.
How many permanent members are there in the UN security council?
Answer:
There are 5 permanent members in the UN Security Council.

Question 22.
Where is the International court of justice situated?
Answer:
The International Court of Justice is situated in ‘The Hague’.

Question 23.
How many judges are there in International court of justice?
Answer:
There are 15 judges in International Court of Justice.

Question 24.
Name the present Secretary General of the UN.
Answer:
The present Secretary General of UN is Antonio Guterres.

Question 25.
What is unipolarity?
Answer:
One state exercises most of the cultural, economic and military influence in international politics is called unipolarity.

Question 26.
What is bipolarity?
Answer:
Two powers have the majority of economic, military and cultural influence at the global level is called biopolarity.

Question 27.
What is multipolarity?
Answer:
More than two Nation-States are in the fray almost equal in military, cultural and economic spheres is called multipolarity.

Question 28.
What is meant by regional organization?
Answer:
A formal association of sovereign states of particular region is called Regional Organisation.

Question 29.
Name one of the regional organization.
Answer:
The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Question 30.
Name any one agencies of the UN.
Answer:
United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF).

Question 31.
When was the ASEAN established?
Answer:
ASEAN was established on 8thAugust 1967.

Question 32.
How many members are there in the ASEAN?
Answer:
There are 10 members in the ASEAN.

Question 33.
When did India became a dialogue partner of ASEAN?
Answer:
India became a dialogue partner of ASEAN in 1992.

Question 34.
When was the first India-ASEAN annual summit held?
Answer:
The first India-ASEAN annual summit was held in 2002.

Question 35.
Expand SAARC.
Answer:
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.

Question 36.
When was SAARC established ? (March 2015)
Answer:
SAARC was established on December 1985.

Question 37.
Who is called as the founder of SAARC.
Answer:
Ziaur Rahman is called as the founder of SAARC.

Question 38.
Where is the headquarter of the SAARC situated?
Answer:
The headquarter of the SAARC is situated in Katmandu of Nepal.

Question 39.
How many members are there in the SAARC? (July 2015)
Answer:
There are 8 member countries in the SAARC.

Question 40.
hen did Afghanistan become a new member of the SAARC?
Answer:
Afghanistan become a number of the SAARC in 2010

KSEEB Solutions

Question 41.
Where was the first SAARC summit was held?
Answer:
The first SAARC summit was held at Dhaka of Bangladesh.

Question 42.
Expand SAPTA.
Answer:
South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement.

Question 43.
Expand SAVE.
Answer:
SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange Programme.

Question 44.
Expand BRICS.
Answer:
Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa.

Question 45.
How many members are there in BRICS?
Answer:
There are 5 member countries in BRICS.

Question 46.
In which year South Africa become member of BRICS. (July 2015)
Answer:
South Africa become member of BRICS in 2010.

Question 47.
Why did regional organizations start?
Answer:
To express the regional identity and shape collective action within the region by the regional countries, the Regional Organizations have started.

Question 48.
Expand EEC.
Answer:
The European Economic Community.

Question 49.
Expand UNPKF.
Answer:
The United Nations Peace Keeping Force.

2nd PUC Political Science International Relations and Politics Two marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define International relations. (March 2017)
Answer:
According to Ola Joseph. ”International relations are the study of all forms of interactions that exist between members of separate entities or nations within the international system”.

Question 2.
Name any two means by which solutions for International problems are sought.
Answer:
(a) To solve the bilateral disputes through dialogues.
(b) Not to interfere in the internal domestic affairs.

Question 3.
Name any two advantages of International relations.
Answer:
(a) It provides concrete solutions for international problems.
(b) It avoids the war military actions and international conflicts.

Question 4.
State any two concepts of International relations.
Answer:
(a) National Power
(b) National Interest.

Question 5.
State the jurisdiction of National Power.
Answer:
The jurisdiction of National Power is population, territory and military preparedness, national character, economic and political power.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Write the meaning of National Interest in view of the aspirations of the State.
Answer:
The action of the state in relation to other states is called National Interest.

Question 7.
On what basis power blocks are divided?
Answer:
Power blocks are divided on the basis of ideological principles. Ex. USA accepted democratic principles and Soviet Russia follows communist principles.

Question 8.
Bring out the concept of balance of power.
Answer:
The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of states as actors in international relations. It is an approximate equal distribution of power.

Question 9.
When and where the United Nations come into existence?
Answer:
The United Nations came into existence on 24th October 1945 at New’York of America.

Question 10.
How many parts and articles are there in UN charter?
Answer:
There are 19 chapters and 111 Articles in UN charter.

Question 11.
Name any two official languages of the UN.
Answer:
English and Spanish are the two official languages of UN.

Question 12.
Name any two objectives of the league of nations.
Answer:
(a) To solve the international disputes through mutual dialogues.
(b) To protect the world from the destruction of war.

Question 13.
Mention any two basic principles that are mentioned in Article 2 of the UN charter. (July 2019)
Answer:
(a) The UN is based on the sovereign equality of all its members.
(b) They shall settle international disputes by peaceful means

Question 14.
Name any two organs of the UN. (July 2015)
Answer:
(a) General Assembly
(b) Security Council.

Question 15.
State any two functions of General Assembly.
Answer:
(a) It has power to discuss any matter coming within the competence of the UN or relating to international peace and security.
(b) It performs deliberative, supervisory, financial elective and constituent functions through its several committees.

Question 16.
Name any two permanent members of the Security Council of UN. (March 2016)
Answer:
(a) USA (b) France.

Question 17.
Who appoints the Secretary General of UN and state the term of office.
Answer:
The Secretary General of UN is appointed by General Assembly on the recommendations of Security Council. His term is 5 years.

Question 18.
Define regional organizations.
Answer:
According to Boutros Boutros Ghali, “Regionalism as an organization of a permanent character, grouping in a geographically determined region of more than two states”.

Question 19.
Define Joseph Nye’s definition on regionalism.
Answer:
According to Joseph Nye, “regionalism is as an organization of the inter-state associations or groupings on the basis of regions”.

Question 20.
Name any two agencies of the UN.
Answer:
(a) World Health Organization,
(b) World Labour Organization

KSEEB Solutions

Question 21.
Name any two missions of UNPKF.
Answer:
(a) Ethiopia-Eritrea (2006-08) mission.
(b) South Sudan (2013-14) mission.

Question 22.
Write a note on the ASEAN-lndian free trade agreement.
Answer:
The ASEA-Indian Free Trade Agreement will see tariff’ liberalization of over 90% of products traded between the two dynamic regions, including the so called “special products” such as palm oil, coffee, black tea and pepper. Tariff on over 4.000 product lines will be eliminated at the earlier by 2016.

Question 23.
Mention any two members of the SAARC.
Answer:
(a) India
(b) Sri Lanka

Question 24.
Name any two SAARC summits that were held in India.
Answer:
(a) SAARC summit held at Bangalore in 1986.
(b) SAARC summit held at New Delhi in 1995 and 2007.

Question 25.
Name any two member countries of BRICS. (July 2016)
Answer:
(a) India
(b) Russia.

2nd PUC Political Science International Relations and Politics Five marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write a brief note on International Relations.
Answer:
International Relations is a dynamic discipline which tries to explain political activities across the state boundaries. Its transition is followed by developments in international system. It was practiced in ancient Greece. Egypt. China and India. They evolved a set of code of conduct of these relations which were based on morality. The 17th century’ marked the beginning of the international relations.

The improvements in the field of transport and communication and the industrial revolution brought states closer and contributed to the development of international relations. It is concerned with all the exchange transactions, contracts flow of information and the resulting behavioral response between and among separate organized societies. It encompass many different activities such as a social, economic, religious and others.

Question 2.
Bring out the importance of International Relations. (July 2015, 2018) (March 2016, 2018)
Answer:
Importance of the International Relations :
(a) The study of International Relation enables us to understand the basic policies and principles which contribute to the international sphere.
(b) It provides concrete solutions for international problems by means of dialogues, bilateral, multilateral, mutual co-operations and the like.
(c) It substitutes internationalism to narrow nationalism which delimits the boundaries of states.
(d) It avoids the war military actions or alliances and international conflicts.
(e) It considers the acceptance of the principles of collective security and disarmament, world peace and progress.
(f) It creates global feeling among the citizens of the world and promotes universal brotherhood.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
What are the concepts of International Relations? (March 2016,2017,2019) (July 2016)
Answer:
The concepts of International Relations are as follows :

(a) State Sovereignty: It is the obligation of sovereign states to respect the sovereignty of other states. No state can dictate others and all states are equal in matters of status, dignity and honour. Based on dependence and interdependence among states, the}’ are gaining and loosing sovereignty.

(b) National Power: It is the sum of total of the strength and capabilities of state harnessed and applied to the advancement of its national interests and the attainment of its national objectives. It encompasses population, territory, military preparedness, national character, economic and political power.

(c) National Interest: National interest is the action of the state in relation to other states. It refers to the aspirations of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of personalities and ideals of decision makers.

(d) Power Blocks: With the beginning of the Cold war. two power blocks emerged, i.e. USA and USSR. USA believes in the spread of democracy whereas the USSR sought the spread . of communism. It paves the way for the creation of power blocks on the basis of ideology in the world.

(e) Polarity : In International Relations, polarities refers to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bipolarity during the cold war between the two super powers. The disintegration of the USSR has led to unipolarity with the USA as the super power. After 2010 China emerged as a major power in the multipolar world.

(f) Balance of Power: The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of states in International Relations. It is an approximately equal distribution of power and inseparable part of the pow er politics.

Question 4.
Describe the development of International political systems.
Answer:
The history of International Political System is traced back to the peace Treaty of West Phalia (1648) and the Treat} of Utrecht (1713). In 1911′ century, the European countries set the platform to understand the need for international political system. It gradually spread to other parts of the world. This development led to the establishment of international organization. In the mean while, the outbreak of First World War intensified the need for an organization of international character. As a result, the League of Nations came into existence in 1920.

Question 5.
Write a note on the League of Nations.
Answer:
The League of Nations: To protect the world from the destruction of war and restoration of peace, the League of Nations came into existence. It was founded on the heritage of ideas and experience of the world leaders. The league was a real organization with a legal entity, organs and agencies of its own.
President Woodrow Wilson was the architect of this organization. It had three organs
(a) Assembly
(b) Council
(c) International Secretariat.
It was an organized association of world states for the purpose of international co-operation, settlement of disputes and prevention of future wars. Its covenant provided a number of agencies for the promotion of health, education and economic development as means to cement international co-operation and good will and thereby preventing wars.

Question 6.
Give an account of the origin and growth of the UN.
Answer:
On 14th August 1941, President Roosevelt of the USA and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of England signed a Charter. It contained eight main principles. One of them provided for solution of problems through peaceful discussions. This Charter came to be called the Atlantic Charter and was the first step in the origin of the UNO. It was formally inaugurated on 24thOctober 1945 after the failure of the League of Nations. It is a permanent organization for the collaboration of all independent and sovereign states.

The UNO is the practical expression of the movement of internationalism. It has been entrusted with heavy responsibilities for the maintenance of international peace and security. The United Nations Charter was signed by 51 countries including India. The UN Charter consists of 19 Chapters, 111 Articles and its headquarters is situated in New York of USA. There are six official languages namely Chinese. English, French, Russian, Spanish and Arabic recognized by the UN.

Question 7.
What are the ob jectives of the UN. (March 2017, July 2018)
Answer:
The objectives of UN are incorporated in Article 1 of the UN Charter. They are:
(a) To maintain international peace and security’.
(b) To develop friendly relations among the nations.
(c) To seek co-operation in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.
(d) To co-operate in promoting respect for human rights.
(e) To maintain freedom for all without discrimination on the basis of race, sex, languages or religion.

Question 8.
Bring out the role of the UN General Assembly.
Answer:
The General Assembly is the paramount and main organ of the UN. It is composed of all the members of the UN. Although each country can send five representatives with single vote. Important matters are decided by 2/3rd majority by this world legislative body. General Assembly performs deliberative, supervisory, financial elective and constituent, functions through its several committees. Annual session is usually convened in September and further sessions are held as per requirement. There is also provision for special sessions and emergency sessions.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Write briefly on the UN security Council (July 2015,2017)
Answer:
This is like an executive body of the UNO. Articles 28 to 32 of the UN Charter deal with the composition of the Security Council. It consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. The permanent members of the Security Council are USA, UK, Russia, France and China. The non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years. The decisions of the Security Council are taken on the basis of affirmative votes of nine members, with substantive matters requiring the assent of all the permanent members.

The permanent members enjoy the power of ‘Veto’. The Security Council is in permanent session and emergency sessions may take place whenever necessary. The primary responsibility of the Security Council is the maintenance of international peace and security. It can recommend peaceful methods of settlement of disputes.

Question 10.
Explain the role of International Court of Justice in settling the international disputes.
Answer:
This is the judicial organ of the UNO. It consists of 15 judges and has its headquarters at ‘The Hague’. The judges are elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council voting independently. The Court decides the disputes which may be referred to it. according to international law. The court also gives its advisory opinion on legal matters referred to it by the General Assembly or Security Council.

Question 11.
Explain the role of Economic and Social Council of the UN.
Answer:
This is one of the principal organs of the UNO. It consists of 54 members elected by the General assembly for a period of three years. It elects its own President and Vice President. The Council holds two regular sessions in a year and special sessions as and when necessary. It can set up Commissions and Committees for carrying on its work. Each member has one vote and decisions of the Council are taken by a majority’ of members present and voting.

The chief responsibility of the Economic and Social Council is to coordinate the economic and social activities of the UN and its specialized agencies. Its aim is to eliminate economic and social problems of the member nations through international co-operation.

Question 12.
Discuss about the polarity in the international relations.
Answer:
Polarity is the distribution of powers within the international system. It describes the nature of powers at any given time. Three types of polarities are in the world politics. It is dependent on the distribution of power and influence of states in a region. They are:

(a) Uniolarity: Uniolarity in international politics is concentration of power in which one state exercises most of the cultural, economic and military influence. In the uniolar system, a great power exercises supremacy with no competition. Unipolarity existed in the post cold war period. The US is the only country in the early 2151 century that possesses the ability to project military power on a global scale in the aftermath of the collapse of USSR in 1991,

(b) Bipolarity: Biopolarity is the distribution of powers in which two powers have the majority of economic, military and cultural influence at the global level. To gain superiority, both the powers struggle. During the peak of the cold war, both US and-USSR were in bipolar world politics. This system can extend to a larger system by means of alliances or organizations.

(c) Multipolarity: Multipolarity is a distribution of power in which more than two nation states are in the fray almost equal in military, cultural and economic spheres. Multipolar systems are more stable than bipolar systems as great powers can gain power through alliances.

Question 13.
Write the meaning, definitions and development of international organizations.
Answer:
International organizations are increasingly significant for international policy making and the process of the globalization. These are established by formal political agreements between the nations. It is based on common purpose and do not have territorial limitations. They have the status of international treaties and their existence is recognized by law.

According to Potter. “International organization means the aggregate of procedures and organs for expressing the unification of nations”.

It consist of at least two qualified members of the international system and created by a formal instrument of agreement between the governments of nation states.

Development of International Organization: Modern age is the age of international co-operation. No state car live in isolation. To ensure systematic relations between various states, agencies and methods of international co-operation, these organizations have emerged. The origin of international organization can be traced back to ancient Greece. The Amphictyonic League was established in the early 6th century BC with a view’ to regulate the inter-state relations to avoid war and to promote unity among nations.

The next important milestone in the development of international organization is the Treaty of West Phalia (1648), the Peace of Utrecht (1 713), the Congress of Vienna (1815), the Hague Conference (1907) played a major role in the creation of international organization. Later on, the important agencies and unions like European Commission (1856). Universal Postal Union (1875). International Office of Health (1903), International Institute of Agriculture (1905) and others were established.

The notable international organization, the League of Nations was established after the First World War on 10lh January 1920 to resolve international disputes and to promote international co-operation. The United Nations Organization was formed on 24lh October 1945 after Second World War to ensure world peace.

Question 14.
Write a note on the origin and growth of regional organizations.
Answer:
Regional organizations are the important and effective new scene for political and economic interaction in the world. Regionalism is a common sense of identity and purpose. It is combined with the creation and implementation of institutions that express a particular identity and shape collective action within the region. It is a formal association of sovereign states of particular region.

The end of cold war paved the way for regional organizations on the basis of regionalism. The UN charter stressed the role of regional organizations to maintain the international peace and security. These organizations represent groups of states sharing geographical, political, economic and socio-cultural interests. Ex. The Arab League in 1945. Idle European Economic Community (EEC) in 1958, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1960, The Organization of African Union (OAU) in 1963. The European Union provided the economic model for other regional organizations such as The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1969 and The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in 1985.

Question 15.
Give an account of India’s role in the UN.
Answer:
Independent India viewed its membership of the United Nations a guarantee for maintaining international peace and security. The UN membership has also served as an opportunity for leadership in world affairs. India stood at the forefront during the UN’s tumultuous years of struggle against colonialism, apartheid, global disarmament and creation of more equitable international economic order.

India is undertaking sincere steps to find ways to adopt these challenges. An integral part of such efforts is collective action and adoption of multilateral approaches in resolving transnational issues under the auspices of the United Nations.

Since 1954, India took a leading part in securing political sanctions against the racialist regime of South Africa. In 1965, it supported the UN sponsored economic boycott of Rhodesia. It gave full support to the Angolan liberation movement and to the cause of Independence of Namibia.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
Bring out the contribution of India in UNPKF.
Answer:
India is committed to assist the UN by providing military troops for the maintenance of international peace and security to the UNPKF. India has deputed more than one lakh troops to participate in plenty of Peace Keeping Missions since 1950. Eg. Korea( 1950-54). Middle East (1956-57), Congo (1960-64), Somalia (1993-94), Afghanistan) 1993). Haiti (1993). Angola (1989-1999), Ethiopia-Eritrea (2006-08), Lebanon) 1998), Ivory Coasta (2004). South Sudan (2013-14).

The high standards of performance maintained consistently by the Indian troops and policemen deployed on UN Missions under challenging circumstances have won them high regard worldwide.

Question 17.
Write about the establishment of ASEAN.
Answer:
The ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), was established on 8th August 1967 in Bangkok of Thailand with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration by the founding fathers of ASEAN, viz. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei (1984), Vietnam (1995), Lao PDR and Myanmar (1997) and Cambodia (1999) entered as the member states of ASEAN.

The ASEAN Vision 2020 adopted by the ASEAN leaders on the 30lh anniversary of ASEAN, agreed on a shared vision of ASEANS as a concert of Southeast Asian Nations, outward looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies.

Question 18.
Bring out five years of cooperation with India and ASEAN (July 2016)(March 2017)
Answer:
Five areas of cooperation with India and ASEAN:

(a) Emotional cooperation: ASEAN was seen by India as a rapidly growing region with enormous potential. It could become a major source of capital, relevant technology, market and partner in areas of respective core competencies. It views India as a major emerging market and a source of knowledge, education and HRD related resources.

(b) Economic cooperation: It is considered as a fourth largest trading partner between India- ASEAN. Acknowledging this trend and recognizing the economic potential of close linkages, both sides recognized the opportunities for deepening trade and investment ties and agreed to negotiate a framework agreement to pave the way for the establishment of an ASEAN-India Free Trade Area. Hence it leads to tariff liberalization of over 90% of products.

(c) Peace and security cooperation: In the political sphere, India has been actively participating in various consultative meetings under dialogue and cooperation frameworks initiated by ASEAN. The ASEAN is the forum for promoting peace, stability and prosperity in the dynamic Asia Pacific Region. With the partnership of ASEAN and India, commemorated for peace and shared prosperity.

(d) Tourism sector: The 4th ASEAN-India Tourism Ministers Meeting was held in Vietnam on January 2013 for strengthening tourism cooperation and website was launched. Visa arrival facility is extended to 7 ASEAN countries.

(e) Summit level cooperation: Various summit level meetings promotes peace, progress. Prosperity among the ASEAN countries. In the 6lh meeting, India announced setting up of an India-ASEIAN green fund. In the 7th meeting. India announced a contribution of USD 50 million for plan of action.

Question 19.
Write note on the role of india in the establishment of SAARC (March 2015)
Answer:
During 1960s and 70s the tendency towards regional arrangements become much more despite many hurdles. The emergence of Bangladesh with the help of India and the Simla Agreement of 1972 between India and Pakistan became turning point towards the regional cooperation.

India played a leading role in the formation of the SAARC to preserve peace and stability in the Asian region. President of Bangladesh Ziaur Rahman discussed the issue of regional cooperation with the Indian Prime Minister. The first meeting of Foreign Minister in New Delhi held on 1st and 2nd August 1983.

The then Prime Minister of India Smt.Indira Gandhi described South Asia as troubled region and said I am glad we are making a beginning, we have our political differences, but economic cooperation will give a strong impetus to closer friendship and greater stability in South Asia. She said, with unity we can hope to move ahead future freedom, peace and prosperity. She also warned that we should be ever vigilant against the attempt of external powers influencing our functioning.

Like wise India’s efforts to establish SAARC was a milestone and enormous efforts have been made for the regional organization. As a result of the untiring efforts of India. SAARC came into force on December 1985 with the member countries of Bangladesh. Maldives, Nepal. Pakistan, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. In 2010, Afghanistan became the 8h member of the SAARC. Its headquarters situated at Kathmandu of Nepal.

Question 20.
Explain any five areas of regional cooperation in the SAARC region. (July 2017, March 2018)
Answer:
The five areas of regional cooperation in the SAARC region:

(a) SAARC development fund: Its main objectives is to improve the quality of life and to accelerate economic growth, social progress and poverty’ alleviation in the member countries.

(b) Economic cooperation: The agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading arrangement was signed in 1993 and four rounds of trade negotiations have been concluded. With the objective of moving towards a South Asian Economic Union, the Agreement on South Asia Free Trade Area was signed in 2004. It also promotes for the creation of Export Promotion Zones and Special Economic Zones in each SAARC member country to enhance investment.

(c) People to people contacts: In order to achieve a people to people contacts, number of initiatives have been taken. It promotes to strengthen the cooperation in information and media related fields.

(d) Educational cooperation: India proposed for the creation of South Asian University to provide world class educational facilities to the students and researchers in the 13thSAARC summit.

(e) Terrorism: All the member countries of SAARC unanimously agreed to combat against terrorism which is the most and biggest challenge to the successful working of the democracy.

Question 21.
Write a note on the SAARC development fund.
Answer:
SAARC Development Fund:
The primary objectives of the SAARC Development Fund is to promote the welfare of the people of SAARC region. It concentrates on to improve the quality of life and to accelerate economic growth, social progress and poverty alleviation in the SAARC region. India has been one of the major contributors to the SAARC Development Fund.

The Fund has three areas of action on social, economic and infrastructure. India has offered US$ 100 million for the SAARC Fund to be utilized for projects in other SAARC countries. In the context of SAARC, India has also contributed to projects on natural disasters, endemics in particular HIV/AIDS and Avian’Flu and terrorism.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 22.
Present a note on people to people contacts in the context of regional cooperation of SAARC.
Answer:
People to people contacts: In order to achieve a people to people contacts, number of initiatives have been taken under the apex bodies of the SAARC. Like SAARC LAW (an association for persons of the legal communities of SAARC countries), The SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The Governors of the Central Banks of member states SAARC FINANCE.

For strengthening cooperation in information and media related activities of the Association, the Fleads of National Television and Radio Organizations of member countries meet annually. The SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange Committee disseminates information both on SAARC and its member states through regular Radio and TV programmes.

Question 23.
Note the contribution of educational cooperation in SAARC.
Answer:
Educational Cooperation: At the 13th SAARC Summit held in November 2005 in Dhaka, India proposed to create a Centre of Excellence in the form of a South Asian University, which can provide world class facilities and professional faculty to students and researchers drawn from each country of the region. The South Asian University is established in India, it is facilitating many South Asia students community for their higher education. The first academic session of South Asian University commenced on 26th August 2010.

Question 24.
How is SAARC trying to combat terrorism?
Answer:
Terrorism is a big threat to the successful working of democracy in South East Asian Countries. These countries have suffered a lot from the clutches of terrorists. The Heads of State or Government during summit meetings underscored the importance of controlling terrorism in the region, calling on deepened cooperation and improvements on implementing the SAARC Regional Convention on suppression of terrorism and the additional protocol to the SAARC Regional Convention. India continued to stress the importance of achieving a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.

Question 25.
Explain the role of India in BRICS.
Answer:
BRICS is an association of five major emerging economies viz., Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. India has become a member country of BRICS in the beginning itself and supported to prepare the framework of this organization. India stressed in the forum of BRICS for regional agricultural development, controlling natural calamities and remedial measures for the victims, protection of health and cooperation in other fields.

The full-fledged diplomatic meeting was held in its first summit on 16thJune 2009. The Prime Minister of India focused for the improvement of global economic situation and reforming financial institutions and discussed how the countries could better cooperate in the future. The 4th summit held on 9th April 2012 in New Delhi emphasized for the strengthening of BRICS.

In the 5th BRICS summit, leaders had agreed to set up a new International Development Bank. Prime Minister of India participated in the 6th BRICS summit and decided with the BRICS leaders to establish BRICS Development Bank at Shanghai in China. Mr. K.V. Kamatli of Karnataka became the first Chairman of the Bank.

2nd PUC Political Science International Relations and Politics Ten marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the meaning, definitions and importance of international relations. (July 2018)
Answer:
Meaning: International Relations is a dynamic discipline which tries to explain political activities across the state boundaries. Its transition is followed by developments in international system. It was practiced in ancient Greece. Egypt. China and India. They evolved a set of code of conduct of these relations which were based on morality. The 17th century’ marked the beginning of the international relations.

The improvements in the field of transport and communication and the industrial revolution brought states closer and contributed to the development of international relations. It is concerned with all the exchange transactions, contracts flow of information and the resulting behavioral response between and among separate organized societies. It encompass many different activities such as a social, economic, religious and others.

Definitions: According to Palmer and Perkins, ‘The study of international relations is not a science with which we solve problems of international life. At its best it is an objective and systematic approach to those problems”.

In view of Ola Joseph. ‘International relations are the study of all forms of interactions that exist between members of separate entities or nations within the international system”.

Importance of International relations:
(a) The study of International Relation enables us to understand the basic policies and principles which contribute to the international sphere.
(b) It provides concrete solutions for international problems by means of dialogues, bilateral, multilateral, mutual co-operations and the like.
(c) It substitutes internationalism to narrow nationalism which delimits the boundaries of states.
(d) It avoids the war military actions or alliances and international conflicts.
(e) It considers the acceptance of the principles of collective security and disarmament, world peace and progress.
(f) It creates global feeling among the citizens of the world and promotes universal brotherhood.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the objectives and basic principles mentioned in the UN charter.
Answer:
Objectives of the UN: The objectives of UN are incorporated in Article 1 of the UN Charter. They are:
(a) To maintain international peace and security’.
(b) To develop friendly relations among the nations.
(c) To seek co-operation in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.
(d) To co-operate in promoting respect for human rights.
(e) To maintain freedom for all without discrimination on the basis of race, sex, languages or religion.

Basic principles of UN:
(a) The UN is based on the sovereign equality of all its members.
(b) All members shall fulfill in good faith the UN Charter obligations.
(c) They shall settle international disputes by peaceful means
(d) No member country act against the UN Charter or use of force against other states.
(e) They have to extend all help to the action taken by the UN.
(f) The UN shall ensure that states who are not members act in accordance with the principles of UN.
(g) The UN shall not intervene in matters within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.

Question 3.
Discuss the structure of the UN and its functions (March 2018)
Answer:
The UNO came into existence when the Atlantic Charter was signed by the US President and the British Prime Minister. Formally it was started on 24th October 1945. It is the practical expression of the movement of internationalism and described as an ‘International Organization’. The UN composed of six principle organs and the organizational structure may be described as follows:

(a) The General Assembly: It is the paramount and main organ of the UN. It is composed of all the members of the UN. Although each country can send five representatives with single vote, important matters are decided by 2/3rd a majority by this world legislative body. It performs deliberative, supervisory, financial elective and constituent functions through its several committees. Annual session is usually convened in September and further sessions are held as per requirement. There is also provision for special sessions and emergency sessions.

(b) Security Council: It is often described as the world executive body. It is the most powerful organ of the UNO. -It consists of 15 members. 5 of them are permanent members while the other 10 are non-permanent members for a term of 2 years. Permanent members have ’Veto Power’. It is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. It also recommends the person to be appointed as Secretary General to the General Assembly.

(c) The International Court of Justice: It is the judicial organ of the UN. It was set up to settle the International disputes in accordance with International law. Its headquarters is situated in ‘The Hague’. It consists of 15 judges belongs to different member countries. Their term of office is 9 years and enjoy diplomatic privileges.

(d) The UN Secretariat: The Secretariat was established to carry on the administrative functions of the UN. It consists of international staff headed by the Secretary General. He is the Chief Administrative Officer of the UN and appointed by the General assembly on the recommendations of Security Council for a term of 5 years. The Secretariat performs all those functions which are entrusted to it by the various organs of the UN.

(e) The Economic and Social Council: It was established to achieve coopeation in solving international issues of economic, social, cultural and humanitarian character. It consists 54 members elected by the General Assembly for a period of 3 years. It meets at least thrice a year.

(f) Trusteeship Council: It was set up to handle and administer ‘Trust territories’. But this Council was suspended on lst November 1994.

Question 4.
Narrate the origin and development of the international organizations.
Answer:
International organizations are increasingly significant for international policy making and the process of the globalization. These are established by formal political agreements between the nations. It is based on common purpose and do not have territorial limitations. They have the status of international treaties and their existence is recognized by law.

According to Potter. “International organization means the aggregate of procedures and organs for expressing the unification of nations”.

It consist of at least two qualified members of the international system and created by a formal instrument of agreement between the governments of nation states.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
‘Polarities depend upon distribution of power’ – Elucidate.
Answer:
Polarity is the distribution of powers within the international system. It describes the nature of powers at any given time. Three types of polarities are in the world politics. It is dependent on the distribution of power and influence of states in a region. They are:

(a) Uniolarity: Uniolarity in international politics is concentration of power in which one state exercises most of the cultural, economic and military influence. In the uniolar system, a great power exercises supremacy with no competition. Unipolarity existed in the post cold war period. The US is the only country in the early 2151 century that possesses the ability to project military power on a global scale in the aftermath of the collapse of USSR in 1991,

(b) Bipolarity: Biopolarity is the distribution of powers in which two powers have the majority of economic, military and cultural influence at the global level. To gain superiority, both the powers struggle. During the peak of the cold war, both US and-USSR were in bipolar world politics. This system can extend to a larger system by means of alliances or organizations.

(c) Multipolarity: Multipolarity is a distribution of power in which more than two nation states are in the fray almost equal in military, cultural and economic spheres. Multipolar systems are more stable than bipolar systems as great powers can gain power through alliances.

Question 6.
Explain the meaning and definitions of regional organizations and their growth in international politics.
Answer:
Regional organizations are the important and effective new scene for political and economic interaction in the world. Regionalism is a common sense of identity and purpose. It is combined with the creation and implementation of institutions that express a particular identity and shape collective action within the region. It is a formal association of sovereign states of particular region.

The end of cold war paved the way for regional organizations on the basis of regionalism. The UN charter stressed the role of regional organizations to maintain the international peace and security. These organizations represent groups of states sharing geographical, political, economic and socio-cultural interests. Ex. The Arab League in 1945. Idle European Economic Community (EEC) in 1958, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1960, The Organization of African Union (OAU) in 1963. The European Union provided the economic model for other regional organizations such as The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1969 and The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in 1985.

Question 7.
Bring out the major areas of cooperation of India and the UN.
Answer:
Major areas of cooperation of India and the UN:
(a) The UN Peace Keeping Force: Independent India viewed its membership of the United Nations a guarantee for maintaining international peace and security. The UN membership has also served as an opportunity for leadership in world affairs. India stood at the forefront during the UN’s tumultuous years of struggle against colonialism, apartheid, global disarmament and creation of more equitable international economic order India is undertaking sincere steps to find ways to adopt these challenges.

An integral part of such efforts is collective action and adoption of multilateral approaches in resolving transnational issues under the auspices of the United Nations Since 1954, India took a leading part in securing political sanctions against the racialist regime of South Africa. In 1965, it supported the UN sponsored economic boycott of Rhodesia. It gave full support to the Angolan liberation movement and to the cause of Independence of Namibia.

(b) Environment: India is among the top 12 mega centers of the world in terms of its genetic diversity. It has a wide range of geo-climatic conditions. India has consistently played an important role in the evolution of an international consensus to tackle major global environmental issues.

It was an active participant in the process leading up to and culminating in the convening of the United Nations Conference on Environment and development in Stock Holm in 1972 and Rio de Janeiro in 1992. These summits discussed about Global Warming and Green House effect.

(c) Human Rights: the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on 10th December 1948. It was proclaimed as a common standard of achievement for all people of all nations. India is a signatory to the six core human rights covenants and also the two Optional Protocols to the Convention of the Rights of the Child.

Question 8.
Explain the areas of Regional Cooperation of SAARC.
Answer:
The five areas of regional cooperation in the SAARC region:

(a) SAARC development fund: Its main objectives is to improve the quality of life and to accelerate economic growth, social progress and poverty’ alleviation in the member countries.

(b) Economic cooperation: The agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading arrangement was signed in 1993 and four rounds of trade negotiations have been concluded. With the objective of moving towards a South Asian Economic Union, the Agreement on South Asia Free Trade Area was signed in 2004. It also promotes for the creation of Export Promotion Zones and Special Economic Zones in each SAARC member country to enhance investment.

(c) People to people contacts: In order to achieve a people to people contacts, number of initiatives have been taken. It promotes to strengthen the cooperation in information and media related fields.

(d) Educational cooperation: India proposed for the creation of South Asian University to provide world class educational facilities to the students and researchers in the 13thSAARC summit.

(e) Terrorism: All the member countries of SAARC unanimously agreed to combat against terrorism which is the most and biggest challenge to the successful working of the democracy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Critically examine the India-ASEAN areas of cooperation in detail.
Answer:
Five areas of cooperation with India and ASEAN:

(a) Emotional cooperation: ASEAN was seen by India as a rapidly growing region with enormous potential. It could become a major source of capital, relevant technology, market and partner in areas of respective core competencies. It views India as a major emerging market and a source of knowledge, education and HRD related resources.

(b) Economic cooperation: It is considered as a fourth largest trading partner between India- ASEAN. Acknowledging this trend and recognizing the economic potential of close linkages, both sides recognized the opportunities for deepening trade and investment ties and agreed to negotiate a framework agreement to pave the way for the establishment of an ASEAN-India Free Trade Area. Hence it leads to tariff liberalization of over 90% of products.

(c) Peace and security cooperation: In the political sphere, India has been actively participating in various consultative meetings under dialogue and cooperation frameworks initiated by ASEAN. The ASEAN is the forum for promoting peace, stability and prosperity in the dynamic Asia Pacific Region. With the partnership of ASEAN and India, commemorated for peace and shared prosperity.

(d) Tourism sector: The 4th ASEAN-India Tourism Ministers Meeting was held in Vietnam on January 2013 for strengthening tourism cooperation and website was launched. Visa arrival facility is extended to 7 ASEAN countries.

(e) Summit level cooperation: Various summit level meetings promotes peace, progress. Prosperity among the ASEAN countries. In the 6lh meeting, India announced setting up of an India-ASEIAN green fund. In the 7th meeting. India announced a contribution of USD 50 million for plan of action.

Question 10.
Describe the origin and development of India-BRICS summit level meetings.
Answer:
Origin of BRICS: BRICS is an association of five major emerging economies viz., Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The BRICS members are either developing or newly industrialized are distinguished by their large, fast growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs.

India-BRICS summit level meeting: The leaders of Russia, India and China held the first summit in St. Petersburg on July 17lh, 2006. The Foreign Ministers met in New York on September 2006, beginning a series of high level meetings. Foreign Ministers who had talks in October 2007 decided to formalize collaboration in a number of areas and to appoint their supervisors. They signed for agricultural development, the prevention of natural calamities and elimination of their aftermath and promotion of healthcare.

The full-fledged diplomatic meeting was held in its first summit at Yekaterinburg, Russia on 16th June 2009 to focus on the means of improving the global economic situation and reforming financial institutions. The 4th summit held on 9th April 2012 in New Delhi of India.

The BRICS Forum, an independent international organization encouraging commercial, political and cultural cooperation between the BRICS nations, was formed in 2011. In March 2013, during the 5th summit, the member countries agreed to create a global financial institution which they intended to rival the western-dominated IMF.

They planned to finalize the arrangements for the new International Development Bank. Prime Minister of India participated in the 6th summit and decided with the BRICS leaders to establish BRICS development Bank at Shanghai in China. Mr. K.V. Kamath of Karnataka became the first Chairman of the Bank.

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