2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Market and Communication Systems

Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Market and Communication Systems

You can Download Chapter 6 Market and Communication Systems Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC Sociology Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Sociology Market and Communication Systems One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Who is the author of the book “Wealth of Nations”.
Answer:
Adam Smith.

Question 2.
What is the other name for Laissez Fair Policy?
Answer:
Free Market.

Question 3.
What does WWW Stand for?
Answer:
World Wide Web.

Question 4.
Who created World Wide Web?
Answer:
Tim Berners – Lee in 1990.

Question 5.
Expand T R P?
Answer:
Television Rating Point.

Question 6.
Name anyone Traditional Business Communities in India.
Answer:
Marwaris.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Who wrote Asian Drama?
Answer:
GunnarMyrdal.

Question 8.
Who conducted a study on Dhorai Tribal Market?
Answer:
Alfred Gell.

Question 9.
Which day Dhorai weekly market Takes Place?
Answer:
Friday.

Question 10.
Who are the Business class according to Varanshram.system?
Answer:
Vaishyar.

Question 11.
Which marginal Tribal Group was in Salt Trade?
Answer:
Banjaras.

Question 12.
In which month pushkar Annual fair held?
Answer:
Karthika Ekadashi to Karthika Poomime.

Question 13.
Who invented Printing Technology?
Answer:
John Guttenberg.

Question 14.
Who Introduced prototype New service in Paris?
Answer:
Paul Julius Reuter.

Question 15.
Who started Sambad kaumudi?
Answer:
Raja Ram MahanRoy.

Question 16.
Who started Shome Prakashana?
Answer:
Ishwara Chandra Vidya Sagar.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 17.
Which year Times of India started in Bombay?
Answer:
1861.

Question 18.
Who founded Mangalooru Samachara?
Answer:
Herman Magling.

Question 19.
Expand LAN.
Answer:
Local Area Network.

Question 20.
In which year Ham Broadcasting club in Kolkolta and Chennai Started.
Answer:
1920.

Question 21.
Where is the Headquarter of Aakashavani?
Answer:
Bangalore. (Kannada Version of AIR)

Question 22.
Mention any one film in which Radio is used on an medium of commination?
Answer:
Loge Raho Munnai Bhai.

Question 23.
Which Rural Development programs was Experimentally introduced in Television in 1959?
Answer:
Krishi Darshan.

Question 24.
Expand the SITE
Answer:
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment.

Question 25.
Mention anyone leading Kannada News Channel.
Answer:
TV. 9.

Question 26.
Who is considered as father of Kannada Journalism?
Answer:
M. Venkatakrishnya.

Question 27.
Who started weekly Magazine Vrittanta Chintamani.
Answer:
M. Venkatakrishnya.

Question 28.
Mention any one English News Channel.
Answer:
NDTV 24×7.

Question 29.
Expand DARPA.
Answer:
Defense Advanced Research Agency.

Question 30.
Mention any one social networking site.
Answer:
Twitter.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
Who is the owner of “News Corporation”
Answer:
Report Murdoch.

Question 32.
Mention anyone leading English News Paper.
Answer:
The Hindu.

Question 33.
Mention anyone leading Kannada News Paper.
Answer:
Vijaya Karnataka.

Question 34.
Who said that electronic media are creating a global village?
Answer:
Marshal Mucllhan.

Question 35.
Who referred to media as a social capital?
Answer:
Robert Putnam.

Question 36.
Who analysed media as a decay of public sphere?
Answer:
Hebarmas.

Question 37.
Who regards mass media as Hyper Reality?
Answer:
Jean Budrillard.

Question 38.
Is market a social Institution?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 39.
Who. Introduced Invisible hand in the market?
Answer:
Adamsmith.

Question 40.
Give an example to a weekly market.
Answer:
Dorai weekly market.

Question 41.
Give an example to a caste based business community.
Answer:
Nagarthakars.

Question 42.
In which state pushkar annual fair Take place.
Answer:
Rajasthan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 43.
Which is an another name for virtual market.
Answer:
Online Market.

Question 44.
Who introduced teleshopping?
Answer:
Micheal Aldrich.

Question 45.
Name any two print media.
Answer:
News Papers and Magazines.

Question 46.
Name any two electronic media.
Answer:
Radio and Television.

Question 47.
Which is the first news paper of India.
Answer:
SambadKavmvdi.

Question 48.
What is sensational Journalism?
Answer:
Importance given to crime, Sports and sex is called sensational journalism.

Question 49.
Who regards television presents serious issue into an entertainment?
Answer:
Horkheimer and Adorno.

Question 50.
Mention the caste based business community of Tamilnadu.
Answer:
Nagarthakas

2nd PUC Sociology Market and Communication Systems Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you mean by Market?
Answer:
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange of goods and services.

Question 2.
Mention any two features of Market.
Answer:

  1. Market is a place where things are bought and sold
  2. Market is not just a physical place, but the gathering of people – buyers and sellers.

Question 3.
What is Virtual Market?
Answer:
The new form of marketing and transactions are of taking place through online with the help of Information and Communication Technology. E-commerce, online purchase, online trading of stocks and shares are the latest in the market activities. Such transactions and activities are called as virtual activity of market.

Question 4.
Name any two online shopping sites.
Answer:
Fliplcart. com e Bay. In

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
What is Social Networking Site?
Answer:
Social Network Sites are defined as online platforms that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities.

Question 6.
What is Mcdonaldization?
Answer:
McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world.

Question 7.
Mention guiding principles used by George Ritzer for Mcdonaldization.
Answer:
Guiding principles for McDonald’s restaurants

  • Efficiency
  • Calculatebility
  • Predictability
  • Control through automation
  • Standardized and uniform services.

Question 8.
What is internet?
Answer:
Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks consisting of millions of private, public, academic, business networks, which are linked with the networking technology. In simple words Internet is a network of networks.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
What is Mass Media?
Answer:
Mass Media is a means of communication that reach large number of people in a short time. The mass media include a wide variety of forms, including Newspapers, Magazines, Radio, Television and Social Networking Sites.

Question 10.
Mention any two Traditional Business community in India.
Answer:
Vaisyas and Marwaris.

Question 11.
Mention the leading Marwari Business and Industrial families or Groups.
Answer:
Ambanis and Lakshmimittals.

Question 12.
Mention any two functions of mass media.
Answer:
Information and Entertainment.

Question 13.
State the type of mass media.
Answer:
Print media and electronic media.

Question 14.
Mention the epics which popularizes the Dooradarshan.
Answer:
Ramayana and Mahabharata.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
State any two Kannada News Channels.
Answer:
TV.9 and Suvarana News 24 x 7.

Question 16.
Define TRP.
Answer:
Television Rating Point (TRP) is a tool provided to judge which programmes are viewed the most. This gives us an index of the choice of the people and also the popularity of a particular channel. For this purpose, a device is attached to the TV set of thousand viewers’ houses for judging purpose. The device is called as People’s Meter. It records the time and the programme that a viewer watches on a particular day.

Question 17.
Mention any two social networking sites.
Answer:
Twitter and Face book.

Question 18.
On which Theme Murdoch developed journalism.
Answer:
Sex, Crime and Sports.

Question 19.
Mention any two leading Kannada Newspapers.
Answer:
Vijayakarnataka and KannadaPraba.

Question 20.
Mention any two leading English Newspapers.
Answer:
The Hindu, The Times of India.

Question 21.
Mention any two leading English News Channels.
Answer:
CNNIBN, NDTV 24 x 7.

Question 22.
What do you mean by weekly market?
Answer:
In most agrarian societies, periodic markets are a central feature of social and economic organisation. Weekly markets bring together people from surrounding villages, who come to sell their agricultural or other produce and to buy manufactured goods and other items that are not available in their villages.

Weekly market is a common sight in rural and even urban India. In hilly and forested areas (especially those inhabited by Tribals, where settlements are far-flung, roads and communications are poor, and the economy relatively undeveloped, the weekly market is the major institution for the exchange of goods as well as for social intercourse.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 23.
Write any two uses of Technology in Newspaper production.
Answer:

  1. Newspaper production has become automatic, from reporters dess to final page proof.
  2. the use of paper has been completely eliminated with this automated chain.

2nd PUC Sociology Market and Communication Systems Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Name any five Kannada News Channels and briefly explain.
Answer:
The Karnataka state is one of the fore-front of mass media. Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel DD Chandana is dedicated for Kannada language which also provides news. Udaya news was the first private channel to broadcast news in Kannada language’.

At present there are 8 Kannada news channels viz., Tv-9, Suvarna News, Kasturi 24×7, Samaya News, Udaya News, Janashree News and Raj News, ETV News and few news channels will also come up shortly. There are more than hundred news channels in India different languages catering all types of services.

They are cost effective and most accessible of electronic media. These channels play active roles in socializing everyday life by stimulating interests in their characters, life styles, relationship, wealth, clothing and personal likes and dislikes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Describe weekly market as a social institution.
Answer:
In most agrarian societies , periodic markets are a central feature of social and economic organisation. Weekly markets bring together people from surrounding villages, who come to sell their agricultural or other produce and to buy manufactured goods and other items that are not available in their villages. They attract traders, as well as moneylenders, entertainers, astrologers, and a host of other specialists offering their services.

Weekly market is a common sight in rural and even urban India. In hilly and forested areas (especially those inhabited by Tribals, where settlements are far-flung, roads and communications are poor, and the economy relatively undeveloped, the weekly market is the major institution for the exchange of goods as well as for social intercourse.

Local people come to the market to sell their agricultural or forest produce to traders, who carry it to the towns for resale, and they buy essentials such as salt and agricultural implements, bangles and jewellery etc. But for many visitors, the primary reason to come to the market is social – to meet kin, to arrange marriages, exchange gossip, and so on.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Write a note on Bastar Tribal Market.
Answer:
The weekly market as a social institution, the links between the local Tribal economy and the outside, and the exploitative economic relationships between adivasis and others, are illustrated by a study of a weekly market in Bastar district. This district is populated by Gonds, an adivasi group. At the weekly market, you find local people, including tribals and non-tribals, as well as outsiders – mainly traders of various castes. Forest officials also come to the market to conduct business with adivasis who work for the Forest Department, and the market attracts a Variety of specialists selling their goods and services. The major goods that are exchanged in the market are

  1. Manufactured goods (such as jewellery and trinkets, pots and knives)
  2. Non-local foods (such as salt and Haldi (turmeric))
  3. Local food and agricultural produce and manufactured items (such as Bamboo baskets)
  4. Forest produce such as tamarind, oil-seeds and etc. The forest produce that is brought by the adivasis is purchased by traders who carry it to towns. 79. Describe the emergence of new market during the colonial period.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Describe the emergence of new market during the colonial period.
Answer:
The advent of colonialism in India produced major upheavals in the economy, causing disruptions in production, trade and agriculture. A well-known example is the demise of the handloom industry due to the flooding of the market with cheap manufactured textiles from England. In the colonial era India began to be more fully linked to the world capitalist economy. Before being colonised by the British, India was a major supplier of manufactured goods to the world market. After colonisation, India became a source of raw materials and agricultural products and a consumer of manufactured goods, both largely for the benefit of industrialising England.

At the same time, new groups (especially the Europeans) entered into trade and business, sometimes in alliance with existing merchant communities and in some cases by forcing them out. But rather than completely overturning existing economic institutions, the expansion of the market economy in India provided new opportunities to some merchant communities, which were able to improve their position by re-orienting themselves to changing economic circumstances. In some cases, new communities emerged to take advantage of the economic opportunities provided by colonialism and continued to hold economic power even after Independence.

A good example of this process is provided by the Marwaris, probably the most widespread and best-known business community in India. Represented by leading industrial families such as the Birlas, Ambanis, Lakshmimittal and etc. The Marwaris became a successful business community only during the colonial period, when they took advantage of new opportunities in colonial cities such as Calcutta, Bombay and settled throughout the country to carry out trade and money lending.

Like the Nakarattars, the success of the Marwaris rested on their extensive social networks, which created the relations of trust necessary to operate their banking system. Many Marwari families accumulated enough wealth to become moneylenders, and by acting as bankers also helped the commercial expansion of the British in India.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Write a note on Pushkar annual fair.
Answer:
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock it has become an important tourist attraction. Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place. Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep and goats. The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles and fabrics.

A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs and exhibitions to follow. It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik ekadashi to Kartik Poomima, the full moon day of Kartik in Hindu calendar. The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu god Brahma sprung up the Pushkar Lake, thus numerous people swim in its sacred waters.

There are many such fairs having socio, economic and Religions importance taken place in Karnataka also. For example fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavapagere (dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala, Antaragange fair in Kolar etc.

Question 6.
Write a note on Social Networking Sites?
Answer:
Social Network Sites are defined as online platforms that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities. Further, Social Networking Sites are a type of virtual community that has grown tremendously in popularity. Through social networking people can use network of online friends and group memberships to keep in touch with current friends, reconnect with old friends or create real- life friendships through similar interest or groups.

Besides, establishing social relationships, social networking members can share interest and their ideas with other like-minded members by joining groups or forums. They can also participate in discussions. Members will be updated instantly about their friends and groups. In short, a SNS is a hub for communication, entertainment and information. The Social Networking Sites include; Facebook, Orkut, Google plus, Myspace, Twitter, Friendster, Bharathstudent and etc.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Explain in brief any five contemporary Indian news papers in English.
Answer:
While English newspapers, often called ‘National Dailies’ i.e. The Times of India, The Hindu, The Indian Express, The Economic Times, Hindustan Times, Deccan Herald and etc, circulate across nation, vernacular newspapers have vastly increased their circulation in the states and the rural hinterland. In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers on the one hand reduced prices and on the other hand brought out editions from multiple centres. Increasing dependence on the sponsors of advertisements and many feared that the rise in electronic media would lead to a decline in the circulation of print media. This has not happened. Indeed it has expanded.

Question 8.
Write a note on Radio.
Answer:
Radio broadcasting which commenced in India through amateur ‘HAM’ Broadcasting Clubs in Kolkata and Chennai in the 1920s, matured into a public broadcasting system in the 1940s during the World War II when it became a major instrument of propaganda for Allied forces in South-east Asia. At the time of independence there were only 6 radio stations located in the major cities catering primarily to an urban audience. Since the media was seen as an active partner in the development of the newly free nation the AIR’s programmes consisted mainly of news, current affairs, and discussions on development.

Apart from All India Radio (AIR) there is Vividh Bharati, a channel for entertainment that was primarily broadcasting film songs on listeners’ request. Vividh Bharati, which soon began to carry sponsored programmes and advertisements and grew to become a money-spinning channel for AIR. Aakashavani (Kannada version of AIR) headquarter at Bangalore and there are regional centers at Mysore, Bhadravathi, Dharwad, Mangalore and Gulbarga, broadcasting news, entertainment, sponsored programmes and commercial programmes etc.

After independence the government gave priority to the expansion of the radio broadcasting infrastructure, especially in state capitals and in border areas. Over the years, AIR has developed a formidable infrastructure for radio broadcasting in India. It operates a three-tiered – national, regional, and local – service to cater to India’s geographic, linguistic and cultural diversity. Nowadays radio broadcasts in 24 languages and 146 dialects.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Explain any five leading Kannada newspapers.
Answer:
The era of Kannada newspapers in Karnataka started in 1843 when Hermann Mogling, a missionary from German Basel Mission published the first Kannada newspaper called Mangalooru Samachara from Mangalore. Later it was renamed as Kannada Samachar. M. Venkatakrishnaiah (1844 – 1933) considered as the father of Kannada Journalism brought out his weekly “Vrittanta chintamani” in 1885 in Mysore.

He laid this foundation for modern Kannada Journalism. Afterwards in different parts of the state few newspapers cum magazines used to publish viz., Sabuddhi Prakasha Vara Patrike (1849), Arunodaya (1862), Mysore Herald (1886), Wealth of Mysore (1912), Bharathi (1907, D V Gund appa), Chitra gupta(1928, KN Veerannagowda, Mandya, Prajamatha (1931, B N Gupta).

There are many Kannada language newspapers that have served the media industry significantly and also have earned significant recognition. Some of the leading Kannada language newpapers include; Prajavani, Kannada Prabha, Samyukta Karnataka, Vijaya Karnataka, Hosa Digantha, Sanjevani, Udayavani, Andolana, ESange, etc. The Kannada language newspapers are playing important role in disseminating valuable information about the latest happenings in and around the world.

Question 10.
Define market. Explain the characteristics of market.
Answer:
A market is one of the social institutions, whereby parties’engage in exchange of goods and services. Markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established.
In the field of Sociology the concept of a market is a structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information. The exchange of goods or services for money is a Transaction.

The features of Market are as follow;

(1) Market is a place where things are bought and sold: In common usage, the word ‘market’ may refer to particular markets that we may know of, such as the market next to the railway station, the fruit market, or the wholesale market.

(2) Market is not just a physical place, but the gathering of people – buyers and sellers: Thus, for example, a weekly market may be found in different places on different days of the week in neighbouring villages or urban neighbourhoods.

(3) Market is a type of trade or business: Market refers to an area or category of trade or business, such as the market for cars or the market for readymade clothes.

(4) Market includes the entire spectrum of economic activities and institutions: In this very broad sense, then, ‘the market’ is almost equivalent to ‘the economy’. We are used to thinking of the market as an economic institution, but this chapter will show you that the market is also a social institution. In its own way, the market is comparable to more obviously social institutions like caste, religion or family.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Explain the sociological perspectives on market and economy.
Answer:
The discipline of economics is aimed at understanding and explaining how markets work in modem capitalist economies – for instance, how prices are determined, the probable impact of specific kinds of investment, or the factors that influence people to save or spend. Adam Smith argued that the capitalist economy is driven by individual self-interest, and works best when individual buyers and sellers make rational decisions that serve their own interests.

Smith used the idea of the ‘invisible hand’ to argue that society overall benefits when individuals pursue their own self-interest in the market, because it stimulates the economy and creates more Gunnar Myrdal, a Sweedish Nobel Laureate, Economist and Sociologist in his work Asian Drama is pertaining to the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena. Gunnar Myrdal analysed economic issues from social perspective and he says social issues determine economic development.

In contrast to this approach, sociologists have attempted to develop an alternative way of studying economic institutions and processes within the larger social framework. Sociologists view markets as social institutions that are constructed in culturally specific ways. For example, markets are often controlled or organised by particular social groups or classes, and have specific connections to other institutions, social processes and structures. Sociologists often express this idea by saying that economies are socially ‘embedded’. This is illustrated by two examples, one of a weekly markets and the other of a ‘Traditional business community’ and its trading networks in India.

Question 12.
Explain the structure of Dhorai Tribal Market.
Answer:
According to Alfred Gell (1982), the anthropologist who studied Dhorai, the market has significance much beyond its economic functions. For example, the layout of the market symbolises the hierarchical inter-group social relations in this region. Different social groups are located according to their position in the caste and social hierarchy as well as in the market system.

(i) The wealthy and high-ranking Rajput jeweller and the middle-ranking local traders sit in the central ‘zones’.

(ii) The tribal sellers of vegetables and local wares in the outer circles.

(iii) The quality of social relations is expressed in the kinds of goods that are bought and sold, and the way in which transactions are carried out. For instance, interactions between tribals and non-tribal traders are very different than those between Hindus of the same community: they express hierarchy and social distance rather than social equality.

An Adivasi Village Market in Dhorai is the name of a market village located deep in the hinterland of North Bastar district, Chattisgarh. On non-market days Dhorai is a sleepy, Dhorai on non-market days – every day except Friday, that is hardly exists but Dhorai on a market day might be a totally different place. The Forest officials disburse payments to the Tribal labourers. They are joined by vegetable sellers, and by specialised craftsmen, potters, weavers and blacksmiths.

Question 13.
Analyse the caste based Trade among the Nakarattars of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Caste-based trade among the Nakarattars of Tamil Nadu banking system resembled an Economist’s model of Western-style banking systems. the Nakarattars loaned and deposited money with one another in caste-defined social relationships based on business, residential location, descent, marriage, and common cult membership. The Nakarattar banking system was a caste-based banking system. Individual Nakarattars organised their lives around participation in and management of various communal institutions adapted to the task of accumulating and distributing reserves of capital.

The Nattukottai Chettiars (Nakarattars) of Tamil Nadu, provide an interesting illustration of how these indigenous trading networks were organised and worked. A study of this community during the colonial period shows how its banking and trade activities were deeply embedded in the social organisation of the community. The structures of caste, kinship, and family were oriented towards commercial activity, and business activity was carried out within these social structures.

As in most ‘traditional’ merchant communities, Nakarattar banks were basically joint family firms, so that the structure of the business firm was the same as that of the family. Similarly, trading and banking activities were organised through caste and kinship relationships. For instance, their extensive caste-based social networks allowed Chettiar merchants to expand their activities into Southeast Asia and Ceylon.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
Analyse the emergence of Marwari’s Business committee.
Answer:
A good example of this process is provided by the Marwaris, probably the most widespread and best-known business community in India. Represented by leading industrial families such as the Birlas, Ambanis, Lakshmimittal and etc. The Marwaris became a successful business community only during the colonial period, when they took advantage of new opportunities in colonial cities such as Calcutta, Bombay and settled throughout the country to carry out trade and money lending.

Like the Nakarattars, the success of the Marwaris rested on their extensive social networks, which created the relations of trust necessary to operate their banking system. Many Marwari families accumulated enough wealth to become moneylenders, and by acting as bankers also helped the commercial expansion of the British in India.

Post Independence period some Marwari families transformed themselves into modern industrialists, and even today Marwaris control more of India’s Economy than any other community. This story of the emergence of a new business community under colonialism, and its transformation from small migrant traders to merchant bankers to industrialists, illustrates the importance of the social context to economic processes.

Question 15.
List out the early Newspapers in India.
Answer:
The first modem mass media began with the development of the printing press. Although the history of print in certain societies dates back to many centuries, the first-attempts at printing books using modem technologies began in Europe. This technique was first developed by Johann Gutenberg in 1440. Initial attempts at printing were restricted to religious books. With the Industrial Revolution, the print industry also grew.

The first products of the press were restricted to an audience of literate elites. Paul Julius Reuter initiated a prototype news service in Paris in 1849, using carrier pigeons as well as the electric telegraph in his network. By 1923, the company he founded, Reuters, was transmitting news by Radio Early Newspapers in India.

  • Raja Rammohun Roy, his Sambad-Kaumudi in Bengali published in 1821, and Mirat-Ul- Akbar in Persian published in 1822, were the first publications in India with a distinct nationalist and democratic approach.
  • Fardoonji Murzban was the pioneer of the Gujarati Press in Bombay. It was as early as 1822 that he started the Bombay Samachar as a daily.
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar started the Shome Prakash in Bengali in 1858.
  • The Times of India was founded in Bombay in 1861.
  • The Pioneer in Allahabad in 1865.
  • The Madras Mail in 1868.
  • The Statesman in Calcutta in 1875.
  • The Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore in 1876.
  • The Hindu in 1878.
  • The Indian Express
  • The Hindustan Times
  • Deccan Herald, etc.

Kannada Newspapers: The era of Kannada newspapers in Karnataka started in 1843 when Hermann Mogling, a missionary from German Basel Mission published the first Kannada newspaper called Mangalooru Samachara from Mangalore. Later it was renamed as Kannada Samachar. M. Venkatakrishnaiah (1844 -1933) considered as the father of Kannada Journalism brought out his weekly “Vrittanta chintamani” in 1885 in Mysore.

He laid this foundation for modem Kannada Journalism. Afterwards in different parts of the state few newspapers cum magazines used to publish viz., Sabuddhi Prakasha Vara Patrike (1849), Arunodaya (1862), Mysore Herald (1886), Wealth of Mysore (1912), Bharathi (1907, D V Gund appa), Chitra gupta (1928, K N Veerannagowda, Mandya, Prajamatha (1931, B N Gupta).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
Explain the Role of Technology in Newspaper productions.
Answer:
From the late 1980s and early 1990s, newspapers have become fully automatic-from reporter’s desk to final page proof. The use of paper has been completely eliminated with this automated chain. This has become possible because of two technological changes – networking of personal computers (PCs) through LANs (local area networks) and use of news making software like Newsmaker and other customised software. Changing technology has also changed the role and function of a reporter. The basic tools of a news reporter – a shorthand notebook, pen, typewriter, and telephone has been replaced by new tools – a mini tape recorder, a laptop or a personal computer (PC), mobile or satellite phone, and other accessories like modem.

All these technological changes in news gathering have increased the speed of news and helped newspaper managements to push their deadlines to dawn. They are also able to plan a greater number of editions and provide the latest news to the readers. A number of newspapers are using the new technologies to bring out separate editions for each of the districts. While print centres are limited, the number of editions has grown manifold.

Newspaper chains like Vijaya Kamatak are using new technology for news gathering as well as for improving pictorial coverage. The newspaper has a network of nearly a hundred reporters and staffers and an equal number of photographers, feeding news. All the hundred correspondents are equipped with PCs and modems for news transmission, and the photographers carry digital cameras with them. Digital images are sent to the central news desk via modems.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 17.
Write a note on report Murdoch.
Answer:
Rupert Murdoch is an Australian-born entrepreneur who is the head of one of the world’s largest media empires News Corporations. Murdoch established News Corporation in Australia before moving into the British and American markets in the 1960s. His initial purchases of the News of the World and the Sun in Britain in 1969 and the New York Post in the mid-1970s paved the way for a dramatic expansion in later acquisitions. In the USA alone, News Corporation’s holdings new include more than 130 newspapers.

Murdoch turned many of these newspapers towards sensationalistic journalism, building on the three themes of sex, crime and sport. The Sun, for example, became highly successful, with the highest circulation of any daily English-language newspaper in the world, standing at around 3.4 million copies daily in mid-2004.

Competition for broadcasting rights is intense between News Corporation and other media empires as the global demand for sports and other kinds of events. He is weighty enough to influence governments, but it is in the nature of the telecommunications business that it is everywhere and nowhere. Murdoch’s power base is very large, but also elusive.

To create sensation among the readers his company tapped the phone calls of the top Officials, Royal family members, Politicians and filmstars. He was accused of taping the British Royal family. British Parliament warned him for his illegal tapings.

Question 18.
Analyse the recent Trends in print media.
Answer:
As is evident, the reasons for this amazing growth in the circulation of Indian language newspapers are many.

1. There is a rise in the number of literate people who are migrating to cities. The Hindi daily Hindustan in 2003 printed 64,000 copies of their Delhi edition, which jumped to 425,000 by 2005. The reason was that, of Delhi’s population of one more and forty-seven lakhs, 52 percent had come from the Hindi belt. Out of this, 47 percent have come from a rural background and 60 percent of them are less than 40 years of age.

2. Dominant Indian language newspapers such as Malayalam Manorama and Eenadu Telugu Nam Paper launched the concept of local news in a significant manner by introducing district and block editions.

3. Dina Thanthi, another leading Tamil newspaper, has always used simplified and colloquial language. In Kannada Prajavani, Vijaya Karnataka, Kannada Prabha have adopted the same techniques.

4. The Indian language newspapers have adopted advanced printing technologies and also attempted supplements, pullouts, and literary and niche booklets.

5. Marketing strategies have also marked the Dainik Bhaskar group, Vijayakarnataka’s . growth as they carry out consumer contact programmes, door-to-door surveys, and research.

6. Cross media ownership trend becoming visible among the major players such as Eenadu group, Times group, Dainik Jagaran, and Sahara who plunged into TV news after their long innings in newspapers.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
Explain the recent Trends in English Newspapers.
Answer:
While English newspapers, often called ‘National Dailies’ i.e. The Times of India, The Hindu, The Indian Express, The Economic Times, Hindustan Times, Deccan Herald and etc, circulate across nation, vernacular newspapers have vastly increased their circulation in the states and the rural hinterland. In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers on the one hand reduced prices and on the other hand brought out editions from multiple centres. Increasing dependence on the sponsors of advertisements and many feared that the rise in electronic media would lead to a decline in the circulation of print media. This has not happened. Indeed it has expanded.

Question 20.
Discuss the trends of Television Channels.
Answer:
In 1991 there was one state controlled TV channel in India. “Doordarshan”. By 1998 there . were 70 channels. Privately run satellite channels have multiplied rapidly since the mid-1990s. The staggering growth of private satellite television has been one of the defining developments of contemporary India.

The Gulf War of 1991 (which popularised CNN), and the launching of Star-TV in the same year by the Whampoa Hutchinson Group of Hong Kong, signalled the arrival of private satellite Channels in India. In 1992, Zee TV, a Hindi-based satellite entertainment channel, also began beaming programs to cable television viewers in India.

By 2000, many private cable and satellite channels were available including several that focused exclusively on regional-language broadcasting like Sun-TV, Eenadu-TV, Udaya-TV, Raj-TV, and Asianet. Zee TV has also launched several regional networks, other languages. Indian based English news channels like NDTV 24X7, CNN IBN, Times Now, Headlines Today are also popular among English speaking people.

The coming in of transnational television companies like Star TV, MTV, Channel [V], Sony and others, worried some people on the likely impact on Indian youth and on the Indian cultural identity. But most of the transnational Television channels have through research realised that the use of the familiar is more effective in procuring the diverse groups that constitute Indian audience.

So these channels are also given importance to family oriented entertainment. Entertainment television has produced a new cadre of superstars who have become familiar household names. Reality shows like Kaun Banega Crorepati or Indian Idol or Big Boss have become increasingly popular. Most of these are modelled along the lines of western programmes.

Question 21.
Discuss the events which popularise dooradarshan in gaining highest TRP.
Answer:
The advent of colour broadcasting during the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi and the rapid expansion of the national network led to rapid commercialisation of Television broadcasting. During 1984-85 the number of television transmitters increased all over India covering a large proportion of the population. It was also the time when indigenous soap operas like Hum Log and Buniyaad were aired.

They were hugely popular acclaim and attracted substantial advertising revenue for Doordarshan as did the broadcasting of the epics Ramayana and Mahabharat, Vishnupurana, the sword of Tippusultan, the maratha, Jai Hanuman, Shaktiman, OmNamahshivay. These did help the Dooradarshan to gain Television Rating points (TRPs).

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC Sociology Market and Communication Systems Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the functions of Mass Media.
Answer:
(1) Information: The media provides a continuous flow of information about the world, from T.V., Newspapers and radio reports the political, sports, entertainment and weather reports, the stock market and news stories and issues that affect us personally.

(2) Correlation: The media explains and helps us to understand the meaning of the information. It provides support for established social norms and has an important role in the socialization of children.

(3) Continuity: The media has a function in expressing the culture, recognizing new social developments and forging common values.

(4) Entertainment: The media provides amusement, diversion and reduces social tension.

(5) Mobilization: To encourage economic development, work, religion or support in times of war, the media can campaign to mobilize society to meet these objectives.

(6) Social Reformation: The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted. After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.

The gravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in 1975 and censorship of the media. Fortunately, the period ended and democracy was restored in 1977. India with its many problems can be justifiably proud of a free media.

(7) National Consciousness: It was only in the mid 19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience. People living in different comers of the country found themselves reading or hearing the same news. It has been suggested that this was in many ways responsible for people across a country to feel connected and develop a sense of belonging or ‘we feeling’.

Question 2.
Describe virtual markets in detail.
Answer:
The new form of marketing transactions are of taking place through online with the help of Information and Communication Technology. Such transactions and activities are called as virtual market. E-commerce, online purchase, online trading of stocks and shares are the latest in the market activities. Virtual marketing is a form of electronic or e-commerce which allows consumers or buyers to directly purchase goods or services from a seller over the internet using a web browser. Virtual market can be called as e-shop, internet shop, online store and virtual store.

The 21st century in India has witnessed for enormous increase in the number of virtual or online markets. The trend is common in western countries. But, in India with the advancement of Information Technology (IT) the growth of virtual marketing has immensely raised. In the global level the emergence of online or virtual market is relatively a new phenomenon and it has only a few decades of history. It is quite interesting to examine the events took place before 1990’s for the development of virtual market.

Even though the research for developing virtual market started early 1960, virtual market came to reality only after 1990’s. The concept of “Teleshopping” was first introduced by Michael Aldrich in 1979 and in the same year Videotex was being researched. In France, Mintel succeeded on the research of Videotex which allowed online purchases, check share market, etc in 1982. The actual growth of online or virtual market started in 1990, when the first World Wide Web (WWW) server and browser, created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990, opened for commercial use in 1991.

Thereafter, with the advancement in I T, in 1994 an online pizza shop has been opened by Pizza Hut. Later, Intershop’s first online shopping system and Netscapes’ SSL systems have been developed with the advent of these above, in 1995 Amazon.com has launched its virtual marketing sites and later in the same year eBay also opened up its online shopping websites, which is the first online action website. With the emergence of big shopping companies like Futurebazaar, Shoppers stop, Reliance retail, Spencer Mart etc., the outlook of online shopping has completely changed for the best.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Explain the social organization of traditional business communities.
Answer:
As you have already learned, there is a close connection between the caste system and the economy, in terms of landholding, occupational differentiation, and so on. This is also true in the case of trade and markets.

(1) Varnashram System: In fact, ‘ Vaisyas’ constitute one of the four varnas – an indication of the importance of the merchant and of trade or business in Indian society since ancient times.

(2) Banias in North India: Although there are ‘Vaisya’ communities such as Banias in North India, whose traditional occupation has been trade or commerce for a long time, there are some caste groups that have entered into trade. Such groups tend to acquire or claim ‘Vaisya’ status in the process of upward mobility.

(3) Emergence of Traditional Business Communities: The ‘traditional business communities’ in India include not only ‘Vaisyas’, but also other groups with distinctive religious or other community identities, such as the Parsis, Sindhis, Bohras, or Jains. Marwaris during the colonial period. The long-distance trade in salt was controlled by a marginalised ‘tribal’ group, the Banjaras.

(4) Operations of Market: To understand the operation of markets in India, both in earlier periods and at present, we can examine how specific arenas of business are controlled by particular communities. One of the reasons for this caste-based specialisation is that trade and commerce often operate through caste and kinship networks, as we have seen in the case of the Nakarattars.

Because businessmen are more likely to trust others of their own community or kin group, they tend to do business within such networks rather than with outsiders – and this tends to create a caste monopoly within certain areas of business.

(5) Emergence of New Markets: Colonial Period: The advent of colonialism in India produced major upheavals in the economy, causing disruptions in production, trade and agriculture. A well-known example is the demise of the handloom industry due to the flooding of the market with cheap manufactured textiles from England. In the colonial era India began to be more fully linked to the world capitalist economy. Before being colonised by the British, India was a major supplier of manufactured goods to the world market.

After colonisation, India became a source of raw materials and agricultural products and a consumer of manufactured goods, both largely for the benefit of industrialising England. At the same time, new groups (especially the Europeans) entered into trade and business, sometimes in alliance with existing merchant communities and in some cases by forcing them out.

But rather than completely overturning existing economic institutions, the expansion of the market economy in India provided new opportunities to some merchant communities, which were able to improve their position by re-orienting themselves to changing economic circumstances. In some cases, new communities emerged to take advantage of the economic opportunities provided by colonialism and continued to hold economic power even after Independence.

(6) Emergence of Marwaris: A good example of this process is provided by the Marwaris, probably the most widespread and best-known business community in India. Represented by leading industrial families such as the Birlas, Ambanis, Lakshmimittal and etc. The Marwaris became a successful business community only during the colonial period, when they took advantage of new opportunities in colonial cities such as Calcutta, Bombay and settled throughout the country to carry out trade and money lending.

Like the Nakarattars, the success of the Marwaris rested on their extensive social networks, which created the relations of trust necessary to operate their banking system. Many Marwari families accumulated enough wealth to become moneylenders, and by acting as bankers also helped the commercial expansion of the British in India.

Post Independence period some Marwari families transformed themselves into modern industrialists, and even today Marwaris control more of India’s economy than any other community. This story of the emergence of a new business community under colonialism, and its transformation from small migrant traders to merchant bankers to industrialists, illustrates the importance of the social context to economic processes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Analyze the role of media in the contemporary world.
Answer:
In the 21st century, communication technology is such that information can be shared instantaneously by millions of people simultaneously, almost anywhere around the world. Communication – the transfer of information from one individual or group to another, whether in speech or through the mass media of modem times – is crucial to any society. According to Marshall Mcluhan, society is influenced much more by the type of the media than by the content, or the messages, which the media convey.

The electronic media, according to Marshal McLuhan, are creating a Global village — people throughout the world see major events unfold and hence participate in them together. It is the Internet, at the heart of this communications revolution. With the expansion of technologies such as voice recognition, broadband transmission, web casting and cable links, the Internet became the conduit for the delivery of information, entertainment, advertising and commerce to media audiences.

Neil Postman in his book, Amusing Our-selves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business, says television presents serious issues as entertainment because the form excludes the content. As Postman states, the medium of print creates a rational population, whereas the medium of television creates an entertained one.

Robert Putnam is referring Media as a social capital to useful social networks, a sense of mutual obligation and trust-worthiness, an understanding of the norms that govern effective behaviour and, in general, other social resources that enable people to act effectively. Putnam in his book Bowling Alone finds significant decline . in social capital over the last few decades. TV viewing is strongly and negatively related to social trust and group membership.

Horkheimer and Adorno made an extensive study of what they called the ‘culture industry’, meaning the entertainment industries of film, TV, popular music, radio, newspapers and magazines. They argued that the production of culture had become just as standardized and dominated by the desire for profit as other industries.

Art disappears, swamped by commercialization and culture is replaced by entertainment. Jurgen Habermas has analysed the media as decay – of the ‘public sphere’. The public sphere is an arena of public debate in which issues of general concern can be discussed and opinions

formed. According to Habermas, the -public sphere developed first in the salons and coffee houses of London, Paris and other European cities. Habermas argues that the salons were vital to the early development of democracy, for they introduced the idea of resolving political problems through public discussion. The public sphere – at least in principle – involves individuals coming together as equals in a forum for public debate.

The spread of mass media and mass entertainment causes the public sphere to become largely a sham. ‘Public opinion’ is not formed through open, rational discussion, but ‘through manipulation and control – as, for example, in advertising.

Jean Baudrillard regards impact of modern mass media as Hyper Reality The coming of the mass media, particularly electronic media such as Television, has transformed the very nature of our lives. TV does not just ‘represent’ the world to us; it increasingly defines, what the world in which we live actually is,; Consider as an example the trial of O. J. Simpson, a celebrated court case that unfolded in Los Angeles in 1994-5.

KSEEB Solutions

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!