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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper June 2017
Time: 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
How is the term ‘Demography’ derived?
The term Demography is derived from two Greek words i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people.
What is unity?
Unity implies oneness or a sense of we-ness.
Who was the Chairman of First Backward Class Commission in India?
Who introduced the concept of microfinance in Bangladesh?
What is Gender discrimination?
Discrimination against people based on their Gender.
What is Illom?
Patriarchical Joint Family of Nambudris Brahmina.
State any one characteristic of village community.
Agriculture as a way of life.
Television Rating Point.
Give any one feature of market.
- Market is a place where things are bought and sold
- Market is not just a physical place, but the gathering of people buyers and sellers.
Mention any one multi-national company.
Pepsi and Coca Cola.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Why India is regarded as museum of languages?
India is a land of many languages and it has been called as a ‘museum of languages’.
Mention any two social reform movements.
Brahma Samaja, Arya Samaja.
Mention any two determinants of dominant caste.
Preponderates Numerically over other castes and high
- Ritual status in local.
Give any two criteria of backwardness.
- Children between 5 and 15 years never attending school 25% above the state average.
- Student drop-out-rate 25% above the state average.
What is women empowerment?
The dictionary meaning of the terms “empowerment” is to give power or authority. Hence empowerment is the act of giving power. Thus women’s empowerment is the act of empowering women i.e. to give them the power or authority. The term Empowerment has different meanings to women of different classes.
Mention any two objectives of Stree Shakthi.
- To strengthen the process of economic development of rural women and create a conducive environment for social change.
- To form a self-help group based on thrift and credit principles which builds self-reliance and enable women, to have greater access and control over resources.
Write any two social legislations which affect the joint family.
- Hindu Marriage Act of 1955
- Domestic Violence Act of 2005.
State any two characteristics of slum.
Dilapidated and Poor Houses, High Density of Population and Housing.
Write any two major problems of Indian cities.
Urban Poverty and Slums.
Mention any two functions of mass media.
Information and Entertainment.
State any two farmers movements in Karnataka.
Kagodu Agitation and Malaprabha Agitation.
Mention any two areas of westernization.
- New Institution
- Ideology and Value.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Describe the racial groups classified by Dr.B.S.guha.
B.S. Guha who identified six major racial elements in the population of India:
- Western Brachycephals
In the south, the Kadar, the Irula, and the Paniyan, and in the Andaman Islands, the Onge and Jar was of the Andamanese have definite Negrito characteristics. Some traits of this group are found among the Angfrni Naga and the Bagadi of the Rajmahal hills. On the western coast, there are some groups with pronounced Negrito traits, but they perhaps represent later arrivals, who came to India with the Arab traders.
The Proto-Australoid group is numerically more significant; most of the tribes of middle India belong to it. These were the people described by the Indo-Aryans as Anas, Dasa, Dasyu, and Nishad – all derogatory terms. The Mongoloid group is sub-divided into two branches Paleo-Mongoloid and Tibeto-Mongoloid.
Tribal groups in the Himalayan region and those in the north-east are of Mongoloid stock. Some Mongoloid features are seen in the non-tribal population of the eastern States – Assam, West Bengal, Manipur, and Tripura.
The Western Brachycephals (sub-divided into the Alpinoid, Dinaric, and Armenoid groups), Alpinoid and Dinaric characteristics are seen in some groups of northern and western India; the Parsis belong to the Armenoid section. The Mediterraneans are associated with the Dravidian languages and Cultures.
The Nordics were the last. major ethnic element to arrive in India and make a- profound impact on its culture, and society. But before they came a unique civilization had slowly developed in India. It is known as the Indus Valley Civilization.
Explain tribal Panchsheela.
Jawaharlal Nehru laid down the policy of Integration to five principles (1957) in his foreword note to Verrier Elwin’s book, called “The Philosophy of NEFA” (NEFA – North East Frontier of Assam). The tribal panchasheela as enunciated by him as follows:
1. People should ‘develop along the lines of their own genius‘ and we should avoid imposing anything on them. We should try to encourage in every way their own traditional – arts and culture.
2. Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected.
3. We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to work, administration and development. Some technical personnel from outside will, no doubt be needed especially in the beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory.
4. We should not over-administer these areas or overwhelm them with a multiplicity of schemes. We should rather work through and not in rivalry to their own social and cultural institutions.
5. We should judge the results not by statistics or the amount of money spent but by the quality of human character that is evolved.
Explain the main features of microfinance.
MicroFinance is defined as, financial services such as Savings Accounts, Insurance Fund & credit provided to poor & low-income clients so as to help them to rise their income & there by improve their standard of living. Microfinance is a source of financial services for entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services.
Major Features of Microfinance
- Loan without security
- Loans tp people who live BPL (Below Poverty Line)
- Even members ofSHG may get benefit from Micro Finance
- Maximum limit of loan under microfinance is relatively small amount.
- The terms and conditions given to poor people are decided by SHG.
For some, microfinance is a movement whose object is a world in which as many poor to have permanent access to an appropriate range of high-quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers.
Many of those who promote microfinance generally believe that such access will help poor people out of poverty. For others, microfinance is a way to promote economic development, employment and growth through the support of micro-entrepreneurs and small businesses.
Describe the advantages of joint family.
1. Economic Advantage:
Joint family prevents property being divided, subdivision and fragmentation. Cooperation of all the members supports the economic activities. It is the best pattern of living that is most conducive to the growth.
2. Protection of Members:
Joint family protects their members during childhood, adult and old age. It is capable of providing assistance at the time of pregnancy, sickness, death and other situations.
3. Provides Recreation:
Joint family provides recreation to its members. Similarly in a joint family, the children play together. As a result, there grows the feeling of oneness.
4. Development of Personality:
Joint family helps a person to build his/her own personality. They learn the lessons of generosity, patience, service, cooperation, and obedience. Here a sense of sacrifice replaces selfishness. As such the disciplines in a joint family are self-imposed on its members.
5. Socialism in Nature:
A joint family is like a Cooperative Trust and in a joint family, each member works according to his capability and gets according to his need. In this sense to a larger extent achieves the socialistic order. The joint kitchen, naturally, runs on an understanding of mutual adjustment. Naturally, those who are benefitted by the generosity of others remain obliged and grateful.
Explain the social problems of Indian villages.
Illiteracy is a major social problem . in Indian villages. Lack of educational institution and poor quality education coupled with high rate of dropout rate has aggravated the situation. Majority of the educational institutions are suffering from educational infrastructures like adequate buildings, libraries, and reading rooms, sports grounds, etc.
There is a great disparity among rural and urban regions of Indian society regarding educational opportunities. Further, basic facilities like drinking water, sanitation facilities, transport, and communications facilities are not up to the mark.
b. Rural Poverty:
On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank has identified the following causes of poverty in rural areas:
- Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
- Low percentage of population engaged, in non-agricultural pursuits.
- Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall.
- Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate modem skills.
- Non-availability of electricity for agriculture.
- Poor quality of livestock.
- Imperfect, and exploited credit market, communication facilities, and markets.
- Low level of education.
- Absence of dynamic community leadership.
- Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes. institutionalized, sporadic and restricted.
- Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries.
- Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., and people being unwilling to discard expensive customs.
c. Health Problems:
About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas. When it is remembered that 70% of people are living in villages the extent to which provision of skilled medical is lacking in the. Fertility and Birth rate, as well as death rates, are very high.
Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also highest. The problems of Malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria, Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common. The housing are very much unsanitary while the addiction to alcohol & nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse.
Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazardous in rural areas. There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone. At the same time soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and fertilisers and it affect the not only yield but also health of the agriculturists.
Explain the major components of social movements.
M.S.A. Rao in his edited volume on Social Movements in India has highlighted the significance of ideology, collective mobilization, organization and leadership in social movements.
1. Ideology provides a broad frame of action and collective mobilisation in the social movement. It also provides legitimacy to the process of interest articulation and organized collective action.
2. Collective Mobilization The nature and direction of a social movement is widely shaped by the nature of collective mobilisation. Collective mobilisation may be radical, non-institutionalized, spontaneous, large scale or it may be non-violent, institutionalized, sporadic and restricted.
3. Leadership and Organization are closely linked to the process of collective moblilisation. A leader can be charismatic figure or a democratically elected one.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the characteristics of the demographic profile in India.
Demography is the systematic study Of population. The term Demography is derived from two Greek words i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people. The term Demography was coined by Achille Guillard in 1855.
Demography studies the trends and processes associated with population including-changes in population size; patterns of births, deaths, and migration; and the structure and composition of the population, such as the relative proportions of women, men, and different age groups.
There are different varieties of demography, including Formal demography which is a largely quantitative field, and Social demography which focuses on the social, economic or political aspects of population. All demographic studies are based on processes of counting or enumeration – such as the census or the survey – which involve the systematic collection of data on the people residing within a specified territory.
The American census of 1790 was probably the first modem census, and the practice was soon taken up in Europe as well in the early 1800s. In India, census, was conducted by the British Indian government between 1867-72, and regular ten yearly (decennial) censuses have been conducted since 1881.
Independent India continued the practice, and seven decennial censuses have been conducted since 1951, the most recent being in 2011. Demographic data are important for the planning and implementation of state policies, especially those for economic development and general public welfare.
The Major Characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India:
- Size and Growth of India’s Population
- Age Structure of the Indian Population
- Sex-Ratio in India
- Birth Rate and Death Rate
- Increasing Literacy Rate of Indian Population
- Increasing Rural-Urban Differences
1. Size and Growth of India’s Population:
India is the second-most populous country in the world after China. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 121 crores (1.21 billion). Between 1901-1951 the average annual growth rate did not exceed 1.33%, a modest rate of growth. In fact, between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative rate of growth of 0.03%.
This was because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19:5%of the total population of the country. The growth rate Of population substantially increased after independence from British rule going up to 2.2% during 1961-1981. Since then although the annual growth rate has decreased it remains one of the highest in the developing world.
2. Age Structure of-the Indian Population:
India has a very young population that is, the majority of Indians tend to be young, compare to most other countries, the share of the less than 15 age group in the total population has come down from its highest level of 42% in 1971 to 29% in 2011.
The share of the 15-60 age group has increased slightly from 53% to 63%, while the share of the 60+ age group is very small but it has begun to increase (from 5% to.8%) over the same period.
But the age composition of the Indian population is expected to change significantly in the next two decades. 0-14 age group will reduce its share by about 11% (from 34% in 2001 to 23% in 2026) while the 60 plus age group will increase its share by about 5% (from 8% in 2001 to about 12% in 2026).
3. The Declining Sex-Ratio in India:
The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying from 941 in 1961 the, sex ratio had fallen to an all-time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011 sex ratio has been increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has really alarmed demographers, policymakers, social activists and concerned citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio.
The sex ratio for the 0-6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact-the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overal 1 sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all-time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
4. Increasing Literacy Rate of Indian Population:
Literacy varies considerably across gender, regions, and social groups. As can be seen from Table No. 4, the literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels.
Female literacy rose by about 11.2 percent between 2001 and 2011 compared to the rise in male literacy of 6.2 percent in the same period.
Female literacy was 8.9% in 1951 has increased to 65.4 in 2011 male literacy in the same period wan 27.2% has increased to 82.17. In 1951 total literacy rates 18.3% has increased to 74.04 in 2011.
5. Increasing Rural-Urban Differences:
According to the 2011 Census, 68.8% population lives in rural areas while 31.2% people live in urban areas. The urban population has been increasing its share steadily, from about 17.3%in 1951 to 31.2 in 20ll, an increase of about two-and-a-half times.
Briefly explain changes in caste system during British rule.
The impact of British rule on caste system in India may be studied under the following heads.
- Introduction of Universalistic Legal system
- Impact of English Education
- Impact of Social Reform Movement
- Influence of New Social Formation
- Impact of Freedom struggle
- Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization.
1. Introduction of Universalistic Legal System:
The establishment of British courts removed authority from the purview of caste panchayats. They introduced a new principle s of justice, according to which all are equal before the law, and the caste panchayat in v proportion lost their former importance.
Some of the legislation which brought changes in the caste system can be made as the, following.
a. The Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850 This act served to remove some of the disabilities associated with castes including the practice of untouchability.
b. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, This act made legal provision for the Hindu widows to remarry.
c. The Special Marriage Act of 1872 which considered marriage as a civil contract and legalized inter-caste or inter-religious marriage.
d. Other Legislative and Administrative Measures. In 1858 British government announced that all schools maintained by the government shall be open to all the classes of its subjects without any discrimination.
In 1923, the government issued a resolution that no grants would be paid to any aided educational institutions, which refused admission to the children of the depressed classes.
In 1925, a bill was passed by the Madras. legislative council, throwing open all public office, well, tank, or place of public resort, to all classes of people including the depressed. Montogue-Chelmshford reforms made constitutional provisions for the special representation of depressed classes in the local as well as in the legislative bodies.
2. Impact of English Education:
British education was based on scientific, secular and universal principles. It made an accessible to everyone, irrespective of caste or community, who could pay for it. It remained liberal in content. It propagated principles such as the liberty equality and fraternity.
As education spread to the lower strata, It kindled libertarian impulses among them. Western education provided an indispensable passport to the new economic opportunities. Members from the lower castes became different professionals and took new commercial opportunities offered, by the western education.
3. Impact of Social Reform Movements:
Social reforms movements brought changes in ‘the caste system in British period. They were set out to eradicate caste and to establish a casteless and, classless society. They were against the fictitious difference between caste. They attacked the tendencies of separatism and Inequality in the caste system. Some important social reform movements are:’
a. The Brahma Samaj founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
b. Prarthana Samaja’s Athma Rama Pandurang Justice M. Ranade.
c. The Arya Samaja founded by Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi.
d. The Ramakrishna Mission represents the synthesis of the ancient and the modem thoughts. Swamy Vivekananda started Ramakrishna Mission.
e. Other Reform Movements such as Annie Beasant’s Theosophical society, Maharshi Arabindo Ghosh’s Divine life Society and etc. Thus all these organizations aimed at the destruction of caste system and social reconstruction of Indian society.
4. Impact of New Social Formations:
The new economic system brought about a new grouping of the population in the economic sphere. The Indians could be differentiated into such categories as capitalists, workers, peasants, propritiators, merchants, tenants, landlords, doctors, lawyers, teachers, and technicians.
Each category being composed of individuals belonging to various castes, but having identical material and political, interests. This division weakened the vertical caste lines. Thus there came into existence such organization as Mill Owners Associations, All India Trade Union Congress, All India KishanSabhaand, etc., these groups struggled for their own interests.
In the process of this struggle they developed a new consciousness and outlook and a new solidarity, which slowly weakened the caste consciousness.
5. Impact of Freedom Struggle:
The growth of the nationalist movement played a great role in weakening caste consciousness. In India, the presence of foreign rule was a permanent stimulus to the Indians to unite on a national basis. Thus the growth of the national movement undermined the caste consciousness.
6. Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization:
The growth of Industries destroyed the old craft and provided new ways to earn a livelihood. Occupational t mobility and movement from compact ancestral village started breaking down in the caste norms.
New transport facilities, specially crowed trains and buses, which threw together millions of people of all castes and left little room for the necessities of ceremonial purity. Taboos on food and water gradually weakening when industrial workers belonging to various castes started working under one roof.
The demarcation observed by the members of different castes regarding eating food, physical contact with those of other castes, steadily crumbled in cities.
Explain the Community Development Programme.
The planning commission described the community development programme as the method through which a five-year plan seeks to initiate a process of transformation of the social and economic life of the villages. The community development programme was inaugurated on October 2, 1952.
It is a programme of aided self-help to be planned and implemented by the villagers themselves, the government offering only technical guidance and financial assistance.
Objectives of Community Development Programme
The aims of community development programme are as follow;
- To solve the problem of unemployment in the villages.
- To provide safe drinking water facilities.
- To develop the mass communication in the villages.
- To improve the centres of primary education, public health and recreation in the villages.
- To improve the conditions of Houses.
- To encourage cottage industries and indigenous handicrafts.
The maximum possible increase in Agricultural production. The Long Term Objectives of community development programme is to complete planned development of all physical and human resources to provide all villagers with full employment.
The goal of community development projects is the development of villages in such a way that the citizens of the country may hot lack anything get adequate food and that everyone should progress socially, morally and financially.
Discuss briefly on virtual market.
The new form of marketing transactions are of taking place through online with the help of Information and Communication Technology.
Such transactions and activities are called as virtual market. E-commerce, online purchase, online trading of stocks and Shares are the latest in the market activities.
Virtual marketing is a form of electronic or e-commerce which allows consumers or buyers to directly purchase goods or services from a seller over the internet using a web browser. Virtual market can be called as e-shop, internet shop, online store, and virtual store.
The 21st century in India has witnessed for enormous increase in the number of virtual or online markets. The trend is common in western countries. But, in India with the advancement of Information Technology (IT) the growth of virtual marketing has immensely raised.
In the global level, the emergence of online or virtual market is relatively a new phenomenon and it has only a few decades of history. It is quite interesting to examine the events took place before the 1990’s for the development of virtual market. Even though the research for developing virtual market started early 1960, virtual market came to reality only after the 1990’s.
The concept of “Teleshopping” was first introduced by Michael Aldrich in 1979 and in the same year Videotex was being researched. In France, Mintel succeeded on the research of Videotex which allowed online purchases, check share market, etc in 1982. The actual growth of online or virtual market started in 1990, when the first World Wide Web (WWW) server and browser, created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990, opened for commercial use in 1991.
Thereafter, with the advancement in IT, in 1994 an online pizza shop has been opened by Pizza Hut. Later, Intershop’s first online shopping system and Netscapes’ SSL systems have been developed with the advent of these above, in 1995 Amazon.com has launched its virtual marketing sites and later in the same year eBay also opened up its inline shopping websites, which is the first online action website.
With the emergence of big shopping companies like Futurebazaar, Shoppers stop, Reliance retail, Spencer Mart, etc., the outlook of online shopping has completely changed for the best.
Write a short note on backward classes movement.
The concept of “Backward Castes/Classes Movement “ refers to the movement launched by die backward castes/classes which consist of non-Brahmin caste. The movement aims at removing or lessening the caste inequalities, promoting the economic advancement of the poor, the deprived and the lower castes, and to obtain for them equal educational facilities and political opportunities.
The movement also signifies a great social awakening that took place in the lower castes and determined efforts On their part to seek avenues of social mobility.
1. The Course of the Movement:
jyothirao Phule of Poona was one of the first to have revolted against the tyranny of upper caste in domination. He started social reform movement called the Satya Shodak Samaj was-founded on 1873. Its aim was to challenge upper-caste supremacy to redeem the Sudras and untouchables from the influence of Hindu scriptures to teach them human rights, liberate them from mental and religious slavery.
Satya Shodak Samaj movement and the cause of backward class were further carried by Sri Sahu Maharaj of Kolhapur. Sri Sahu felt that unless the weaker sections of the society were ‘made conscious of their democratic rights, of their rightful place in society’, India would not be in a position to work on democratic principles. He started schools and hostels for exclusively backward classes students.
The backward class Movements came to be systematically organised in the Madras Presidency in the second decade of the 20th century. The South Indian Liberal Federation, popularly called Justice Party, was formed in 1916.
Backward class leaders in Madras became conscious and started organising themselves. Dr. T.M. Nair, Sir P.T. Chettiar, and T.E. Mudaliar joined together to start the ‘South Indian People’s Association’, a joint-stock company in 1916 with a Sole aim of publishing newspapers. This association: advocating the cause of the non-Brahmins, started dailies – in English ‘Justice’, in Tamil the ‘Dravidian’ and in Telugu ‘Andhra Prakashika’.
The Self-Respect Movement or the Dravidian Phase starts with the entry of Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker. Periyar rejected caste as the one and only criterion of personal worth. He championed new system of values in which all people could enjoy self-respect.
Formulation of the Dravidian ideology, as opposed to Aryan ideology, is the basis of self-respect movement. Highlighting the superiority of Tamil Dravidian culture over Sanskrit Aryan culture.
The nori-Brahmin movement of Karnataka enter the princely state of Mysore. Okkaligas, Lingayats, and Muslims of Mysore had realised their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins.
By 1917 the different groups formed an alliance called the ‘Praja Mitra Mandali’. In 1918, this Mandali pleaded Maharaj of Mysore for communal representation in legislature, reservation of posts in public services and educational institutions. Miller Committee was appointed by the Maharaj of Mysore to look into the demands of Mandali.
This committee recommended the acceptance of all the demands. Since then Backward classes have. availed benefits/ in the fields of education, employment and politics. The orientation of non-brahmin movement in Kerala differs from those in Maharastra, Madras, and Karnataka. It lacked the general anti-Brahmin ideology. Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana Yogam (SNDP).
It was meant to be a casteless organisation open to all people. It had two important programmes; Encouraging education by starting educational institutions; first important programme was to uplift the Ezhavas, a depressed caste group of Kerala, As an important part of the organizational activity, Narayana Guru started a number of schools and colleges throughout Kerala to spread education on a massive scale among the lower caste.
Sri Narayana Guru built a number of temples, simplified the rituals regarding worship, marriage, and funerals. With this he wanted to help the people of his community in secular and also spiritual matters. He led a quite significant social revolution and gave the watchwords “one caste, one religion, one god for all men”.
Explain the five causes of modernization.
Modernization in India is under going the following processes:
1. At the economic level, there is a persisting and growing tendency to adopt the rational, mechanized industrial economy in place of older communal familistic tool economy. This is even responsible for the breakdown of traditional systems like jajmani system.
2. At the political level, the change in the power structure is being introduced through the abolition of semi-feudal group-oriented power Structure of the past and by replacing it by a rational parliamentary democratic structure of power.
3. At the cultural level, the change in the realm of values is from sacred value system to secular value system.
4. At the social level, there is a decline in the traditional principle of ascribed status and role to achieve status and role.
Yogendra Singh in his work “Modernization of Indian Tradition” is of the opinion that a unique feature of modernization in India is that it is being carried forward through adaptive changes in the traditional structures rather than structural dissociation or breakdown.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25-30 sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)
Define national integration and explain challenges to national integration.
National integration refers to national unity and a sense of belonging to the nation. It is an essential aspect in the making of a nation. Promotion of national integration is regarded as a part and parcel of the policy of any country. Many scholars have defined national integration in different ways. Among these Benjamin’s definition on national integration is quoted here;
According to Benjamin “National integration refers to the assimilation of the entire people of a country to a common identity”.
In simple words, National Integration refers to the process wherein a feeling of togetherness, a sense of national unity and above all, a sense of national belongingness is developed among people. It is in this context, the concept of ‘national integration’ has assumed importance.
There are many challenges to national integration. They are as follows;
- Communal ism
- Extremism and Terrorism
Regionalism is expressed in the desire of people of one region to promote their own regional interest at the expense of the interests of other regions. It has often led to separatism and instigated separatist activities and violent movements.
It has also gained tremendous momentum during the recent years because it is exploited by the selfish politicians. Thus, regionalism has challenged the primacy of the nationalistic interests and undermines national unity. Regionalism assumed mainly four forms.
Communalism is the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of community and religion. Bipin Chandra holds that communalism is the product of a particular society, economy, and polity, which creates problems. Asghar Ali Engineer, Moin Shakir, and Abdul Ahmed try to explain communalism as an ideological tool for propagation of economic and political interests.
According to them, it is an instrument in the hands of the upper class to concentrate power by dividing people. The elites strive to maintain a status quo against transformation by dividing people on communal and religious lines.
Linguism implies one-sided love and admiration towards one’s language and a prejudice and hatred towards others’ languages. India is a land of many languages and it has been called as a ‘museum of languages’. Diversity of languages has also led to linguism. It has often been manifested into violent movements posing threat to national integration. Linguistic tensions are prevailing in the border areas which are bilingual.
4. Extremism and Terrorism:
Extremism and terrorism have emerged during the recent years as the most formidable challenges to national integration. Extremism refers to the readiness on the part of an individual or group to go to any extreme even to resort to undemocratic, violent and harmful means to fulfil one’s objectives.
In the past India has been facing the problems of terrorism since independence. India has faced this problem in Nagaland (1951), Mizoram (1966), Manipur (1976), Tripura (1980) and West Bengal in (1986). Terrorism in India is essentially the creation of politics. According to According to Prof. Rama Ahuja there are four types of terrorism India,
a. Khalistan oriented’ terrorism in Puriiab.
b. Militants terrorism in Kashmir.
c. Naxalite terrorism in west Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh Telangana, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, chattisghad out of 318 district 77 districts are highly Naxal poore districts causing lot of bloodshed in these areas.
d. ULFA terrorism in Assam. The Khalistan oriented Sikh terrorism was based on a dream of theocratic state, Kashmir militants are based on their separate identity. The Naxalite terrorism is based on class enmity. Terrorism in North-Eastern India is based on the identity crisis and the grievance situation.
In addition to these factors, corruption, poverty unemployment/youth unrest, widening gap between rich and poor, which are also the major challenges for national integration.
Explain the Backward Class Commission in Karnataka.
The backward Class movement in Karnataka is a desire of the underprivileged people to develop their own potentialities and contribute to the economic development of the nation. In every society, some groups of people are higher and some are lower due to the opportunities they have in general.
By such opportunities, well-off people equip themselves and pursue careers which give them prestige and profit. By contrast, the lower or other backward classes have no opportunities to equip themselves.
A new awareness arose among the non-Brahmins in the princely state of Mysore. Vokkaligas, Lingayats, and Muslims of Mysore had realized their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins. By 1917, these groups form an alliance called Prajamitra Mandali in 1918, this mandali pleaded Maharaja of Mysore for the representation in legislature, reservation in posts of public services and educational institutions.
In 1918, a committee of six non-official members presided over by Sir Leslie Miller. Miller committee recommended the acceptance, of all the demands. Sirtoe then Backward Classes in princely Mysore state have availed benefits in the field erf education, employment, and political arena.
A. Naganna Gowda Commission:
The Karnataka Government appointed a backward class commission in 1960 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Naganna Gowda.
It is the First Backward Class Commission off Karnataka, The commission has submitted its report on 1961, which recommends 15% for SCs, 3% for STs and 50% OBCs, providing total 68% of reservation, The government attempted to implement the report was stayed by the Supreme Court. However, in 1963 the government issued an order guaranteeing 15% of reservation to SCs, 3% STs and 30% to OBCs.
B. L. G Havanoor Commission:
In 1972 the government has appointed the second backward class commission headed by Sri L. G Havanoor. This commission in its report submitted in 1975 stated that though more than 75% of the people in the state belonged to backward classes and deserved reservation facilities.
There was no constitutional provision for giving it. Hence, it made provision for up to 50% reservation. Government made provision for 58% reservation. However, it was challenged in the Supreme Court and govt. gave a submission to court stating to initiate a new commission.
C. Venkataswamy Commission:
In 1983, the government has appointed the Venkataswamy Commission, which gave its report in 1986. The report created widespread dissatisfaction. The government decided not to implement the report but to establish a new commission to find an amicable settlement to this problem.
D. Chinnappa Reddy Commission:
The government instituted the Chinnappa Reddy commission in 1990, which has been comparatively more widely welcomed. The commission seems to have tried its best to uphold social justice. In Karnataka, the SCs and STs together enjoyed 18% while the OBCs, quota is 32%.
Based on the Mandal commission’s report, the supreme court of India gave directions to establish a permanent Backward Classes Commission in the centre as well as in states and union territories. Accordingly, a permanent backward classes commission was set up in Karnataka Sri K. Narayana Rai (1994-1997), Prof, Ravi Verma Kumar (1997-2000), Sri Muniraju (2001-2003), Sri Siddalingaih. (2003-2006), Dr. C. S. Dwarakanath (2007-2010) N. Shankarappa (2011-13) headed the Backward Classes Commission in Karnataka.
At present, H. Kantharaj is the chairman of Karnataka state Back word-class commission. The commission recommends for inclusion or exclusion of a caste in the backward class list. In Karnataka 101 and 51 Triber are enlisted as scheduled caster and scheduled tribes Respectively.
Explain the importance of village studies.
Importances of village studies are summarized in the following ways:
1. Field Work is an Antidote to Book View:
According to M.N. Srinivas, studies of Indian village communities would be of great significance for planners and administrators. Information provided by a Sociologist is based on his intensive fieldwork experience and account of book knowledge can ever be a substitute for this.
M.N.Srinivas undertakes a study on. Rarhpura village near Mysore, with a view, to highlight the agricultural practices of the. Indian peasant can only be understood in the context of his Technology, level of knowledge, legal and social institutions, religion and way of life. M.N. Srinivas recorded his experience in Rampura village in his work Remembered Village.
2. Calculated Opposition to Change:
Over the last hundred years or more, the peasant has been represented as extremely conservative, pigheaded, ignorant and superstitious. But the Sociological studies do not subscribe to this view. McKim Marriot’s study of Kishan Garhi village in Uttar Pradesh reveals that the peasants had accepted new crops, techniques of cultivation, etc., and had opposed only few changes.
Thus, the headman of Rampura village wanted bull-dozers and electricity, but not a school. Electricity and bull-dozer would get him name and fame, his authority over others becomes stronger, etc. But, a school would make labour scarcer, educated poor people may lose respect they have for the rich and so on.
There are key persons in each village thus, who exploit every change to their benefit. If he then opposes the tool or process, it is not because of stupidity but because of his intelligence. Only a field-study of the village community could shed light on aspects which otherwise go unnoticed.
3. Literary Bias:
Literature on caste states that caste is in mobile. This is not a fact, through Sanskritization, castes have tried to move up on the local hierarchy.
This is also true of the conditions of women. Condition of women prevalent among the upper castes were generalized to include all Hindus. But, the truth is that the women of lower castes are better placed in comparison to women of upper castes.
Observation of Hindu social life has been vitiated by book view and the upper-caste – view. Thus, the only solution for this literary bias lies in doing field research. Field-studies suggest something different, from what is found in religious texts.
It is clear that the book-view and upper-caste view may be biased and need not be a fact always. Only field research can help us to overcome literacy, bias and accept facts about village communities.
4. Recording for Later Evaluation:
Prof. Yogesh Atal states that “Roots of the present are always to be found in the past and an analysis of the present would guide the future. Hence, a comparison and evaluation of the impact of planned change at a later date necessarily demands that the present be recorded”.
5. Development of Analytical Categories:
The study pf Indian village community has helped in developing certain analytical categories. Field studies conducted in different parts of the country point to the existence of certain processes of change which have been labelled either locally or on an all India basis.
For instance, analytical models like Sariskritization and Westernisation (M.N. Srinivas), Kulinisation (N. Prasad), De-Sanskritization(Majumdar), Universalisation and Parochialisation (McKim Marriot), Great tradition and little tradition (Robert Redfield), etc., have helped in the analysis of transformation that the village communities are undergoing. A. R. Desai’s Rural Sociology in India is an important work in this regard.
6. Village Studies are Important for Social Reformation:
Prof. Ramakrishna Mukherjee’s analysis makes it clear that the village has become the centre of all discussions and, debates. Plan, Budget, Administrative strategy, etc.; all have become rural area oriented. Thus, planners, economists, administrators, sociologists, reformers, and others concentrate on village and are busy collecting data on them.
Under the impact of planned and non-directed changes, villages are undergoing transformation. Thus, there is a need for the study of village communities in India.
Explain the types of mass media.
Mass Media is divided into two major types which are;
1. Print Media:
Newspaper and Magazines
2. Electronic Media:
Radio, Television, Internet and Social Networking Sites.
The first modem mass media began with the development of the printing press. Although the history of print in certain societies dates back to many centuries, the first attempts at printing books using modern technologies began in Europe. This technique was first developed by Johann Gutenberg in 1440.
Initial attempts at printing were restricted to religious books. With the Industrial Revolution, the print industry also grew. It was only in the mid 19th century, with further development in technologies transportation and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience.
Paul Julius Reuter initiated a prototype news service in Paris in 1849, using carrier pigeons as well as the electric telegraph in his network. By 1923, the company he founded, Reuters, was transmitting news by Radio.
- Raja Rammohun Roy, his Sambad-Kaumudi in Bengali published in 1821, and Mirat-Ul- Akbar in Persian published in 1822, were the first publications in India with a distinct nationalist and democratic approach.
- Fardoonji Murzban was the pioneer of the Gujarati Press in Bombay. It was as early as 1822 that he started the Bombay Samachar as a daily.
- The Times of India was founded in Bombay in 1861.
- The Pioneer in Allahabad in 1865.
- The Madras Mail in 1868.
- The Statesman in Calcutta in 1875.
- The Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore in 1876.
- The Hindu in 1878
- The Indian Express
- The Hindustan Times
- Deccan Herald, etc.
1. Kannada Newspapers:
The era of Kannada newspapers in Karnataka t started in 1843 when Hermann Mogling, a missionary from Basel Mission published the first Kannada newspaper called Manglooru Samachara from Mangalore. Later it was renamed as Kannada Samachar. Afterward in different parts of the state few newspapers cum magazines Used to publish.
There are many Kannada language newspapers that have served the media industry significantly and also have earned significant recognition. Some of the leading Kannada language newpapers include; Prajavani, Kannada Prabha, Samyukta Karnataka, Vijaya Karnataka, Hosa Digantha, Sanjfevani, Udayavani, Andolana, ESange, etc.
The Kannada language newspapers are playing important role in disseminating valuable information about the latest happenings in and around the world.
2. Electronic Media:
a. Radio :
Radio broadcasting which commenced in India through amateur ‘HAM’ Broadcasting Clubs in Kolkata and Chennai in the 1920s, matured into a public broadcasting system in the 1940s during the World War II when it became a major instrument of propaganda for Allied forces in South-east Asia.
At the time of independence, there were only 6 radio stations located in the major cities catering primarily to an urban audience. since the media was seen as an active partner in the development of the newly free nation the AIR’s programmes consisted mainly of news, current affairs, and discussions on development.
After independence, the government gave priority to the expansion of the radio broadcasting infrastructure, especially in state capitals and in border areas. Over the years, AIR has developed a
formidable infrastructure for radio broadcasting in India. It operates a three-tiered-national, regional, and local – service to cater to India’s geographic, linguistic and cultural diversity. Nowadays radio broadcasts in 24 languages and 146 dialects.
The advent of privately owned FM radio stations in 2002 provided a boost to entertainment programmes over radio. In order to attract audiences these radio stations provide entertainment. They specialise in ‘particular kinds’ of popular music, to retain their audiences.
Most of the FM channels which are popular among its urbans and students often belong to media conglomerates. Like ‘Radio Mirchi ’ belongs to the Times of India group, Red FM is owned by Living Media and Radio City by the Star Network.
b. Television (TV) :
Television programming was introduced experimentally in India to promote rural development as early as 1959. “Krishi Darshan” was the first programme telecasted on Doordarshan. Later the Satel-lite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) broadcasted directly to community viewers in the rural areas of six states between August 1975 and July 1976.
These instructional broadcasts to 2,400 TV sets directly for 4 hours daily. Meanwhile, Television stations were set up under Doordarshan in 4 cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Srinagar, and Amritsar) by 1975.
The advent of colour broadcasting during the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi and the rapid expansion of the national network led to rapid commercialisation of Television broadcasting. During 1984-85 the number of television transmitters increased all over India covering a large proportion of the population.
Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks consisting of millions of private, public, academic, business networks, which are linked with the networking technology. In simple words Internet is a network of networks. The internet originated in a 1960s by the US Defence Department Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) to prevent a Soviet take over or destruction of American communication in case of nuclear war.
The outcome was a network cannot be controlled from, any centre, and is made up of thousands of autonomous computer networks that had innumerable ways to link up going around electronic barriers. The contemporary period is called as. Information Age, Communication Age and, Networking Age. The internet offers a wide variety of communication tools.
Billions of people use facilities like search engines, web pages, e-mails, e-books, e-journals, e-newspapers, internet banking, internet telephony, video conferencing, multi-media sharing, online newsrooms, gaming, shopping, blogging, and importantly, social networking.
d. Social Network Sites:
These are defined as online platforms that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities. Further, Social Networking Sites are a type of virtual community that has grown tremendously in popularity. The Social Networking Sites include; Facebook, Orkut, Google Plus, Myspace, Twitter, Friendster, Bharathstudent and etc.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (2 × 5= 10)
Write a note on Narasinganavar Patriarchal joint family.
The Narasinganavar family is a patriarchal Joint family of about 206 individuals who are residing together in the village of Lokur in the Dharwad district of Karnataka. All the individuals in the family share a common ancestry and this family is recognised as one of the largest undivided families in the world.
The family spans across five generations. Bhimanna Jinapa Narasinganavar is the patriarch of the family. For India’s largest joint family, balancing the family is a forbidding task. The Narsingnavar family finds that expenditure on its 206 members always seems to be more than its income.
Patriarch Narsingnavar (72), who has been handling money matters of this jumbo family for the past 30 years, says “We believe family finances Could be the biggest source of discontent. In their wisdom and sincerity, the elders gave me this job. Whatever I do well be in the interest of the family”.
Agriculture is the main occupation for this family. It owns 270 acres of Cultivable land, the annual, income js Rs 8 lakh to Rs.12 lakh depending on the monsoon and market. Its annual expenditure of around Rs 10 lakh is largely on farm labour and agriculture machinery.
While the family’s requirement of food grain vegetables and milk are met by its own efforts it spends a substantial amount on provisions, clothes medicines, soap, and tea. If there’s a resource crunch, the earning members contribute to the common kitty and Bheemanna keeps a meticulous record of the transactions.
Weddings are performed every eight or ten years with several marriages being solemnised at the same time. The family’s only source of entertainment is TV.
Discuss briefly the role of Gram Panchayath ’ in development of villages.
Panchayat Raj is as a real democratic political apparatus, which would bring the masses into active political participation to establish a genuine political of rural India. Generally, it is also called as “Decentralization of Democracy”.
Since 1959 “Democratic Decentralization” has been gradually extended throughout India. After the implementation of the constitution 73rd amendment act 1992. Panchayat Raj has brought politics down to village level. Balawant Rai Mehta committee recommended three Tier Structure of the Panchayat Raj institution. Namely,
- Village Panchayat – at the village level.
- Panchayat Samithi – at Block level and
- Zilla Panchayat – at the District level
In brief, we can understand the general, functions of panchayat raj.
1. Functions of Village Panchayat: The functions of Village Panchayat are
- Provision of water supply
- Maintenance of minor irrigation
- School buildings,
- Family Planning
- Construction of wells and tanks
- Promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries, promotion of village and cottage industries providing electric facility.
Construction and maintenance of Roads and Bridges, creating awareness regarding primary and secondary education, maintenance of Public Health, general Sanitation and Welfare of weaker section, maintenance of public properties and regulation and fairs arid festivals and promotion of social and cultural activities.
Write a note on Pushkar annual fair.
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of r Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock, it has become an important tourist attraction.
Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place. Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep, and goats. The Women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles, and fabrics.
A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs, and exhibitions to follow. It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik Ekadashi to Kartik Poornima, the full moon day of Kartik in the Hindu calendar.
The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu god Brahma sprung up the Pushkar Lake, thus numerous people swim in its sacred waters.
There are many such fairs having socio, economic and Religions importance taken place in Karnataka also. For example fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere (dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthpdbhava at, Bhagamandala, Antaragange fair in Kolar, etc.
Consider Barbie doll as a global citizen Explain.
One Illustration of the global commodity chain can be found in the manufacture of the Barbie Doll. The most profitable Toy in history. Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel corporation and launched in March 1959. The doll sells at the rate of two per second, bringing the metal corporation based in Los Angeles, U.S.A., well over a billion dollars in annual revenues. American businesswoman Ruth Handler.
Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over fifty years, often involving parody of the doll and her lifestyle.
Although Barbie sells mainly in the United States, Europe, and Japan, Barbie can also be found in 140 countries around the world. She is a truly global citizen.
Barbie was never made in the United States. The first doll was made in Japan in 1959 when that country was still recovering from the Second World War and wages were low. As wages rose in Japan, Barbie moved to other low-wage countries in Asia.
Barbie’s multiple origins today tell us a great deal about the operation of global commodity chains. Barbie is designed in the United States, where her marketing and advertising strategies are devised and where most of the profits are made.
But the only physical aspect of Barbie that is made in the USA is her cardboard packaging, along with some of the paints and oils that are used to decorate the doll. Barbie’s body and wardrobe span the globe in their origins, Barbie begins her life in Saudi Arabia, where oil is extracted and then refined into the ethylene that is used to create her plastic body.
Taiwan’s state-owned oil importer, the Chinese Petroleum Corporation buys the Ethylene and’ sells it to Taiwan’s Formosa Plastic Corporation, the world’s largest producer of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). The pellets are then shipped to southern, China, Indonesia and Malaysia.
The plastic moulded body of Barbie are made in the U.S.A. Once Barbie’s body is moused she gets her Nylon hair from Japan, her Cotton dresses are made in China and shipped into Hong Kong.
According to Anthony Giddens “What Barbie production and consumption shows is the effectiveness of globalization processes in connecting together the world’s economics; However it also demonstrates the unevenness of globalization’s impact, which enables some countries to benefit at the expense of others.
This means that we cannot assume that global commodity chains will inevitably promote development right across the chains of societies involved”.