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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper June 2019
Time: 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Mention sex ratio of India according to 2011 census.
Name one basis of diversity in India.
Name any one Backward Classes Commission appointed by the Government of Karnataka.
Which Article of the Indian Constitution abolishes untouchability?
Who is the author of the book ‘Marriage and Family in India?
Who is father of green revolution in India?
Dr. M.S. Swaminathan.
State one characteristics of slums.
Dilapidated and Poor Houses.
Who created World Wide Web?
Tim Berners – Lee in 1990.
What was the slogan of Kagodu Sathyagraha?
Land to the Tiller or Land to the landless.
Who introduced the term Globalization?
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
What is Linguism?
Linguism implies love and admiration towards one’s language and a prejudice and hatred towards other’s languages.
Mention any two factors responsible for decline of child sex ratio.
- Forcible abortion of female foetus.
- Lack of interest in nurturing female child.
Name two dominant castes of Karnataka.
Lingayaths and Vokkaligas.
Expand – NABARD.
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development.
Mention any two social legislations Which affected the joint family.
Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 Domestic Violence Act of2005.
Which stressors are responsible for farmers suicide.
Alcohol, gambling, spend thriftness, Failure of crops, Chromic illness, Debt burden, loss in non-agricultural activities.
Write any two major problems of Indian cities.
Urban Poverty and Slums.
What is McDonaldization?
McDonaldization is a process by which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more on the society.
Mention any two online shopping sites.
Give any one definitions “Social Movement”.
Social movement is an organised attempt on the part of a section of people to bring about either partial or total changes in society through collective mobilization and an ideology.
Mention any two factors responsible for farmers movements.
- Kagodu Sathyagraha and
- Malaprabha farmers’ agitation.
M. N. Srinivas, in his book ‘Social Change in Modern Indian, explains Westernization in these words. The changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term includes changes occurring at different levels like technology, institutions, ideology, values, etc.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Discribe the racial groups classified by Dr. B.S. Guha.
B.S.Guha has identified six major racial elements in the population of India:
- Western Brachycephals and
In the south, the Kadars, the Irulas, and the Paniyans, and in the Andaman Islands the Onges, Jar was and the great Andamanese have definite Negrito characteristics. Some traits of this group are found among the Angami Nagas and the Bagadis of the Rajmahal hills. On the western coast, there are some groups with pronounced Negrito traits, but they perhaps represent later arrivals, who came to India with the Arab traders.
The Proto-Australoid group is numerically more significant; most of the tribes of middle India belong to it. These were the people described by the Indo-Aryans as Anas, Dasa, Dasyu, and Nishad all derogatory terms. The Mongoloid group is sub-divided into two branches – Paleo-Mongoloid and Tibeto-Mongoloid.
Tribal groups in the Himalayan region and those in the north-east are of Mongoloid stock. Some Mongoloid features are seen in the non-tribal population of the eastern States – Assam, West Bengal, Manipur, and Tripura.
The Western Brachycephals (sub-divided into the Alpinoid, Dinaric, and Armenoid groups), Alpinoid and Dinaric characteristics are seen in some groups of northern and western India; the Parsis belong to the Armenoid section. The Mediterraneans are associated with the Dtavidian languages and cultures.
The Nordics were the last major ethnic element to arrive in India and make a profound impact on its culture and society. But before they came a unique civilization had slowly developed in India. It is known as the Indus Valley Civilization.
Describe three views on tribal welfare.
The Tribal problems have been approached from three points. They are as follows:
- The Policy of Isolation,
- The Policy of Assimilation,
- The Policy of Integration.
1. The Policy of Isolation:
This policy favoured Isolation of Tribals from the mainstream society. J.H. Hutton, who was a commissioner for census of 1931, gave a solution to the tribal problems of uncontrolled acculturation. He suggested the creation of self-governing tribal areas with free power of self-determination.
Verrier Elwin suggested the creation of “National Parks” where the tribal people could safely live without being victims of Over-Hasty and Unregulated Process of Belief, and Civilization. Both Hutton and Elwin were severely criticized for recommending this policy of Isolation, which was looked upon as a proposal to create a museum or a zoo, instead of helping the tribal people to utilize the resources of knowledge and improve the conditions of their life.
2. The Policy of Assimilation:
The social reformers like Takkar Bapa, G.S. Ghurye some voluntary organizations and Christian missionaries advocated this policy. They have recommended for the assimilation of these tribal groups either into Christianity or into Hinduism. According to Takkar Bapa tribal problem could be solved only through contact with more advanced people. Separatism and Isolation seem to be dangerous theories and they strike at the root of National Solidarity.
3. The Policy of Integration:
The only approach that would make available to the Tribes the benefit of modern advanced society and yet retain their separate identity is Integration. This policy aims at developing a creative adjustment between Tribes and non-Tribes of India leading to responsible partnership. Pandit Nehru, M.N. Srinivas, D.N. Mujumdhar and others here had supported this view.
Explain the main features of microfinance.
Micro Finance is defined as, financial services such as Savings Accounts, Insurance Fund & credit provided to poor & low-income clients so as to help them to rise their income & thereby improve their standard of living. Microfinance is a source of financial services for entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services.
Major Features of Microfinance
- Loan without security
- Loans to people who live BPL (Below Poverty Line)
- Even members of SHG may get benefit from Micro Finance
- Maximum limit of loan under microfinance is relatively small amount.
- The terms and conditions given to poor people are decided by SHG.
For some, microfinance is a movement whose object is a world in which as many poor to have permanent access to an appropriate range of high-quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers.
Many of those who promote microfinance generally believe that such access will help poor people out of poverty. For others, microfinance is a way to promote economic development, employment and growth through the support of micro-entrepreneurs and small businesses.
Explain the factors responsible for the changes in joint family.
Functional changes in the Joint Idiimy are the following:
1. Changes in the provision of common residence:
Earlier, joint family was providing common residence and basic requirements to its members. Nowadays, the location of their jobs are forcing the family members to find their residences elsewhere.
2. Changes in religious functions:
Even though some of the family members are forced to live separately, they celebrate festivals, feasting, marriages, rituals, ancestral worship together at one place.
3. Changes in the role of protection and socialization of children:
In joint families unders and other relatives used to take care of children and their needs. Today, various agencies are providing protection through day-care centres, insurance companies, schools, and play homes, maternity homes and orphanages. The roles of the elder members and their importance in the process of socialization has significantly reduced.
4. Changes in economic functions :
Earlier, the financial needs of all the members were taken care of by the common fund and emergencies were addressed suitably. As the younger generation move away from the joint family fold, seeking better prospects and employment at far off places, they have to fend for themselves. The earlier economic functions of joint family have changed drastically.
5. Changes in recreational functions:
Joint family has almost transformed its recreational activities to the external. Commercial agencies, newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, cinema, videogames and sports have taken over the recreational functions of joint family.
Write about social problems of Indian villages.
Illiteracy is a major social problem in Indian villages. Lack of educational institutions and poor quality education coupled with high rate of dropout rate has aggravated the situation. Majority of the educational institutions are suffering from educational infrastructures like adequate buildings, libraries, and reading rooms, sports grounds, etc.
There is a great disparity among rural and urban regions of Indian society regarding educational opportunities. Further, basic facilities like drinking water, sanitation facilities, transport and communication facilities are not up to the mark.
2. Rural Poverty:
On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank it has identified the following causes of poverty in rural areas:
- Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
- Low percentage of population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
- Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall.
- Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate exposure to modern skills.
- Non-availability of electricity for agriculture.
- Poor quality of livestock.
- Imperfect and exploited credit market, communication facilities and markets.
- Low level of education.
- Absence of dynamic community leadership.
- Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes.
- Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries.
- Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., and people unwilling to discard expensive customs.
3. Health Problems:
About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas while 70% of the country’s population live in villages. This shows the extent to which skilled medical care is lacking in the rural areas. Fertility and Birth rate as well as death rates are very high in the villages. Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also high. The problems of Malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria, Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common.
The housings are very much unsanitary while the addiction to alcohol & nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse. Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazards in rural areas. There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone.
At the same time soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and fertilisers. It affects not only the yield but also health of the agriculturists.
What is Market? Explain the characteristics of market.
A market is one of the social institutions, whereby parties engage in exchange of goods and services. Markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established.
In the field of Sociology, the concept of a market is a structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services, and information. The exchange of goods or services for money is a Transaction.
The features of Market are as follow;
1. Market is a place where things are bought and sold:
In common usage, the word ‘market’ may refer to particular markets that we may know of, such as the market next to the railway station, the fruit market, or the wholesale market.
2. Market is not just a physical place, but the gathering of people-buyers and sellers:
Thus, for example, a weekly market may be found in different places on different days of the week in neighbouring villages or ur6an neighbourhoods.
3. Market is a type of trade or business:
Market refers to an area or category of trade or business, such as the market for cars or the market for readymade clothes.
4. Market includes the entire spectrum of economic activities and institutions:
In this very broad sense, then, ‘the market’ is almost equivalent to ‘the economy’. We are used to thinking of the market as an economic institution, but this chapter will show you that the market is also a social institution. In its own way, the market is comparable to more obviously social institutions like caste, religion or family.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the nature of unity in India.
Unity implies one-ness or a sense of we-ness. Meaning of integration wherein hitherto divisive people and culture are synthesized into a united whole, along with higher levels of cooperation, mutual understanding, shared values, common identity, and national consciousness.
It lightly holds together the various relationships of ethnic groups or institutions in a neatly combined through the bonds of planned structure, norms, and values. In India aspects of Diversity and Unity co-exist as follows:
1. Regional Unity:
The Natural boundaries provide India a geographical unity. In ancient times India was known as Bharatavarsha, Bharathakanda, Jambudweepa. This symbolizes the significance of historical unity. The very name “Bharatavarsha” has occupied an important place in the minds of poets, political philosophers, and religious thinkers.
Each of them has conceived the country as a single expanse from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari, a country ruled by one king Bharatha. The concept of Mother India also indicates the realization of geographical unity.
2. Linguistic Unity:
Despite the presence of a number of languages, India also possesses lingual unity. Sanskrit as a common base of Indian languages provides the basis of unity as a result of which the linguistic multiplicity has been solved. Simultaneously, Sanskrit became the language of Hindu culture and all classics were composed in this language, which demanded reverence and respect.
People may speak different languages in different regions but they have common language of English and Hindi to communicate with each other. The formation of linguistic states and using regional languages as medium of teaching at schools, colleges and universities are the products of Independence.
In 2004, the government Of Sbdiffjbeclared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a classical language in India. Tamil (2004), Sanskrit (2005)7 Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013) and Oriya (2014) were declared as classical languages of India. Thus it is an effort to restore 1 linguistic heritage of India.
3. Religious Unity:
In spite of the religious diversities, it possesses religious unity. The feelings of each religious groups are the same, each accepts the truth of immortality of soul, temporary nature of world, belief in rebirth, the doctrine of karma, salvation, contemplation, etc., There may be differences in the way these elements are treated but each religion preaches a fundamentally single religious faith and shares a belief in purity and values of life in respect of belief in unseen power, benevolence, piety, honesty and liberality, with every religious faith.
The worshippers may visit different centres of pilgrimage, but all have a common goal of ‘Earning religious merit by visiting a sacred place’. India is the sacred land not only for the Hindus but also for Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists. Muslims and Christians too have several sacred centres of pilgrimage in India.
4. Cultural Unity:
In art and architecture, dress and food, literature, music and dance, sports and cinema, medicine and technology there is a fusion of style and the emergence of new forms which are the result of their combined efforts. Thus it becomes apparently clear from the above account, that running through various diversities. India has been helped both by nature and nurture, by her geographical condition and historical experiences, by her religious ethics, and political ideas.
To realize a unity to perceive, preserve and strengthen the thread of basic unity which makes India a fine example of unity in diversity, transcending birth, caste, language, ethnicity, and religious groupings to establish a big society and a big nation. Modern education, the development of a network of transport and communications, industrialization and urbanization have provided new bases for unity.
Describe the advantages of joint family.
1. Economic Advantage:
Joint family prevents property being divided, subdivision and fragmentation. Cooperation of all the members supports the economic activities. It is the best pattern of living that is most conducive to the growth.
2. Protection of Members:
Joint family protects their members during childhood, adult and old age. It is capable of providing assistance at the time of pregnancy, sickness, death and other situations.
3. Provides Recreation:
Joint family provides recreation to its members. Similarly in a joint family the children play together. As a result there grows the feeling of oneness.
4. Development of Personality:
Joint family helps a person to build his/her own personality. They learn the lessons of generosity, patience, service, cooperation, and obedience. Here a sense of sacrifice replaces selfishness. As such the disciplines in a joint family are self- imposed on its members.
5. Socialism in Nature:
Joint family is like a Cooperative Trust and in joint family each member works according to his capability and gets according to his need. In this sense to a larger extent achieves the socialistic order. The joint kitchen, naturally, runs on an understanding of mutual adjustment. Naturally, those who are benefitted by the generosity of others remain obliged and grateful.
Define panchayat Raj. Explain the functions of village panchayat.
Panchayat Raj is a real democratic political apparatus, which would bring the masses into active political participation to establish a genuine political reign of rural India. Generally, it is also called as ‘Decentralization of Democracy’. Since 1959 Democratic Decentralization has been gradually extended throughout India.
After the implementation of the 73rd Amendment Act of the Constitution 1992, Panchayat Raj has brought politics down to village level. Balawant Rai Mehta Committee recommended a three Tier Structure of the Panchayat Raj institution. Namely,
- Village Panchayat – at the village level.
- Panchayat Samithi – at the Block level and
- Zilla Panchayat – at the District level
Functions of Village Panchayat: The functions of the Village Panchayat are
- Provision of water supply
- Maintenance of minor irrigation
- School buildings,
- Family Planning
- Construction of wells and tanks
- Promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries.
Apart from the above, they also manage promotion of village and cottage industries, providing electric power, construction and maintenance of Roads and Bridges, creating awareness regarding primary and secondary education, maintenance of Public Health, general Sanitation, Welfare of the weaker section, maintenance of public properties and regulation and fairs and festivals and promotion of social and cultural activities.
Explain any five functions of Mass-Media.
The media like T.V., newspapers, and radio provide a continuous flow of information about the world and reports about the political, sports, entertainment activities and weather reports, the stock market and news stories and issues that affect us personally.
The media explains and helps us to understand the meaning of the information. It provides support for established social norms and has an important role in the socialization of children.
The media has a function in expressing the culture, recognizing new social developments and forging common values.
The media provides amusement, diversion and reduces social tension.
To encourage economic development, work, religion or support in times of war, the media can campaign to mobilize society to meet these objectives.
6. Social Reformation:
The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted. After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation-building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.
The gravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in 1975 and censorship of the media. Fortunately, the period ended and democracy was restored in 1977. India with its many problems can be justifiably proud of a free media.
7. National Consciousness:
It was only in the mid 19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation, and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience. People living in different corners of the country found themselves reading or hearing the same news. It has been suggested that this was in many ways responsible for people across a country to feel connected and develop a sense of belonging or ‘we feeling’.
Explain the types of peasant movements of Kathaleen Gough.
Kathleen Gough presented a five-fold typology of peasant movements in India. They are:
- Restorative rebellions
- Religious movements
- Social banditiy
- Terrorist vengeance and
- Mass insurrections
1. Restorative Rebellions:
This type of movement is aimed at the restoration of old systems in place of the current systems. The Santal tribal agitation against the British is one example of this type of movement.
2. Religious Movements: This type of movement is based on the belief that their consolidated efforts would bring about a golden period and a charismatic leader will free them of their misery. Such movements are therefore called as ‘Millennium movements’ or ‘Messianic movements’. Stephen Fuchs, however, states that more than 50% of the peasant movements in India are religious movements. An example is the Kerala’s Mapillai agitations from 1836 to 1921.
3. Social Banditry:
Looting the rich landlords of villages and distributing the loot among the poor is termed as Social banditry. This arises as an expression of anger against feudal landlords, and the bandits become heroes in the eyes of the villagers. Dacoity by thugs between the 17th and 18th century in the Central India, and dacoity by Narasimha Reddy and his team in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, during 1946-47 are some examples for this type of movement.
4. Terrorist Vengeance:
Revenge is the sole motive of such movements. Such movements involve elimination of individuals who are thought to be enemies. Feudal lords, corrupt government officials are often victims of such homicidal acts.
5. Mass Insurrections:
This type of movement is spontaneous in nature. They are often triggered by dissatisfaction over long pending issues. Initially, dissent is expressed through strikes, non-cooperation, shouting slogans, boycott, etc.
They turn violent when the authority attempts to control them by the use of force. Such movements are often not backed by ideologies or charismatic leaders. For example, in recent years in Delhi, a movement against corruption and violence against women.
What is sanskritization? Discuss its factors.
M. N. Srinivas initially defines it as the tendency among the low castes to move higher in the caste hierarchy within a generation or two by adoping vegetarianism and toetotalism and by sanskritizing its rituals. M. N. Srinivas redefines sanskritization as a process by which a low caste Hindu or a tribal changes his customs, rituals, ideology and way of life in the direction of the upper, frequently twice-born caste.
Major factors of Sanskritization:-
Inspite of the Theoretical existence of certain restrictions, the low castes or other groups did manage to imitate the customs and rites of “Twice-born” (DWIJAS) castes. This is the best way of claiming higher position in the caste hierarchy.
According to a strict rule of Brahminism, a Brahmin should give away his daughter in marriage before she attains puberty, failing which he would be committing a great sin. Marriages among the brahmins were indissoluble. Pre-puberty marriages were commonly practiced.
On the other hand, among the low Hindu castes, post-puberty marriages were very common and the dissolution of a marriage was possible. Now in order to rise up in the caste hierarchy, the low Hindu castes started practicing pre-puberty marriages and marriages also became indissoluble.
3. Treatment of Widows:
A Brahmin widow for instance, was not allowed to re-many, and received miserable treatment. She was required to shave her head and not allowed wearing any ornaments. She was regarded inauspicious, and not allowed to attend any important functions.
On the other hand, among the low castes marriage was dissoluble and widow re-marriages were practiced. Widows were not required to shave their heads. In the imitation process, these groups, also banned widow-remarriages and started treating a widow in the same way as that of the ‘High’ Hindu castes.
4. Treatment of Women:
Comparatively, women among the high Hindu castes receive bad treatment and hold only a secondary position. Virginity in brides and chastity in wives was preferred. A brahmin wife was expected to treat her husband as god. Women would perform a number of ‘vratas’ or religious vows for the long life of their husbands. At certain times, such as menstruation, child birth, then were treated as untouchables and their presence was considered as inauspicious.
Hence they were not allowed to attend important functions. Women among the lower castes generally received good treatment and occupied a good position. In order to imitate the higher castes, they started treating women in a bad manner and gave them a secondary position.
According to M.N. Srinivas, “In the sphere of kinship, sanskritization stresses the importance in the patrilineal lineage, sanskritization results in increasing the importance of sons. The members of high castes prefer sons to daughters, whereas among the lower castes both boys and girls are preferred.
For instance among Non-Brahmins though a son is preferred, a daughter is also demanded. Their treatment is also not that harsh but that is changing now towords preference for sons.
Sanskritization also resulted in the use of New Ideas and values, which have been frequently expressed in Sanskrit literature. The ideas and values such as Karma, Dharma, Papa, Punya, Maya, Samskara, Moksha, etc. The Twice-born castes used these ideas in their conversation. Through the process of Sanskritization, lower caste groups were exposed to these ideas and values which now frequent their conversations.
7. Food habits:
Brahmins in India are by and large strict vegetarians except Kashmiri, Saraswath and Bengali brahmins. The lower castes are non-vegetarian. Sanskritization resulted in the change of food habits in the direction of the, higher, frequently twice-born castes. Some of the lowers castes became strict vegetarians and practiced teetctalism also, in order to move up in the cast hierarchy.
8. Dress habits:
As Dwijas, Brahmins were entitled to wear the sacred thread ‘ Janivar ‘ after the Vedic rite of upanayana, while shudras were not entitled for that. Some of the lowers castes started wearing the sacred thread and also started imitating the P dress style of the brahmins such as wearing dhothi, shalya turban, Kachche panch, etc.
The traditional and typical names of the lower castes (in Karnataka) were Kariya, Kempa, Kempi, Kala, Mala Honni, Timmi, etc. They started giving their new born named common among the Brahmins such as Rama, Krishna Shankara, Madhava Gowri, Parvathi, Lakshmi, Shobha Radha, etc.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25-30 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Define National integration and explain challenges to national integration.
National integration refers to national unity and a sense of belonging to the nation. It is an essential aspect in the making of a nation. Promotion of national integration is regarded as a part and parcel of the policy of any country. According to Benjamin “National integration refers to the assimilation of the entire people of a country to a common identity”.
In simple words, National Integration refers to the process wherein a feeling of togetherness, a sense of national unity and above all, a sense of national belongingness is developed among people. It is in this context, the concept of ‘National integration’ has assumed importance.
There are many challenges to National integration.
They are as follows;
- Linguism and
- Extremism and Terrorism
Regionalism is expressed in the desire of people of one region to promote their own regional interest at the expense of the interests of other regions. It has often led to separatism and instigated separatist activities and violent movements. Selfish politicians exploit it. Thus, regionalism has challenged the primacy of the nationalistic interests and undermines national unity. Regionalism is mainly of four forms namely.
- Demand for separation from the Indian Union
- Demand for a separate statehood
- Demand for a full-fledged statehood
- Inter-states disputes-Border disputes.
Communalism is the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of other communities and religion. Communalism is the product of a particular society, economy, and polity, which creates problems.
Communalism is an ideological tool for propagation of economic and political interests. It is an instrument in the hands of the upper class to concentrate power by dividing people. The elites strive to maintain a status quo against transformation by dividing people on communal and religious lines.
Linguism implies one-sided love and admiration towards one’s language and a prejudice and hatred towards other languages. India is a land of many languages and it has been called as a ‘Museum of languages’. Diversity of languages has also led to linguism. It has often been manifested into violent movements posing threat to national integration. Linguistic tensions are prevailing in the border areas which are bilingual.
4. Extremism and Terrorism:
Extremism and terrorism have emerged during the recent years as the most formidable challenges to national integration. Extremism refers to the readiness on the part of an individual or group to go to any extreme even to resort to undemocratic, violent and harmful means to fulfil one’s objectives.
In the past India has been facing the problems of terrorism since independence. India has faced this problem in Nagaland (1951), Mizoram (1966), Manipur (1976), Tripura (1980) and West Bengal in (1986). Terrorism in India is essentially the creation of politics. According to According to Prof. Rama Ahuja there are four types of terrorism India,
- Khalistan oriented terrorism in Punjab.
- Militants terrorism in Kashmir.
- Naxalite terrorism in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh Telangana, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh.
- ULFA terrorism in Assam.
The Khalistan oriented Sikh terrorism was based on a dream of theocratic state, Kashmir militants are based on their separate identity. The Naxalite terrorism is based on class enmity. Terrorism in North-Eastern India is based on the identity crisis and the grievance situation. In addition to these factors, corruption, poverty, unemployment/youth unrest, widening gap between rich and poor, which are also the major challenges for national integration.
Explain changes in caste-system during post-independent India.
Changes in caste system in post-independent period can be discussed under two headings, viz., Functional Changes in Caste System and Changes in the Role of Caste System.
A. Functional Changes in the Caste System:
The caste system has neither disintegrated nor did it disappear in present India despite many modifications. During the last six decades caste structures has considerably changed. Though, these two important features of hereditary membership and hierarchy have not changed at all. But we do find some changes in the following:
- Occupational choice is relaxed
- Decline and Disappearance of the caste panchayaths
- Commensall restrictions are relaxed
- The religious basis of caste has ramped. Caste is no more believed to be divinely ordained.
- Caste is no longer restricts newly valued individual freedom and the occupational career of an individual, though his social status continue to be dependent on his caste membership.
B. The Changes in the Role of Caste System:
The major changes in the role of Caste system are the following:
1. Elections Based On Caste System:
Caste in modem India is very important, and every political party is aware of its vote-catching power though the political leaders condemn .caste verbally. But in practice caste consideration are potent.
2. Increase of Caste Consciousness and Organizations:
Caste consciousness and organization have increased in modern India. Caste-based Educational Institutions, Banks, Hostels, Cooperative Societies, Charities, Marriage halls and journals, which are the indicators of caste consciousness. The journals, published by the caste organization, are the units of the media of communicative integration.
The community aspect of caste has been made more comprehensive and permanent. According to G S. Ghurye “Thus a vicious circle has been created. The feeling of caste solidarity is now so strong that it is truly described as caste patriotism”.
3. Impact of Modern Means Of Transport and Communication:
According to M.N Srinivas “The building of Roads all over India, and the introduction of Railway, Postal service, cheap paper, and printing, especially in regional languages, enabled castes to organize as they had never done before. A post card carried news of a caste meeting and the railways enabled members sheltered in far-flung villages to come together when necessary, with the availability of cheap news print facilitated, the founding of caste journals, whose aim was to promote the interests of their respective castes.
4. Impact of Modern Education:
Education has been liberalized in post-independence era. No doubt, modem educated youths being inspired by the ideals of equality, liberty, fraternity, scientific outlook, secularism, etc. have changed their attitudes towards caste system. It did not necessarily mean that caste has disappeared. The educated leaders started caste journals and held conferences.
Funds were collected to organize the caste meetings and to help the poorer members. In general, it may be said that the last hundred years have seen a great increase in caste solidarity and the concomitant decrease of a sense of interdependence between different castes.
Explain the role of Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in eradicating untouchability.
Freedom struggle and eradication of untouchability were both very important for Gandhiji. He preached against untouchability and has set a model by his deeds and words. He himself lived with the Harijans and shared their sorrows and sufferings. He made them participate in worships, prayers, keerthanas.
He wrote extensively in ‘Harijan’ and ‘Young India’ about the condition of Harijans and propagated in favour of various legal provisions against several kinds of injustice meted out to the untouchables. He cleaned the streets and toilets of Scheduled Castes. By his selfless, sincere self effort he created awareness among the Harijans regarding cleanliness, sanitation and health. After 1931, Indian National Congress set up a council to consider the problem of untouchability.
It was due to ceaseless effort of this council that ‘Harijan Sevak Sangh’ came into existence. The sangh also provides the Harijan students with financial assistance and scholarships. Kasturaba Balika Ashram in Delhi, Harijan Balika Vidyalaya at Sabarmati are just two examples of schools started by the Sangh for the cause of female education.
The Sangh has branches all over the country and it is maintaining 120 boarding houses. Gandhiji called untouchables as Harijana and popularised the word Harijana. The word Harijana was first coined by Gujarathi saint Narasimha Mehata. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, popularly known as Baba Saheb stood for the emancipation of untouchables. Being the chief architect of the constitution, he has legalised the upliftment of the untouchables through the inclusion of many articles.
The constitution of India guarantees, protects, and safeguards the rights and interests of all in general and of untouchables in particular. Ambedkar wanted to instil in the hearts of untouchables, the ideas of self-dignity, self-confidence and self-respect. For the very same purpose, he had started the ‘Bahishikrita Hitakarini Sabha’.
The movement he had started was known as ‘self-respect movement’. In order to attain a respectable position in society, he asked untouchables to follow five principles, i.e., Pancha Sutras’. They are; Self Improvement, Self-Dependence Self¬Respect Self-Confidence Self Progress.
In order to create awareness among the untouchables Ambedkar started a paper called Mooka Nayaka. He brought them under one banner; organized ‘All-India Depressed Classed Conference’ in 1942 at Nagpur. In his dal it movement, Ambedkar suggested three principles: Education, Agitation and Organization.
Explain the importance of village studies.
Importances of village studies are summarized below.
1. Field Work is an Antidote to Book View:
According to M.N. Srinivas, studies of Indian village communities would be of great significance for planners and administrators. Information provided by a Sociologist is based on his intensive fieldwork experience and no account of book knowledge can ever be a substitute for this.
M.N.Srinivas undertook a study on Rampura village near Mysore, with a view to highlight that the agricultural practices of the Indian peasant can only be understood in the context of his Technology, level of knowledge, legal and social institutions, religion and way of life. He has recorded his experience in Rampura village in his work ‘Remembered Village’.
2. Calculated opposition to change:
Over the last hundred years or more, the peasant has been represented as extremely conservative, pigheaded, ignorant and superstitious. But the Sociological studies do not subscribe to this view. McKim Marriot’s study of Kishan Garhi village in Uttar Pradesh reveals that the peasants had accepted new crops, techniques of cultivation, etc., and had opposed only a few changes.
Thus, the headman of Rampura village wanted bull-dozers and electricity, but not a school. Electricity and bull-dozer would get him name and fame, his authority over others becomes stronger, etc. But, a school would make labour scarcer, educated poor people may lose respect they have for the rich and soon.
There are key persons in each village thus, who exploit every change to their benefit. If he then opposes the tool or process, it is not because of stupidity but because of his intelligence. Only a field-study of the village community could shed light on aspects which otherwise go unnoticed.
3. Literary Bias:
Literature on caste states that caste is immobile. This is not a fact as through Sanskritization, castes have tried to move up on the local hierarchy. This is also true of the conditions of women. Condition of women prevalent among the upper castes were generalized to include all Hindus.
But, the truth is that the women of lower castes are better placed in comparison to women of upper castes. Observation of Hindu social life has been vitiated by book view and the upper-caste view. Thus, the only solution for this literary bias lies in doing field research.
Field-studies suggest something different, from what is found in religious texts. It is clear that the book-view and upper-caste view’ may be biased and need not be a fact always. Only field research can help us to overcome literary bias and accept facts about village communities.
4. Recording for later evaluation:
Prof. Yogesh Atal states that “Roots of the present are always to be found in the past and an analysis of the present would guide the future. Hence, a comparison and evaluation of the impact of planned change at a later date necessarily demands that the present be recorded”.
5. Development of Analytical Categories:
The study of Indian village community has helped in developing certain analytical categories. Field studies conducted in different parts of the country point to the existence of certain processes of change which have been labelled either locally or on an all India basis.
For instance, analytical models like Sanskritization and Westernisation (M.N. Srinivas), Kulinisation (N. Prasad), De-Sanskritization (Majumdar), Universalisation and Parochialisation (McKim Marriot), Great tradition and little tradition (Robert Redfield), etc., have helped in the analysis of transformation that the village communities are undergoing. A. R. Desai’s Rural Sociology in India is an important work in this regard.
6. Village Studies are important for Social Reformation:
Prof. Ramakrishna Mukher- jee’s analysis makes it clear that the village has become the centre of all discussions and debates. Plan, Budget, Administrative strategy, etc., all have become rural area oriented.
Thus, planners, economists, administrators, sociologists, reformers, and others concentrate on village and are busy collecting data on them. Under the impact of planned and non-directed changes, villages are undergoing transformation. Thus, there is the need for the study of village communities in India.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on Pushkar Annual Fair.
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock it has become ah important tourist attraction. Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place. Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep, and goats.
The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles, and fabrics. A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs, and exhibitions to follow. It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik Ekadashi to Kartik Poornima, the full moon day of Kartik in the Hindu calendar. The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu god Brahma sprung up the Pushkar Lake, thus numerous people swim in its sacred waters.
There are many such fairs having socio, economic and Religions importance has taken place in Karnataka also. For example fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere (dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala, Antarajgange fair in Kolar, etc.
Explain the factors facilitating Malaprabha Agitation.
A dam was to construct over Malaprabha in 1960 at an estimated cost of Rs. 30 crores. But, it had consumed 162 crores up to 1980 and yet was incomplete. The project which was considered to be a boon for the three districts of Belgavi, Vijayapurand Dharwad. The catchment area under Malaprabha project had been a part of the chronically draught-prone region.
Into this traditional agriculture’, irrigation was introduced in 1973-74 under Malaprabha project lead to salinity and water-logging. Factors Facilitating Malaprabha Agitation. We may analyse the factors responsible for Malaprabha agitation as follows:
1. The Issue of Price Stability:
Farmers were encouraged to grow Varalaxmi cotton and hybrid varieties of war. The market price of these crops was appealing and hence farmers did not mind purchasing costly seeds, manure, pesticides etc. Despite the poor quality of seeds, new techniques of cultivation which they were unaware of, etc., their hopes soared high.
In 1978-79 the price of Varalaxmi cotton came down form Rs. 1000 to Rs. 350 per quintal. As if fuelling to this situation there was a steep hike in the prices of fertilizers.
2. The Levy Issue:
Other causes of Malaprabha agitation is imposition of betterment levy with retrospective effect on the basis of increase in land value following irrigation. It varies from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,500 per acre, to be paid in 20 years. What caused resentment was the peasants were asked to pay levy on all their land in the catchment area without considering whether or not the whole area was under cultivated or irrigated, etc. Apart from this inadequate channel management created the problems of water-logging and salinity.
3. The Role of Local Bureaucracy:
The most important factors to be noticed are – corruption, apathy of the Bureaucrats, Redtapism, forced recoveries and failure of political leadership.
Discuss the process of Modernization in India.
Modernization in India is undergoing the following processes:
1. At the economic level, there is a persistent and growing tendency to adopt the rational, mechanized industrial economy in place of older communal familistic tool economy. This is even responsible for the breakdown of traditional systems like jajmani system.
2. At the political level, the change in the power structure is being introduced through the abolition of semi-feudal group-oriented power
structure of the past and by replacing it by a rational parliamentary democratic structure of power.
3. At the cultural level, the change in the realm of values is from sacred value system to secular value system.
4. At the social level, there is a decline in the traditional principle of ascribed status and role to achieve status and role.
Yogendra Singh in his work “Modernization of Indian Tradition” is of the opinion that a unique feature of modernization in India is that it is being carried forward through adaptive changes in the traditional structures rather than structural dissociation or breakdown.
Write a note on Dalit Movement
The Dalit movement mobilises Dalits to fight against social, economic, religious and political inequalities. Dalits or the oppressed classes are seeking solutions for their problems like oppression and exploitation through organised efforts. Achieving self-respect and self-reliance are the main objectives of the dalit movement.
In Karnataka, Dalit movement may be studied under two phases; the pre-independent and the post-independent. Further, the pre-independent movement is subdivided into three phases. They are,
- Basaveshvara and the Dalit movement
- Dalit movement in the old Mysore region
- Dalit movement in the Mumbai – Karnataka region
1. Basaveshvara and the Dalit Movement:
Basaveshvara’s religious reform movement in the 12th century may be seen as an inspiration to the dalits and the oppressed classes. Basaveshvara was against dogmatic religious practices and caste hierarchy; and involved people belonging to the lower classes in his reformist movement. Such involvement was a morale booster to the oppressed classes.
Madivala Machayya, Ambigara Chowdayya, Medar Kakayya, Madara Channayya, Samagara Haralayya – all from the lower classes, were actively involved in the reformist movement and this may be seen as the beginning of new era in the lives of the dalits. Likewise, this movement saw the active participation of women from the lower castes. Kottanada Somavva, amuge Rayamma, Aaydakki Lakkamma are some of them.
2. Dalit Movement in the Old Mysore Region:
In the old Mysore region, the dalit movement did not happen as an independent movement, but, it had the inspiration of the Mysore Maharaja and Praja Mithra mandati and miller committee.
3. Dalit Movement in the Mumbai Karnataka:
The social, economic, educational and political conditions of Dalits of the Mumbai Karnataka region were no different from those of other parts of India. Majority of them were very poor and were unable to educate their children. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, spent a considerable time in organising and reforming dalits in order to improve their social, economic and educational conditions.
Two major dalit movements emerged in Karnataka in the post-independent period. They are;
- Dalit Sangharsha Samiti (DSS)
In the year 1970, B. Shamsundar started an organization called Bhimsena in the Hyderabad Karnataka region. Bhimsena had an Ideology to fight against untouchability and oppression in a radical way. Dalits were trained to defend themselves against oppression. The then government banned activities of Bhimsena in order to avoid caste conflicts.
After the demise of Shamsundar in the year 1975, due to the lack of leadership, activities of the Bhimsena movement came to a standstill. B. Basavalingappa was one of the prominent Dalit politician. In a programme, he stated that Kannada literature is like fodder (boosa) because; Kannada writers are not sympathetic to the woes of dal its and thus are dishonest in their writings. This statement sparked controversy and led to violent protests throughout the state.
In the year 1975, a state-wide meeting of the members of various Dalit organizations was called and a committee was formed to frame manifesto for the organization. In the year 1977, a state-level meeting of all Dalit organizations was held and a unified ‘Karnataka Dalita Sangharsha Samiti was born’. The first convention of the DSS was held in Bhadravati and Prof. B Krishnappa was chosen as the State convenor of DSS.
2. Karnataka Dalit Sangharsha Samiti:
Since it’s inception, it was not interested in affiliation to any political party and maintained distance from politicians. The organization grew strong, some of the leaders began to establish relationships with politicians.
But, Devanoor Mahadeva, a prominent leader of DSS expressed support to Janata Party when he was the State convenor of DSS, meanwhile Prof. Siddalingaiah, a think tank of DSS was nominated to Karnataka legislative council. Interestingly, at a later stage, Prof. Krishnappa himself contested Kolar Loksabha election through DSS and lost in 1991.