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Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Social Science Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Indian Natural Disasters
What are natural disasters? Give examples.
Natural hazards that create widespread destruction are known as natural disasters. Earthquakes, floods, cyclones, epidemics, etc., are examples of natural disasters.
What are the features of natural disasters?
- Natural disasters are natural hazards.
- They may be geological hazards or weather – associated natural disasters.
- They are infrequent and unpredictable.
- It is not possible to prevent natural disasters; only the extent of the damage can be reduced.
How are natural disasters classified?
Natural disasters are classified into:
- Geological hazards
- Weather – associated natural disasters.
Give examples of geological hazards.
Earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, landslides and avalanches are examples of geological hazards.
Give examples of weather-associated natural disasters.
Cyclones, drought, floods and epidemics are examples of weather – associated natural disasters.
What is a cyclone?
A cyclone is a storm caused by winds blowing around a central area of low atmospheric pressure.
Name the two types of cyclones.
Tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones are the two types of cyclones.
Which type of cyclone is common in India?
Tropical cyclone is common in India.
What are the causes of tropical cyclones?
The ideal conditions for the origin and development of tropical cyclones are:
- High temperature
- Calm air
- Highly saturated air
How are tropical cyclones caused?
High temperature, calm and highly saturated air result in the development of a central area of low atmospheric pressure. Relative high pressure prevails around the area of low pressure. When winds blow spirally inwards from the high pressure area towards the centre of the low pressure arpa, cyclones are caused.
What are the effects of cyclones?
Cyclones are very destructive and cause large-scale destruction of life and property. They damage buildings, transport and communication systems, disrupt power supply, destroy crops, vegetation, etc.
Where are cyclones caused in India?
In India, most of the tropical cyclones develop in the Bay of Bengal. Hence the eastern coast is more prone to cyclones. It includes the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal. Only a few cyclones originate in the Arabian sea.
During which period are cyclones mainly caused in India?
In India, cyclones-are mainly caused during the north – east monsoon season. October and November are known for severe cyclones. Few cyclones are caused in the months of May and June.
What preventive measures can be taken to reduce the adverse effects of cyclones?
- People should keep in touch with radio, television and other communication media and pay heed to warnings.
- Temporary shelters should be provided during cyclones.
- Cyclone – proof structures should be constructed.
- Mangrove forests and other deep – rooted trees can be grown along the coastline to check the impact of cyclonic winds and soil erosion.
What is a flood?
A flood refers to the inundation of land by river water.
What are the causes of floods?
Mention the natural causes of floods.
Mention the man-made causes of floods.
Floods are caused by both natural and man-made factors. The natural factors include heavy rainfall, melting of snow, tropical cyclones, cloud burst, blockage of the free flow of river water and silting of river beds, etc.The man-made causes are deforestation, defective agricultural practices, breaching of barrages and rapid urbanisation.
What are the effects of floods?
- Floods cause loss of life and property.
- They cause damage to crops, vegetation, etc.
- They result in breakdown of communication and power systems.
- They dislocate the transport system.
- They cause soil erosion, disruption of essential services, etc.
Which are the flood – prone areas in India?
The flood – prone areas in India are:
- Canga and Brahmaputra river basins: They cover a part of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam.
- Sutlej, Beas, Ravi and Chenab river basins: They include Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
- Peninsular India: The deltaic areas of river basins, i.e., deltaic regions of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers. They include Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
- The lower parts of Narmada and Tapi river basins, that is, Gujarat.
Northern part of India has more flood – prone areas compared to South India. Why?
Northern part of India has more flood – prone areas compared to South India because of the following reasons:
- The average rainfall in India is about 150 cms., but the annual rainfall along the western coast and Western Ghats, Khasi hills and over most of the Brahmaputra valley is more than 250 cms. The hills and mountains thus cause floods on their sloping sides due to excessive rainfall
- The river systems also play a crucial role in the causation of floods. Almost all the rivers carry heavy discharges during the monsoon season, causing floods.
- The steep and highly erodible mountains, particularly those of the Himalayan ranges, are a major cause of floods in northern India.
What are the measures to control floods?
- Afforestation in the catchment area which helps in the reduction of run off of water.
- Reducing the volume of water by constructing dams across rivers and storing water in reservoirs.
- Construction of embankments for protection against inundation of inhabited areas and agricultural land.
Flood forecasting and early warnings.
What is a landslide?
The sliding of land mass along steep slopes of hills or mountains is called landslide.
What are the causes of landslides?
Both natural as well as human induced forces cause landslides.
- Natural forces : Under – cutting of the slope as in erosion of a sea cliff, earthquakes and heavy rainfall.
- Human forces : Deforestation, construction of roads, railway lines, dams and reservoirs, hydel power projects, mining, quarrying, etc.
Human forces are the causes for landslides. How?
While landslides are a naturally occurring environmental hazard they have increased in frequency in recent years due to human forces. Human activities such as deforestation, construction of roads, railway lines, dams and reservoirs, hydel power projects, mining, quarrying, etc., are responsible for the increase in landslides.
What are the effects of landslides?
Blocking of roads, railway lines, burying of human settlements and vegetation, loss of life and property, etc., are the effects of landslides.
Which are the regions in India that are prone to landslides?
In India, landslides occur in hilly states such as Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and in the North – eastern states.
What are the measures to prevent landslides?
Reduction of slopes, prevention of rocks falling along highways, avoiding mining and quarrying activities near steep slopes and human settlements, and reforestation are some of the measures to reduce the occurrence of landslides.
What is coastal erosion?
The erosion of land by the sea waves in coastal areas is called coastal erosion.
What are the causes of coastal erosion?
The main causes of coastal erosion are sea waves and ocean currents. Human activities such as removal of sand and construction of breakwater structures also cause coastal erosion.
What are the causes of coastal erosion in India?
Monsoon winds, tropical cyclones and tsunamis are the causes of coastal erosion in India.
Explain the causes and distribution of coastal erosion in India.
In India, coastal erosion is caused by monsoon winds, tropical cyclones and tsunamis.
- The South West Monsoon Winds cause coastal erosion along the west coast of India. During this season the coasts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu are largely affected by coastal erosion.
- Tropical cyclones mostly occur during the North East monsoon season over Bay of Bengal. They cause coastal erosion along the east coast of India including the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.
- Tsunamis cause coastal erosion in the Andaman and Nicobar islands and along the east coast of India.
What is a tsunami?
Tsunamis are a series of large waves caused by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions under the sea or ocean.
What are the effects of coastal erosion?
- Coastal areas including vegetation and houses may be washed away.
- Roads, railway lines, bridges, etc., along the coast may be damaged.
- Coastal areas may remain flooded over a long period of time requiring resettlement of people.
What are the measures to prevent coastal erosion?
- Constructing retention walls, groynes and breakwaters to protect coastal areas from wave erosion.
- Restricting sand mining in coastal areas.
- Planting of trees along the coast and protecting and stabilising coastal dunes.
What are groynes?
A groyne is a low wall or sturdy barrier built out into the sea from a beach, placed at right angles to the shore, to check erosion.
What are breakers?
Breakers or breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts to check the impact of waves and prevent coastal erosion.
What is an earthquake?
A sudden and violent vibration or movement of the earth’s surface or crust is called earthquake.
What are the causes of earthquakes?
Plate movements, volcanic eruption, faulting and folding, landslides, collapse of underground cave roofs, hydrostatic pressure of man-made water bodies like reservoirs, etc., are the causes of earthquakes.
What is the main cause of earthquakes in India?
In India, most of the earthquakes occur due to plate movements.
What are the effects of earthquakes?
The effects of earthquakes are cracking of ground surface, damage to or destruction of buildings, rails, roads, power lines, telecom lines, bridges, dams, factories, loss of human and animal lives and property. Fires, landslides, disturbance in groundwater level, blockage and diversion of river course, destruction of forests due to fire, etc., are the other effects of earthquakes.
Describe the major earthquake zones in India.
There are three major earthquake zones in India. They are:
1. Himalayan zone : This zone includes the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.This is a zone of maximum intensity. The earthquakes in this zone are basically due to plate tectonics, i.e., in Chamoli and Uttarakashi.
2. Indo – Gangetic zone : This zone lies to the south of the Himalayas. It comprises the states of Rajasthan, plains of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. This is a zone of moderate intensity.
3. Peninsular zone : This zone includes the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands, and Rann of Kutch. This is a zone of minimum intensity.
The peninsular zone is known as ‘zone of minimum intensity’. Why?
The Peninsular zone is considered a stable land mass. Only a few earthquakes have occurred in the peninsular zone, that too in recent years. Therefore it is known as ‘zone of minimum intensity’.
Mention the precautionary measures to be taken to reduce the effects of earthquakes.
Earthquakes are neither predictable nor preventable. We can however reduce the damage that they can cause. Some of the precautionary measures are:
- Avoid human settlements in earthquake – prone zones.
- Follow earthquake – resistant designs for the construction of buildings.
- Use building materials of good quality and avoid high – rise buildings.
- Restrict digging of deep wells for groundwater.
- Restrict growth in hilly areas with high seismic vulnerability.
- Avoid construction of large dams and reservoirs.
- Stop deforestation and heavy quarrying activities.
Multiple – choice Questions
Weather – associated natural disaster among the following is ________
The eastern coast of India is more prone to cyclones because ________
(A) most of the tropical cyclones develop in the Arabian sea
(B) most of the temperate cyclones develop in the Bay of Bengal
(C) most of the temperate cyclones develop in the Arabian sea
(D) most of the tropical cyclones develop in the Bay of Bengal
(D) most of the tropical cyclones develop in the Bay of Bengal
Which of the following is not a natural disaster?
Coastal erosion is caused by ________
(C) sea waves
(C) sea waves
In India, most of the earthquakes have occurred due to ________
(A) volcanic eruptions
(D) plate movements
(D) plate movements
The man – made cause of floods is ________
(A) defore station
(B) heavy rainfall
(C) melting of snow
(D) silting of river beds
(A) defore station
Landslides are caused by ________
(A) sea waves
(B) volcanic eruptions
(C) heavy rainfall
(D) melting of snow
(C) heavy rainfall
Fill in the blanks
- The most destructive atmospheric disaster is cyclone.
- In India, the eastern coast is more prone to cyclones.
- In peninsular India, earthquakes occur occasionally.
- In India, landslides occur very often in hilly areas.
- Coastal erosion is mostly caused by wave action.