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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper June 2016
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Name one basis of diversity in India.
Which is the most populated district in Karnataka according to 2011 census?
Bangalore Urban District.
Who popularized the term Harijan?
What is gender discrimination?
discrimination against people based on their gender.
What is lilom?
Patriarchical joint family of the Nambudris.
Who called Indian Villages as Little Republics?
State any one problem of Indian cities.
Poverty, slums, shelter, water shortage.
Television Rating Point.
Who founded Bheemasena?
B. Shamsundar in Karnataka.
Who is truly a Global Citizen?
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Mention any two racial groups of India.
Negritos and Mongoloids.
What is communalism?
It refers to the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of other communities and religions.
Mention and two social reform movements.
Brahma samaja and Arya samaja.
What is micro finance?
Micro Finance is defined as the financial services such as Saving A/c, Insurance Funds and credit facilities provided to the poor and low income group so as to help them to improve their income and thereby their standard of living also.
Write a definition of Iravathi Karvey’s joint family.
A joint family is a group of people who generally lived under one roof, who eat food cooked at one hearth, who hold property in common, participate in common family worship and are related to each other as some particular type of kindred.
Mention any two functions of Village Panchayat.
- Provision of water supply.
- Maintenance of sanitation.
Mention and two rural development programmes.
State two types of Mass Media.
- Print media- Newspapers and magazines
- Electronic media- Radio, Television, Internet and Social networking.
Name two epics which popularizes the Dooradarshan.
Ramayan and Mahabhartha Serials.
Mention two types of social-movement.
- Reformatory movements
- Revolutionary movements
Mention any two farmer’s movements of Karnataka.
- Kagodu Sathyagraha and
- Malaprabha farmers agitation.
Name any two transnational companies.
Pepsi and Cocacola.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Discuss briefly the challenges to National Integration.
There are many challenges to National integration. They are as follows;
- Linguism and
- Extremism and Terrorism.
Regionalism is expressed in the desire of people of one region to promote their own regional interest at the expense of the interests of other regions. It has often led to separatism and instigated separatist activities and violent movements. Selfish politicians exploit it. Thus, regionalism has challenged the primacy of the nationalistic interests and undermines national unity. Regionalism is mainly of four forms namely.
- Demand for separation from the Indian union.
- Demand for a separate statehood.
- Demand for a full-fledged statehood.
- Inter-states disputes-Border disputes.
Communalism is the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of other communities and religions. Communalism is the product of a particular society, economy, and polity, which creates problems. Communalism is an ideological tool for the propagation of economic and political interests. It is an instrument in the hands of the upper class to concentrate power by dividing people. The elites strive to maintain a status quo against transformation by dividing people on communal and religious lines.
Linguism implies one-sided love and admiration towards one’s language and prejudice and hatred towards other languages. India is a land of many languages and it has been called a ‘Museum of languages’. Diversity of languages has also led to linguism. It has often been manifested into violent movements posing threat to national integration. Linguistic tensions are prevailing in the border areas which are bilingual.
4. Extremism and Terrorism:
Extremism and terrorism have emerged during recent years as the most formidable challenges to national integration. Extremism refers to the readiness on the part of an individual or group to go to any extreme even to resort to undemocratic, violent and harmful means to fulfill one’s objectives.
In the past India has been facing the problems of terrorism since independence. India has faced this problem in Nagaland (1951), Mizoram (1966), Manipur (1976), Tripura (1980) and West Bengal (1986).
Terrorism in India is essentially the creation of politics. According to Prof. Rama Ahuja, there are four types of terrorism India,
- Khalistan oriented terrorism in Punjab.
- Militants terrorism in Kashmir.
- Naxalite terrorism in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh Telangana, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh.
- ULFA terrorism in Assam.
The Khalistan oriented Sikh terrorism was based on a dream of a theocratic state, Kashmir militants are based on their separate identity. Naxalite terrorism is based on class enmity. Terrorism in North-Eastern India is based on the identity crisis and the grievance situation. In addition to these factors, corruption, poverty, unemployment/ youth unrest, widening gap between rich and poor, which are also the major challenges for national integration.
Jawaharlal Nehru laid down the policy of Integration to five principles (1957) in his foreword note to Verrier Elwin’s book, called “The Philosophy of NEFA” (NEFA – North East Frontier of Assam). The tribal panchasheela as enunciated by him is as follows:
1. People should develop along the lines of their own genius and we should avoid imposing anything on them. We should try to encourage in every way their own traditional – arts and culture.
2. Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected.
3. We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to work and manage administration and development. Some technical personnel from outside will, no doubt be needed especially in the beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory.
4. We should not over-administer these areas or overwhelm them with a multiplicity of schemes. We should rather work through and not in rivalry to their own social and cultural institutions.
5. We should judge the results not by statistics or the amount of money spent but by the quality of human character that is evolved.
Explain the objectives of Equality Report.
A National Commission was formed to examine the status and problems of Indian women. Report of this Commission is called as ‘Towards Equality Report 1974’.
Objectives of the Towards Equality Report are the following:
1. To examine the Constitutional, legal, and administrative provisions that have a bearing on the social status of women, their education and employment.
2. To assess the impact of these provisions during the last two decades on the status of women in the country, particularly in the rural sector and to suggest more effective programmes.
3. To consider the development of education among women and determine the factors responsible for the slow progress in some areas and suggest remedial measures.
4. To survey the problems of the working women including discrimination in employment and remuneration.
5. To examine the status of women as housewives and mothers in the changing social pattern and their problems in the sphere of further education and employment.
6. To undertake survey of case studies on the implications of the population policies and family planning programmes on the status of women.
7. To suggest any other measures which would enable women to play their roles to the fullest in building up the nation.
Explain five disadvantages of Joint family.
Disadvantages of Joint Family:
The joint family suffers from a few disadvantages namely:
1. Promotes Idleness:
Joint family is the home for idlers and drovers as the non-earning members fo not want to earn their livelihood. In the joint family it happens that some people have to exhaust themselves while others lead a life of utter lethargy.
2. Hindrance to the Development of Personality:
In joint family there is a very little opportunity for the fostering of individual autonomy or self dependence.
3. Encourages Litigation and Nepotism:
The joint family may encourage litigation at the time of partition of common property; generally disputed crop up peaceful life is disurbed by cush litigation, quarrels and conflicts. Some are of the opinion that joint family systems are the root cause of Nepotism and discrimination of the Head of the family (Karta).
4. Leads to Quarrels:
It is the hodbed of quarrels and bickering among the member of joint family. There is a continous strife and fighting over the doings of children. There is also the clash of ideas and temperaments an account of which there are constant quarrels between the elders and young members of the family.
5. It is unfavourable for personal savings and investments as the finances are controlled by the karta and other members have no say in decision making.
6. It hinders social mobility and fosters for the law status of women in the society.
Explain any five characteristics of a village.
1. Small in size:
Indian villages are small in size. Due to that the density of population is less in Indian villages.
2. Importance to Primary Relations:
Villages share so many daily requirements and their relationships are close and intimate and face to face interactions.
3. Social Homogeneity:
Village is more homogeneous in language, belief, mores, and pattern of behavior. In their occupations, villagers participate together and share common interests.
4. Informal Social Control:
Individual behavior is controlled by family, traditions, customs, religion, etc.
5. Agriculture and its allied occupations:
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood. Along with agriculture, animal husbandry, floriculture, fishing, mining and apiculture and cottage industries are the other occupations.
6. Role of Neighbourhood and simplicity of life:
Neighbourhood relation plays an important role in the social life of village people and a simple way of life is common. There is an interdependent neighbourhood relations.
7. Village Autonomy:
Each village is relatively self-sufficient and independent. Charles Metcalfe called ‘Indian villages as Little Republics’. Recent studies proved that the Indian villages were never self-sufficient and Republic.
Write a note on Bastar tribal market.
The weekly market as a social institution, the links between the local Tribal economy and the outside, and the exploitative economic relationships between adivasis and others, are illustrated by a study of a weekly market in Bastar district. This district is populated by Gonds, an adivasi group.
At the weekly market, you find local people, including tribals and non-tribals, as well as outsiders-mainly traders of various castes. Forest officials also come to the market to conduct business with adivasis who work for the Forest Department, and the market attracts a variety of specialists selling their goods and services. The major goods that are exchanged in the market are
- Manufactured goods (such as jewellery and trinkets, pots and knives),
- Non-local foods (such as salt and haldi (turmeric)),
- Local food and agricultural produce and manufactured items (such as bamboo baskets), and
- Forest produce such as tamarind, oil-seeds and etc. The forest produce that is brought By the adivasis is purchased by traders who carry it to towns.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the unity in India.
Unity implies one-ness or a sense of we-ness.
Meaning of integration wherein hitherto divisive people and culture are synthesized into a united whole, along with higher levels of co operation, mutual understanding, shared values, common identity, and national consciousness. It lightly holds together the various relationships of ethnic groups or institutions in a neatly combined through the bonds of planned structure, norms, and values. In India aspects of Diversity and Unity co-exist as follows:
1. Regional Unity:
The Natural boundaries provide India a geographical unity. In ancient times India was known as Bharatavarsha, Bharathakanda, Jambudweepa. This symbolizes the significance of historical unity. The very name “Bharatavarsha” has occupied an important place in the minds of poets, political philosophers, and religious thinkers. Each of them has conceived the country as a single expanse from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari, a country ruled by one king Bharatha. The concept of Mother India also indicates the realization of geographical unity.
2. Linguistic Unity:
Despite the presence of a number of languages, India also possesses lingual unity. Sanskrit as a common base of Indian languages provides the basis of unity as a result of which the linguistic multiplicity has been solved. Simultaneously, Sanskrit became the language of Hindu culture and all classics were composed in this language, which demanded reverence and respect.
People may speak different languages in different regions but they have common language of English and Hindi to communicate with each other. The formation of linguistic states and using regional languages as medium of teaching at schools, colleges and universities are the products of Independence.
In 2004, the government Of India declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a classical language in India. Tamil (2004), Sanskrit (2005)7 Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013) and Oriya (2014) were declared as classical languages of India. Thus it is an effort to restore linguistic heritage of India.
3. Religious Unity:
In spite of the religious diversities, it possesses religious unity. The feelings of each religious groups are the same, each accepts the truth of immortality of soul, temporary nature of world, belief in rebirth, the doctrine of karma, salvation, contemplation, etc., There may be differences in the way these elements are treated but each religion preaches a fundamentally single religious faith and shares a belief in purity and values of life in respect of belief in unseen power, benevolence, piety, honesty, and liberality, with every religious faith.
The worshippers may visit different centres of pilgrimage, but all have a common goal of ‘Earning religious merit by visiting a sacred place’. India is the sacred land not only for the Hindus but also for Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists. Muslims and Christians too have several sacred centres of pilgrimage in India.
4. Cultural Unity:
In art and architecture, dress and food, literature, music and dance, sports and cinema, medicine and technology there is a fusion of style and the emergence of new forms which are the result of their combined efforts. Thus it becomes apparently clear from the above account, that running through various diversities.
India has been helped both by nature and nurture, by her geographical condition and historical experiences, by her religious ethics, and political ideas. To realize a unity to perceive, preserve and strengthen the thread of basic ” unity which makes India a fine example of unity in diversity, transcending birth, caste, language, ethnicity and religious groupings to establish a big society and a big nation.
Modern education, the development of a network of transport and communications, industrialization and urbanization have provided new bases for unity.
Explain any five functions of Mass-Media.
The media like T.V., newspapers and radio provide a continuous flow of information about the world and reports about the political, sports, entertainment activities and weather reports, the stock market and news stories and issues that affect us personally.
The media explains and helps us to understand the meaning of the information. It provides support for established social norms and has an important role in the socialization of children.
The media has a function in expressing the culture, recognizing new social developments and forging common values.
The media provides amusement, diversion and reduces social tension.
To encourage economic development, work, religion or support in times of war, the media can campaign to mobilize society to meet these objectives.
6. Social Reformation:
The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted. After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.
The gravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in 1975 and censorship of the media Fortunately, the period ended and democracy was restored in 1977. India with its many problems can be justifiably proud of a free media.
Explain the major components of social movement.
M.S.A. Rao in his edited volume on Social Movements in India has highlighted the significance of ideology, collective mobilization, organization and leadership in social movements.
provides a broad frame of action and collective mobilisation in the social movement. It also provides legitimacy to the process of interest articulation and organized collective action.
2. Collective Mobilization:
The nature and direction of a social movement is widely shaped by the nature of collective mobilisation. Collective mobilisation may be radical, non-institutionalized, spontaneous, large scale or it may be non-violent, institutionalized, sporadic and restricted.
3. Leadership and Organization:
These are closely linked to the process of collective mobilisation. A leader can be a charismatic figure or a democratically elected one.
Explain Western mization and its major areas.
Westernization is a major cultural process of change. The term Westernization is introduced in Indian Sociology by M. N. Srinivas. It has been used to analyze the exogenous source of social changes in contemporary India. M. N. Srinivas, in his book ‘Social Change in Modem India’ explains Westernization in the following words.
“The changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term subsumes changes occurring at different U levels; technology, institutions, ideology, values”. Westernization virtually indicates the process of imitation of western life-styles by the Indian. The process of westernization brought about a number of socio-cultural changes in the Indian Society, among which the following may be noted in three main areas:
- Ideology and values.
The new and large scale industries introduced by the British exposed the average Indian to the influence of Western Technology. Widespread use of the western technology led to the process of industrialization. The process of industrialization is normally associated with the growth of towns and cities which started attracting people from the rural areas. Cities provided a favourable atmosphere for the spread of western influence. Technology led to the development in the fields of Communication, Post and Telegraph, Telephone and Radio, Railways, Roadways etc.,
2. New Institutions:
Westernization brought about changes in institutional systems also. For example
a. In the place of Traditional Educational Institutions, the western type of formal educational institutions such as Schools, Colleges, Technical Institutes, Research Centres, Universities etc., got established. English became the medium of instruction in these Institutions and gained prominence. It also served to spread the English culture.
b. In the place of Traditional caste panchayats, the modem law, legislation, court, police and other legal systems came to stay.
c. The modem capitalist mode of Economy gave a fatal blow to the erstwhile Jajmani System. New Commercial Establishments, banks, and new accounting system came into practice.
d. New institutional arrangements such as Social Welfare Schemes, Life insurance schemes, Social security schemes, etc., were introduced in order to provide protection and security to people where ever required.
3. Ideology and Values:
Westernization implies certain value preferences also. Humanitarianism, Rationalism, Egalitarianism and Secularism are associated with westernization. These ideologies and values had a great impact on Indians. They changed the traditional attitudes and outlook of the people. Western ideologies and values provided inspiration for social reform movements, such as Brahma Samaja, Arya Samaja, Ramakrishna Mission, etc.,
Write a short note on Backward classes movement.
The backward class movement in Karnataka is desire of the under-privileged people to develop their own potentialities and contribute to the economic development of the nation. In every society, some groups of people are better off and some are not so due to the opportunities they get. By such opportunities people who are already well off equip themselves and pursue careers which give them prestige and profit. By contrast, the lower or other backward classes have no opportunities to equip themselves.
A new awareness arose among the non-Brahmins in the princely state of Mysore. Vokkaligas, Lingayats and Muslims of Mysore had realized their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins. By 1917, these groups formed an alliance called Prajamitra Mandali. In 1918, this mandali pleaded with Maharaja of Mysore for representation in legislature, reservation in posts of public services and educational institutions.
In 1918, a committee of six non-official members presided over by Sir Leslie Miller was formed to study this. Miller committee recommended the acceptance of all their demands. Since then, Backward classes in Mysore state have availed benefits in the field of education, employment and political arena.
The concept of Backward castes/classes movement virtually refers to the movement launched by them (which constitutes the non Brahmin cates) to fight against caste in equalities, socio-economic-religious discrimination and deprivation. It aims at removing or lessening the caste inequalities, promoting economic advancement of the poor, the deprived and the lower castes, and to obtain for them equal educational facilities and political opportunities. It also signifies a great social awakening that took place in the lower castes and determined efforts on their part to seek avenues of social mobility.
List five causes for modernization.
According to Myron Weiner, the causes for modernization are:
It includes a sense of national loyalty and creates skills and attitudes essential for technological innovation.
The development of mass communications (including telephone, TV, radio, movies, etc.) is an important means of spreading modern ideas at a faster rate.
3. Ideology based on Nationalism:
The nationalistic ideologies serve as unifying influence in bridging social cleavages within plural societies. They also help the political elite in changing the behaviour of the masses.
4. Charismatic Leadership:
A charismatic leader is in a better position to persuade people to adopt modem beliefs, practices and behaviour patterns because of the respect and loyalty he commands.
5. Coercive Government Authority:
If the government authority is weak, it may not succeed in implementing the policies aimed at the modernization process, but if the government in strong, it may even adopt coercive measures to compel people to accept attitudes and behaviour patterns which aim at development.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25-30 sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)
Define demography and explain the major characteristics of demographic profile of India.
Demography is the systematic study of population. The term Demography is derived from two Greek words i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people. The term Demography was coined by Achille Guillard in 1855.
Demography studies the trends and processes associated with population including – changes in population size; patterns of births, deaths, and migration; and the structure and composition of the population, such as the relative proportions of women, men and different age groups.
There are different varieties of demography, including Formal demography which is a largely quantitative field, and Social demography which focuses on the social, economic or political aspects of population. All demographic studies are based on processes of counting or enumeration – such as the census or the survey – which involve the systematic collection of data on the people residing within a specified territory.
In India, census was conducted by the British Indian government between 1867-72, and regular ten yearly (decennial) censuses have been, conducted since 1881. Independent India continued the practice, and seven decennial censuses have been conducted since 1951, the most recent being in 2011. Demographic data are important for the planning and implementation of state policies, especially those for economic development and general public welfare.
The Major characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India:
- Size and Growth of India’s population.
- Age structure of the Indian population.
- Sex-Ratio in India.Birth rate and Death rate.
- Increasing Literacy rate of the Indian population.
- Increasing Rural-Urban differences.
1. Size and Growth of India’s Population:
India is the second-most populous country in the world after China. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 121 crores(1.21 billion). Between 1901-1951 the average annual growth rate did not exceed 1.33%, a modest rate of growth. In fact between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative rate of growth of – 0.03%.
This was because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19. The growth rate of the population substantially increased after independence from British rule going up to 2.2% during 1961-1981. Since then although the annual growth rate has decreased it remains one of the highest in the developing world.
2. Age structure of the Indian population:
India has a very young population – that is, the majority of Indians tend to be young, compared to most other countries. The share of the less than 15 age group in the total population has come down from its highest level of 42% in 1971 to 29% in 2011. The share of the 15-60 age group has increased from 53% to 63%, while the share of the 60+ age group is very small but it has begun to increase (from 5% to 8%) over the same period.
But the age composition of the Indian population is expected to change significantly in the next two decades. 0-14 age group will reduce its share by about 11% (from 34% in 2001 to 23% in 2026) while the 60 plus age group will increase its share by about 5% (from 8% in 2001 to about 12% in 2026).
3. The declining Sex-ratio in India:
The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying – from 941 in 1961 the sex ratio had fallen to an all-time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011, the sex ratio has increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has really alarmed demographers, policymakers, social activists, and concerned Citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio. The sex ratio for the 0 – 6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact, the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overall 1 sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all-time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
4. Increasing literacy rate of Indian population:
Literacy varies considerably across gender, regions, and social groups. The literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels. Female literacy rose by about 11.2 percent between 2001 and 2011 compared to the rise in male literacy of 6.2 percent in the same period.
Female literacy which was 8.9% in 1951, has increased to 65.4 in 2011. Male literacy in the same period was 27.2% which has increased to 82.17. The total literacy rate of 18.3% in 1951 has increased to 74.04 in 2011.
5. Increasing Rural-Urban differences:
According to the 2011 Census, 68.8% of the population lives in rural areas while 31.2% of people live in urban areas. The urban population has been increasing steadily, from about 17.3% in 1951 to 31.2 in 2011, an increase of about two-and-a-half times.
Define caste system and explain the characteristics of caste system.
Life of every member of the Indian society is to a large extent influenced by three systems viz., joint family, caste system and village community. They influence one’s occupation, food, dress habits, philosophy, and marriage. The study of caste system is important because caste in India is an all pervasive and deep rooted social institution.
Definitions of Caste:
1. Herbert Risley has defined caste as “A collection of families or a group of families bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from a mythical ancestor, human or divine, professing to follow the same hereditary calling and regarding by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community”.
2. S. V. Kethkar in his work ‘History of Caste in India’ states that A caste is a group having two characteristics.
- Membership is confined to only those who are born of other members.
- The members are forbidden by an inexorable social law to marry outside the group (Endogamy)”.
characteristics of caste:
1. Caste as a Segmental Division of Society:
The society is divided into various castes with a well-developed life of their own. The membership in a caste is determined by birth. Caste has hereditary status, which is determined.by birth. Each caste has a council of its own, known as caste Panchayat. Caste panchayats imposed certain restrictions on social intercourse between castes like marriages commensal and occupational interactions. By these restrictions, each caste had its own way of life. Violation of caste norms attracted punishment from the caste panchayat depending on the seriousness of the violations.
The whole society is divided into distinct castes with a concept of high and low, or as superior and inferior associated with this gradation or ranking. The Brahmins were placed at the top of the hierarchy and regarded as pure. The degraded castes or untouchables occupied the other end of the hierarchy. They were subjected to manifold disabilities.
3. Restrictions on Feeding and Social Intercourse:
There are minute rules as to what sort of food or drink can be accepted by a person and from what castes, who should accept food or drink at the hands of whom is defined by caste.
4. Civil and Religious Disabilities and Privileges of the Different Sections:
Segregation of individual castes or groups of castes in a village is the most obvious mark of civil privileges and disabilities and it has prevailed in a more or less definite form all over India. Generally, untouchables were made to live on the outskirts. Certain parts of the town or village are inaccessible to certain castes. Restrictions on using public roads, water facilities, Hotels, etc.
5. Restrictions on occupations:
According to G.S. Ghurye, every caste was associated with a traditional occupation. The technical skill of the occupation was made hereditary. Since a distinction was made between occupation being clean and unclean. The hereditary occupations reflected a caste status.
6. Restrictions on Marriages (Endogamy):
Finally, every caste also maintained its rank and status regarding marriages, inter-caste marriages, were prohibited. Hence they practiced endogamy. Caste is an endogamous group. “Endogamy is the essence of the caste system. Every caste was segmented into subcastes, and these sub-castes were the units of endogamy.”
Explain any ten constitutional provisions for the upliftment of SCs and STs.
Constitutional provisions relating to the above said groups are as follows:
1. Article 15:
The state shall hot discriminate against any citizen on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any such thing. The removal of any disability, restriction or condition with regard to access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and place of public entertainment or the use of wells, tanks, roads, and place of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of state funds or dedicated to the use of general public.
2. Article 16:
There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matter relating to employment or appointment to any office under the state.
3. Article 17:
Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of untouchability shall be an offense punishable in accordance with law.
4. Article 23:
Illegalizes traffic in human beings and forced labor.
5. Article 25 B:
Hindu religious institutions of public characters are open to all classes and sections of Hindus.
6. Article 29:
Any cultural and linguistic minority has the right to conserve its language or culture. The article provides protection to scheduled tribe communities to preserve their languages, dialects and cultures. The state would not by law enforce upon them any other culture or language.
7. Article 46:
The state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections of the people and in particular of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
8. Article 164:
This provides for a separate ministry in charge of Welfare of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and backward classes.
9. Article 325 of part XV:
It guarantees to all citizens of India the right to vote.
10. Article 330, 332 and 334:
This provides that seats shall be reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the house of people and state legislatures.
11. Article 335:
It mentions the claim of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.
12. Article 338:
This empowers the Central government to appoint a Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
13. Article 339:
This empowers the President to appoint a Commission to report on the administration of the scheduled areas and the welfare of scheduled tribes in the states.
14. Article 341:
This empowers the President to specify the castes, races or tribes deemed as Scheduled’ Castes in a particular state or Union territory.
15. Article 342:
This empowers the President to specify the tribes deemed to be Scheduled Tribes in a particular state or Union territory.
Explain the importances of village studies.
The importance of village studies are summarized below.
1. Field Work is an Antidote to Book View:
According to M.N. Srinivas, studies of Indian village communities would be of great significance for planners and administrators. Information provided by a Sociologist is based on his intensive fieldwork experience and no account of book knowledge can ever be a substitute for this.
M.N.Srinivas undertook a study on Rampura village near Mysore, with a view to highlight that the agricultural practices of the Indian peasant can only be understood in the context of his Technology, level of knowledge, legal and social institutions, religion and way of life. He has recorded his experience in Rampura village in his work ‘Remembered Village’.
2. Calculated opposition to change:
Over the last hundred years or more, the peasant has been represented as extremely conservative, pigheaded, ignorant and superstitious. But the Sociological studies do not subscribe to this view. McKim Marriot’s study of Kishan Garhi village in Uttar Pradesh reveals that the peasants had accepted new crops, techniques of cultivation, etc., and had opposed only a few changes.
Thus, the headman of Rampura village wanted bull-dozers and electricity, but not a school. Electricity and bull-dozer would get him name and fame, his authority over others becomes stronger, etc. But, a school would make labour scarcer, educated poor people may lose the respect they have for the rich and soon.
There are key persons in each village thus, who exploit every change to their benefit. If he then opposes the tool or process, it is not because of stupidity but because of his intelligence. Only a field-study of the village community could shed light on aspects that otherwise go unnoticed.
3. Literary Bias:
Literature on caste states that caste is immobile. This is not a fact as through Sanskritization, castes have tried to move up on the local hierarchy. This is also true of the conditions of women. The condition of women prevalent among the upper castes was generalized to include all Hindus. But, the truth is that the women of lower castes are better placed in comparison to women of upper castes.
Observation of Hindu social life has been vitiated by book view and the upper-caste view. Thus, the only solution for this literary bias lies in doing field research. Field-studies suggest something different, from what is found in religious texts. It is clear that the book-view and upper-caste view may be biased and need not be a fact always. Only field research can help us to overcome literary bias and accept facts about village communities.
4. Recording for later evaluation:
Prof. Yogesh Atal states that “Roots of the present are always to be found in the past and an analysis of the present would guide the future. Hence, a comparison and evaluation of the impact of planned change at a later date necessarily demands that the present be recorded”.
5. Development of Analytical Categories:
The study of an Indian village community has helped in developing certain analytical categories. Field studies conducted in different parts of the country point to the existence of certain processes of change which have been labeled either locally or on an all India basis. For instance, analytical models like Sanskritization and Westernisation (M.N. Srinivas), Kulinisation (N. Prasad), De-Sanskritization (Majumdar), Universalisation and Parochialisation (McKim Marriot), Great tradition and little tradition (Robert Redfield), etc., have helped in the analysis of transformation that the village communities are undergoing. A. R. Desai’s Rural Sociology in India is an important work in this regard.
6. Village Studies are important for Social Reformation:
Prof. Ramakrishna Mukher-jee’s analysis makes it clear that the village has become the centre of all discussions and debates. Plan, Budget, Administrative strategy, etc., all have become rural area oriented. Thus, planners, economists, administrators, sociologists, reformers, and others concentrate on village and are busy collecting data on them. Under the impact of planned and non-directed changes, villages are undergoing a transformation. Thus, there is a need for the study of village communities in India.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a short note on Narasinganavar Patriarchal joint family.
The Narasinganavar family is a patriarchal Joint family of about 206 individuals who are residing together in the village of Lokur in the Dharwad district of Karnataka. All the individuals in the family share a common ancestry and this family is recognised as one of the largest undivided families in the world. The family spans across five generations. Bhimanna Jinapa Narasinganavar is the patriarch of the family. For India’s largest joint family, balancing the family is a forbidding task.
The Narsingnavar family finds that expenditure on its 206 members always seems to be more than its income. Patriarch Narsingnavar (72), who has been handling money matters of this jumbo family for the past 30 years, says “We believe family finances could be the biggest source of discontent. In their wisdom and sincerity, the elders gave me this job. Whatever I do well be in the interest of the family”.
Agriculture is the main occupation for this family. It owns 270 acres of cultivable land, the annual 1 income is Rs 8 lakh to Rs 12 lakh depending on the monsoon and market. Its annual expenditure of around Rs 10 lakh is largely on farm labour and agriculture machinery.
While the family’s requirement of food grains, vegetables and milk are met by its own efforts, it. spends a substantial amount on provisions, clothes, medicines, soap and tea. If there’s resource crunch, the earning members contribute to the common kitty and Bheemanna keeps a meticulous record of the transactions.
Weddings are performed every eight or ten years with several marriages being solemnised at the same time. The family’s only source of entertainment is TV.
Suggest the measures to solve urban problems.
Problems of Indian cities can be classified in the following ways:
1. Urban Poverty:
Urban poverty is the byproduct of industrialization and urbanization. Poverty and overcrowding are the two most visible features of Indian cities. About half of the urbanities are poor and live a substandard life, because of cost of living, lack of regular income, low wages, pro-rich economic policies and inflation.
India has issued its first-ever report on the nature and dynamics of urban poverty in the country undertaken with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). India: Urban; Poverty Report 2009 identifies the problems faced
by the poor and focusses on the systemic at changes that are needed to address them.
The report examines various issues related to urban poverty, such as migration, labour, the role of gender, access to basic services and the appalling condition of India’s slums. It also looks at the dynamics of urban land and capital market, urban governance, and the marginalisation of the poor to the urban periphery. Urban poverty poses different problems. The nature of urban poverty poses distinct challenges for housing, water, sanitation, health, education, social security, livelihoods and 1 the special needs of vulnerable groups such as women, children and the aged.
Slum dwellers lack access to basic services. Most slum dwellers do not have access to clean water, sanitation and health care facilities. They face a constant threat of eviction, removal, confiscation of goods and have virtually no social security cover.
The magnitude of the problem of slums is alarming. The Government of India, for purposes of the implementation of various schemes relating to urban development, has defined a slum area as follows: “A slum area means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to safety, health or morale.” These slum areas are also referred to as the ‘Blighted area’; ‘Renewal area’; ‘deteriorated area’, ’Gray area’; ‘Lower class neighbourhood’; ‘Lower income area’ etc.
Slums are dilapidated and overcrowded areas with lack of adequate public utilities, yet their existence in the city does serve a purpose, especially for the urban poor and migrants coming for some job opportunities in the city. It is in slums that poor people like industrial workers, casual labourers, hawkers, petty shopkeepers, vegetable-sellers and several others offering useful services to the city find a place to stay.
Studies have shown that in these localities police, fire, health protection and other necessary services cost more than in other sections. Municipal expenditure in such areas exceeds the revenue. The continuing shortage of housing also has a damaging influence upon the quality of housing. Such problem results in personal as well as social disorganization. Economic and social development will be difficult.
3. Sanitation and Pollution:
It is accompanied with corrupt municipal administration and inefficiency. According to UNICEF, lakhs of urban children in India die or suffer from diarrhea, diphtheria, tetanus and measles, because of poor sanitary conditions and water contamination. Community hygiene and city sanitation will still remain serious for decades to come.
4. Transportation and Traffic:
The transportation and traffic picture in Indian cities is troublesome. Majority of people use buses and other vehicles, while a few use rails as transport system. The increasing number of two wheelers and other types of vehicles make the traffic problem worse. The acute congestion of traffic in the streets of Indian cities undoubtedly has been caused by the phenomenal growth of the use of the automobiles as a means of urban transport.
5. Water Supply and Drainage:
No city in India is in a position to provide water supply throughout the day. Cities like Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Rajkot, Ajmir, Udayapur, Jaipur etc., get water for less than an hour a day. Cities have been facing acute water shortage in summers.
Along with water supply, drainage situation is equally bad. Even an authorized construction in and around many cities does not have the existence of a drainage system. Large pools of stagnant water can be seen in every city. Almost all the cities badly need drainage facility and suitable policy to ensure it. Cities discharge their entire sewage and industrial effluents untreated into the nearby rivers. Urban industries pollute the atmosphere with smoke and toxic gases like sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide etc., which cause various health hazards.
Industrial accidents in recent years show the latent facts of industrialization. For example Bhopal Gas disaster is a catastrophe which has no parallel in industrial history. The tragedy claimed between 16,000 – 30,000 lives.
Explain any five Kannada News Channels.
Tv-9, SuvamaNews, Kasturi 24 × 7, SamayaNews, Udaya News, Janashree News and Raj News, ETV News and a few other news channels will also coming up shortly are quite popular.
Briefly discuss the issues of Karnataka Rajya Ryota Sangha.
Major issues of Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha Movement:
1. Loan Recovery Issue and Banning Corrupt Officials and Politicians in Villages:
This has led to farmers’ movement headed by KRRS over loan recovery issue. KRRS took up this issue and led the farmers’ movement. Boards were put up banning officials and corrupt politicians from entering villages without prior permission. They also launched a counter-seizure of property of those officers who they thought were corrupt, in addition to their own properties that were attached for non payment of loans.
2. Environmental Issue:
Farmers have agitated over .issues related to environment. KRRS saw some commercial interest in expanding the area under eucalyptus for use by the paper and pulp industry and hence, has opposed it. This tree affects the fertility of the soil in the long run and depletes the under ground water level.
3. Mining Issue:
KRRS has also taken up the granite quarrying issue. Granite was extracted and exported with no benefit to the villagers. KRRS opposed this and made them pay royalties for village betterment in addition to clearing of government dues. In due course, sand, timber etc. were also included in their list.
4. Opposing KFC and MNCs:
Recently, KRRS has taken up the issue of patenting of seeds. It has opposed the entry of multi-nationals and patenting of seeds. After the 1985 assembly poll, KRRS has become less militant. This may be because of the reason that the Janata Government in the state successfully created an impression that it was pro-farmer and the problems were due to non-cooperation of the centre.
5. Neera Movement:
During 1990’s, the coconut farming belt of Karnataka was affected by pests and no amount of pesticide or conventional methods could save die trees and the pest affected coconut trees were unable to produce coconuts.
The Neera Movement demanded assistance from the Government by allowing Neera tapping and producing neera by-products such as jaggery, Chocolates etc. Farmers opined that, the Government must lend a helping hand to coconut farmers. As the agitation intensified, it turned violent, and the conflict between the agitators and the police led to golibar which claimed two lives. At a later stage, die pest epidemic was controlled and yield from coconut trees improved considerably.