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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2018
Time: 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
How is the term Demography derived?
The term ‘Demography’ is derived from two Greek words, i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people.
Name any one racial groups of India.
Who introduced the term Harijan?
Which article of the Indian Constitution abolishes untouchability?
Who called the Indian joint family as a greater home?
Integrated Rural Development Programme.
Name the Health Insurance Scheme for the welfare of village farmers.
Yeshasvini Health Insurance Scheme.
Which is the first Indian newspaper?
Samvad Koumudi by Rajaram Mohan Roy (1821).
What is the slogan of Kagodu Movement?
Land to the tiller or land to the landless.
Who introduced the term westernisation?
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
What does DEMARU stands for?
Data from the 2001 census to coin another acronym. DEMARU, where D stands for daughter and MARU stands for killing. In English ‘E’ will denote elimination. Punjab, Hariyana, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarath and Maharashtra are DEMARU states, where the sharp decline in the juvenile sex ratio.
Write two major difficulties in the processes of Aryanisation.
- Tribal groups refused to be absorbed.
- Special problem posed by strong ethnic groups.
Name any two castes of schedule caste of Karnataka.
Holayas and Bhories.
What is microfinance?
Microfinance is defined as, financial services such as saving account, insurance fund and credit provided to poor and low-income clients, so as to help them to rise their income and thereby improve their standard of living.
Mention any two social legislations which affected the joint family.
- Hindu Marriage Act of 1955.
- Domestic Violence Act of 2005.
Write any two characteristics of Indian Villages.
Small in size and importance to primary relation.
Write any two factors which are responsible for emergence of slums.
- High density of population and housing.
- Lack of public utilities and facilities.
What is McDonaldization?
McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world.
Mention any two online shopping sites.
Flipkart.com and eBay.in
Mention any two causes for Malaprabha agitation.
- The issue of price stability.
- The levy issue.
Name any two women’s organizations in India.
Vimochana and Shree Shakti Sangatana.
Mention any two areas of westernization.
- New institution
- Ideology and value.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the nature of Diversity of Indian Society.
The term diversity denoting collective differences so as to find out dissimilarities among groups of people: geographical, religious, linguistic, etc. All these differences presuppose collective differences or prevalence of a variety of groups and culture. Indian society is characterized by unity as well as diversity.
Primarily there are four major types of diversities in India, which are;
- Regional diversities
- Linguistic diversities
- Religious diversities and
- Cultural and Ethnic Diversities
1. Regional Diversities:
India is a vast country. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the south, there are quite lot of differences in altitude, temperature, Flora, and Fauna. India has every conceivable type of climate, temperature, and physical configuration. There is the scorching heat of Rajastan and the biting cold of the Himalayas, Rainfall varies from 1200 to 7.5 ems per year.
The result is that India has some of the wettest and driest areas in the world. India also possesses arid desserts and fertile riverine lands, bare and hilly tracts, and luxuriant open plain.
2. Linguistic Diversities:
Language is another source of diversity. It contributes to collective identities and even to conflicts. The Indian Constitution has recognized 22 languages in the 8th schedule for its official purposes but as many as 1652 languages and dialects are spoken in the country. These languages belong to five linguistic families, namely; Indo Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Austric languages, Tibeto – Burman languages and European languages.
This makes language planning and promotion difficult. But the mother tongue does evoke strong sentiments and reactions. As a consequence of this multiplicity, there is considerable bilingualism and administration has to use more than one language. Linguistic diversity has posed administrative and political challenges. Apart from that for people with different mother tongues, communication becomes a problem.
3. Religious Diversities:
There are 8 major religious communities in India. Hindus constitute the majority followed by Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs. Buddhists, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Jews are less than 1% each. Each major religion is further divided along the lines of religious documents, sects, and cults. Hindus are broadly divided into Shaivites, Vaishnavaites and Shaktas (worshippers of Shiva, Vishnu, and Mother Goddess – Shakthi respectively) and other minor sects.
Even though they took birth in India, both Jainism and Buddhism have lost their hold in India and are confined to a few small pockets. Diganibars and Shw’etambars are the two divisions of Jains. Indian Muslims are broadly divided into Shias and Sunnis.
Indian Christians, apart from Roman Catholics and Protestants have other small regional denominational churches. Sikhism is a synthesizing religion that emphasizes egalitarianism. Parsis even though a small community have played an important role in India’s industrial development. The Jews have a white and black divisions.
4. Cultural and Ethnic Diversities:
Another important source of diversity is the cultural diversity. The people differ considerably in their social habits. Cultural difference varies from state to state.
The conflicting and varying shades of blood, strains, culture, and modes of life, the character, conduct, beliefs morals, food, dress, manners, social norms, Socio-Religious customs, rituals and etc. causes cultural and ethnic diversities in the country. Dr. R.K. Mukherji rightly said that “India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and culture, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems”.
Explain the principles of tribal panchasheela.
Jawaharlal Nehru laid down the policy of Integration to five principles (1957) in his foreword note to Verrier Elwin’s book, called “The Philosophy of NEFA” (NEFA – North East Frontier of Assam). The tribal panchasheela as enunciated by him as follows:
1. People should ‘develop along the lines of their own genius‘ and we should avoid imposing anything on them. We should try to encourage in every way their own traditional – arts and culture.
2. Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected.
3. We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to work, administration and development. Some technical personnel from outside will, no doubt be needed especially in the beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory.
4. We should not over-administer these areas or overwhelm them with a multiplicity of schemes. We should rather work through and
not in rivalry to their own social and cultural institutions.
5. We should judge the results not by statistics or the amount of money spent but by the quality of human character that is evolved.
Explain the strategies for the empowerment of women.
The strategies for empowerment of women can be classified as legal, social and economic.
1. Legal Strategies:
After Independence, several laws were drafted with the aim to treat women on par with men. Some of the legislation are as follows:
- Hindu Marriage Act of 1955
- Hindu Succession Act of 1956.
- Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956.
- Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Act 1984
- Domestic Violence Act 2005 etc.
2. Social Strategies:
Social strategies are as follows:
- Establishment of Women Welfare Services.
- Legal literacy of women through mass media.
- Help of neighbours to be sought in the cases of abused women.
- Conducting public education and awareness programmes in order to help women.
- Males are also to be educated to realize their new roles in the changed times and the necessity of their own contribution to family life.
3. Economic Strategies:
Economic strategies are as follows:
- Educational and vocational training for women which will enable them to seek jobs and become economically dependent.
- Technological aids that will be labor-saving devices and will lighten women’s burden, of heavy daily tasks.
- Training for women in both formal and non-formal education.
- Credit facilities to start small-scale industries/self-employment.
- Programmes of placing women in important positions at various levels.
Explain the five characteristics of joint family.
1. Depth of Generations:
Joint family consists of people of three or more generations including grandparents, parents, and children. Sometimes, other kins such as uncles, aunts, cousins, and great-grandsons also live in a joint family.
2. Common Roof:
Henry Maine called the joint family a ‘Greater Home’. Members of the joint family normally reside together under the same roof. It is a place to uphold the family Heritage. It is a place for Socio, Economic, Religious, Entertainment, etc. Due to the scarcity of accommodation members of the joint family may reside separately. Still, they try to retain regular contacts and the feeling of belonging to the same family. They have emotional and economic links with the original family.
3. Common Kitchen:
Members eat the food prepared jointly at the common kitchen. Normally, the eldest female member of the family (the wife of the Karta) supervises the work at the kitchen. Rest of the female members are engaged in different kitchen work. A single kitchen under a common roof is an unique element of joint family.
4. Common Worship:
Joint family derives its strength from religion. Hence, it is associated with various religious rituals and practices. Every family may have its own deity or ‘Kula devata’ and its own religious traditions. Members of the family take part in common worship, rites, and ceremonies. At least once a year they join other members to take part in the festivals, feasting, marriage ceremonies and so on.
5. Common Property:
The members hold a common property. As O’ Malley writes: “The joint family is a co-operative institution similar to a joint-stock company in which there is a joint property”. The total earnings of the members are pooled into a common purse of the family and family expenses are met out of that.
6. Exercise of Authority:
In the patriarchal joint family usually, the eldest male member known as ‘Karta’ exerscises authority. The super-ordination of the eldest member and the subordination of all the other members to him is a keynote of the joint family. His commands are normally obeyed by others. Karta ruled his family by love and affection. Similarly, in the matriarchal joint family, the eldest female (matriarch) member exercises supreme authority.
7. Arranged Marriages:
In the joint family, the elders consider it as their privilege to arrange the marriages of the members. The individual’s right to select his/her life-partner is undermined. The younger members rarely challenge their decisions and arrangements. But now-a-days selecting a life partner for a family member is more democratic in nature.
8. Identification with Mutual Rights and Obligations towards the Family:
Every member has his own duties and obligations towards the family. The family in turn, protects the interests and promotes the welfare of all. The senior members of the family act as guides for junior members.
Joint family is relatively self-sufficient. It meets the economic, recreational, medical, educational and other needs of the members. No other type of family is self-reliant that way today.
Explain the social problems of Indian villages.
Illiteracy is a major social problem in Indian villages. Lack of educational institutions and poor quality education coupled with high rate of dropout rate has aggravated the situation. The majority of the educational institutions are suffering from educational infrastructures like adequate buildings, libraries, and reading rooms, sports grounds, etc.
There is a great disparity among rural and urban regions of Indian society regarding educational opportunities. Further, basic facilities like drinking water, sanitation facilities, transport and communication facilities are not up to the mark.
2. Rural Poverty:
On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank it has identified the following causes of poverty in rural areas:
- Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
- Low percentage of population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
- Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall.
- Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate exposure to modern skills.
- Non-availability of electricity for agriculture.
- Poor quality of livestock.
- Imperfect and exploited credit market, communication facilities and markets.
- Low level of education.
- Absence of dynamic community leadership.
- Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes.
- Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries.
- Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., and people unwilling to discard expensive customs.
3. Health Problems:
About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas while 70% of the country’s population live in villages. This shows the extent to which skilled medical care is lacking in the rural areas. Fertility and Birth rate, as well as death rates, are very high in the villages. Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also high. The problems of Malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria, Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common.
The housings are very much unsanitary while the addiction to alcohol & nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse. Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazards in rural areas. There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone. At the same time soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and fertilisers. It affects not only the yield but also health of the agriculturists.
Explain the major components of social movements.
M.S.A. Rao in his edited volume on Social Movements in India has highlighted the significance of ideology, collective mobilization, organization and leadership in social movements.
provides a broad frame of action and collective mobilisation in the social movement. It also provides legitimacy to the process of interest articulation and organized collective action.
2. Collective Mobilization:
The nature and direction of a social movement is widely shaped by the nature of collective mobilisation. Collective mobilisation may be radical, non-institutionalized, spontaneous, large scale or it may be non-violent, institutionalized, sporadic and restricted.
3. Leadership and Organization:
These are closely linked to the process of collective mobilisation. A leader can be a charismatic figure or a democratically elected one.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain briefly challenges of National integration.
There are many challenges to National integration. They are as follows;
- Linguism and
- Extremism and Terrorism
Regionalism is expressed in the desire of people of one region to promote their own regional interest at the expense of the interests of other regions. It has often led to separatism and instigated separatist activities and violent movements. Selfish politicians exploit it. Thus, regionalism has challenged the primacy of the nationalistic interests and undermines national unity. Regionalism is mainly of four forms namely
- Demand for separation from the Indian Union
- Demand for a separate statehood
- Demand for a full-fledged statehood
- Inter-states disputes-Border disputes.
Communalism is the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of other communities and religion. Communalism is the product of a particular society, economy, and polity, which creates problems. Communalism is an ideological tool for propagation of economic and political interests.
It is an instrument in the hands of the upper class to concentrate power by dividing people. The elites strive to maintain a status quo against transformation by dividing people on communal and religious lines.
Linguism implies one-sided love and admiration towards one’s language and a prejudice and hatred towards other languages. India is a land of many languages and it has been called as a ‘Museum of languages’. Diversity of languages has also led to linguism. It has often been manifested into violent movements posing threat to national integration. Linguistic tensions are prevailing in the border areas which are bilingual.
4. Extremism and Terrorism:
Extremism and terrorism have emerged during the recent years as the most formidable challenges to national integration. Extremism refers to the readiness on the part of an individual or group to go to any extreme even to resort to undemocratic, violent and harmful means to fulfil one’s objectives. In the past India has been facing the problems of terrorism since independence.
India has faced this problem in Nagaland (1951), Mizoram (1966), Manipur (1976), Tripura (1980) and West Bengal in (1986). Terrorism in India is essentially the creation of politics. According to According to Prof. Rama Ahuja there are four types of terrorism India,
- Khalistan oriented terrorism in Punjab
- Militants terrorism in Kashmir.
- Naxalite terrorism in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh Telangana, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh.
- ULFA terrorism in Assam.
The Khalistan oriented Sikh terrorism was based on a dream of theocratic state, Kashmir militants are based on their separate identity. The Naxalite terrorism is based on class enmity. Terrorism in North-Eastern India is based on the identity crisis and the grievance situation. In addition to these factors, corruption, poverty, unemployment/youth unrest, widening gap between rich and poor, which are also the major challenges for national integration.
Define Panchayat Raj. Explain the functions of Gram Panchayat.
Panchayat Raj is a real democratic political apparatus, which would bring the masses into active political participation to establish a genuine political reign of rural India. Generally, it is also called as ‘Decentralization of Democracy’.
Since 1959 Democratic Decentralization has been gradually extended throughout India. After the implementation of the 73rdAmendment Act of the Constitution 1992, Panchayat Raj has brought politics down to village level. Balawant Rai Mehta Committee recommended a three Tier Structure of the Panchayat Raj institution. Namely,
- Village Panchayat – at the village level.
- Panchayat Samithi – at the Block level and
- Zilla Panchayat – at the District level
Functions of Village Panchayat: The functions of the Village Panchayat are
- Provision of water supply
- Maintenance of minor irrigation
- School buildings
- Family Planning
- Construction of wells and tanks
- Promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries.
Apart from the above, they also manage promotion of village and cottage industries, providing electric power, construction and maintenance of Roads and Bridges, creating awareness regarding primary and secondary Education, maintenance of Public Health, general Sanitation, Welfare of the weaker section, maintenance of public properties and regulation and fairs and festivals and promotion of social and cultural activities.
Explain the structure of Dhorai Tribal Market.
According to Alfred Gell (1982), the anthropologist who studied Dhorai, the market Has significance much beyond its economic functions. For example, the layout of the market symbolises the hierarchical inter-group social relations in this region. Different social groups are located according to their position in the caste and social hierarchy as well as in the market system.
1. The wealthy and high-ranking Rajput jeweller and the middle-ranking local traders sit in the central ‘zones’.
2. The tribal sellers of vegetables and local wares in the outer circles.
3. The quality of social relations is expressed in the kinds of goods that are bought and sold, and the way in which transactions are carried out. For instance, interactions between tribals and non-tribal traders are very different than those between Hindus of the same community, they express hierarchy and social distance rather than social equality.
An Adivasi Village Market in Dhorai is the name of a market. Village located deep in the hinterland ofNorth Bastar district, Chattisgarh. On non-market days Dhorai is sleepy i.e., every day except Friday, Dhorai on a market day might be a totally different place.
The forest officials disburse payments to the tribal labourers. They are joined by vegetable sellers, and by specialised craftsmen, potters, weavers, and blacksmiths.
Explain the functions of mass media.
The media like T.V., newspapers, and radio provide a continuous flow of information about the world and reports about the political, sports, entertainment activities and weather reports, the stock market and news stories and issues that affect us personally.
The media explains and helps us to understand the meaning of the information. It provides support for established social norms and has an important role in the socialization of children.
The media has a function in expressing the culture, recogn izing new social developments and forging common values.
The media provides amusement, diversion and reduces social tension.
To encourage economic development, work, religion or support in times of war, the media can campaign to mobilize society to meet these objectives.
6. Social Reformation:
The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted. After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation-building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.
The gravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in 1975 and censorship of the media. Fortunately, the period ended and democracy was restored in 1977. India with its many problems can be justifiably proud of a free media.
7. National Consciousness:
It was only in the mid 19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation, and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience. People living in different corners of the country found themselves reading or hearing the same news. It has been suggested that this was in many ways responsible for people across a country to feel connected and develop a sense of belonging or ‘we feeling’.
Explain the types of peasant movements of kathaleen gough.
Kathleen Gough presented a five-fold typology of peasant movements in India. They are:
- Restorative rebellions
- Religious movements
- Social banditiy
- Terrorist vengeance and
- Mass insurrections
1. Restorative Rebellions:
This type of movement is aimed at the restoration of old systems in place of the current systems. The Santal tribal agitation against the British is one example of this type of movement.
2. Religious Movements:
This type of movement is based on the belief that their consolidated efforts would bring about a golden period and a charismatic leader will free them of their misery. Such movements are therefore called as ‘Millennium movements’ or ‘Messianic movements’. Stephen Fuchs, however, states that more than 50% of the peasant movements in India are religious movements. An example is the Kerala’s Mapillai agitations from 1836 to 1921.
3. Social Banditry:
Looting the rich landlords of villages and distributing the loot among the poor is termed as Social banditry. This arises as an expression of anger against feudal landlords; and the bandits become heroes in the eyes of the villagers. Dacoity by thugs between the 17th and 18th century in the Central India, and dacoity by Narasimha Reddy and his team in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, during 1946-47 are some examples for this type of movement.
4. Terrorist Vengeance:
Revenge is the sole motive of such movements. Such movements involve elimination of individuals who are thought to be enemies. Feudal lords, corrupt government officials are often victims of such homicidal acts.
5. Mass Insurrections:
This type of movement is spontaneous in nature. They are often triggered by dissatisfaction over long pending issues. Initially, dissent is expressed through strikes, non-cooperation, shouting slogans, boycott, etc.
They turn violent when the authority attempts to control them by the use of force. Such movements are often not backed by ideologies or charismatic leaders. For example, in recent years in Delhi, a movement against corruption and violence against women.
Explain the major factors of sanskritization.
Inspite of the Theoretical existence of certain restrictions, the low castes or other groups did manage to imitate the customs and rites of ‘Twice-born’ (DWIJAS) castes. This is the best way of claiming higher position in the caste hierarchy.
According to a strict rule of Brahminism, pre-puberty marriages were commonly practiced. It was the foremost duty of a Brahmin father to give his daughter in marriage before she attains puberty, otherwise he would be committing a great sin. Marriages among the Brahmin was indissoluble.
On the other hand, among the lower Hindu castes, post-puberty marriages were very common and the dissolution of marriage was possible. Now, in order to rise up in the caste hierarchy, the lower Hindu castes started practicing pre-puberty marriages and marriages also became indissoluble.
3. Treatment of Widows:
The normal existence of a brahmin widow was very pathetic. For instance, a Brahmin widow was not allowed to re-marry and got a miserable, treatment. She was required to shave off her head rind not allowed w earing ornaments. She was regarded inauspicious, and not allowed to attend any important functions.
On the other hand, among the low castes, marriages are dissoluble and widow re-marriages are permitted. Widows are not required to shave their heads. The codes which regulate sexual behaviour are not as strict as those among the higher castes. In the imitation process, these groups also banned widow-remarriages and started treating the widows in the same way like ‘High’ Hindus.
4. Treatment of Women:
Comparatively, women among the high caste Hindus receive bad treatment and hold a secondary position. Virginity in brides and chastity in wives is preferred. A wife is expected to treat her husband as God. Women perform a number of ‘Vratas’ or Religious vows with the aim of ensuring a long life for the husbands.
During menstruation and child birth, women from the high castes were treated as untouchables, and their presence was considered as inauspicious. Hence they are not allowed to attend important religious functions. Women among the lower castes generally receive a better treatment and occupy a good position. In order to imitate the higher castes, they too started treating their women in a bad manner and put them in a secondary position.
According to M.N. Srinivas, “In the sphere of kinship, sanskritization stresses the importance of the patrilineal lineage, and it results in increasing the importance of sons.” The members of higher castes prefer sons to daughters, whereas among the lower castes both boys and girls are equally preferred.
For instance, among non-Brahmins, though a son is preferred, a daughter is also in demand. The treatment that a girl child receives is not as harsh as that of a Brahmin girl. Nowadays, even lower castes prefer sons to daughters.
Sanskritization has also resulted in the use of certain Ideas and values which have been frequently expressed in Sanskrit literature, such as Karma, Dharma, Papa, Punya, Maya, Samskara, Moksha, etc. The Twice-born castes use these ideas in their conversation. Through the process of Sanskritization, lower caste groups are getting exposed to these ideas and values and use them in their conversation.
7. Food Habits:
Brahmins in India are by and large strict vegetarian except Kashmiri, Saraswath and Bengali Brahmins. The lower castes usually are non-vegetarian. Sanskritization results in the change of food habits in the direction of high, frequently twice-born castes. Some of the lower cashes have become strict vegetarians and practice teetotaiism in order to raise the caste hierarchy.
8. Dress Habits:
As has already been pointed out, Dwijas are entitled to wear the sacred thread ‘yagnopaveeta’ after the vedic rites of upanayana, while Shudras are not eligible for that. Some lower castes do wear the sacred thread and also imitate the dress style of the upper caste such as wearing dhoti, shalya, turban, kachche, panche etc.
Many of the low castes started giving names to their new borns names normally associated with the higher castes. For example, in place of the traditional and typical names such as Kariya, Kempa, Kempi, Kala, Honni, Thimmi, etc., they have started giving names such Rama, Krishna, Shankara, Madhava, Gowri, Parvathi, Lakshmi, Shobha, Radha and so on to their kids.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25-30 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Define demography and explain the major characteristics of demographic profile of India.
Demography is the systematic study of population. The term Demography is derived from two Greek words i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people. The term Demography was coined by Achille Guillard in 1855.
Demography studies the trends and processes associated with population including – changes in population size; patterns of births, deaths, and migration; and the structure and composition of the population, such as the relative proportions of women, men, and different age groups.
There are different varieties of demography, including Formal demography which is a largely quantitative field, and Social demography which focuses on the social, economic or political aspects of population. All demographic studies are based on processes of counting or enumeration – such as the census or the survey – which involve the systematic collection of data on the people residing within a specified territory.
In India, census was conducted by the British Indian government between 1867-72, and regular ten yearly (decennial) censuses have been, conducted since 1881. Independent India continued the practice, and seven decennial censuses have been conducted since 1951, the most recent being in 2011.
Demographic data are important for the planning and implementation of state policies, especially those for economic development and general public welfare.
The Major characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India:
- Size and Growth of India’s population
- Age structure of the Indian population
- Sex-Ratio in India.
- Birth rate and Death rate
- Increasing Literacy rate of the Indian population.
- Increasing Rural-Urban differences
1. Size and Growth of India’s Population:
India is the second-most populous country in the world after China. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 121 crores(1.21 billion). Between 1901-1951 the average annual growth rate did not exceed 1.33%, a modest rate of growth. In fact, between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative rate of growth of – 0.03%. This who because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19.
The growth rate of population substantially increased after independence from British rule going up to 2.2% during 1961-1981. Since then although the annual growth rate has decreased it remains one of the highest in the developing world.
2. Age structure of the Indian population:
India has a very young population – that is, majority of Indians tend to be young, compared to most other countries. The share of the less than 15 age group in the total population has come down from its highest level of 42% in 1971 to 29% in 2011. The share of the 15-60 age group has increased from 53% to 63%, while the share of the 60+ age group is very small but it has begun to increase (from 5% to 8%) over the same period.
But the age composition of the Indian population is expected to change significantly in the next two decades. 0-14 age group will reduce its share by about 11% (from 34% in 2001 to 23% in 2026) while the 60 plus age group will increase its share by about 5% (from 8% in 2001 to about 12% in 2026).
3. The declining Sex-ratio in India:
The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying – from 941 in 1961 the sex ratio had fallen to an all time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011, sex ratio has increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has real ly alarmed demographers, policy makers, social activists, and concerned Citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio. The sex ratio for the 0 – 6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact, the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overal 1 sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all-time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
4. Increasing literacy rate of Indian population:
Literacy varies considerably across gender, regions, and social groups. The literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels.
Female literacy rose by about 11.2 percent between 2001 and 201 compared to the rise in male literacy of 6.2 percent in the same period. Female literacy which was 8.9% in 1951, has increased to 65.4 in 2011. Male literacy in the same period was 27.2% which has increased to 82.17. Total literacy rate of 18.3% in 1951 has increased to 74.04 in 2011.
5. Increasing Rural-Urban differences:
According to the 2011 Census, 68.8% of the population lives in rural areas while 31.2% people live in urban areas. The urban population has been increasing steadily, from about 17.3% in 1951 to 31.2 in 2011, an increase of about two-and-a-half times.
Define the term caste and explain the characteristics of caste system.
The life of every member of the Indian society is to a large extent influenced by three systems viz., joint family, caste system and village community. They influence one’s occupation, food dress, habits, philosophy, and marriage, etc. The study of caste system is important because caste in India is an all-pervasive and deep-rooted social institution.
Definitions of Caste:
1. Herbert Risley has defined caste as “A collection of families of or a group of families, bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from a mythical ancestor, human or divine, professing to follow the same hereditary calling and regarding by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community”.
2. S. V. Kethkar in his Work “History of Caste in India”, “A caste is a group having two characteristics
- Membership is confined to those who are born of members.
- The members are forbidden by an inexorable social law to marry outside the group (Endogamy)”.
G. S. Ghurye explains the features of caste system in his book “Caste arid Race in India”, which are as follow;
1. Caste as a Segmental Division, of Society:
The society is divided into various castes with a well-developed life of their own. The membership in caste is determined by birth. Caste has hereditary status, which is determined by birth. Each caste has a council of its own known as caste panchayat. Caste panchayts imposed certain restriction on social intercourse marriage commensal, occupational. These restrictions each caste had its own way of life. Violation of caste norms attached punishment from the caste panchayath depending on violation of caste norms.
The whole society is divided into distinct castes with a concept of high and low, or superior and inferior is associated with this gradation or ranking. The Brahmins were placed at the top of the hierarchy and regarded as pure. The degraded castes or untouchables have occupied the other end of the hierarchy. They were subjected to manifold disabilities.
3. Restrictions on Feeding and Social Intercourse:
There are minute rules as to what sort of food or drink can be accepted by a person and from what castes, who should accept food or drink at the hands of whom is defined by caste.
4. Civil and Religious Disabilities and Privileges of the Different Sections:
Segregation of individual castes or groups of castes in a village is the most obvious mark of civil privileges and disabilities and it has prevailed in a more or less definite form all Over India. Generally, untouchables were made to live on the outskirts. Certain parts of the town or village are inaccessible to certain castes. Restriction on using of public, roads, water facilities, and Hotels, etc.
5. Restrictions on Occupations:
According to GS, Ghurye every caste was associated with a traditional occupation. The technical skill of the occupation was made hereditary. Since a distinction was made between occupation being clean and unclean. The hereditary occupations reflected a caste status.
6. Restrictions on Marriage (Endogamy):
Finally, every caste also maintained its rank and status upon marriage relation. Inter caste marriages were prohibited. Hence they practiced endogamy. Caste is an endogamous group. “Endogamy is the essence of the caste system. Every caste was segmented into subcastes, and these sub-castes were the units of endogamy.
Explain the developmental programmes for the upliftment of schedule castes.
1. Appointment of a national Commission for the Welfare of Scheduled castes and Tribes :
A National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has been set up by the central Government to safeguard the interests of the SCs and STs. It functions as an advisory body on issues and policies related to the development of the SCs and STs.
2. Educational Opportunities:
Due attention is paid to extend the educational opportunities of SCs and STs and hence special provisions have been made in this regard free education, free distribution of books, stationery, uniform, etc. giving scholarships, educational loan facilities, providing mid-day meal, arranging for free boarding and lodging facilities, reserving sears for SCs, and STs in all the government and government aided institutions, etc.
3. Expansions of Economic Opportunities:
The government has taken up economic programmes also for the benefit of SCs and S is. Examples: Landless SC labourers are allotted land. Land reforms have been undertaken to bring benefits of land ownership for them.
Poor SC farmers are supplied with seeds, agriculture implements, fertilizers, pesticide, interest-free loans, pair of bullocks for ploughing subsidy for developing dairy farming, poultry farming, piggery, animal husbandry, handicrafts, spinning, and weaving.
4. Expansions of Employment Oppor tunities and Reservation:
In order to enhance the economic position of the SCs and STs the Constitution has provided for the reservation in services. Reservation exists in all these for the SCs and STs to the extent of 15% and 7.5% respectively.
5. Upliftment of Scheduled Castes through Five Year Plans:
The welfare of the Scheduled Castes has been given special attention in the Five Year Plan. The Central Government sponsored a comprehensive three strategies for the development of the SCs during the 6th five Year Plans [1980-85].
This consisted of three schemes:
a. Special Component Plan [SCPs)
b. Special Central Assistance [SCA]
c. Scheduled Development Corporation (SCDCs).
a. Special Component Plan [SCP] :
The main objective of this plan is to assist the SC families to improve their income substantially. This plan envisages identification of schemes of development which would benefit SCs, quantification of funds from all programmes of specific targets as t the numbers if families to be benefited from these programmes.
b. Special Central Assistance [SCA] :
The main purpose of this scheme is to provide additional assistance to the States from the Centre to help the economic advancement of the maximum possible number of Schedule Caste families living below the poverty line.
c. Scheduled Caste Development Corporation (SCDC) :
These SCDCs provide money and loan assistance to SC families and help them to increase the flow of funds from financial institutions to act as interface between the SC families and financial institutions to SC families.
These Corporations established in the States are expected to act as interface between the SC families and financial institution including banks. Both the Central and the State Government contribute grants to these SCDCs.
Explain the problems of Indian cities.
Problems of Indian cities can be classified into the following ways:
1. Urban Poverty:
Urban poverty is the by product of industrialization and urbanization. Poverty and overcrowding are the two most visible features of Indian cities. About half of the urbanites are poor and lives in a substandard of life, because of cost of living, lack of regular income, low wages, pro-rich economic policies, and inflation, etc.
India has issued its first-ever report on the nature and dynamics of urban poverty in the country undertaken with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), India: Urban Poverty Report 2009 which, identifies the problems faced by the poor and focuses on the systematic changes that are needed to addfess them.
The report examines various issues related to urban poverty, such as migration, labour, the role of gender, access to basic services and the appalling condition of India’s slums. It also looks at the dynamics of urban land and capital market, urban governance, and the marginalisation of the poor to the urban periphery.
The magnitude of the problem of slums is alarming. The Government of India, Inorder to implementation of various schemes to urban development, has defined a slum area as follows: “A slum area meahs any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spacesand community facilities or any combination oftthese factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale.”
These slum areas are also referred to as the ‘Blighted area’; ‘Renewal area’; ‘deteriorated area’, ‘Gray OH area’; ‘Lower class neighbourhood’; ‘Lower income area’, etc.
3. Problem of Urban Housing:
The bulk of the people in the Indian cities live in one-room or in thatched huts in the sprawling slums dr on the pavements. Another sad feature is total lack of essential municipal services like water supply, drainage, sewage, lighting, roads, etc.
Further, large proportion of the rural migrants have been bringing with them unskilled persons who take up unskilled jobs in the services, trade, industries, etc. Further, the room has generally to meet all the requirements of the family including cooking, living, sleeping, confinement, it is difficult to keep it reasonably clean and sanitary washing and bathing facilities.
The inconvenience they have to undergo is aggravated during the rainy days. Almost all the above-mentioned conditions are found in chawals of Bombay, ahatas of Kanpur, Bastis of Calcutta, Cheris Of Madras as well as in Dhowrahas of the mining centres and barracks of the plantations in India.
These are made of brick walls and iron roof or the huts consisting of bamboo walls and thatched roofs. The lanes are too narrow and the huts rebuilt back to back. These lack the facilities like bathing, washing, and toilets, etc.
4. Sanitation and Pollution:
It is accompanied with corrupt municipal administration and inefficiency. According to UNICEF, lakhs of urban children in India die or suffer front diarrhea, diphtheria, tetanus, and measles, etc.,
5. Transportation and Traffic:
Transportation and traffic picture in Indian cities is troublesome. The majority of people use buses and other vehicles, while a few use rails as a transport system. The increasing number of two-wheelers and other types of vehicles make the traffic problem worse.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a short note on Narasinganawar patriarchial joint family.
The Narasinganavar family is a patriarchal Joint family of about 206 individuals who are residing together in the village of Lokur in the Dharwad district of Karnataka. All the individuals in the family share a common ancestry and this family is recognised as one of the largest undivided families in the world. The family spans across five generations.
Bhimanna Jinapa Narasinganavar is the patriarch of the family. For India’s largest joint family, balancing the family is a forbidding task. The Narsingnavar family finds that expenditure on its 206 members always seems to be more than its income.
Patriarch Narsingnavar (72), who has been handling money matters of this jumbo family for the past 30 years, says “We believe family finances could be the biggest source of discontent. In their wisdom and sincerity, the elders gave me this job. Whatever I do well be in the interest of the family”.
Agriculture is the main occupation for this family. It owns 270 acres of cultivable land, the annual 1 income is Rs 8 lakh to Rs 12 lakh depending on the monsoon and market. Its annual expenditure of around Rs 10 lakh is largely on farm labour and agriculture machinery. While the family’s requirement of food grains, vegetables and milk are met by its own efforts, it spends a substantial amount on provisions, clothes, medicines, soap, and tea.
If there’s resource crunch, the earning members contribute to the common kitty and Bheemanna keeps a meticulous record of the transactions. Weddings are performed every eight or ten years with several marriages being solemnised at the same time. The family’s only source of entertainment is TV.
Write a short note on ‘Pushkar annual fair’.
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock, it has become an important tourist attraction. Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place.
Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep, and goats. The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles, and fabrics. A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs, and exhibitions to follow. It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik ekadashi to Kartik Poomima, the full moon day of Kartik in the Hindu calendar.
The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu God Brahma sprung up from the Pushkar Lake. A lot of people take a holy dip in its sacred waters. There are many such fairs having socio, economic and religions importance taking place in Karnataka also.
Fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere(dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala, Antaragange fair in Kolar are some noteworthy examples.
Explain the major factors of backward classes movement.
The concept of “Backward Castes/Classes Movement “ refers to the movement launched by die backward castes/classes which consist of non-Brahmin caste. The movement aims at removing or lessening the caste inequalities, promoting the economic advancement of the poor, the deprived and the lower castes, and to obtain for them equal educational facilities and political opportunities.
The movement also signifies a great social awakening that took place in the lower castes and determined efforts On their part to seek avenues of social mobility.
1. The Course of the Movement:
jyothirao Phule of Poona was one of the first to. have revolted against the tyranny of upper caste in domination. He started social reform movement called the Satya Shodak Samaj was-founded on 1873. Its aim was to challenge upper caste supremacy to redeem the Sudras and untouchables from the influence of Hindu scriptures to teach them human rights, liberate them from mental and religious slavery.
Satya Shodak Samaj movement and the cause of backward class were further carried by Sri Sahu Maharaj of Kolhapur. Sri Sahu felt that unless thd weaker sections of the society were ‘made conscious of their democratic rights, of their rightful place in society’, India would not be in a position to work on democratic principles. He started schools and hostels for exclusively backward classes students.
The backward class Movements came to be systematically organised in the Madras Presidency in the second decade of the 20th century. The South Indian Liberal Federation, popularly called Justice Party, was formed in 1916.
Backward class leaders in Madras became conscious and started organising themselves. Dr. T.M. Nair, Sir P.T. Chettiar, and T.E. Mudaliar Joined together to start ‘South Indian People’s Association’, a joint-stock company in 1916 with a Sole aim of publishing newspapers. This association: advocating the cause of the non-Brahmins, started dailies in English ‘Justice’, in Tamil the ‘Dravidian’ and in Telugu ‘Andhra Prakashika’.
The Self-Respect Movement or the Dravidian Phase starts with the entry of Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker. Periyar rejected caste as the one and only criterion of personal worth. He championed new system of values in which all people could enjoy self-respect. Formulation of the Dravidian ideology, as opposed to Aryan ideology, is the basis of self-respect movement. Highlighting the superiority of Tamil Dravidian culture over Sanskrit Aryan culture.
The nori-Brahmin movement of Karnataka enter the princely state of Mysore. Okkaligas, Lingayats, and Muslims of Mysore had realised their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins. By 1917 the different groups formed an alliance called the ‘Praja Mitra Mandali’.
In 1918, this Mandali pleaded Maharaj of Mysore for communal representation in legislature, reservation of posts in public services and educational institutions. Miller Committee was appointed by the Maharaj of Mysore to look into the demands of Mandali This committee recommended the acceptance of all the demands. Since then Backward classes have. availed benefits/ in the fields of education, employment and politics.
The orientation of the non-brahmin movement in Kerala differs from those in Maharastra, Madras, and Karnataka. It lacked c the general anti-Brahmin ideology. Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana Yogam (SNDP) It was meant to be a casteless organisation open to all people.
It had two important programmes; Encouraging education by starting educational institutions; first important programme was to uplift the Ezhavas, a depressed caste group of Kerala, As an important part of the organizational activity.
Narayana Guru started a number of schools and colleges throughout Kerala to spread education on a massive scale among the lower caste. Sri Narayana Guru built a number of temples, simplified the rituals regarding worship, marriage, and funerals. With this, he wanted to help the people of his community in secular and also spiritual matters. He led a quite significant social revolution and gave the watchwords “one caste, one religion, one god for all men”.
Discuss barbie doll truly a Global Citizen.
1. Barbie Doll is Truly a Global Citizen:
Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy-company Mattel corporation and launched in March 1959. The doll sells at the rate of two per second, bringing the Mattel Corporation based in Los Angeles, U.S.A., well over a billion dollars in P annual revenues.
Although Barbie sells mainly in the United States, Europe, and Japan, it can also be found in 140 countries around the world. She is truly a global citizen. Barbie was never made in the United States.
The first doll was made in Japan in 1959 when that country was still recovering from the Second World War and wages were low. As wages rose in Japan, Barbie production moved to other low- wage countries in Asia. Barbie’s multiple origins today tell us a great deal about the operation of global commodity chains.
Barbie is designed in the United States, where her marketing and advertising strategies are devised and where most of die profits are made. But the only physical aspect of Barbie that is made in the USA is her cardboard packaging, along with some of the paints and oils that are used to decorate the doll. Barbie’s body and wardrobe span the globe in their origins.
Barbie begins her life in Saudi Arabia, where oil is extracted and then refined into ethylene that is used to create her plastic body. Taiwan’s state-owned 6il Importer, their Chinese ‘Petroleufn Corporation buys the Ethylene and sells’ if to Taiwan’s Formosa Plastic Corporation, the world’s largest producer of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). The pellets are then shipped to southern China, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The plastic moulded body of Barbie are made in U.S.A.
Once Barbie’s body is moulded she gets her Nylon hair from Japan, her Cotton dresses are made in China and shipped into Hong Kong. Thus Barbie in a way is a global citizen. But, in perspective, according to Anthony Giddens, “What Barbie production and consumption shows is the effectiveness of globalization processes in connecting together the world’s economics.
However, it also demonstrates the unevenness of globalization’s impact, which enables some countries to benefit at the expense of others. This means that we cannot assume that global commodity chains will inevitably promote development right across the chains of societies involved.”