1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 12 International Business – II

Karnataka 1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 12 International Business – II

You can Download Chapter 12 International Business – II Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – II Textual Questions and Answers

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – II Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which of the following documents are not required for obtaining an export license?
a. IEC number
b. Letter of credit
c. Registration cum membership certificate
d. Bank account number
Answer:
b. Letter of credit

Question 2.
Which of the following documents is not required in connection with an import transaction?
a. Bill of lading
b. Shipping bill
c. Certificate of origin
d. Bank account number
Answer:
b. Shipping bill

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Question 3.
Which of the following do not form part of duty drawback scheme?
a. Refund of excise duties
b. Refund of customs duties
c. Refund of export duties
d. Refund of income dock charges at the port of shipment
Answer:
d. Refund of income dock charges at the port of shipment

Question 4.
Which one of the following is not a document related to fulfill the customs formalities
a. Shipping bill
b. Export licence
c. Letter of insurance
d. Proforma invoice
Answer:
b. Export licence

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Question 5.
Which one of the following is not a part of export documents?
a. Commercial invoice
b. Certificate of origin
c. Bill of entry
d. Mate’s receipt
Answer:
c. Bill of entry

Question 6.
A receipt issued by the commanding officer of the ship when the cargo is loaded on the ship is known as
a. Shipping receipt
b. Mate receipt
c. Cargo receipt
d. Charter receipt
Answer:
b. Mate receipt

Question 7.
Which of the following document is prepared by the exporter and includes details of the cargo in terms of the shippers name, the number of packages, the shipping bill, port of destination, name of the vehicle carrying the cargo?
a. Shipping bill
b. Packaging list
c. Mate’s receipt
d. Bill of exchange
Answer:
a. Shipping bill

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Question 8.
The document containing the guarantee of a bank to honour drafts drawn on it by an exporter is
a. Letter of hypothecation
b. Letter of credit
c. Bill of lading
d. Bill of exchange
Answer:
b. Letter of credit

Question 9.
Which of the following does not belong to the World Bank group?
a. IBRD
b. JDA
c. MIGA
d. IMF
Answer:
d. IMF

Question 10.
TRIP is one of the WTO agreements that deal with
a. Trade in agriculture
b. Trade in services
c. Trade related investment measures
d. None of these
Answer:
d. None of these

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – II Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the formalities involved in getting an export license.
Answer:
Important formalities in getting an export license are as follows:

  1. Opening a bank account in any bank authorized by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and getting an account number.
  2. Obtaining Import Export Code (IEC) number from the Directorate General Foreign Trade (DGFT) or Regional Import Export Licensing Authority.
  3. Registering with appropriate export promotion council.
  4. Registering with Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation (ECGC) in order to safeguard against risks of non-payments.

Question 2.
Why is it necessary to get registered with an export promotion council?
Answer:
It is necessary for the exporter to become a member of the appropriate export promotion council and obtain a Registration Cum Membership Certificate (RCMC) for availing benefits available to export firms from the Government like duty exemptions, and these councils also provide incentives to the exporters.

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Question 3.
What is IEC number?
Answer:
Import Export Code (IEC) number is given to an export firm by Director General for Foreign Trade (DGFT) which the firm needs to be filled in various export/import documents. For obtaining the IEC number, a firm has to apply to the DGFT with documents such as exporter/importer profile, bank receipt of requisite fee, certificate from the banker on the prescribed form, two copies of photographs attested by the banker, details of the non-resident interest and declaration about the applicant’s non¬association with caution listed firms.

Question 4.
What is pre-shipment finance?
Answer:
Pre-shipment finance is the finance that the exporter needs before shipment of the order for procuring raw materials and other components, processing and packing of goods and transportation of goods to the port of shipment or we can say pre-shipment to undertake export production.

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Question 5.
Why is it necessary for an export firm to go in for pre-shipment inspection?
Answer:
An export firm has to go in for pre-shipment inspection as required by the Government of India to ensure that only good quality products are exported from the country. The government has passed Export Quality Control and Inspection Act, 1963 for this purpose of compulsory inspection of certain products by a competent agency as designated by the government.

If the product to be exported comes under such a category, the exporter needs to contact the Export Inspection Agency (ElA) or the other designated agency for obtaining inspection certificate. The pre-shipment inspection report is required to be submitted along with other export documents at the time of exports.

Such an inspection is not compulsory in case the goods are being exported by star trading houses, trading houses, export houses, industrial unit’s setup in Export Processing Zones/Special Economic Zones (EPZs/SEZs) and 100% Export Oriented Units (EOUs).

Question 6.
Discuss the procedure related to excise clearance of goods.
Answer:
The exporter has to apply, to the concerned Excise Commissioner in the region with an invoice because according to the Central Excise Tariff Act, excise duty is payable on the materials used in manufacturing goods. If the Excise Commissioner is satisfied, he may issue the excise clearance. But in many cases the government exempts payment of excise duty or later on refunds it if the goods so manufactured are meant for exports. This is done to provide an incentive to the exporters to export more and also to make the export products more competitive in the world markets.

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Question 7.
Explain briefly the process of customs clearance of export goods.
Answer:
The goods must be cleared from the customs before these can be loaded on the ship. For obtaining customs clearance, the exporter prepares the shipping bill which contains particulars of the goods being exported, the name of the vessel, the port at which goods are to be discharged, country of final destination, exporter’s name and address, etc. Five copies of the shipping bill along with the following documents are then submitted to the Customs Appraiser at the Customs House for clearance:

  1. Export Contract or Export Order
  2. Letter of Credit
  3. Commercial Invoice
  4. Certificate of Origin
  5. Certificate of Inspection, where necessary
  6. Marine Insurance Policy

After submission of these documents the superintendent of the concerned port trust is approached for carting order and after obtaining it, the Cargo is physically moved into the port area and stored in shed.

Question 8.
What is bill of lading? How does it differ from bill of entry?
Answer:
Bill of lading is issued by the shipping company after the receipt of freight; it serves as evidence that the shipping company has accepted the goods for carrying to the designated destination. In case the goods are being sent by air, this document is referred to as airway bill. On the other hand “Bill of entry” is filled by the importer for assessment of customs import duty.

One appraiser examines the document carefully and gives the examination order. The importer procures the said document prepared by the appraiser and pays the duty, if any After payment of the import duty, the bill of entry has to be presented to the dock superintendent. The examiner gives his report on the bili of entry which is then presented to the port authority which issues the release order after receiving necessary charges.

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Question 9.
What is Shipping Bill?
Answer:
Shipping bill is the main document on the basis of which the customs office gives the permission for export. Shipping bill contains particulars of the goods being exported, the name of the vessel, the port at which goods are to be discharged, country of final destination, exporters name and address, etc. Exporter prepares the shipping bill for obtaining customs clearance. Thus, we can say shipping bill is the bill which is prepared by exporter and required for the customs clearance.

Question 10.
Explain the meaning of Mate’s receipt.
Answer:
A mate receipt is a receipt issued by the commanding officer of the ship when the cargo is loaded on board, and contains the information about the name of the vessel, berth, date of shipment, description of packages, marks and numbers, condition of the cargo at the time of receipt on board the ship, etc. The port superintendent, on receipt of £ort dues, hands over the mate’s receipt to time C&F agent.

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Question 11.
What is a letter of credit? Why does an exporter need this document?
Answer:
A letter of credit is a guarantee issued by the importer’s bank that it will honor up to a certain amount of export bills to the bank of the exporter. Letter of credit is the most appropriate and secure method of payment adopted to settle international transactions. The exporter needs this letter to Insure against the non-payment of dues by the importer in the foreign country as there is always a risk in the collection of payment from the importers. Thus, in order to protect the exporter from financial loss “Letter of credit” is needed.

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Question 12.
Discuss the process involved in securing payment for exports.
Answer:
The process involved in securing payment for exports includes the following steps:

(i) After the shipment of goods, the exporter informs the importer about the shipment of goods.

(ii) The exporter sends the documents like certified copy of invoice, bill of lading, packing list, etc. needed by the importer to claim the title of goods on their arrival at his/her country and getting them customs cleared. These documents are sent through exporter’s banker with the instruction that these may be delivered to the importer after acceptance of the bill of exchange,

(iii) On receiving the bill of exchange, the importer releases the payment in case of sight draft or accepts the usance draft for making payment on maturity of the bill of exchange.

(iv) The exporter’s bank receives the payment through the importer’s bank and is credited to the exporter’s account.

(v) The exporter can get immediate payment from his/ her bank on the submission of documents by signing a letter of indemnity.

(vi) After receiving the payment for exports, the exporter needs to get a bank certificate of payment which states that the necessary documents relating to the particular export consignment have been presented to the importer for payment and the payment has been received in accordance with the exchange control regulations.

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Question 13.
Differentiate between the following (i) Sight and usance drafts (ii) Bill of lading and airway bill (iii) Pre-shipment and post-shipment finance
Answer:
(i) Sight and Usance Drafts: In the case of sight draft, the drawer instructs the bank to hand over the relevant documents to the importer against payment. But in the case of usance draft, the drawer- instructs the bank to hand over the relevant documents to the importer against acceptance of the bill of exchange.

(ii) Bill of Lading and Airway Bill: Bill of lading is a document prepared and signed by the master of the ship acknowledging the receipt of goods on board. It contains terms and conditions on which the goods are to be taken to the port of destination. On the other hand, Airway Bill is a document wherein an airline/shipping company gives its official receipt of the goods onboard its aircraft and at the same time gives an undertaking to carry them to the port of destination.

(iii) Pre-shipment and Post-shipment Finance: Pre-shipment finance is provided to an exporter for financing the purchase, processing, manufacturing or packaging of goods for export purpose while the post-shipment finance is provided to the exporter from the date of extending the credit after the shipment of goods to the export country.

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Question 14.
Explain the meaning of the following documents used in connection with import transactions (i) Trade enquiry (ii) Import license (iii) Shipment of advice (iv) Import general manifest (v) Bill of entry
Answer:
(i) Trade Enquiry: A trade enquiry is a written request by an importing firm to the exporter for supply of information regarding the price and various terms and conditions on which the latter is ready to exports goods.

(ii) Import License: License which permits the import of goods that cannot be imported freely is called an import license. The importer needs to consult the Export Import (IZXIM) policy in force to know whether the goods that he or she wants import are subject to import licensing. Iji case goods can be imported only the license the importer needs to procure an import license.

(iii) Shipment of Advice: Shipment advice contains information about the shipment of goods. The information provided in the shipment advice includes details such as invoice number, bill of lading/airways bill number and date, name of the vessel with date, the port of export, description of goods and quantity, and the date sailing of vessel. The overseas supplier dispatches the shipment advice to the importer after loading the goods on the vessel.

(iv) Import General Manifest: Import general manifest is a document that contains the details of the imported goods. It is a document on the basis of which unloading of cargo takes place. It is provided by the person in charge of the carrier (ship or airway) to the officer in charge at the dock.

(v) Bill of Entry: Bill of entry is a form filled by the importer for assessment of customs import duty. One appraiser examines the document carefully and gives the examination order. The importer procures the said document prepared by the appraiser and pays the duty, if any. After payment of the import duty, the bill of entry has to „ be presented to the dock superintendent. The examiner gives his report on the bill of entry which is then presented to the port authority which issues the release order after receiving necessary charges.

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Question 15.
List out major affiliated bodies of the World Bank.
Answer:
Major affiliated bodies of the World Bank are

  1. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
  2. International Financial Corporation (IFC)
  3. International Development Association (IDA)
  4. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
  5. International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)

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Question 16.
Write short notes on the following (i) UNCTAD (ii) MIGA (iii) World Bank (iv) ITPO (v) IMF
Answer:
(i) UNCTAD
TheUnitedNations Conference on Trade and Development(UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body. It is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues. The organization’s goals are to “maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of and developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis”. UNCTAD was created to address the concerns of developing countries over the international market, multi-national corporations, and the disparity between developed nations and developing nations.

The primary objective of the UNCTAD is to formulate policies relating to all aspects of development including trade, aid, transport, finance and technology. The conference ordinarily meets once in four years. UNCTAD has 194 member States and has its permanent secretariat in Geneva. One of the principal achievements of UNCTAD has been to conceive and implement the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). Under the GSP Scheme, manufactured goods exports and some agricultural goods from the developing countries enter duty-free or at reduced rates in the developed countries. This was done in order to promote exports of manufactured goods from developing countries.

(ii) MIGA
The Multinational Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) was established in April, 1988 to supplement the functions of the World Bank and IFC with the following objectives:

  1. To encourage flow of direct foreign investment into the less developed member countries.
  2. To provide insurance cover to investors against political risks.
  3. To provide guarantee against non-commercial risks (like currency transfer risk, war and civil disturbances and breach of contract).
  4. To insure new investments, expansion of existing investments, privatization and financial restructuring.
  5. To provide promotional and advisory services.
  6. To establish credibility.

(iii) World Bank
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly known as World Bank, emerged from the Breton Woods Conference. The main objectives of World Bank were to aid the task of reconstruction of the war-affected economies of Europe and assist in the development of the underdeveloped nations of the world. At present, the World Bank is a group of five international organizations responsible for providing finance to different countries. Its headquarters is situated at Washington DC. World Bank is entrusted with the task of economic growth and widening the scope of information trade.

During its initial years of inception, it placed more emphasis on developing infrastructure facilities like energy, transportation and others but the results were not found to be very satisfactory due to poor administrative structure, lack of institutional framework and non-availability of skilled labour in under developed countries. World , Bank also extends assistance to different countries of raising cash crops so that their ’ incomes rise and they may export the same for earning foreign exchange.

The bank has also been providing resources for education, sanitation, health care and scale enterprises. The World Bank is no longer confined to simply providing financial assistance for infrastructure development, agriculture, industry, health and sanitation. It is also involved in areas like removal of rural poverty through raising productivity, increasing income of the rural poor, providing technical support, and initiating research and cooperative ventures.

(iv) ITPO
Indian Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) was setup on 1 st January, 1992 under the Companies Act, 1956 by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India. Its head quarter is at New Delhi. ITPO was formed by merging the two erstwhile agencies viz., Trade Development Authority and Trade Fair Authority of India. ITPO is a service organization and maintains regular and close interaction with trade, industry and government.

It serves the industry by organizing trade fairs and exhibitions within the country as well as abroad, It helps export firms in participating in international trade fairs and exhibitions, developing exports of new items and providing support and updated commercial business information. ITPO has five regional offices at Mumbai, Bengaluru, Kolkata, Kanpur and Chennai and four international offices at Germany, Japan, UAE and USA.

(v) IMF
International Monetary Fund (IMF) came into existence in 1945 and has its headquarters located in Washington DC. In 2005, it had 191 countries as its members. The major idea underlying the setting up of the IMF is to evolve an orderly international monetary system to facilitate the system of international payments and adjustments in exchange ratesamong national currencies.

Some of the important functions of IMF include:

  1. Acting as a short-term credit institution.
  2. Providing machinery for the orderly adjustment of exchange rates.
  3. Acting as a reservoir of the currencies of all the member countries, from which a borrower nation can borrow the currency of other nations.
  4. Acting as a lending institution of foreign currency and current transaction.
  5. Determining the value of a country’s currency and altering it, if needed, so as to bring about an orderly adjustment of exchange rates of member countries.
  6. Providing machinery for international consultations.

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – II Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Rekha Garments has received an order to export 2000 men’s trousers to Swift Imports Limited located in Australia. Discuss the procedure that Rekha Garments would need to go through for executing the export order.
Answer:
Steps involved in executing the export order are as follows:
(i) Assessing Creditworthiness of Swift Imports Limited and Securing a Guarantee for Payments: After receiving the receipt of indent, Rekha Garments should make necessary enquiry about the Creditworthiness of Swift Imports Limited, in order to assess the risks of non-payment by the importer.

(ii) Obtaining Export License: After assuring about payments, the exporting firm Rekha Garments would initiate the steps relating to compliance of export regulations which demand that the export firm must have an export license before it proceeds with exports.

(iii) Obtaining Pre-shipment Finance: Rekha Garments would then approach its banker for obtaining pre-shipment finance to undertake export production, for procuring raw materials and other components, processing and packing of goods and transportation of goods to the port of shipment.

(iv) Production or Procurement of Goods: Rekha garments would proceed to get the goods ready as per the specifications of the importer. Either the firm would itself produce the goods or else buy them from the market.

(v) Pre-shipment Inspection: If the product to be exported comes under the category of compulsory inspection, Rekha Garments needs to contact the Export Inspection Agency (EIA) or the other designated agency for obtaining inspection certificate.

(vi) Excise Clearance: Rekha Garments would then have to apply to the concerned Excise Commissioner in the region with an invoice. If the Excise Commissioner is satisfied, he would issue the excise clearance. Rekha Garments may get the refund
of excise duty known as drawback as it is exporting the goods.

(vii) Obtaining Certificate of Origin: Some importing countries provide tariff concessions or other exemptions to the goods coming from a particular country. If such benefits are available, the importer may ask the exporter to send a certificate of origin.

(viii) Reservation of Shipping Space: The exporting firm applies to the shipping company for provision of shipping space. It has to specify the types of goods to be exported, probable date of shipment and destination, the port of destination. On acceptance of application for shipping, the shipping company issues a shipping order.

(ix) Packing and Forwarding: The goods are then properly packed and marked with necessary details such as name and address of the importer, gross and net weight, port of shipment and destination, country of origin, etc. Rekha Garments would then have to make necessary arrangement for transportation of goods to the port.

(x) Insurance of Goods: The exporter would then get the goods insured with an insurance company to protect against the risks of loss or damage of the goods due to the perils of the sea during the transit.

(xi) Customs Clearance: The goods must be cleared from the customs before these can be loaded on the ship. For obtaining customs clearance, Rekha Garments would have to prepare the shipping bill. Five copies of the shipping bill along with the other required documents would then be submitted to the Customs Appraiser at the customs house.

(xii) Obtaining Mates Receipt: The goods are then loaded on board the ship ’ for which the mate or the captain of the ship issues mate’s receipt to the port superintendent.

(xiii) Payment of Freight and Issuance of Bill of Lading After the receipt of freight, the shipping company would issue a bill of lading which serves as an evidence that the shipping company has accepted the goods for carrying to the designated destination.

(xiv) Preparation of Invoice: After sending the goods, an invoice of the dispatched goods would be prepared. The invoice states the quantity of goods sent and the amount to be paid by the importer and would be presented to Swift Imports limited for payment.

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Question 2.
Your firm is planning to import textile machinery from Canada. Describe the procedure involved in importing.
Answer:
Following is the procedure involved in importing textile machinery from Canada:

(i) Trade Enquiry
The importing firm approaches the textile machinery export firms in Canada with the help of trade enquiry they collecting information about their export prices and terms of exports. After receiving a trade enquiry, the exporter will prepare a quotation called proforma invoice and send it to our firm.

(ii) Procurement of Import License
We will consult the Export Import (EXIM) policy in force to know whether the textile machinery import^re subject to import licensing. In case it can be imported only against the licence, we will procure an import licence.

(iii) Obtaining Foreign Exchange
As payment for imports will be made in Canadian dollars, our firm will have to make an application to a bank authorized by RBI to issue foreign exchange.

(iv) Placing Order or Indent
After obtaining the import licence, our firm will place an import order or indent with the exporter for supply of the specified products containing information about the price, quantity, grade and quality of machinery and the instructions relating to packing, shipping, ports of shipment and destination, delivery schedule, insurance and mode of payment.

(v) Obtaining Letter of Credit
If the payment terms agreed between us and the overseas supplier then our firm should obtain the letter of credit from its bank and forward it to the overseas supplier.

(vi) Arranging for Finance
Our firm would make arrangements in advance to pay to the exporter on arrival of goods at the port.

(vii) Receipt of Shipment Advice
Advice After loading the ordered textile machinery on the vessel, the overseas supplier will dispatch the shipment advice to our firm which contains information about the shipment of goods.

(viii) Retirement of Import Documents
After shipping the machinery, the overseas supplier will prepare a set of necessary documents including bill of exchange, commercial invoice, bill of lading/airway bill, packing list, certificate of origin, marine insurance policy, etc. and will hand it over Mo his or her banker for their onward transmission and negotiation to our firm. The acceptance of bill of exchange for the purpose of getting deliveiy of the documents is known as retirement of import documents after which the bank handover the import documents to the importer.

(ix) Arrival of Goods
Goods will be shipped by the overseas supplier as per the contract. The officer in charge at the dock will provide the document called import general manifest on the basis of which unloading of cargo will take place.

(x) Customs Clearance and Release of Goods
Textile machinery imported into India will have to pass through customs clearance. Firstly, our firm will have to obtain a delivery order, pay dock dues and obtain port trust dues receipt and then fill in a form bill of entry for assessment of customs import duty. After payment of the import duty, the bill of entry has to be presented to the dock superintendent. The examiner will give his report on the bill of entry and we will present the bill of entry to the port authority who will issue the release order after receiving necessary charges.

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Question 3.
Discuss the principal documents used in exporting.
Answer:
Following are the principal documents used in exporting:
(i) Documents Related to Goods

(a) Export Invoice
Export invoice is a sellers bill for merchandise and contains information about goods such as quantity, total value, number of packages, marks on packing, port of destination, name of ship, bill of lading number, terms of delivery and payments, etc.

(b) Packing List
A packing list is a statement of the number of cases or packs and the details of the goods contained in these packs. It gives details of the nature of goods, which are being exported and the form in which these are being sent.

(c) Certificate of Origin
This is a certificate which specifies the country in which the goods are being produced which entitles the importer to claim tariff concessions or other exemptions on goods originating from certain pre-specified countries.

(d) Certificate of Inspection
For ensuring quality, the government has made it compulsory for certain products to be inspected by some authorized agency like Export Inspection Council of India (EICI) which issues the certificate that the consignment has been inspected as required under the Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963, and satisfies the conditions relating to quality control and inspection as applicable to it, and is export worthy.

(ii) Documents Related to Shipment

(a) Mate’s Receipt
The mate’s receipt indicates the name of the vessel, berth, date of shipment, description of packages, marks and numbers, condition of the cargo at the time of receipt on board the ship, etc. and is given by the commanding officer of the ship to the exporter after the cargo is loaded on the ship.

(b) Shipping Bill
The shipping bill contains particulars of the goods being exported, the name of the vessel, the port at which goods are to be discharged, country of final destination, exporter’s name and address, etc. It is the main document on the basis of which custom; office grants permission for the export.

(c) Bill of Lading/Airway Bill
Bill of lading is issued by the shipping company after receipt of the freight, which serves as an evidence that the shipping company has accepted the goods for carrying to the designated destination. In the case the goods are being sent by air, this document is referred to as airway bill.

(d) Marine Insurance Policy
It is a certificate of insurance contract whereby the insurance company agrees in consideration of a payment called premium to indemnify the insured against loss incurred by the latter in respect of goods exposed to perils of the sea.

(iii) Documents Related to Payment

(a) Letter of Credit
A letter of credit is a guarantee issued by the importer’s bank that it will honor up to a certain amount the payment of export bills to the bank of the exporter. Letter of credit is the most appropriate and secure method of payment adopted to settle international transactions.

(b) Bill of Exchange
Bill of exchange is a written instrument drawn by exporter on the importer asking the latter to pay a certain amount to a certain person or the bearer of the bill of exchange. The documents giving title to the export consignment are passed on to the importer only when the importer accepts the order contained in the bill of exchange.

(c) Bank Certificate of Payment
Bank certificate of payment is a certificate that the necessary documents relating to the particular export consignment has been presented to the importer for payment and the payment has been received in accordance with the exchange control regulations.

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Question 4.
List and explain various incentives and schemes that the government has evolved for promoting the country’s export.
Answer:
Major export promotion measures are as follows:
(i) Duty Drawback Scheme Excise and customs duties paid on export goods are refunded to exporters on production of proof of exports of these goods to the concerned authorities.

(ii) Export Manufacturing Under Bond Scheme This facility entitles firms to produce goods without payment of excise and other duties if the firms give an undertaking (i.e., bond) that they are manufacturing goods for export purposes and will export such products on their production.

(iii) Exemption from Payment of Sales Taxes and Income Tax Goods Meant for Export Purposes are not Subject to Sales Tax Exemption from income tax is available only to 100% Export Oriented Units (100 % EOUs) and units set up in Export Processing Zones (EPZs)/Special Economic Zones (SEZs) for select years.

(iv) Advance Licence Scheme It is a scheme under which an exporter is allowed to duty free supply of domestic as well as imported inputs required for the manufacture of export goods.

(v) Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme (EPCGS) The main objective of this scheme is to encourage the important of capital goods for export production. This scheme allows export firms to import capital goods at very low rates of customs duties subject to actual user condition and fulfillment of specified export obligations.

(vi) Scheme of Recognizing Export Firms as Export House, Trading House and Superstar Trading House The government grants the status of export house, trading House, star trading house to select export firms based on achieving a prescribed average export of performance in past select years and assistance is given to them in marketing their products globally.

(vii) Export of Services In order to boost the export of services, various categories of service houses have been recognized on the basis of the export performance of the service providers.

(viii) Export Finance Finance is made available at concessional rates of interest to the exporters. Pre-shipment finance is provided to an exporter for financing the purchase, processing, manufacturing or packaging of goods for export purpose. Post-shipment finance is provided to the exporter from the date of extending the credit after the shipment of goods to the export country.

(ix) Export Processing Zones (EPZs) Export processing zones are industrial estates usually situated near seaports or airports with an objective to provide an internationally competitive duty free environment for export production at low cost. EPZs are now converted to Special Economic Zones (SEZs) which are free from all rules and regulations governing imports and exports units except relating to labour and banking.

(x) 100% Export Oriented Units (100 per cent EOUs) The 100%. Export oriented units scheme was introduced in early 1981 adopting the same production regime as EPZs but a wider option in location. EOUs were established with a view to generating additional production capacity for exports by providing an appropriate policy framework, flexibility of operations and incentives.

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Question 5.
Identify various organizations that have been set up in the country by the government for promoting country’s foreign trade.
Answer:
Various organizations that have been set up in the country by the government for promoting country’s foreign trade are as follows:

(i) Department of Commerce
Department of Commerce in the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India is the apex body responsible for formulating policies in the sphere of foreign trade, increasing commercial relations with other countries, state trading, export promotional measures and the development, and regulation of certain export-oriented industries and commodities.

(ii) Export Promotion Councils (EPCs)
Export Promotion Councils are non-profit organizations registered under the Companies Act or the Societies Registration Act, as the case may be. Their basic objective is to promote and develop the country’s exports of particular products falling under their jurisdiction.

(iii) Commodity Boards Commodity
Boards are the boards which have been specially established by the Government of India for the development of production of traditional commodities and their exports and supplement the EPCs. At present there are seven commodity boards in India: Coffee Board, Rubber Board, Tobacco Board, Spice Board, Central Silk Board, Tea Board, and Coir Board.

(iv) Export Inspection Council (EIC)
Export Inspection Council of India was setup by the Government of India under Section 3 of the Export Quality Control and Inspection Act 1963. The council aims at sound development of export trade through quality control and pre-shipment inspection.

(v) Indian Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO)
Indian Trade Promotion Organisation was setup on 1 st January 1992. ITPO is a service organization which serves the industry by organizing trade fairs and exhibitions within the country and abroad and helps export firms in participating in international trade fairs and in developing exports of new items.

(vi) Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT)
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade is an institution that was setup in 1963 by the Government of India as an autonomous body. It has recently been recognized as Deemed University. It provides training in international trade, conduct researches in areas of international business, and analyzing and disseminating data relating to international trade and investments.

(vii) Indian Institute of Packaging (IIP)
The Indian Institute of Packaging was set up as a national institute jointly by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, and the Indian Packaging Industry and allied interests in 1966. It is a training-cum-research institute pertaining to packaging and testing and caters to both domestic and export markets. It also undertakes technical consultancy, testing services on packaging developments, training and educational programmes, promotional award contests, information services and other allied activities.

(viii) State Trading Organizations
The State Trading Organisation (STC) was set-up in May 1956 with the main objective of to stimulate trade, primarily export trade among different trading partners of the ’.world. Later the government set up many organization such as Metals and Minerals Trading corporation (MMTC) and Handicrafts Export Corporation (HHEC).

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Question 6.
What is World Bank? Discuss its various objectives and role of its affiliated agencies.
Answer:
The World Bank was established in 1944, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), is the common name of World Bank, which was formed as a result of the Bretton Woods Conference. The main objectives behind setting up this international organization to aid the task of reconstruction of the war-affected economics of Europe and assist in the development of the underdeveloped nations of the world, Till late 1950s, the World Bank remained preoccupied with the task of restoring war-torn nations in Europe after which it turned its attention to the development of underdeveloped nations. Various objectives and roles of its affiliated agencies are given below International Development Association (IDA)

The main objectives of IDA are:

  1. It provides finance on easy terms.
  2. It provides help in poverty alleviation.
  3. It provides help in economic development programmes.
  4. Extend macroeconomic management services.

The Multinational Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Major objectives of MIGA are:

  1. To encourage flow of direct foreign investment into the less developed member countries.
  2. To provide insurance cover to investors against political risks.
  3. To provide guarantee against non-commercial risks (like dangers involved in currency transfer, war and civil disturbances and ,breach of contract).
  4. To insure new investments, expansion of existing investments, privatization and financial restructuring.
  5. To provide promotional and advisory services.
  6. To establish credibility.

We can conclude that the World Bank is no longer confined to simply providing financial assistance for infrastructure development, agriculture, industry, health and sanitation and is involved in areas like removal of rural poverty through raising productivity, providing technical support, and initiating research and cooperative ventures.

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Question 7.
What is IMF? Discuss its various objectives and functions.
Answer:
International Monetary Fund (IMF) came into existence in 1945 with an aim to evolve an orderly international monetary system, i.e., facilitating system of international payments and adjustments in exchange rates among national currencies. Its headquarters is located in Washington DC. In 2005, it had 191 countries as its members.

Major Objectives of IMF

  1. To promote international monetary cooperation through a permanent institution.
  2. To facilitate expansion of balanced growth of international trade and to contribute thereby to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of employment and real income.
  3. To promote exchange stability with a view to maintain orderly exchange arrangements among member countries.
  4. To assist in the establishment of a multilateral system of payments in respect of current transactions between members.

Functions of IMF

  1. Acting as a short-term credit institution.
  2. Providing machinery for the orderly adjustment of exchange rates.
  3. Acting as a reservoir of the currencies of all the member countries, from which a borrower nation can borrow the currency of other nations.
  4. Acting as a lending institution of foreign currency and current transaction.
  5. Determining the value of a country’s currency and altering it, if needed, so as to bring about an orderly adjustment of exchange rates of member countries.
  6. Providing machinery for international consultations.

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Question 8.
Write a detailed note on features, structure, objectives and functioning of WTO.
Answer:
GATT was transformed into World Trade Organisation (WTO) with effect from 1 st January 1995. The headquarters of WTO are situated at Geneva, Switzerland.

Features of WTO

  1. WTO is a permanent organization created by an international treaty ratified by the governments and legislatures of member states.
  2. It governs trade not only in goods, but also in services and intellectual property rights.
  3. It is a member driven rule-based organization in the sense that all the decisions are taken by the member governments on the basis of a general consensus.
  4. It is the principal international body concerned with solving trade problems between countries and providing a forum for multilateral trade negotiations.
  5. It has a global status similar to that of the IMF and the World Bank.
  6. As on 11th December 2005, there were 149 members in WTO.

Structure of WTO

(i) WTO comprises of The Ministerial Conference, which is composed of international trade ministers from all member countries and is responsible for setting the strategic direction of the organization and making all final decisions on agreements under its wings. The Ministerial Conference meets at least once ever two years.

(ii) The General Council is composed of senior representatives of all members responsible for overseeing the day-to-day business and management of the WTO.

(iii) The Trade Policy Review Body is also composed of all the WTO members. It periodically reviews the trade policies and practices of all member states.

(iv) The Dispute Settlement Body is also composed of all the WTO members and oversees the implementation and effectiveness of the dispute resolution process for all WTO agreements.

(v) The Councils on Trade in Goods and Trade in Services operate under the mandate of the General Council and are composed of all members. They provide a mechanism to oversee the details of the general and specific agreements on trade in goods and services.

(vi) The Secretariat and Director General undertakes the administrative functions of running all aspects of the organization. The Secretariat has no legal decision making powers but provides vital services, and often advice, to those who do. The Secretariat is headed by the Director General, who is elected by the members.

(vii) The Committee on Trade and Development and Committee on Trade and Environment have specific mandates to focus on these relationships, which are especially relevant to how the WTO deals with sustainable development issues.

Major Objectives of WTO

  1. To ensure reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers imposed by different countries.
  2. To engage in such activities which improve the standards of living, create employment, increase income and effective demand and facilitate higher production and trade.
  3. To facilitate the optimal use of the world’s resources for sustainable development.
  4. To promote an integrated, more viable and durable trading system.

Functions of WTO

  1. Promoting an environment that is encouraging to its member countries to come forward to WTO in mitigating their grievances.
  2. Laying down a commonly accepted code of conduct with a view to reducing trade barriers including tariffs and eliminating discriminations in international trade relations.
  3. Acting as a dispute settlement body.
  4. Ensuring that all the rules and regulations prescribed in the Act are duly followed by the member countries for the settlement of their disputes.
  5. Holding consultations with IMF and IBRD and its affiliated agencies so as to bring better understanding and cooperation in global economic policy making.
  6. Supervising on a regular basis the operations of the revised Agreements and Ministerial declarations relating to goods, services and Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – II Additional Questions And Answers

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – II Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which of the following is not an economic rationale for trade intervention?
a. preservation of national identity
b. balance of payments considerations
c. employment
d. protection to domestic industry
Answer:
a. preservation of national identity

Question 2.
Fujairah is a free trade zone located in
a. Sharjah
b. Cairo
c. Dubai
d. Mumbai
Answer:
c. Dubai

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Question 3.
Direct payments made by the government to domestic companies to encourage exports or to protect them from imports are known as
a. subsidies
b. export tariffs
c. voluntary export restraints
d. aids
Answer:
a. subsidies

Question 4.
A quantitative import or export restriction which prohibits or limits the quantity of a product being exported or imported is called
a. quota
b. import tariff
c. embargo
d. restraint
Answer:
a. quota

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Question 5.
Bilateral agreements that restrict exports are called
a. voluntary export restraints
b. export quotas
c. transit tariffs
d. orderly marketing arrangements
Answer:
a. voluntary export restraints

Question 6.
The WTO was born out of negotiations in which round of the GATT?
a. Uruguay Round
b. Geneva Round
c. Tokyo Round
d. Torquay Round
Answer:
a. Uruguay Round

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Question 7.
Which of the following is referred to as a predecessor to WTO?
a. World Bank
b. IMF
c. GATF
d. OPEC
Answer:
c. GATF

Question 8.
The quota that restricted trade in textiles was known as
a. TRIMS
b. MFA
c. GATS
d. TRIPS
Answer:
b. MFA

Question 9.
The current round of negotiation in the WTO is known as the
a. Torquay Round
b. Seattle Summit
c. Cancun Meet
d. Doha Development Round (DDA)
Answer:
d. Doha Development Round (DDA)

Question 10.
UNCTAD was established in
a. New York in 1964
b. Geneva in 1958
c. Geneva-in 1964
d. Washington DCin 1947
Answer:
c. Geneva-in 1964

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Question 11.
An industrial unit which offers its entire production for export is called
a. FTZ
b. EPZ
c. EOU
d. industrial estate
Answer:
c. EOU

Question 12.
An industrial estate whose production is normally intended for exports is called
a. EOU
c. EOU
c. FTZ
d. SEZ
Answer:
c. EOU

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – II Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is pre-shipment finance?
Answer:
After obtaining the necessary export license, the exporter has to approach his banker to obtain pre-shipment finance for carrying out production or procumbent of goods, if he is in need of such finance.

Question 2.
What is bill of lading?
Answer:
A bill of lading is an official receipt issued by the shipping company for the receipt of goods on board the ship.

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Question 3.
What is shipping bill?
Answer:
A shipping bill is a document prepared by an exporter or his forwarding agent, stating there in the various details of the goods exported.

Question 4.
What is mate’s receipt?
Answer:
When the ship arrives at the port, the dock authorities will arrange for the loading of the goods on board the ship. When goods are loaded on board the ship, the mate will issue a receipt know as mate’s Receipt to the Dock Authorities.

Question 5.
What is bill of entry?
Answer:
A bill of entry is a form supplied by the customs office to the importer it is to be filled in by the importer at the time of receiving the goods. It is prepared in triplicate and is submitted to the customs office.

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Question 6.
What is charter party?
Answer:
The contract entered into by the exporter with the owner of the ship for hiring or a part of the ship is known as Charter party.

Question 7.
What is letter of credit?
Answer:
A letter of credit is a letter issued by a bank I the importer and a validity date by which the goods must be dispatched by the exporter upto a specified amount in respect of the goods.

Question 8.
What is an indent?
Answer:
Indent is a document which the importer sends to the exporter in which he orders the supply of required goods.

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Question 9.
What is duty drawbacks?
Answer:
Under this scheme, goods meant for exports are exempted from payment of excise and customs duly. Therefore, and such duty paid on export goods are refunded to exporters on the production of proof of export of goods, to the concerned authorities, such refunds are called customs drawbacks.

Question 10.
Write a note on UNCTAD.
Answer:
The general dissatisfaction of the developing countries with the GATT and the need for new international co-operation in the field of trade and aid to reduce the trade gap of developing countries led to the establishment of the United Nation Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) as a subsidiary organ of the United Nation in December, 1964. The first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD-1) was attended by About 120 member countries. The head-quarters of UNCTAD are in Geneva in Switzerland.

Aim of UNCTAD: The principal aim of UNCTAD is to promote international trade so as to accelerate the economic growth of underdeveloped countries and to bring them in line with the advance countries.

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Question 11.
Write a note on World Bank.
Answer:
No doubt, the International Monetary fund, the first of the twins born at Bretton Woods, is an international financial institution intended for providing finical assistance to member countries. But financial assistance from the I.M.F is available only for correcting a temporary disequilibrium in the balance of payments of member countries, and not for adjusting the fundamental disequilibrium in the balance of payments. In other words only short-term financial assistance is available from the I.M.F., and not long-term financial assistance.

Question 12.
Write a note on IMF.
Answer:
The hard-felt need for international monetary co-operation led to the Bretton woods Conference of July, 1944. At the conference, the “Keynes” and the “white’s Plan” were discussed in detail by the representatives of 44 countries, and it was decided to start tow international financial institutions. IMF International Monetary Fund) and India: India is one of the founder members of the I.M.F. It is one of the largest subscribers. Its subscription is next only to the U.S.A. the U.K. West, Germany, France, Japan and Saudi Arabia.

Question 13.
Distinguish between GATT and WTO.
Answer:
The two difference between GATT and WTO.

The General Agreement on Trade & Tariffs World Trade Organization
l. The GATT was an adhoc or temporary 1. The WTO is a permanent arrangement.
2. The GATT is the predecessor of the WTO. 2. The WTO is the successor of the GATT.

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Question 14.
State the functions of WTO.
Answer:
The important functions of WTO are:

  1. Acting as dispute settlement body.
  2. Eliminating discrimination in international trade relation.
  3. Laying down a commonly accepted code of conduct with view to reduce trade barriers.

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – II Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Explain any two functions of Word Bank.
Answer:
Functions of the World Bank:
The functions of the World bank are as follow

i. Granting of Loans: The most important function of the Bank is the granting of liberal long-term untied loans to member countries for specific development projects in the field of agriculture, irrigation, power, water supply, industry, transport, education, etc.

ii. Provision of Technical Assistance: Another important function of the Bank is the provision of technical assistance to the member countries. It sends to the member countries its economic resources. It assigns highly qualified experts to member countries to provide advice on economic development programmes. It also gives short-term training o the officers of the member countries in the preparation and implementation of development projects through the Economic development institute, set up in 1956.

iii. Other Functions: In addition to the provision of financial and technical assistance to member countries, the Bank performs some other functions also. It uses its good offices for the settlement of disputes between member countries. For instance, it has settled the dispute between India and Pakistan regarding the sharing of the water of the Indus basin. Similarly, it has settled the dispute between England and U.A.R. regarding the compensation for the nationalization of the Suez Canal.

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Question 2.
Explain any two functions of IMF.
Answer:
The main functions of the International Monetary Fund are:

1. Promotion of Exchange Stability: The fund is convinced that stable exchange rates are essential for the balanced growth the multilateral trade. With this end in view, it has taken upon itself the responsibility of maintaining stable exchange rates among the currencies of member counties.

2. Elimination of Exchange Control and Other Exchange Restrictions: The Fund feels that, if there are restrictions on purchase and sale of foreign exchange, the rates of exchange- agreed’ upon cease to be effective. So, it wants to ensure that there are no exchange control and other exchange restrictions on ordinary trade and current transactions.

3. Granting of Loans out of its Financial Resources: The Fund can use its resource for granting loans to member countries. A member country facing a temporary deficit in its balance of payments can purchase from the Fund the required foreign currency to meet the deficit by offering its own currency in exchange. The purchase of the required foreign currency from the Fund by Member Country by giving its own currency in return is call a load from the fund.

4. Management of Scarce Currencies: Sometimes, it may so happen that many member countries may demand from the Fund the currency of the particular country, because all of them are indebted to that country on account of the chronic favorable balance of trade enjoyed by that country. If such a situation arises, the Fund will try to increase the supply of that currency either by borrowing from the country concerned or by purchasing that currency with gold. If the supply of that currency, still, proves to be insufficient to satisfy the needs of all the needy members, the fund declares the currency scarce, and rations that currency among the countries needing them.

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Question 3.
Write a note on GATT.
Answer:
Formation of The General Agreement on Trade and Tarifs. The General agreement on Trade and tariffs was a contractual agreement among the member nations. It was signed in 1947, and came into force on 1st January, 1948. The GATT was launched at Geneva in 1948 by 23 countries including India. The GATT comprised a trade pact among the member countries. The GATT was basically a forum for international bargaining on the removal of barriers to international trade and to liberalise the international trade among the member countries.

The GATT is the predecessor of the WTO. The GATT deals with international agreement on trade in goods. The dispute settlement system provided by the GATT was not effective. The GATT was just a set of rules and multinational agreement with no institutional foundation.

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Question 4.
What is special economic zone?
Answer:
Special economic zones are those zones which are specially designed duty free enclaves deemed as foreign territory for the purpose of trade operations, duties and tariff. They are free from import-export regulations except those relating to banking and labour. They are give incentives and facilities for their establishment and development.

A special economic zone may be set up for the manufacture of goods and rendering of services, processing, assembling, trading, repair, remaking, reconditioning, re¬engineering including making of gold, silver or platinum jewellery or articles thereof in connection there with.

The important features of special economic zones are:

  1. Setting up a manufacturing, trading or service unit is allowed.
  2. Creation of designated duty-free enclave treated as a foreign territory for trade operations, duties and tariffs.
  3. No license is required for setting up these units.
  4. Domestic sales are subject to customs duty and import duty policy in force.
  5. 100% foreign direct investment is permitted through automatic route in the manufacturing sector.

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Question 5.
What is export processing zone?
Answer:
Export possessing zones are industrial estates which form enclaves form the domestic tariff area. These are usually situated near sea ports or air ports. They are intended to provide and internationally competitive duty-free environment for export production at low cost.

Today, there are seven export processing zones in the country. They are:

  1. Kandla Export Processing Zone at Kandla in Gujarat.
  2. Santa Cruz Electronic Export Processing Zone at Santa Cruz in Mumbai.
  3. Noida Export Processing Zone at Noida in Uttar Pradesh.
  4. Madras Export Processing Zone at Chennai in Tamil Nadu.
  5. Cochin Export Processing Zone at Kochi in Kerala.
  6. Falta Export Processing Zone at Falta in West Bengal.
  7. Vishakhapatnam Export processing Zone at Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.

In the export processing zones, raw materials, intermediate products, equipments and machinery are allowed to be imported without payment of customs duty. The products of the units located in these zones are generally exported.

It may be noted that recently the export processing zones have been converted into special economic zones which are more advanced from of export processing zones.

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Question 6.
Explain the export documents.
Answer:
A number of documents are used in export bunnies.
The various documents used in export business can be broadly classified into three categories. They are:

I. Documents related to goods.
The various documents related to goods are:

  1. Letter of Enquiry: Receipt of an enquiry from the prospective importer is the first step in export procedure.
  2. Quotation: After receiving the letter of enquiry from the importer, the exporter sends his reply to the importer through a Quotation referred to as proforma invoice.
  3.  Indent or order: If the importer is satisfies with the quotation, he accepts the quotation and sends to the exporter and order directly or an indent though an intermediary like indent house, export house etc.
  4. Invoice or Foreign Invoice: The exporter has to prepare and send to the importer an invoice known as Export Invoice.
  5. Packing List: A pacing list is a statement which states the number of cases or packs and the details of the goods contained in the packs.
  6. Certificate of Origin: The Certificate of origin will be sent by the exporter to the importer along with the other shipping documents.
  7. Consular invoice: The exporter has to get a Consular Invoice form the consul of the Importing Country residing in the exporting county.
  8. Certificate of Inspection: The authorized agency carries out the inspection of goods and issues a certificate called the certificate of inspection.

II. Documents related to shipment.

The various documents related to shipment are:

  1. Shipping order: If the shipping company is willing to carry’ the goods, it will issue to the forwarding agent a document called shipping Order.
  2. Charter Party: The contract entered into by the exporter with the owner of the ship for hiring or a part of the ship is known as Charter party.
  3. Shipping bill: A shipping bill is a document prepared by an exporter or his forwarding agent, stating there in the various details of the goods exported.
  4. Dock Receipt: After getting the Customs Export pass, the forwarding agent has to arrange for carrying the goods to the dock.
  5. Mate’s Receipt: When the ship arrives at the port, the dock authorities will arrange for the loading of the goods on board the ship. When goods are loaded onboard the ship, the mate will issue a receipt known as mate’s Receipt to the Dock Authorities.
  6. Bill of lading: A bill of lading is an official receipt issued by the shipping company for the receipt of goods on board the ship.
  7. Cart Ticket: cart ticket, car chit or gate pass is prepared by the exporter.
  8. Marine Insurance Policy: After the shipment of the goods, the forwarding agent will arrange for the insurance of the good s with a marine insurance company.

III. Document related to payment.

The various documents related to payment are:

1. Letter of Credit: A letter of credit is a letter issued by a bank of the importer and a validity date by which the goods must be dispatched by the exporter upto a specified amount in respect of the goods.

2. Foreign Bill of Exchange: Foreign bill of exchange is one of the methods of obtaining payment for the exports.

3. Bank certificate of Payment: Bank certificate of payment is a certificate which states that the necessary documents including the bill of exchange relating to the particular export consignment have been negotiated and the payment has been received in accordance with the exchange control regulations.

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Question 7.
Explain the import documents.
Answer:
Many documents are used in import business. The important documents used in import business are:

1. Trade Enquiry: A letter of enquiry or a trade enquiry is a letter written by an importer to an exporter requesting him to provide information regarding the price and various terms and conditions on which the exporter is willing to export the goods required by the importer.

2. Proforma Invoice: A proforma invoice is a document sent by the exporter to the importer stating the details as to the quality, grade, design, size, weight and price of the export goods and the terms and conditions on which those goods will be exported. It is similar to a quotation give by the exporter to the importer.

3. Indent or Import Order: An import order or indent is a document which the importer sends to the exporter in which he orders the supply of required goods.

4. Letter of Credit: In shot, a letter of credit is a document that contains guarantees from the importers bank to hour the payment upto a specified amount of the bill of exchanged drawn by exporter fro importer goods to the importer.

5. Shipment Advice: Shipment advice is a document sent by the importer to the importer stating that the shipment of goods has been made.

6. Bill of Lading: As explained in the context of export documents, a bill of lading is a documents, a bill of lading is a document prepared and signed by the master of the ship, acknowledging the receipt of goods on board the ship. The also contain the terms and conditions in which the goods are to be taken to the port of destination.

7. Bill of Entry: A bill of entry is form supplied by the customs office to the importer it is to be filled in by the importer at the time of receiving the goods. It is prepared and is submitted to the customs office.

8. Bill of exchange: In the context of export trade, a bill of exchange to drawn by the exporter on the importer asking him to pay a certain amount to a certain person or the bearer of the instrument.

9. Import general Manifest: Import general manifest is a document that contains the details of the imported goods is the document on the basis of which unloading of cargo takes place.

10. Dock Challan: Dock charges are required to be paid when all the formalities of customs are completed. So, the importer or his clearing agent pays the dock dues or charges.

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Question 8.
Explain the institutional support provided by the Government for the promotion of foreign trade.
Answer:
Every country is interested in promoting its foreign trade, particularly exports. The government of India has introduced the following schemes for the promotion of India’s foreign trade.

1. Advance license Scheme: Under this scheme, an exporter is allowed duty free supply of domestic as well as imported inputs required for the manufacture of export goods. This scheme is available to both exporters who export on a regular basis and also to those who export on adhoc basis.

2. Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme: This scheme is intended to encourage
the import of capital goods for producing export goods. Under this scheme, export firms are allowed to import capital goods at negligible or lower rates of customs duties subject o actual user conditions and fulfillment of specified export obligations.

3. Export of services: Under this scheme, to boost the export of services, various ’ categories of service houses have been recognized on the basis of their export performance. They are referred to as service export house, International Service Export house and International Star service Export House on the basis of their export performance.

4. Export Finance: Exporters require finance not only for producing goods for export but also after the shipment of the goods, because it may take some time to receive payment from the importers. Therefore, two types of export finances are made available to exporters by authorized banks.

5. Duty Drawback Scheme: Under this scheme, goods meant, for exports are exempted from payment of excise and customs duty. Therefore, and such duty paid on export goods are refunded to exporters on the production of proof of export of goods, to the concerned authorities, such refunds are called customs drawbacks.

6. Export Manufacturing under Bond Scheme: Under this scheme, Business firms can produce goods without payment of excise and other duties. But the firms desirous of getting such a facility have to give an undertaking that they are manufacturing goods for exports purposes and will export such products on their production.

7. Exemption from Payment of sales Taxes and Income-Tax: Under this scheme, goods meant for export purposes are exempted from payment pf sales tax. Further, the income derived from export operations have exempted from payment of income-tax a long time. However, at present, exemption from income- tax is available only to 100% export -oriented units and units set up in Export processing Zones/special Economic Zones for select years.

8. Scheme of Recognizing export firm as Export house, Trading House and Star Trading House: This scheme is intended to promote established exporters and help them in marketing their products in international markets. Under this scheme, the Government grants the status of Export House, Trading House and Star Trading House to select export firms. This status is granted to firms only on their achieving prescribed average export performance in the past select years and also on their fulfillment of other conditions as laid down in the import-export policy.

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1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules

You can Download Chapter 9 Biomolecules Questions and Answers, 1st PUC Biology Question Bank with Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What are macromolecules? Give examples.
Answer:
Biomacromolecules are found in acid-insoluble fractions. They are polymeric compounds e.g., polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. They have a high molecular weight of more than 1000 Daltons.

Question 2.
Illustrate a glycosidic, peptide, and phosphodiester bond.
Answer:
Peptide bond: In a polypeptide or a protein, amino acids are linked by a peptide bond which is formed when the carboxyl (COOH) group of one amino acid reacts with the amino (NH2) group of the next amino acid with the removal of a water molecule.
Glycosidic bond: In a polysaccharide, the individual monosaccharides are linked by a glycosidic bond. This bond is also formed by dehydration. This bond is formed between two carbon atoms of two adjacent monosaccharides.

Phosphodiester bond: In a nucleic acid, a phosphate moiety links the 3’-carbon of one sugar of one nucleotide to the 5’-carbon of the sugar of the succeeding nucleotide. The bond between the phosphate and hydroxyl group of sugar is an ester bond. As there is one such ester bond on either side, it is called the phosphodiester bond.

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Question 3.
What is meant by the tertiary structure of proteins”
Answer:
In proteins, only right-handed helices are observed. Other regions of the protein thread are folded into other forms in what is called the secondary structure. In addition, the long protein chain is also folded upon itself like a hollow woolen ball, giving rise to the tertiary structure, (Fig 9.2 a, b.) This gives us a 3-dimensional view of a protein. Tertiary structure is absolutely necessary for the many biological activities of Proteins
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 1

Question 4.
Find and write down structures of 10 interesting small molecular weight biomolecules. Find if there is any industry that manufactures the compounds by Isolation. Find out who are the buyers.
Answer:
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 2
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 3
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 4

Ranboxy, Merck, etc. manufacture these macromolecules. Research institutes by these micromolecules

Question 5.
Proteins have a primary structure, if you are given a method to know which amino acid is at either of the two termini (ends) of a protein, can you connect this information to purity or homogeneity of a protein?
Answer:
In primary structure, proteins have a linear arrangement of aminoacids. Because proteins are made up of 20 different types of amino acids we can not make a statement of purity or homogeneity only by knowing the terminal amino acids.

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Question 6.
Find out and make a list of proteins used as therapeutic agents. Find other applications of proteins (e.g., Cosmetics, etc.)
Answer:
Therapeutic Agents:
Contraceptive pills: As they are hormones so they are made up of protein.
Nutritional Supplements: Many brands are available as protein supplements.
Example: Protinex
Other use: Chicken cubes are used in making soups and dishes.

Question 7.
Explain the composition of triglyceride.
Answer:
Glycerol combines with three similar fatty acids to form triglyceride. Structure/Composition of triglyceride
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 5
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 6

Question 8.
Can you describe what happens when milk is converted into curd or yoghurt, from your understanding of proteins?
Answer:
When milk is converted into yoghurt or curd then coagulation of milk protein i.e., casein occurs. Casein is converted to paracaesin in the formation of curd.

Question 9.
Draw the structure of the amino acid, alanine.
Answer:
Structure of alanine
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 7

Question 10.
What are gums made of? Is Fevicol different?
Answer:
The gums are made of lignocellulose which is secreted in the form of resin from resin ducts of plant. It is an adhesive substance which is used in the artificial adhesion of different substances. It is capable of causing a large viscosity in the solution.

Fevicol is different from gums as it is an artificial substance. Fevicol is a synthetic glue. These adhesives are a mixture of ingredients (typically polymers) dissolved in a solvent. As the solvent evaporates, the adhesive hardens. Depending on the chemical composition of the adhesive, they will adhere to different materials to greater or lesser degrees. These adhesives are typically weak and are used for household applications.

Question 11.
Find out a qualitative test for proteins, fats and oils, amino acids and test any fruit juice, saliva, sweat, and urine for them.
Answer:
(a) Test for protein

  • Xanthoproteic test
  • Biuret’s test

(b) Test for Amino acid

  • Ninhydrin test

(c) Test for fats and oils

  • Sudan test
  • Spot test

Question 12.
Describe the important properties of enzymes.
Answer:
Properties of enzymes are as following:

  • Lowering the activation energy
  • Lowering the energy of the transition state
  • Providing an alternative pathway
  • Reducing the reaction entropy change
  • Increases in temperatures speed up reactions
  • Unique enzyme for unique substance
  • A small quantity is enough to facilitate a faster reaction.

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules Additional Questions and Answers

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules One Mark Questions

Question 1
What are biomolecules?
Answer:
Biomolecules or biological, molecules are the elements occurring in the molecular form, in the living systems.

Question2.
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
Answer:
Nucleotides.

Question 3.
What are 3 groups of Carbohydrates?
Answer:

  • Monosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Polysaccharides.

Question 4.
What is a Glycosldlc bond?
Answer:
The bond formed between two monosaccharides is called a glycosidic bond.

Question 5.
Name the disaccharide present in milk.
Answer:
Lactose.

Question 6.
Which protein molecule does catalyse biochemical reactions?
Answer:
Enzymes.

Question 7.
What are Polysaccharides?
Answer:
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates and are the polymers of simple sugar molecules.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Name the Polysaccharide present in the plant cell wall. (U. Kannada 2008)
Answer:
Cellulose.

Question 9.
Name the Polysaccharide present in the human liver.
Answer:
Glycogen.

Question 10.
Define Protein.
Answer:
Proteins are microbiological molecules composed of monoacids.

Question 11.
What are the monomeric units of proteins?
Answer:
Aminoacids.

Question 12.
Name one phospholipid found in the cell membrane.
Answer:
Lecithin

Question 13.
Name the proteins of hairs and nails.
Answer:
Keratin.

Question 14.
Give an example of simple protein.
Answer:
Albumin.

Question 15.
What is a peptide bond? (Gulbarga 2004)
Answer:
It is a bond formed between two amino acids in a protein molecule. (CO-NH)

Question 16.
Give an example for Conjugated proteins.
Answer:
Glycoprotein (Bijapur. 2004, B.North. 04)

Question 17.
Give an example for derived proteins.
Answer:
Peptone.

Question 18.
Give an example for nonessential amino acids?
Answer:
Glutamic acid.

Question 19.
Define lipid.
Answer:
Lipids are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen as well as nitrogen and phosphorus. They are the esters of fatty acids and alcohol.

Question 20.
Give an example of simple lipid.
Answer:
Waxes.

Question 21.
Name two unsaturated fatty acids.
Answer:
Ole’s acid and Linoleic acid.

Question 22.
Name two saturated fatty acids.
Answer:
Butyric acid, Stearic acid.

Question 23.
Give an example of phospholipids.
Answer:
Lecithin.

Question 24.
What is an enzyme? (B’lore North 2004)
Answer:
Enzymes are biological catalysts produced by living cells.

Question 25.
What do you mean by the activation of enzymes?
Answer:
The conversion of the inactive form of an enzyme into an active form is known as the activation of enzymes.

Question 26.
What are Lyases?
Answer:
These are the enzymes that catalyze reactions involving the breaking of large molecules without the addition of water.

Question 27.
What are Hydrolases?
Answer:
These are enzymes capable of accelerating hydrolytic reactions.

Question 28.
What is an apoenzyme?
Answer:
The protein part of an enzyme is called ‘apoenzyme’.

Question 29.
What is a Coenzyme?
Answer:
The nonprotein part of an enzyme is called ‘coenzyme’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
What Purines and Pyrimidines?
Answer:
These are nitrogenous bases.

Question 31.
What is a nucleoside?
Answer:
It is a combination of nitrogenous base and pentose sugar.

Question 32.
What Is a nucleotide? (Chikmagalur 2004)
Answer:
A nucleotide is a combination of nucleoside and phosphoric acid.

Question 33.
What is the bond present between the successive nucleotides of a single Poly-nucleotide strand?
Answer:
Phosphodiester.

Question 34.
What is the type of sugar present in RNA?
Answer:
Ribose sugar.

Question 35.
Give the name for animal starch.
Answer:
Glycogen. (Bijapur 2004)

Question 36.
Expand DNA. (Dharwar 2004)
Answer:
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid.

Question 37.
Give an example for chromoproteins.
Answer:
Hemoglobin. (Gulbarga 2004)

Question 38.
What type of sugar is found in DNA?
Answer:
Deoxyribose (Belgaum 2004)

Question 39.
Give an example of the asteroid. (B. North 2005)
Answer:
Testosterone, Progesterone

Question 40.
Define enzyme. (Tumkur 2005)
Answer:
Enzymes are biological catalysts produced by living cells.

Question 41.
What are triglycerides? (Udupi 2005)
Answer:
These are the esters of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.

Question 42.
Mention one use of gelatin. (B1 North 2005)
Answer:
Gelatin is used in the preparation of ice cream, medicinal capsules, films, and photographic papers, (anyone)

Question 43.
Find the odd member in the given group giving one reason. Sucrose, glucose, lactose, maltose. (Kolar 2005)
Answer:
Glucose because it is a monosaccharide, while all the others are disaccharides.

Question 44.
Give one example for Disaccharide.
Answer:
Sucrose, Lactose (D.Kannada 2007)

Question 45.
Name the catalytic proteins. (D.K. 2008)
Answer:
Pepsin, amylase esterases, polymerases.

Question 46.
Name the pyrimidine present only in DNA.
Answer:
Jhymne. (D. Kannada 2010)

Question 47.
What is meant by ash?
Answer:
Ash is the remnant of a living tissue that is denied and fully burnt till all the carbon compounds in it are oxidized to gaseous form and removed.

Question 48.
What are amino acids?
Answer:
Amino acids are organic compounds containing an amino group and an acidic group as substituents on the same carbon (a – carbon)

Question 49.
How many types of amino acids are found in proteins?
Answer:
Twenty types.

Question 50.
Name any two aromatic amino acids?
Answer:
Tyrosine, tryptophan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 51.
Why do amino acids change their structure in varying pHs?
Answer:
Because of the ionizable nature of -NH2 and -COOH groups present in amino acids, the structure of amino acids changes in solutions of different pHs.

Question 52.
Give the zwitterionic form of amino acids.
Answer:
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 8

Question 53.
How many carbon atoms are present in each of the following:
(a) Palmitic acid
(b) Arachidonic acid?
Answer:
(a) 16 carbon atoms
(b) 20 carbon atoms.

Question 54.
Name the lipid that is tri-hydroxy propane.
Answer:
Glycerol.

Question 55.
Give examples of carbon compounds with heterocyclic rings?
Answer:
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine.

Question 56.
Name the nitrogen base present only in RNA?
Answer:
lilac

Question 57.
What is a polymer of amino acids called?
Answer:
Proteins.

Question 58.
Mention the function of GLUT – 4?
Answer:
It enables glucose transport into cells.

Question 59.
Give few examples of alkaloids.
Answer:
Morphine and Codeine.

Question 60.
Give examples of toxins.
Answer:
Ricin and Abrin.

Question 61.
What is the function of collagen?
Answer:
It forms the intercellular ground substance.

Question 62.
Give the name of proteins that fight infectious agents.
Answer:
Antibodies.

Question 63.
Name the protein that is most abundant in the animal world.
Answer:
Collagen.

Question 64.
Name the protein that is most abundant in the whole biosphere.
Answer:
Ribulose bisphosphate Carboxylase – Oxygenase (Ru Bis Co).

Question 65.
Mention the polymer of fructose.
Answer:
Inulin.

Question 66.
Why cannot cellulose hold l2 molecules?
Answer:
Cellulose does not contain complex helices and hence cannot hold l2 molecules.

Question 67.
Name the chemical present in the exoskeleton of arthropods.
Answer:
Chitin.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 68.
Give examples of heteropolysaccharides.
Answer:
Glucosamine, Chitin.

Question 69.
Name a few substituted purines.
Answer:
Adenine and guanine.

Question 70.
Name few substituted pyrimidines.
Answer:
Cytosine, Thymine, and Uraciltion of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water.

Question 71.
How are the two strands of DNA held together?
Answer:
They are held by hydrogen fonds between the nitrogen bases.

Question 72.
How many hydrogen bonds exist between Guanine and Cytosine.
Answer:
Three.

Question 73.
How many hydrogen bonds exist between Adenine and Thymine?
Answer:
Two.

Question 74.
Define metabolism.
Answer:
Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that constantly occur in living organisms.

Question 75.
What is the dynamic state of the body constituents?
Answer:
The flow of metabolites at a definite rate; and direction in the living body is called the dynamic state of the body constituents.

Question 76.
What are enzymes chemically?
Answer:
Enzymes are chemically proteins.

Question 77.
Define the rate of chemical process and how is it expressed?
Answer:
The rate of a physical or chemical process refers to the amount of product formed per unit of time.
It is expressed as \(rate=\cfrac { \delta P }{ \delta T } \)

Question 78.
What is the rule of thumb in the variation of rate?
Answer:
Rate doubles or decreases by half in either direction for every 10°C change in temperature.

Question 79.
What is the active site of an enzyme?
Answer:
Active site of an enzyme is a service or pocket into which the substrate fits.

Question 80.
What is the function of carbonic anhydrase?
Answer:
Carhonic anhydrase catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and water

Question 81.
What is a substrate In an enzyme action?
Answer:
The chemical substance on which the enzyme acts is called the substrate.

Question 82.
Define activation energy of the reaction.
Answer:
The difference in the average energy content of the substrate form, from that of the transition state, is called activation energy.

Question 83.
What is an inhibitor of enzyme action?
Answer:
The chemical substance which decreases or shuts off enzyme activity is called an inhibitor.

Question 84.
What are the essential components of many coenzymes? Give examples.
Answer:
The essential components of many coenzymes are vitamins.
e.g.: coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NADP contain the vitamin niacin.

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules Two Marks Questions

Question 1.
Give a list of important monosaccharides.
Answer:
Glycerol, Ribose, Deoxyribose, Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.

Question 2.
What are triglycerides?
Answer:
In a triglyceride three similar or different fatty acids are attached to three hydroxyl groups of glycerol by an ester bond.

Question 3.
What are Polysaccharides? Give examples. (Belgaum 2004)
Answer:
Polysaccharides are the polymers of simple sugar molecules. They contain more than 10 units of monosaccharides. Examples: Starch, Cellulose.

Question 4.
Write two functions of carbohydrates.
Answer:

  • They are the principal source of energy.
  • They form the structural components in living organisms.

Question 5.
In which form carbohydrate Is stored in plants and animals?
Answer:

  • plants – starch.
  • In animals – Glycogen.

Question 6.
What are homopolysaccharides? Give two examples.
Answer:
These are polysaccharides composed of only one type of monosaccharides.
Examples: Starch, Cellulose.

Question 7.
Where are the following found?
Glycosidic bonds, ester bonds, peptide bonds, energy-rich bonds, double bonds.
Answer:

  • Glycosidic bonds: Disaccharides.
  • Ester bond: Between glycerols and fatty acids.
  • Peptide bond: Proteins
  • Energy-rich bond: ATP
  • Double bond: Unsaturated fatty acids.

Question 8
List any two functions of proteins.
Answer:
Proteins act as biocatalysts as they form enzymes. Proteins like fibrinogens help in the clotting of blood.

Question 9.
What la an aminoacid sequence?
Answer:
It is a particular order in which amino acids are arranged to form a specific protein. The aminoacids sequence in a protein molecule is of paramount importance.

Question 10.
What are saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Give examples.
Answer:

  • Saturated fatty acids do not possess double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain.
    Examples: butyric acid.
  • Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain. Example: Oleic acid.

Question 11.
Write two functions of Lipids. (B. North 04)
Answer:
’They function as reserve food material in living organisms. They provide a rich source of energy.

Question 12.
What are enzymes? Mention any 2 groups of enzymes.
Answer:
Enzymes are the stable, specific protein molecules which act as biocatalysts.
Following are the 2 groups of enzymes:

  • Oxide – reductases
  • Isomerases.

Question 13.
What is competitive inhibition?
Answer:
Competitive Inhibition:
When in a biochemical reaction an inhibitor has a close structure with the substrate and it binds to the enzyme rather than the other substrate. This process of competition between the inhibitor substrate for the active site is called competitive inhibition.
e.g. in Kreb’s Cycle, malonale completes with Suecinate for the active site of succinate dehydrogenase.

Question 14.
State the components of DNA.
Answer:
DNA is composed of nitrogenous bases like adenine, guanine, cytosine and Thymine, pentose sugar deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.

Question 15.
Name the nitrogenous bases of RNA. (Shimoga 2006)
Answer:

  • Adenine
  • Guanine
  • Cytosine
  • Uracil

Question 16.
Write any two functions of DNA.
Answer:

  • It controls protein biosynthesis.
  • It is the genetic material in most organisms.

Question 17.
What is a nucleotide? List the nucleotides of RNA.
Answer:
A nucleotide is the combination of a nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphoric acid. The following are the nucleotides of RNA.

  • adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
  • guanosine monophosphate (GMP)
  • cytidine monophosphate (CMP)
  • Uridine monophosphate (UMP)

Question 18.
What are the functions of RNA?
Answer:

  • It acts as genetic material in many viruses.
  • It helps in the process of protein synthesis.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
List any two differences between DNA and RNA. (B. North., Gulbarga. 2004, D.K. 2006,2008)
Answer:

  • DNA is a double-stranded molecule. RNA is a single-stranded molecule.
  • DNA has deoxyribose sugar.
  • RNA has Ribose sugar.
  • DNA is genetic RNA is non-genetic
  • DNA has Adenine, cytosine, Gnanine & Thymine as Nitrogenous bases RNA has Adenine, cytosine, Guanine & uracil as nitrogenous bases

Question 20.
Give an example for the following
(a) Respiratory pigment
(b) Protein present In hair
(c) Protein present in muscle fiber
(d) Sugar in milk.
Answer:
(a) Respiratory pigment: Haemoglobin.
(b) A protein present in hair: Keratin
(c) Protein present in muscle fibre: Myosin
(d) Sugar in milk: Lactose.

Question 21.
With reference to DNA, mention the types of
(a) Pyrimidine bases
(b) Purine bases (Udupi 2005)
Answer:
(a) Pyrimidine bases – Cytosine & Thymine
(b) Purine bases – Adenine & Guanine

Question 22.
Write four properties of enzymes (D.Kannada 2005,2011)
Answer:

  • Enzymes are needed in a minute quantity for the acceleration of biochemical reactions.
  • Enzymes exhibit specificity in their reactions. Each enzyme can act on a particular substance/substrate only.
  • Enzymes act within a narrow range of pH and temperature. So they are referred to as thermolabile compounds.
  • Enzymes can act either way in a biochemical reaction because biochemical reactions are reversible.

Question 23.
Differentiate between a nucleoside and a nucleotide. (Bangalore North 2005)
Answer:
Nucleoside

  • Consists of sugar and a nitrogenous base.
  • The linkage present is called glycosidic.
  • Eg. is Adenosine, Deoxyadenosine.

Nucleotide

  • Consists of sugar, nitrogenous base & phosphoric acid.
  • The linkage present is termed phosphorites linkage.
  • Eg. is Adenylic acid, deoxy adenylic acid.

Question 24.
Give any two biological significances of amino acids. (Udupi 2005)
Answer:

  • Some proteins act as chemical messengers (hormones).
  • Muscle proteins like actin and myosin help in muscle contraction.

Question 25.
Name the monomer of nucleic acids and mention Its components. (M.Q.P, Kolar, Hassan, Shimoga, Belgaum, Bangalore Rural,Chikmagalur 2005)
Answer:
Nucleotide comprising sugar, a nitrogenous base, and phosphoric acid.

Question 26.
Give the biological significance of carbohydrates. (Bangalore Rural 2005)
Answer:

  • Carbohydrates are the major source of energy for the living world.
  • They form the reserve food material in both plants and animals.
  • They form the structural components in living organisms.
  • They are essential in the regulation of fat metabolism.

Question 27.
Write any five biological significance of lipids. (Bangalore South 2005)
Answer:

  • lipids form the main constituents of biological membranes.
  • Lipids provide protective coverings like cuticles on leaves, hairs & feathers in animals.
  • Lipids function as reserve food material in living organisms.
  • Lipids provide a rich source of energy.
  • Steroids regulate physiological activities.

Question 28.
Write the structural formula of:
(I) Galactose
(II) glucose
Answer:
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 9

Question 29.
What are fatty acids? Give two examples.
Answer:
Fatty acids are compounds which has a carboxyl group attached to an R group. The R group could be a methyl (-CH3), or ethyl (-C2Hs), or a higher number of -CH2 groups (1 carbon to 19 carbons). Eg; Palmitic acid, Arachidonic acid.

Question 30.
State the differences between oils and fats
Answer:

Oils Fats
(a)  Oils are liquids at temperature.
(b) Melting point is low
(c) They are unsaturated compounds
(d) They react easily
(a)  Fats are solids at room temperature.
(b) Melting point is high
(c) They are saturated
(d) They do not react easily.

Question 31.
Differentiate between essential and non-essential amino acids.
Answer:

Essential amino acids Non-essential amino acids
(a) These are the amino acids that are not synthesized in the body. (a) These are the amino acids that are synthesized in the body.
(b) Dietary proteins form the source of essential amino acids. (b) They need not be taken in the diet.

Question 32.
Differentiate between starch and cellulose.
Answer:

Starch Cellulose
(a)  It forms helical secondary structures
(b) Starch can hold l2 molecules
(c)  Starch is stained blue with iodine
(d) It is a storehouse of energy in plant tissues
(a)  It does not contain helical structures.
(b) It cannot hold l2 molecules
(c)  It cannot be stained blue with iodine
(d)  It is present in the cell wall

Question 33.
Write the structural formula of
(i) Adenylic acid
(ii) Uracil
Answer:
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 10

Question 34.
Describes the primary structure of proteins.
Answer:
The sequence of amino acids, i.e. the positional information of the amino acids in a protein is called the primary structure of a protein. A Protein is imagined as a line, the left end represented by the first amino acid and the right end represented by the last amino acid. The first amino acid is also called an N-terminal amino acid and the last amino acid is called the C-terminal amino acid.

Question 35.
Describe the quaternary structure of proteins and give example.
Answer:
Some proteins are an assembly of more than one polypeptide or subunits. The manner in which these individual folded polypeptides or subunits are arranged with respect to each other (e.g. linear string of spheres, spheres arranged one upon the other in the form of a cube or plate) is the architecture of a protein which is referred to as the quaternary structure of a protein. Eg: Adult human hemoglobin consists of 4 subunits. Two of these are identical to each other. Hence, two subunits of a -type and two subunits of p-type together constitute the human hemoglobin (Hb).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 36.
What are cofactors for enzymes? Name the types of cofactors.
Answer:
The non-protein constituents that are found in the enzyme to make it catalytically active are called co-factors. Types of co-factors are

  • prosthetic group
  • Co-enzymes
  • Metal ions.

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules Three Marks Questions

Question 1.
Explain the terms monoglyceride, diglycerides, and triglyceride.
Answer:

  • Monoglyceride: It is a lipid with one molecule of glycerol and one molecule of fatty acid.
  • Diglyceride: It is a lipid with one molecule of glycerol and two molecules of fatty acids.
  • Triglyceride: It is a lipid that has one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids.

Question 2.
What are nucleosides? Name the four of them which occur in RNA.
Answer:
Nucleosides are compounds having nitrogen bases attached to a sugar.
Nucleosides occurring in RNA are:

  • Adenosine
  • guanosine
  • cytidine
  • and uridine.

Question 3.
Mention the differences between primary and secondary metabolites. Give examples of each.
Answer:

Primary Metabolite Secondary Metabolites
(a) These are the metabolites which have identifiable functions and play a specific role in metabolism.
(b) These are important in human metabolic processes Eg: amino acids, sugars.
(a) These are the metabolites formed during metabolism whose exact function is not known.
(b) These are useful for human welfare Eg: Alkaloids, flavonoids antibiotics.

Question 4.
Name the two types of biomolecules present in the cells of living organisms. Mention the differences.
Answer:
Two types of biomolecules are

Biomacromolecules Biomacromolecules
(a) These molecules have their molecular weight of less than one thousand daltons.
(b) These are found in the acid-soluble fraction. Eg: amino acids, sugars, alkaloids, etc
(a) These biomolecules have a molecular weight in the range of ten thousand daltons and above.
(b) These are found in the acid-insoluble fraction. Eg: proteins, nucleic acids polysaccharides, etc.

Question 5.
(a) What is meant by complementary base pairing?
(b)What is the distance between two successive bases in a strand of DNA?
(c)How many base pairs are present in one turn of the helix of a DNA strand?
Answer:
(a) In a DNA, a purine always pairs with a pyrimidine i.e. adenine pairs with thymine
(A = T) and guanine with cytosine (G = C). This is called a complementary pairing.
(b) 3.4 A0
(c) 10 base pairs.

Question 6.
Describe the influence of temperature and pH on enzyme action with graphs.
Answer:
Enzymes generally function in a narrow range of temperature and pH. Each enzyme shows its highest activity at a particular temperature and pH called the optimum temperature and optimum pH. Activity declines both below and above the optimum value. Low temperature preserves the enzyme in a temporarily inactive state whereas high temperature destroys enzymatic activity because proteins are denatured by heat. Any change in pH alters the tertiary structure of the enzyme protein and thereby reduces the enzyme activity.
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 11
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 12

Question 7.
Describe competitive inhibition with an example.
Answer:
When the inhibitor closely resembles the substrate in its molecular structure and inhibits the activity of the enzyme, it is known as a competitive inhibitor and the process is called competitive inhibition. Due to its close structural similarity with the substrate, the inhibitor competes with the substrate for the substrate-binding site of the enzyme. Consequently, the substrate cannot bind and as a result, the enzyme action declines.
Eg:- Inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase by malonate which closely resembles the substrate succinate in structure.

Question 8.
Discuss the functions of polysaccharides.
Answer:
The functions of polysaccharides are as follows:

  • Starch and glycogen are the major storage foods of the organic world.
  • On hydrolysis storage carbohydrates provide both energy and carbon chains.
  • Chitin is the structural carbohydrates of fungal walls and the exoskeleton of arthropods.
  • Cellulose is the structural substance of cell walls in most plants.
  • Cellulose is economically important in the production of furniture, shelter, fuel, paper, textiles, ropes, rayon, cellophane, plastics, shatterproof glass, propellant explosives, emulsifier, and raw material for several fermentation products.

1st PUC Biology Biomolecules Five Marks Questions

Question 1.
Enumerate the properties of enzymes and ” its classification. (D. Kannada 2007)
Answer:
Properties of Enzymes:

  • Enzymes are needed in a minute quantity for the acceleration of biochemical reactions.
  • Enzymes exhibit specificity in their reactions. Each enzyme can act on a particular substance only.
  • Enzymes act within a narrow range of pH and temperature. So they are referred to as thermolabile compounds.
  • Enzymes can act either way in a biochemical reaction because biochemical reactions are reversible.
  • Enzymes can be destroyed or inactivated by a number of substances like cyanide, iodo acetic acid, malonic acid, etc. The substances capable of hampering enzymatic reactions are called enzyme inhibitors.
  • Enzymes work in teams, making cell metabolism a continuous process.

Classification of enzymes.
‘Enzymes are classified into six major groups based on type of functions.
They are –

  • Oxide-Reductases
  • Transferases
  • Hydrolases
  • Lyases
  • Isomerases
  • Ligases

(1) Oxide-Reductases:
These are enzymes catalyzing oxidation and reduction reactions. These oxidation and reduction reactions are generally referred to as redox reactions.

(2) Transferases:
These enzyme accelerate reactions involving transfer of functional groups from one compound to another compound.

(3) Hydrolases:
These are enzymes capable of accelerating hydrolytic reactions. Breaking down large molecules with the addition of water is called hydrolysis. Enzymes involved in a hydrolytic reaction are referred to as hydrolases.

(4) Lyases:
These enzymes catalyze reactions involving the breaking of large molecules without the addition of water.

(5) Isomerases:
These enzymes catalyse reactions involving rearrangement of molecule structure of the substrate to form an isomer. Hence they catalyse isomerization reactions they are termed isomerases.

(6) Ligases: These enzymes accelerate synthetic reactions like polymerization.

Question 2.
a. Expand DNA. (D. Kannada 2006)
Answer:
Deoxy ribonucleic acid

b. List the nucleotides of DNA
Answer:
d AMP (deoxy adenylic acid)
d GMP (deoxy guanylic acid)
d CMP (deoxy cytidylic acid)
d TMP (deoxy thymidylic acid)

c. Write 4 functions of DNA.
Answer:

  • Carries genetic information
  • Auto catalytic and heterocatalytic function (replication and protein synthesis)
  • Mutation
  • Repair

Question 3.
What will be the amino acid if the R-group is:
(i) hydrogen
(ii) methyl group
(iii) hydroxymethyl group write the respective structures
Answer:
(i) Glycine
(ii) Alanine
(iii) Serine
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 13

Question 4.
Mention any five secondary metabolites with two examples for each.
Answer:

  • Pigments – Carotenoids, Anthocyanins
  • Alkaloids – Morphine, Codeine, etc.
  • Essential oils – Lemongrass oil
  • Toxins – Abnn, Ricin
  • Drags – Vinblastin, curcumin
  • Polymeric substances – Rubber, gems
  • Terpenoids – Monoterpenes, Diterpenes.

Question 5
Mention any five proteins with their functions.
Answer:

  • Collagen – Intercellular ground substance
  • Trypsin – Enzyme
  • Insulin – Hormone
  • Antibody – Fights infectious agents
  • Receptor – Sensory reception like smell, taste, hormone etc.
  • GLUT- 4- Enables glucose transport into cells.

Question 6.
Describe the Watson and Crick model of DNA structure with a diagram.
Answer:
Watson and Crick’s model explain the secondary structure exhibited by DNA. This model says that the DA exists as a double helix. The two strands of polynucleotides are antiparallel Le. run in the opposite direction. The backbone is formed by the sugar-phosphate-sugar chain. The nitrogen bases are projected more or less perpendicular to this backbone but face inside.

‘A’ of one strand compulsorily base pairs with T on the other strand and ‘G’ of one strand pairs with ‘C’ on the other strand. Three are two hydrogen bonds between A and T and three hydrogen bonds between G and C. Each strand appears like a helical staircase. Each step of ascent is represented by a pair of bases. At each step
of ascent, the strand turns 360. One full turn of the helical strand would involve ten steps or ten base pairs. The pitch is 34A° and the rise per base pair is 3.4 A° The form of DNA with the above-mentioned salient features is called B-DNA.
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 14

Question 7.
How do enzymes accelerate biochemical reactions? Explain the nature of enzyme action, describing the steps In the catalytic cycle of enzyme action.
Answer:
Enzymes accelerate the reaction by reducing the activation energy of the process/reaction. Each enzyme (E) has a substrate (S) binding site in its molecule so that a highly reactive enzyme-substrate complex (ES) is produced. This complex is short-lived and dissociates into its products (P) and the unchanged enzyme with an intermediate formation of the enzyme-product complex (EP). The formation of the ES complex is essential for catalysis.

E + S □ ES → EP → E + P

The catalytic cycle of enzyme action can be described in the following steps:

  • The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme, fitting into the active site.
  • The binding of the substrate induces the ‘ enzyme to alter its shape, fitting more tightly around the substrate.
  • The active site of the enzyme, now in close proximity of the substrate breaks the chemical bonds of the substrate and the new enzyme- product complex is formed.
  • The enzyme releases the products of the reaction and the free enzyme is ready to bind to another molecule of the substrate and run through the catalytic cycle once again.

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Question 8.
Explain how enzymes bring about high rates of chemical conversions using the concept of activation energy.
Answer:
Consider the following reaction in which the enzyme (E) that is a protein with an ‘active site’ converts a substrate (S) into a product (P)
1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 15
Substrate ‘S’ binds the enzyme (E) at its active site within a given cleft or pocket to form an ‘ES’ complex. This complex formation is a transient phenomenon. During the state where the substrate is found to the enzyme active site, a new structure of the substrate called transition state structure is formed. After the bond breaking/making is completed, the product ‘P’ is released from the active site.

Here the structure of substrate gets transformed into the structure of products (S). The pathway of this transformation goes through transition state structure and many more ‘altered structural states’ between the stable substrate and the product. Stability is related to the energy status of the molecule.

If product ‘P’ is at a lower level than ‘S’ (Refer to the figure given below), the reaction is exothermic or spontaneous. However, whether it is an exothermic or endothermic (energy-requiring) reaction, the ‘S’ has to go through a much higher energy state or transition state. The difference in the average energy content of “S’ from that of this transition state is called activation energy. Enzymes bring down this energy barrier making the transition of ‘S’ to ‘P’ easier and quicker.

1st PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Biomolecules 16

Question 9.
Fill in the blanks.
(1) In a polysaccharide ……………is the reducing end and is the non-reducing end.
Answer:
Right end, left end

(2) Metabolic pathways that lead to complex from the simpler structure is called ………….. pathway.
Answer:
anabolic

(3) The most important form of energy in living systems is ……………….
Answer:
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

(4) In our skeletal muscle, under anaerobic conditions acid is formed and under aerobic conditions ………….. acid is formed.
Answer:
Lactic, Pyruvic

1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 11 International Business – I

Karnataka 1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank Chapter 11 International Business – I

You can Download Chapter 11 International Business – I Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Business Studies Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Textual Questions and Answers

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
In which of the following modes of entry, does the domestic manufacturer give the right to use intellectual property such as patent and trademark to a manufacturer in a foreign country for a fee
a. Licensing
b. Contract manufacturing
c. Joint venture
d. None of these
Answer:
a. Licensing

Question 2.
Outsourcing a part of or entire production and concentrating on marketing operations in international business is known as
a. Licensing
b. Franchising
c. Contract manufacturing
d. Joint venture
Answer:
c. Contract manufacturing

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Question 3.
When two or more firms come together to create a new business entity that is legally separate and extinct from its parents it is known as
a. Contract manufacturing
b. Franchising
c. Joint ventures
d. Licensing
Answer:
c. Joint ventures

Question 4.
Which of the following is not an advantage of exporting?
a. Easier way to enter into international markets
b. Comparatively lower risks.
c. Limited presence in foreign market
d. Less investment requirements
Answer:
c. Limited presence in foreign market

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Question 5.
Which one of the following modes of entry requires higher level of risks?
a. Licensing
b. Franchising
c. Contract manufacturing
d. Joint venture
Answer:
d. Joint venture

Question 6.
Which one of the following modes of entry permits greatest degree of control over overseas operations?
a. Licensing/franchising
b. Wholly owned subsidiary
c. Contract manufacturing
d. Joint venture
Answer:
b. Wholly owned subsidiary

Question 7.
Which one of the following modes of entry brings the firm closer to international markets?
a. Licensing
b. Franchising
c. Contract manufacturing
d. Joint venture
Answer:
d. Joint venture

Question 8.
Which one of the following is not, amongst India’s major export items?
a. Textiles and garments
b. Gems and jewellery
c. Oil and petroleum products
d. Basmati rice
Answer:
c. Oil and petroleum products

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Question 9.
Which one of the following is not amongst India’s major import items?
a. Ayurvedic medicines products
b. Oil and petroleum
c. Pearls and precious stones
d. Machinery
Answer:
a. Ayurvedic medicines products

Question 10.
Which one of the following is not amongst India’s major trading partners?
a. USA
b. UK
c. Germany
d. New Zealand
Answer:
d. New Zealand

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Differentiate between international trade and international business.
Answer:

SI. No. International Trade International Business
(i) International trade means movements of goods only. Business transaction that takes place between two or more countries is known as international business.
(ii) It involves only the movements of goods and international currency is used for dealing. It involves not only the international movements of goods and services but also capital, personnel, technology and intellectual property like trademarks, patents.
(iii) International trade is a narrow term. International business is much broader than international trade.

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Question 2.
Discuss any three advantages of international business.
Answer:
For Nations: Three advantages of international business to the nations are:

  1. International business helps a country to earn foreign exchange which it can later use for meeting its imports of capital goods, technology, petroleum products, etc.
  2. International trade allows a country to produce what a country can produce more efficiently, and trade the surplus production so generated with other countries to procure what they can produce more efficiently.
  3. International business helps the countries in improving their growth prospects and creates employment opportunities.

For Firms: Three advantages of international business to the firms are:

  1. International business can be more profitable than the domestic business, as business firms can earn more profits by selling their products in countries where prices are high.
  2. International business leads to fuller utilization of production capacity as a result these firms get benefits of large economies of scale and reduction in the cost of production.
  3. Companies get strategic and technical advantages by going international.

Question 3.
What is the major reason underlying trade between nations?
Answer:
The major reason behind international business is that the countries have unequal distribution of natural resources among them or have differences in their productivity levels because of which they cannot produce all that they need equally well or at equal ‘ costs. Trade between nations allows a country to produce what a country can produce more efficiently, and trade the surplus production so generated with other countries to procure what they can produce more efficiently.

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Question 4.
Discuss as to why nations trade.
Answer:
The countries have unequal distribution of natural resources among them or have differences in their productivity levels because of which they cannot produce all that they need equally well or at equal costs. Availability of various factors of production such as labour, capital and raw materials that are required for producing different goods and services differ among nations.

Moreover, labour productivity and production costs differ among nations due to. various socio-economic, geographical and political reasons. Due to these differences each country finds it advantageous to produce those select goods and services that it can produce more efficiently at home, and procuring the rest through trade with other countries which the other countries can produce at lower costs. This is precisely the reason as to why countries trade with others.

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Question 5.
Enumerate limitations of contract manufacturing.
Answer: Following are the limitations of contract manufacturing:

(i) Local firms might not adhere to production design and quality standards, thus causing serious product quality problems to the international firm.

(ii) Local manufacturers in the foreign country looses his control over the manufacturing process because goods are produced strictly as per the terms and specifications of the contract.

(iii) The profitability of local firms producing under contract manufacturing is low as it is not free to sell the contracted output as per its will. It has to sell the goods to the international company at prices agreed upon under the contract which may be lower than the open market prices.

Question 6.
Why is it said that licensing is an easier way to expand globally?
Answer:
Licensing is considered to be the easier way of expanding globally due to following advantages:

(i) Under the licensing system, it is the licensor who sets up the business unit and invests his/her own money in the business and the licensor has to virtually make no investments abroad. Licensing is, therefore, considered a less expensive mode of entering into international business.

(ii) Licensor is paid by the licensee by way of fees fixed in advance as a percentage of production or sales turnover and licensor does not bear risk of losses.

(iii) Since the business in the foreign country is managed by the licensee who is a local person, there are lower risks of business takeovers or government interventions.

(iv) Licensee being a local person has greater market knowledge and contacts which can prove quite helpful to the licensor in successfully conducting its marketing operations.

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Question 7.
Differentiate between contract manufacturing and setting up wholly owned production subsidiary abroad.
Answer:
Contract manufacturing refers to a type of international business where a firm enters into a contract with one or a few local manufacturers in foreign countries to get certain components or goods produced as per its specifications while in a wholly owned subsidiary the parent company acquires full control over the foreign company by making 100% investment in its equity capital.

Question 8.
Distinguish between licensing and franchising.
Answer:
(i) Licensing is an agreement between licensor and licensee whereas franchising is an agreement between franchisee and franchiser.

(ii) Licensing means permitting other party in a foreign country to produce and sell goods under trademark, patents whereas franchising means sell or distribute the branded products in a specific geographical area, e.g., through its franchising system Me Donald’s operates fast food restaurants in the whole world.

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Question 9.
List major items of India’s exports.
Answer:
Major items of India’s exports are:
(i) Primary Products.
(a) Agricultured and allied products.
(b) Ores and minerals
(ii) Manufactured Goods.
(a) Textiles including garments
(b) Gems and jewellery
(c) Engineering goods
(d) Chemicals and related products
(e) Leather

Question 10.
What are the major items that are exported from India?
Answer:
The major items that are exported from India include:
(i) Primary Products
(a) Agricultured products
(b) Ores and minerals

(ii) Manufactured Goods
(a) Textiles including garments
(b) Gems and jewellery
(c) Engineering goods
(d) Chemicals and related products
(e) Leather and manufactures

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Question 11.
List the major countries with whom India trades.
Answer:
Following are the major countries with whom India trades:

  1. USA
  2. UK
  3. Belgium
  4. Germany
  5. Japan
  6. Switzerland
  7. Hong Kong
  8. UAE
  9. China
  10. Singapore
  11. Malaysia

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is international business? How is it different from domestic business?
Answer:
Manufacturing and trade beyond the boundaries of one’s own country is known as international business. International business is defined as those business activities that take place across the national frontiers. It involves not only the international movements of goods and services, but also of capital, personnel, technology and intellectual property like patents, trademarks, know-how and copyrights. Domestic and international businesses differ from each other in the following aspects:

(i) Nationality of Buyers and Sellers
In the case of domestic business, both the buyers and sellers are from the same country but in international business buyers and sellers come from different countries and their languages, attitudes, social customs and business goals and practices are not identical as in case of domestic business. This makes relatively more difficult for them to interact with one another and finalize business transactions.

(ii) Nationality of Other Stakeholders
The other stakeholders such as employees, suppliers, shareholders/partners and general public associated with firms doing international business have different nationalities while in the case of domestic business all such factors belong to one country. Therefore, decision making in international business becomes much more complex due to wider set of values and aspirations of the stakeholders belonging to different nations.

(iii) Mobility of Factors of Production
The degree of mobility of factors like labour and capital is generally less between countries than within a country due to legal restrictions and variations in socio-cultural environments, geographic influences and economic conditions.

(iv) Customer Heterogeneity Across Markets
Since buyers in international markets hail from different countries, they differ in their socio-cultural background. Differences in their tastes, fashions, languages, beliefs and customs, attitudes and product preferences cause variations in not only their demand for different products and services, but also in variations in their communication patterns and purchase behaviors. Such variations greatly complicate the task of designing products and evolving strategies appropriate for customers in different countries.

(v) Differences in Business Systems and Practices
The differences in business systems and practices are considerably higher among countries than within a country as countries differ from one another in terms of their socio-economic development, availability, cost and efficiency of economic infrastructure and market support services, etc which make it necessary for firms interested in international business to adapt their production, finance, human resource and marketing plans as per. the conditions prevailing in the international markets.

(vi) Political System and Risks
Political factors such as the type of government, political party system, political ideology, political risks, etc, have an impact on business operations. International business firms need to monitor political changes in the concerned countries and devise strategies to deal with diverse political risks. These firms also face discrimination as nations tend to favor products and services originating in their own countries to those ’coming from other countries while this is not a problem for business firms operating domestically.

(vii) Differences in Business Regulations and Policies
Every country has its own set of business laws and regulations. These laws, regulation and economic policies are more or less uniformly applicable within a country but they differ widely among nations. Tariff and taxation policies, import quota system, subsidies and other controls adopted by a nation are not the same as in other countries and often discriminate against foreign products, services and capital.

(viii) Difference in Currency
International business involves the use of different currencies while in domestic business all transactions are done in the same currency. International business firms have to keep exchange rate fluctuations into consideration in fixing prices of their products and hedging against foreign exchange risks.

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Question 2.
“International business is more than international trade”. Comment.
Answer:
International trade comprises of exports and imports of goods and forms an important component of international business. But the scope of international business is substantially wider than that of international trade. International business includes international exchange of services such as international travel and tourism, transportation, communication, banking, warehousing, distribution and advertising.

It also covers foreign investments and overseas production of goods and services. Multinational companies have started making investments into foreign countries and undertaking production of goods and services in foreign countries to explore foreign markets and produce at lower costs. All these activities form part of international business. To conclude, we can say that international business is a much broader term and is comprised of both the trade and production of goods and services across frontiers.

International trade is done through exporting of goods while international business modes include licensing, franchising, contract manufacturing, joint ventures and establishment of wholly owned subsidiaries apart from exporting.

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Question 3.
What benefits do firms derive by entering into international business?
Answer:
Firms derive the following benefits by entering into international business:

(i) Prospects for Higher Profits
International business can be more profitable than the domestic business as business firms can earn more profits by selling their products in countries where price are high when the domestic prices are lower.

(ii) Increased Capacity Utilization
Firms can make use of their surplus production capacities and also improving the profitability of their operations by going for overseas expansion and procuring orders from foreign customers. Production on a larger scale often leads to economies of scale, which in turn lowers production cost and improves per unit profit margin.

(iii) Prospects for Growth.
Business firms can improve prospects of their growth by entering into overseas markets » when demand for their products starts getting saturated in the domestic market.

(iv) Way out from Intense Competition in Domestic Market Internationalization is the only way to achieve significant growth when competition in the domestic market is very intense. A highly competitive domestic market induces many companies to go international in search of markets for their products.

(v) Improved Business Vision.
The growth of international- business of many companies is essentially a part of their business policies or strategic management. The vision to become international comes from the urge to grow, the need to become more competitive, the need to diversify and to gain strategic advantages of internationalization.

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Question 4.
In what ways is exporting a better way of entering into international markets than setting up wholly owned subsidiaries abroad?
Answer:
Exporting is a better way of entering into international markets than setting up wholly owned subsidiaries abroad in the following ways:

  1. Exporting is the easiest way of gaining entry into international markets. It is less complex than setting up and managing joint ventures or wholly owned subsidiaries abroad.
  2. Exporting involves lesser time and effort as business firms are not required to invest that much time and money as it is needed when they set up manufacturing plants and facilities as wholly owned subsidiary in host countries.
  3. Since exporting does not require much of investment in foreign countries, exposure to foreign investment risks is nil or much lower than that in establishing wholly owned subsidiary.

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Question 5.
Discuss briefly the factors that govern the choice of mode of entry into international business.
Answer:
The following factors govern the choice of mode of entry into international business:

(i) Ease of Entry
Some modes of entry into international business like exporting involve lesser formalities than others such as going for joint ventures, franchising or wholly owned subsidiaries. Thus, initially exporting is the mode generally adopted for the entry in to international markets.

(ii) Associated Risk .
Risk of international exposure is higher in joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries more investment is involved and socio-economic conditions of the host country along with political and regulatory concerns become more important. Therefore, some other mode like licensing or contract manufacturing might be chosen to reduce risk.

(iii) Efforts Involved
Time and effort one-needs to put in’ is another factor which determines the mode international business. Mode like exporting, licensing and franchising involve lesser effort than joint venture or wholly owned subsidiary.

(iv) Degree of Control
If a firm wants to exercise full control over the operations in foreign countries; it goes for wholly owned subsidiary. Similarly, degree of control is higher in franchising as compared to licensing and so on.

(v) Nature of Business
If the business requires the firm to be in close contact with the customers in the foreign markets, wholly, owned subsidiary or joint venture’ is more suitable while if the products can be supplied from a distance, modes like exporting can suffice. The nature of products being manufactured and availability of raw material also determine the mode of entry into international business.

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Question 6.
Discuss the major trends in India’s foreign trade. Also list the major products that India trades with other countries.
Answer:
India’s share in world trade in 2003 was very low i.e., just 0.8% as compared to those of other developing countries such as China (5.9%), Hong Kong (3.0%), South Korea (2.6%), Malaysia (1.3%), Singapore (1.9%), and Thailand (1.1%). India’s share in world merchandise exports started rising fast since 2004, reached 1.3% in 2009 and 1.5% in 2010. It increased to 1.9% in the first half of 2011, mainly due to the relatively higher Indian export growth of 55% compared to the 23.1% export growth of the world.

Trends in India’s Foreign Trade in Goods Volume of Trade Share of foreign trade in the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has considerably increased from 14.6% in 1990-91 to 24,1% in 2003-04. India’s total merchandise exports were Rs. 606 crore in 1950-51 which increased to Rs. 293367 corers in 2003-04, representing an increase of over 480 times over the last five decades.

During the last decade, India’s exports and imports registered a five to seven fold increase from US $ 44.6billion and US $ 50.5 billion respectively in 2000- 01 to US $ 251.1 billion and US $ 369.8 billion in 2010-11 respectively. While the Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGR) of India’s exports and imports (in US dollar terms) were 8.2% and 8.4% respectively in the 1990s, they increased to 19.5% and 25.1% during 2000-01 to 2008- 09. Total imports.

which stood at Rs. 608 crore in 1950-51 increased to Rs. 359108 corers in 2003-04, thus registering a growth of about 590 times during the same period. Composition of Trade Composition wise, textiles and garments, gems and jewellery, engineering, products and chemicals and related products and agricultural and allied products are India’s major items of India’s exports. Great changes in the sectoral composition of India’s export basket were seen in the 2000s decade.

The share of petroleum crude and products increased by 11.8 percentage points during the 10-year period from 2000-1 to 2009-10, and further increased by 4.8 percentage points from 2009-10 to the first half of 2011-12. The share of the other two sectors, i. e., manufactures aildirrinidiy products fell -abnest-proportionately by 11.6 and 1.1 percentage points respectively during 2000-1 to 2009-10.

Although in overall terms India accounts for just above 1% of world exports, in many individual product items such as tea, pearls, precious and semi-precious stones, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, rice, spices, iron ore and concentrates, leather and leather manufactures, textile yarns fabrics, garments , and tobacco, its share is much higher and ranges between 3% to 13%.

India even holds the distinct position of being the largest exporter in the world in select commodities such as basmati rice, tea, and ayurvedic products. As far as imports are concerned, products like crude oil and petroleum products, capital goods (i.e., machinery), electronic goods, pearl, precious and semi-precious stones, gold, silver and chemicals constitute major items of India’s imports. India’s trade in services has also grown manifold over the years.

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Question 7.
What is invisible trade? Discuss salient aspects of India’s trade in services.
Answer:
Invisible trade refers to trade in services. Service exports and imports involve trade in intangibles because of which trade in services is also known as invisible trade. Trade in services includes trade in tourism and travel, boarding and lodging, entertainment and recreation, transportation, professional services, communication, construction and engineering, marketing, educational and financial services.

India’s trade in services has increased substantially over the years. Both the exports and imports of services relating to foreign travel, transportation and insurance have increased at a high rate during the last four decades. Software and other miscellaneous services (including professional technical and business services) have emerged as the- main categories of India’s exports of services. While the relative share of travel and transportation has declined from 64.3% in 1995-96 to 29.6%. In 2003-2004, the share of software exports has gone up from 10.2% to around 49% in the corresponding

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Additional Questions And Answers

1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which trade theory holds that nations can increase their economic well-being by specializing in the production of goods they produce more efficiently than anyone else?
a. The factor endowment theory.
b. The theory of absolute advantage.
c. The theory of comparative advantage.
d. The international product life cycle theory.
Answer:
b. The theory of absolute advantage.

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Question 2.
Which theory holds that nations should produce those goods for which it has the greatest relative advantage?
a. The factor endowment theory.
b. The theory of relative advantage,
c. The theory of absolute advantage.
d. None of the above.
Answer:
d. None of the above.

Question 3.
Which of the following holds that a government can improve the economic well-being of a country by encouraging exports and discouraging imports without a reliance on previous metals?
a. Neo-mercantilism.
b. The Leontief paradox.
c. Quotas.
d. Mercantilism.
Answer:
a. Neo-mercantilism.

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Question 4.
In country A, it takes 10 labor hours to produce cloth and 20 labor hours to produce grain. In country B, it takes 20 labor hours to produce cloth and 10 labor hours to produce grain. Which country should produce grain?
a. No country should produce grain.
b. Both A and B should produce grain.
c. A
d. B.
Answer:
d. B.

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Question 5.
In North, it takes 50 labor hours to produce cloth and 100 hours to produce grain. In South, it takes 200 labor hours to produce cloth and 200 hours to produce grain. Which of the following statements is true?
a. South has an absolute advantage in the production of grain.
b. North has a comparative advantage in the production of cloth.
c. South has an absolute advantage in the production of both cloth and grain.
d. North should produce grain.
Answer:
b. North has a comparative advantage in the production of cloth.

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Question 6.
In country X, it takes 50 labor hours to produce cloth and 100 hours to produce grain. In country Y, it takes 200 labor hours to produce cloth and 200 hours to produce grain. At what price would X start to be willing to trade with Y?
a. More than half a unit of grain per unit of cloth.
b. More than half a unit of cloth per unit of grain.
c. More than a quarter unit of grain per unit of cloth.
d. More than a quarter unit of cloth per unit of grain.
Answer:
a. More than half a unit of grain per unit of cloth.

Question 7.
Which of the following theories holds that countries will produce and export products that use large amounts of production factors that they have in abundance?
a. Mercantilism.
b. The theory of absolute advantage.
c. The factor endowment theory.
d. None of the above.
Answer:
c. The factor endowment theory.

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Question 8.
Vernon’s international product life cycle theory :
a. helps explain the movement from absolute advantage to comparative advantage.
b. shows why the United States, surprisingly, exports relatively more labor-intensive goods and imports capital-intensive goods.
c. extends the concept of comparative advantage by bringing into consideration the endowment and cost of factors of production.
d. helps explain why a product that begins as a nation export often ends up becoming an import.
Answer:
d. helps explain why a product that begins as a nation export often ends up becoming an import.

Question 9.
Which of the following products have moved through the IPLC and are now in the standardized product stage?
a. Computer memory cards.
b. Televisions.
c. DVD players.
d. All of the above.
Answer:
d. All of the above.

Question 10.
Which of the following factors influence trade?
a. The stage of development of a product.
b. Government.
c. The relative price of factors of productions.
d. All of the above.
Answer:
d. All of the above.

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Question 11.
If the price of the Japanese Yen declines considerably against the British Pound:
a. British goods are relatively cheaper for Japanese consumers.
b. it is always because of British government interference.
c. Japanese goods are relatively cheaper for British consumers.
d. it is always because of Japanese government interference.
Answer:
c. Japanese goods are relatively cheaper for British consumers.

Question 12.
If a Japanese firm sold $10 billion of machinery in US and the US dollar declined against the Japanese currency:
a. the Japanese company will make sure that the difference is paid back to its affiliate.
b. the Japanese company will move funds to the home country.
c. the Japanese firm will report more revenue (in terms of Yen) than if the US dollar had remained stable.
d. the Japanese firm will report less revenue (in terms of Yen) than if the US dollar had remained stable.
Answer:
d. the Japanese firm will report less revenue (in terms of Yen) than if the US dollar had remained stable.

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Question 13.
Which of the following is not a reason to erect trade barriers?
a. Protect local jobs.
b. Encourage local production.
c. Promote import activity.
d. Reduce reliance on foreign suppliers.
Answer:
c. Promote import activity.

Question 14.
Which of the following countries is not a member of OPEC?
a. Iran.
b. Venezuela.
c. Iraq.
d. Afghanistan.
Answer:
d. Afghanistan.

Question 15.
A company of the US has excess products that it does not want to sell into the US market because it will bring down the domestic price and instead sells it at another country at below the cost of production. What is this called?
a. Countervailing.
b. Dumping,
c. International trade
d. None of the above.
Answer:
a. Countervailing.

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is international business?
Answer:
International business refers to business that takes place across the national boundaries, i. e., between countries. It includes business activities like manufacturing, trade and services beyond the geographical boundaries of a country.

Question 2.
What is the basis for international business?
Answer:
International business arises because of geographical specialization among countries. Different countries of the world are endowed with different natural resources due to geographical factors like physical features, climatic conditions, socials, etc.

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Question 3.
What is contract manufacturing?
Answer:
Contract manufacturing is a mode of entry into international business under which a business firm in a country enters into a contract with local manufacturer in the foreign country to get certain goods produced or services rendered as per its specification. However, the firm retains with itself the responsibility of marketing the goods.

Question 4.
What is licensing?
Answer:
Licensing is a contract arrangement in which a firm in a country allows a firm in a foreign country to use its patent or. trademarks or technology for a consideration known as royalty.

Question 5.
What is franchising?
Answer:
Franchising is very much similar to licensing. The patent company which gives the franchise for a fee is called the franchiser, and the other company is called the franchisee. Franchising covers the business of restaurant, hotel, travel agency, wholesale trade, retail trade, etc.

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Question 6.
What is joint venture?
Answer:
Joint venture is a business jointly owned by two or more firms located in two different countries.

Question 7.
State one difference between international trade and international business.
Answer:
The one difference between international trade and international business: International trades produces the goods cheaply, but international business cannot produce the goods cheaply.

Question 8.
State one difference between licensing and franchising.
Answer:
The one difference between licensing and franchising.
Licensing is used in connection with marketing of products, whereas franchising is used in connection with marketing of services.

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Question 9.
Distinguish between domestic business and international business.
Answer:
The two differences between domestic and international business are:

Basis of difference Domestic Business International business
1. Territorial limits Domestic business takes place between the geographical boundaries of a nation. In other words, domestic business takes place between buyers and sellers of the same nation. International business takes place between different nations. In other words, the buyers and sellers in international business belong to different nations.
2. Homogeneity or heterogeneity of markets Domestic markets are relatively more homogeneous in nature. International markets are heterogeneous in nature.

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Question 10.
Explain the scope of international business.
Answer:
The scope of international business is quite wide. It includes not only exports and, imports of goods abut also exports and imports of services. It includes even licensing franchising and foreign.investment.

The various activities which constitute the scope of international business are:

  1. Exports and imports of merchandise
  2. Exports and imports of services
  3. Licensing and franchising
  4. Foreign investments.

Question 11.
State the advantages and disadvantages of contract manufacturing.
Answer:
Advantage of contract manufacturing:

  • There is no investment risk in this strategy, as there is no investment in production facilities in the foreign country.

Disadvantage of contract manufacturing:

  • This mode is not suitable in cases involving high tech products and technical secrets.

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Question 12.
State the advantages and disadvantages of licensing and franchising.
Answer:

Advantage of licensing and franchising:

  • There is lesser risk of Government interference on the turnover of business in licensing or franchising, because the business in managed by local persons.

Disadvantage of licensing and franchising:

  • There is danger that the licensee or franchisee may star an identical business, slightly different from the one licensed or franchised.

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Question 13.
State the advantages and disadvantages of joint venture.
Answer:
Advantage of Joint Venture:

  • Joint venture facilitates easy entry into international business.

Disadvantage of Joint Venture:

  • There is the risk of leakage of technology and trade secrets in case of joint venture.

Question 14.
State the advantages and disadvantages wholly-owned subsidiary.
Answer:
Advantage of wholly-owned subsidiary:

  • Under this strategy, the parent company enjoys full control over its operations in the foreign country.

Disadvantage wholly-owned subsidiary:

  • The parent company, being the sole owner, has to bear all the losses of the subsidiary company.

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1st PUC Business Studies International Business – I Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the various modes of entry into international business.
Answer:
There are various ways of entering into international business. They are:

1. Exporting and Importing: Exporting means selling or sending goods and services form the home county to foreign country.
Importing means purchasing goods and services from a foreign country or bringing them to the home county.

2. Contract Manufacturing: Contract manufacturing is a mode of entry into ‘ international business under which a business firm in a country enters into a contract with local manufacturer in the foreign country to get certain goods produced or services rendered as per its specification! However, the firm retains with itself the responsibility of marketing the goods.

3. Licensing and Franchising: Licensing is a contract arrangement in which a firm in a country allows a firm in a foreign country to use its patent or trademarks or technology for a consideration known as royalty. Franchising is very much similar to licensing. The patent company which gives the franchise for a fed is called the franchiser, and the other company is called the franchisee. Franchising covers the business of restaurant, hotel, travel agency, wholesale trade, retail trade, etc.

1. Joint venture: Joint venture is a business jointly owned by two or more firms located in two different countries.

2. Wholly-owned Subsidiary: A wholly-owned subsidiary is subsidiary company which is owned by a parent company or holding company. In other words, a wholly-owned subsidiary is a subsidiary company in whose equity capital, 100% investment is made by the parent or holding company.

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Question 2.
Explain the benefits of international business.
Answer:
The advantages or benefits of international business can be classified into:

  1. Advantages or benefits to the trading nations.
  2. Advantages or benefits to the participating firms.

Advantages Or Benefits To The Trading Nations

1. Regional Specialisation: International business contributes to territorial or regional specialisation or division of labour.

2. Fuller and More Efficient Utilisation of Available Resources: By enabling a country to concentrate on the production of those goods for which its resources are best suited, international business facilitated fuller and better utilization of the available resources.

3. Expansion of Domestic Industries: By widening the markets for goods, international business contributes to the expansion of domestic industries of a country.

Advantages Or Benefits To The Participating Firms

  1. Growth of Business: International business contributes to the growth of business of participating firms by encouraging large-scale production and large-scale international business.
  2. Improved business Vision: International business helps business firms to have improved business vision and become increased export business.
  3. Higher Profits to Participating Firms: International business offer better prospects for higher profits to firms participating in international business through wider markets and better prices.

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Question 3.
Explain the demerits of international business!
Answer:
The dements of international business are:

1. Excessive Dependence on other countries: International business, by making a country concentrate on the production of only those goods for which it is best suited, makes a county depend on other-countries even for essential products. Such dependence creates serious difficulties for a country, especially in times of war when international business becomes impossible.

2. Foreign competition: International business gives rise to foreign competition to a country. Foreign competition may ruin domestic industries, especially small and cottage industries which are unable to face such competition.

3. One-side development: International business may lead to one-sided development of a nation’s economy. Because of the specialisation resulting from international business, a country may develop a certain sector of her economy, neglecting other sectors. This dependence on one sector is not good for the overall growth of a country.

4. Balance of Payment Problem: International business may cause serious balance of payment problem. The balance payment problem may force a country to borrow from international sources. Huge foreign debt may impair a country’s capacity to import goods.

5. Import of Luxury and Other Unwanted Goods: International business may encourage the import of luxury and other unwanted goods which are not necessary for the masses. Such imports may ruin the economy of country.

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1st PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Vaibhav Chapter 10 रिहर्सल

You can Download Chapter 10 रिहर्सल Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary, 1st PUC Hindi Textbook Answers, Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC Hindi Textbook Answers Sahitya Vaibhav Chapter 10 रिहर्सल

रिहर्सल Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

I. एक शब्द या वाक्यांश या वाक्य में उत्तर लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
वैद्य परमानन्द बीमार स्त्री को कितने दिन तक खाना न खाने के लिए कहते हैं?
उत्तरः
‘वैद्य परमानन्द बीमार स्त्री को पंद्रह दिन तक खाना न खाने की सलाह देते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
किसान किसकी बीमारी के इलाज के लिए बैद्य परमानन्द के पास पहुंचता है?
उत्तरः
किसान गाय की बीमारी के इलाज के लिए वैद्य परमानन्द के पास पहुँचता है।

प्रश्न 3.
वैद्य परमानन्द हर बीमारी के लिए कौन-सी दवा देते हैं?
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानन्द हर बीमारी के लिए अमर भास्कर चूर्ण देते हैं।

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प्रश्न 4.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री को कमजोरी दूर करने का क्या उपाय बताते हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री से कहते हैं कि वह हिम्मत से आँखें बंद करके शेर से लड़ें, पहाड़ों पर चढ़ें, तूफान में समुद्र में कूदकर अपनी कमजोरी दूर कर सकती हैं।

प्रश्न 5.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग किसान को किसकी फोटो लाने के लिए कहते हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग किसान को गाय की फोटो लाने के लिए कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 6.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग किसे यमराज का सगा भाई कहते हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग वैद्य परमानंद को यमराज का सगा भाई कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 7.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग लड़के को होश में लाने के लिए कैसी कहानियाँ सुनाने की सलाह देते हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग लड़के को होश में लाने के लिए ऐसी कहानियाँ सुनाने की सलाह देते हैं कि बेहोश व्यक्तियों के होश में आने का वर्णन हो।

प्रश्न 8.
वैद्य परमानंद के अनुसार लड़के को क्या हुआ है?
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद के अनुसार लड़के को सन्निपात हुआ है।

प्रश्न 9.
बेहोशी का अभिनय किसने किया?
उत्तरः
बेहोशी का अभिनय लड़के रमेश ने किया।

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प्रश्न 10.
बेहोशी का अभिनय करने वाले लड़के का नाम लिखिए।
उत्तरः
बेहोशी का अभिनय करनेवाला रमेश था।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्नः

प्रश्न 11.
सदा घबराहट महसूस करना किसकी निशानी है?
उत्तरः
सदा घबराहट महसूस करना मौत की निशानी है।

प्रश्न 12.
वैद्य परमानंद बीमार स्त्री को कहाँ चंदन का लेप करने के लिए कहा?
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद ने बीमार स्त्री को हृदय के भीतरी भाग पर चंदन का लेप करने के लिए कहा।

प्रश्न 13.
वैद्य परमानंद बेहोश बालक को कौन-सा रोग निश्चित करते हैं?
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद बेहोश बालक को सन्निपात रोग निश्चित करते हैं।

प्रश्न 14.
‘रिहर्सल’ एकांकी के लेखक कौन हैं?
उत्तरः
‘रिहर्सल’ एकांकी के लेखक ओमप्रकाश ‘आदित्य’ हैं।

II. निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
वैद्य परमानन्द बीमार स्त्री का इलाज किस प्रकार करते हैं?
उत्तरः
‘बीमार स्त्री इलाज के लिए जब वैद्य परमानंद के पास जाती है तो वे उसे उसका बचना मुशकिल है कहकर खूब डराते है। बाद में उससे अजीब से प्रश्न पूछते है जिसका बीमारी से संबंध ही नहीं। उसके हृदय पर चंदन का लेप लगाने के लिए कहते है। उसके हाथ में अमर भास्कर चूर्ण देकर उसे इस तरह खाने को कहते है वह सिधे पेट में न जाकर हृदय में जाए। फिर उसे पंद्रह दिन तक खाना न खाने की सलाह देते हैं।

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प्रश्न 2.
वैद्य परमानंद गाय की बीमारी दूर करने का क्या उपाय बताते हैं?
उत्तरः
परमानंद ने किसान से कहा – तुम बीमार हो या तुम्हारी गाय, मेरे लिए एक ही बात है। लाओ, नब्ज दिखाओं। किसान बोला – जी, नब्ज मैं दिखाऊँ? परमानंद – और कौन दिखाएगा? गाय तुम्हारी बीमार है या किसी और की? नब्ज देखते हुए कहा – गाय की हालत चिंताजनक है। उसे शीघ्र चारा खिलाओ, नहीं तो मरे बिना नहीं मानेगी। उसे उसी का दूध निकालकर पिलाओ। यह अमर भास्कर चूर्ण ले जाओ, गरम पानी के साथ खा लेना। “मैं खाऊँ या गाय को खिलाऊँ?” “तुम भी खा लो, गाय को भी खिला दो। दोनों को लाभ पहुंचेगा।’

प्रश्न 3.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री का इलाज किस ढंग से करते हैं?
उत्तरः
जब स्त्री प्रोफेसर साहब के पास पहुँचकर बोली – बीमार हूँ प्रोफेसर साहब! मेरा हृदय धड़कता है, घबराहट बहुत रहती है, कमजोरी कैसे दूर हो सकती है?, प्रोफेसर ने कहा – आपको भ्रम हो गया है, हृदय तो मेरा भी.धड़कता है, दिल की कमजोरी है, बीमारी नहीं है। हिम्मत रखिए, आँखें मूंद लीजिए, अब आप बीहड़ जंगल में हैं, हाथियों की चिंघाड़, शेरों की दहाड़, शेर आपकी ओर बढ़ रहा है, घबराइए मत, लड़िए उससे, अब इसे घूसे से मार दीजिए। उसके दाँत तोड़ दीजिए। स्त्री आँखें खोलती है। पांडुरंग जी! मैं चलती हूँ, नमस्ते। जाइए, महसूस कीजिए कि आप लक्ष्मीबाई की तरह तलवार चलाती बढ़ रही हैं। इस प्रकार प्रोफेसर बीमार स्त्री का इलाज करते है।

प्रश्न 4.
वैद्य और प्रोफेसर के आमने-सामने आने के बाद का दृश्य प्रस्तुत कीजिए।
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद और प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग आमने-सामने आने के बाद एक-दूसरे पर व्यंग्य करते हैं। प्रोफेसर परमानंद को ‘यमराज का सगा भाई’ कहते हैं तो परमानंद प्रोफेसर को ‘वात-पित्त-कफ’ कहता है। प्रत्युत्तर व्यंग्य करते हुए वह कहता है कि तुम यदि किसी की नब्ज भी पकड़ लेते हो, तो उसकी जान चली जाती है। इस प्रकार आपस में हँसी-मजाक भी होती है और ताने भी दिए जाते हैं।

प्रश्न 5.
रमेश ने बेहोशी का अभिनय क्यों किया?
उत्तरः
रमेश अपने घर में बेहोश हो जाता है। उसके चिंतित पिता वैद्य परमानंद और प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को बुला लाते है। परमानंद के अनुसार लड़के को सन्निपात है तथा प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग के अनुसार उसे स्नायुरोग है। यह सब सुनकर लड़का घबडा जाता है और चादर फेंककर उठते हुए कहता है कि वह पूरी तरह होश में है। न उसे भ्रम है और न उसे कुछ महसूस करने की जरूरत है। स्कूल में होने वाले नाटक जिसमें उसे दो घंटे बेहोशी का अभिनय करना है, वह उसीकी रिहर्सल कर रहा था।

प्रश्न 6.
वैद्य परमानंद का चरित्र-चित्रण कीजिए।
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानंद का आयु लगभग 50 वर्ष है। आँखों पर चश्मा, लम्बी दाढ़ी, झुर्सदार मूंछे हैं। परमानंद स्वयं समझते हैं कि उनके रोगी उनके पास दुबारा नहीं लौटते। हर प्रकार के रोग के लिए उनके पास एक ही दवा है और वह है ‘अमर भास्कर चूर्ण’। उन्हें इस बात की परवाह नहीं कि उनकी दवा से कोई रोगी ठीक होगा या नहीं, उन्हें तो बस सभी को खिलाना है ‘अमर भास्कर चूर्ण’। यहाँ तक कि गाय को भी वही चूर्ण खिलाने को कहते हैं।

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प्रश्न 7.
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग का चरित्र-चित्रण कीजिए।
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग की उम्र बयालीस वर्ष है। उनकी दाढ़ी फ्रेंचकट है, मूंछे साफ, आँखों पर मोटे फ्रेम का चश्मा लगाते हैं। सूट पहनते हैं और टाई लगाते हैं। बीमारियों का इलाज करते हैं। बीमार स्त्री को आँखें बंद करके जंगल में होने का महसूस करने को कहते हैं और शेर को घूसे से मारने को कहते हैं। किसान की बीमार गाय के इलाज के लिए उसका फोटो लाने को कहते हैं।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्नः

प्रश्न 8.
प्रोफेसर पांडूरंग किसान को क्या हिदायतें देता हैं?
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग के सामने एक किसान अपनी गाय की बीमारी की समस्या लेकर आता है। तब प्रोफेसर किसान को कहते हैं- अपनी गाय का चेहरा लेकर आना। गाय का चेहरा देखे बिना मैं बीमारी का निदान नहीं कर सकता। चेहरा न ला सको तो उसका एक फोटो खिंचवाकर ही ले आना।

III. निम्नलिखित वाक्य किसने किससे कहे?

प्रश्न 1.
परहेज ही तो असली इलाज है।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य वैद्य परमानन्द ने बीमार स्त्री से कहा।

प्रश्न 2.
तुम भी खा लेना, गाय को भी खिला देना।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य वैद्य परमानन्द ने किसान से कहा।

प्रश्न 3.
नहीं, कई बेटे अपने बाप से भी बड़े हो जाते हैं।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य वैद्य परमानन्द ने अध्यापक से कहा।

प्रश्न 4.
ठीक तो हो जायेगा, पर होश में नहीं आयेगा।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य वैद्य परमानन्द ने रमेश की माँ से कहा।

प्रश्न 5.
तुझे क्या हो गया था मेरे लाड़ले।
उत्तरः
यह वाक्य माँ ने अपने पुत्र रमेश से कहा।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्नः

प्रश्न 6.
“यही तो मौत की निशानी है।”
उत्तरः
इस वाक्य को वैद्य परमानंद ने स्त्री से कहा।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 7.
“आप गिर नहीं रहे हैं। आप महसूस कीजिए कि नहीं गिर रहे हैं।”
उत्तरः
इस वाक्य को प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग ने वैद्य परमानन्द से कहा।

प्रश्न 8.
“आपको भ्रम हो गया है, आप बीमार नहीं है।”
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री से कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 9.
“घबराइए मत। आँखें मत खोलिए, आप शेर से लडिए।”
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग बीमार स्त्री से कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 10.
“इसकी नब्ज़ बता रही है कि यह बेहोश है।”
उत्तरः
वैद्य परमानन्द ने पिता से कहा।

प्रश्न 11.
“इसका चेहरा कह रहा है कि यह होश में है।”
उत्तरः
प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग ने वैद्य परमानंद से कहा।

IV. ससंदर्भ स्पष्टीकरण कीजिएः

प्रश्न 1.
मरना तो कोई नहीं चाहता, लेकिन मैंने अपने रोगियों को अक्सर मरते देखा है।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : बीमार स्त्री जब वैद्य परमानंद के पास इलाज के लिए आती है तब स्त्री की नब्ज पकड़ते हुए परमानंद यह वाक्य कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : वैद्य परमानन्द के पास एक अधेड़ उम्र की स्त्री आती है और आकर बेंच पर बैठती है। वह बीमार है। स्त्री वैद्य परमानन्द को बतलाती है कि उसका दिल धड़कता है, नीन्द नहीं आती, आदि-आदि। यह सुनकर वैद्य जी उस स्त्री से कहते हैं कि उसका बचना मुश्किल हैं। स्त्री मरना नहीं चाहती। वैद्य से प्रार्थना करती है कि उसे बचाले। तब वैद्य परमानंद उक्त वाक्य को स्त्री से कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
हृदय का गुण ही धड़कना है।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : प्रोफेसर पाण्डुरंग के पास बीमार स्त्री जब इलाज के लिए फिर आती है तब पाण्डुरंग कहते हैं कि उसे भ्रम हो गया है। स्त्री बतलाती है कि उसका हृदय धड़कता है।
स्पष्टीकरण : जब बीमार स्त्री ने कहा कि उसका हृदय धड़कता है तो प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग ने उससे कहा – हृदय तो मेरा भी धड़कता हैं, दुनिया में हर आदमी का धड़कता है। इसमें नयी बात क्या है? हृदय का काम ही धड़कना है। आप को दिल की कमजोरी है, बीमारी नहीं है जिसे धैर्य और कल्पना के सहारे ठीक किया जा सकता है।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 3.
मुझे डर है कि कहीं यहाँ बैठे-बैठे मेरा दिल धड़कना बंद न कर दे।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं। – संदर्भ : प्रोफेसर के इलाज के दौरान स्त्री झटके के साथ उठकर तेजी से बाहर जाते हुए यह वाक्य कहती है।
स्पष्टीकरण : जब प्रोफेसर ने कहा – आपका दिल लोहे की तरह मजबूत हो जाएगा, तब स्त्री ने कहा – पांडुरंग जी! मुझे डर है कि कहीं यहाँ बैठे-बैठे मेरा दिल धड़कना बन्द न कर दे। मैं चलती हूँ, नमस्ते।

प्रश्न 4.
इसे भ्रम हो गया है कि यह बेहोश है।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : माँ कहती है कि यह बेहोश है और आपको कहानियाँ सूझ रही है प्रोफेसर परमानन्द तब कहते हैं कि इसे भ्रम हुआ है कि यह बेहोश है। .
स्पष्टीकरण : जब माँ कहती है – यह बेहोश है, आपको कहानियों की सूझ रही है। प्रोफेसर ने कहा – यह बेहोश नहीं है। परमानंद ने कहा – तो क्या है? तब प्रोफेसर ने कहा – इसे भ्रम हो गया है कि यह बेहोश है। असल में यह होश में ही है।

प्रश्न 5.
सन्निपात है वैद्य परमानंद को और स्नायुरोग है प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को।
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : जब लड़का बेहोश हो जाता है तभी दोनों आपस में एक दूसरे से कहते हैं कि इसे स्नायु रोग है तो दूसरा इसे सन्निपात रोग कहता है।
स्पष्टीकरण : जब माँ ने कहा – हाय राम! ये तो रोग पर रोग बढ़ाये जा रहे हैं, तब लड़का कहता है – सन्निपात है वैद्य परमानंद को और स्नायुरोग है प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को। मैं पूरी तरह होश में हूँ। न मुझे भ्रम है और न कुछ महसूस करने की जरूरत।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्नः

प्रश्न 6.
“अरे, आग लगे तेरी रिहर्सल को। तू बीस-तीस मिनट और ऐसे ही रहता तो मेरी रिहर्सल हो जाती
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है। इसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : माँ अपने लड़के रमेश को डाँटते हुए कहती है।
स्पष्टीकरण : रमेश अचानक होश में आ जाता है। तब रमेश की माँ उसे अंक में भरकर पूछती है – तुझे क्या हो गया था मेरे लाडले। तब रमेश कहता है – मैं तो स्कूल में होने जा रहे नाटक में बेहोशी के अभिनय के लिए रिहर्सल कर रहा था। तब माँ गुस्से में कहती है, अरे, आग लगे तेरी रिहर्सल को। तू बीस-तीस मिनट और ऐसे ही रहता तो मेरी रिहर्सल हो जाती।

प्रश्न 7.
“कौन? वैद्य परमानंद! यमराज का सगा भाई।”
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : प्रोफेसर, अध्यापक के घर अचानक वैद्य परमानंद को देखकर कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : वैद्य परमानन्द बारह वर्षीय अचेत लड़के का ईलाज कर रहे हैं। घरवाले सभी चिन्तित है। तभी लड़के की बहन प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को भी बुला लाती है। प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग वहाँ वैद्य को देखकर कहते हैं – कौन? वैद्य परमानंद! यमराज का सगा भाई! वे इसलिए ऐसा कहते हैं कि परमानंद के द्वारा इलाज किया गया व्यक्ति जिन्दा नहीं बचता है। वे साक्षात यमराज हैं।

प्रश्न 8.
“गाय बीमार है तो तुम किसलिए आए हो? गाय का इलाज क्या तुम्हारी शक्ल देखकर करूँ?”
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : गाय की बीमारी लेकर आये किसान को प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग यह वाक्य कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : एक किसान प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को राम-राम करता है। तब प्रोफेसर उसकी शक्ल देखकर कहते हैं – तुम्हे किसी तरह की कोई बीमारी नहीं है। किसान कहता हैं मैं आज तक बीमार नहीं हुआ। पिछले दस दिनों से मेरी गाय बीमार है। तब प्रोफेसर कहते हैं – गाय बीमार है तो तुम किसलिए आए हो? गाय का इलाज क्या तुम्हारी शक्ल देखकर करूँ?

KSEEB Solutions

प्रश्न 9.
“अच्छा। उसे उसी का दूध निकालकर पिलाओ।”
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : वैद्य परमानंद बीमार गाय की समस्या लेकर आए किसान से यह वाक्य कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : किसान वैद्य परमानंद जी से कहता है – वैद्य जी, मेरी गाय बीमार है। दस दिन से न चारा खाती है न दूध देती है। वैद्य जी किसान कि नब्ज देखने लगते है – गाय को शीघ्र चारा खिलाओं नहीं तो मरे बिना नहीं रह सकती। किसान कहता है उसे चारा नहीं खाने का ही . तो रोग है। तब वैद्य परमानंद कहते हैं – उसे उसी का दूध निकालकर पिलाओं।

प्रश्न 10.
“हृदय के भीतरी भाग पर चंदन का लेप कीजिए।’
उत्तरः
प्रसंग : प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य पुस्तक ‘साहित्य वैभव’ के ‘रिहर्सल’ नामक पाठ से लिया गया है जिसके लेखक ओमप्रकाश आदित्य हैं।
संदर्भ : वैद्य परमानंद दिल की बीमारी से पीड़ित स्त्री को कहते हैं।
स्पष्टीकरण : एक स्त्री वैद्य परमानंद के पास दिल की धड़कन की बीमारी बताती हैं। तब वैद्य जी उसे अजीब सलाह देते हैं। वे नब्ज देखकर कहते हैं – हृदय के भीतरी भाग पर चंदन का लेप कीजिए। स्त्री पूछती है भीतरी भाग पर? तब वे उसे अमर भास्कर का चूर्ण देते हुए कहते हैं – इसे इस तरह खाइये कि पेट में न जाकर सीधा हृदय में जाये।

V. अन्य लिंग रूप लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
हाथी, शेर, लड़का, गाय, पिता, अध्यापक, भगवान।
उत्तरः

  • हाथी – हथिनी
  • शेर – शेरनी
  • लड़का – लड़की
  • गाय – बैल
  • पिता – माता
  • अध्यापक – अध्यापिका
  • भगवान – भगवती।

VI. अन्य वचन रूप लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
दुकान, घंटा, किताब, मूंछ, मुद्रा, सपना।
उत्तरः

  • दुकान – दुकानें
  • घंटा – घंटे
  • किताब – किताबें
  • मूंछ – मूंछे
  • मुद्रा – मुद्राएँ
  • सपना – सपने।

VII. विलोम शब्द लिखिए:

प्रश्न 1.
बेहोश, मोटा, मौत, शीघ्र, छोटा।
उत्तरः

  • बेहोश × होश
  • मोटा × पतला
  • मौत × बेमौत (जिंदगी)
  • शीघ्र × विलम्ब
  • छोटा × बड़ा।

रिहर्सल लेखक परिचयः

हिन्दी साहित्य जगत के प्रसिद्ध हास्य-व्यग्य रचनाकार ओमप्रकाश ‘आदित्य’ का जन्म ‘ 5 नवंबर 1936 को रणसीका, गुड़गाँव (हरियाणा) में हुआ। आपने दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय से एम.ए. (हिन्दी) की उपाधि प्राप्त की। गंभीर कविताओं से प्रारंभ करके हास्य-व्यंग्य के क्षेत्र में अवतरित होनेवाले ‘आदित्य’ जी ने आज कवि के रूप में हिन्दी मंच को और निबंधकार के रूप में पाठक वर्ग को पूरी तरह जकड़ लिया है। हास्य-एकांकी लेखन के क्षेत्र में भी आपने अपने जौहर दिखाए हैं। आपकी मृत्यु 8 जून 2009 को भोपाल के नजदीक कार दुर्घटना में हुई।

KSEEB Solutions

प्रमुख कृतियाँ: ‘थर्ड डिवीज़न’, ‘इधर भी गधे हैं, उधर भी गधे हैं’, ‘तोता एंड मैना’, ‘उल्लू का इंटरव्यू’, ‘माडर्न शादी’, ‘घट-घट व्यापी भ्रष्टाचार’, ‘गौरी बैठी छत पर’ आदि सम्मिलित हैं। प्रस्तुत एकांकी ‘श्रेष्ट हास्य-व्यंग्य एकांकी – काका हाथरसी’ डा. गिरिराज शरण अग्रवाल से संकलित की गई है। इस एकांकी में वैद्य परमानन्द तथा प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग अनोखे ढंग से मरीजों का इलाज करते हैं। रमेश के बेहोशी के अभिनय ने एकांकी को न सिर्फ हास्य-व्यंग्य से सराबोर किया है बल्कि वैद्य और प्रोफेसर की सच्चाई को भी भलीभाँति उजागर किया है।

रिहर्सल Summary in Hindi

पात्रवर्गः

  1. एक बीमार स्त्री
  2. वैद्य परमानन्द
  3. किसान
  4. अध्यापक
  5. प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग
  6. एक बालक (रमेश)
  7. बालक के पिता, माता आदि।

श्री ओमप्रकाश ‘आदित्य’ हिन्दी में एक सफल एकांकीकार हैं। इन्होंने ‘रिहर्सल’ एकांकी में दो वैद्यों के अशास्त्रीय चिकित्सा-विधान का मजाक उड़ाया है। लेखक ने अपने हास्य-चातुर्य से वातावरण को आल्हादकारी बनाया है। लेखक का संकेत है कि ऐसे अयोग्य वैद्यों से दूर रहना चाहिए।

परमानंद एक आयुर्वेद वैद्य हैं। वे हर रोग की रामबाण औषधि ‘अमर भास्कर चूर्ण’ मानते हैं। हर किसी रोगी को, हर किसी बीमारी के लिए परमानंद उन्हें यही दवा देते हैं। एक बार एक किसान अपनी गाय लेकर वैद्य परमानंद के पास आया। तुरंत वैद्य ने ‘अमर भास्कर चूर्ण’ उसके हाथ में रख दिया। किसान ने चकित होकर कहा कि वैद्यजी! बीमारी मुझे नहीं, मेरी गाय को है। तब वैद्यजी ने तड़ाक से जवाब दिया कि बीमारी उसे है या उसकी गाय को, कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता। यही दवा गाय को पिलाओ। गाय ठीक हो जाएगी। किसान अवाक् रह गया।

प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग अजीब, ढंग के वैद्य हैं। जब कोई मरीज उसके पास आता है, वह रोगी से कई उलटे-सीधे सवाल करके उसकी जान खाता है। मरीज की शिकायत सुने बिना प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग दवा देता है। एक बीमार स्त्री दिल की धड़कन की शिकायत लेकर प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग के पास आई।

प्रोफेसर ने उससे कहा कि दिल की धड़कन तो होगी है। वह तो उसका गुण धर्म है। आँधी-तूफान में, शेर-बाघ के सामने उसे धैर्य से खड़े होना चाहिए। यह दिल कुछ नहीं कर सकता। हर स्त्री को दिलेर बनने की सलाह देता है। वह स्त्री अपना सिर पीटते हुए चली जाती है।

रमेश नामक बारह साल का लड़का बेहोश हो गया था। वैद्य परमानंद उस लड़के की जाँच करने उसके घर आता है। वह लड़के की जाँच करके ऊट-पटांग बातें करने लगता है। इतने में लड़के की बहन प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग को बुला लाती है। दोनों वैद्य आपस में छींटाकशी करने लगते हैं। आपस में वे दोनों झगड़ने लगते हैं। इधर लड़के के माँ-बाप परेशान होते हैं। मगर वैद्यों का झगड़ा खत्म नहीं होता। इतने में बेहोश लड़का उठ बैठता है। यह देखकर सब लोग दंग रह जाते हैं। तब लड़का रमेश कहता है कि अगले दिन स्कूल के वार्षिकोत्सव नाटक में बेहोशी का अभिनय करना था। ‘रिहर्सल’ के तौर पर उसने बेहोश होने का नाटक किया।

KSEEB Solutions

यह सुनकर वैद्य परमानंद जी सचमुच बेहोश होने लगते हैं और प्रोफेसर पांडुरंग उसे उठाने लगते है|

रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada

रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada 1
रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada 2
रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada 3
रिहर्सल Summary in Kannada 4

रिहर्सल Summary in English

Characters:

  1. A sick woman
  2. Doctor Paramanand
  3. Farmer
  4. Teacher
  5. Professor Pandurang
  6. A boy (Ramesh)
  7. The boy’s parents

Shri Omprakash ‘Aditya’ is a successful Hindi playwright. This play, ‘Rehearsal is a satire on the unscientific medical practices of two doctors. With his brilliant comic timing, the playwright has created an atmosphere of chivalry and light humour. The play gives us the message that we must be wary of such untrained or unskilled doctors.

Paramanand is an ayurvedic doctor. He considers ‘Amar Bhaskar Churna’ to be the miraculous remedy for every disease. Whatever be the disease and whoever be the patient, Paramanand would always recommend the same medicine to everyone. Once a farmer came to Paramanand with his sick cow. Immediately, Paramanand put ‘Amar Bhaskar Churna’ in the farmer’s hand. The farmer was taken aback and he told Paramanand that he was not the one who was ill, but it was rather his cow that was ill. Paramanand replied immediately that it did not matter whether the illness plagued the farmer or his cow. He told the farmer to give the medicine to the cow, and that the cow would get well. The farmer was left speechless.

Professor Pandurang is a strange kind of doctor. Whenever a patient visits him, he asks ridiculous questions and harasses his patients. He prescribes medicines without listening to the complaints of the patient. Once, a woman patient visited Professor Pandurang with a complaint. about her heartbeat. Professor Pandurang told the woman that the heart would always beat – it was the heart’s basic characteristic. According to him, during a storm, or when confronted by a lion or tiger, the heart should stand its ground with courage. He told her that the heart cannot do anything as such and he advised her that all women must try to be courageous. The woman left, beating her own forehead for visiting such a doctor.

KSEEB Solutions

Once, a twelve-year-old boy, Ramesh, fainted. Doctor Paramanand arrived at the boy’s house in order to check up on the boy. Just then, the boy’s sister arrived, having brought along Professor Pandurang to treat her brother. Both the doctors then began to bicker between themselves. Soon, they began to argue about the disease the boy was suffering from. The boy’s parents began to get worried. But, the doctors did not stop fighting. Just then, the boy, Ramesh, got up. This surprised everyone and they were all stunned. Then, Ramesh explained that he had to enact a fainting scene in the Annual school play which was to be held the following day. He explained that he wanted to rehearse, and therefore he acted as he had fainted.
Hearing this,Vaidya Paramanand fainted. Professor Pandurang tried to wake him up.

कठिन शब्दार्थः

  • नब्ज – नाड़ी, रक्त वाहिनी शिराएँ;
  • परहेज – हानिकारक एवं अहितकर वस्तुओं का सेवन न करना;
  • बीहड़ – विषम, घना, ऊबड़-खाबड़;
  • पैताने – वह दिशा जिधर पैर फैलाकर सोया जाए;
  • अंक में भरना – गले लगाना, लिपटाना।
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