KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Students can download Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India Important Questions, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Social Science History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 1.
What methods did the British use to achieve complete domination in India?
Answer:
The British implemented the policy of‘Divide and Rule’ among the Indian rulers and slowly dominated all the Indian rulers and subjugated them. They employed the methods of ‘war’ and ‘negotiation’ to achieve complete domination in India.

Question 2.
How did the British bring in a new order and structure in India?
Answer:
The British integrated the whole of India under one administrative and political structure. Education, judiciary, land taxes, trade, agriculture and other areas were regulated under various laws and administrative system. This brought in a new structure in India. They implemented various administrative experiments in order to achieve a new order in India.

Question 3.
What were the changes introduced by the British in the civil services?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis introduced administration of civil services. The system of appointing employees for the purpose of trade was already in existence. The company also provided permission for these people to undertake private trade. The Regulating Act was passed in 1773 to control the activities of these traders. All the appointments to the civil services till 1853 were done by the directors. After 1853, appointments were made through competitive examinations.

Question 4.
Illustrate the judicial system formulated through the East India Company.
Answer:
With the British consolidating their power after the decline of the Mughals, a new judicial system started taking root. According to the administrative plan devised by Warren Hastings, two types of courts were set up in each district – a Diwani adalat as a civil court and a Fouzdari adalat as a criminal court: In the civil courts, Hindus were dispensed justice as per the Hindu scriptures and the Muslims as per the Shariat. Gradually the British legal procedures were introduced in the criminal courts. Civil courts came under the administration of European officers. Though the criminal courts were under the control of Qazis, they were functioning under the supervision of European officers.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 5.
What is the difference between Diwani Adalat and Fouzdari Adalat?
Answer:
The Diwani Adalat was a civil court while the Fouzdari Adalat was a criminal court.

Question 6.
What were the measures undertaken at the time of the British in the police system?
(OR)
What were the changes introduced by the British in the police system?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis introduced an efficient police system in India for the first time. He created the new post of Superintendent of Police. He divided each district into many stations and put every station under a kotwal. The kotwal was made accountable for thefts, crimes and other law violations at the village level. Similarly, he put every village under the care of a chowkidar.

With the severe drought of 1770 weakening the law and order system, the entire police system was brought under the control of the British officers. The system of appointing British Magistrates began in 1781. The police officers were put under the control of the Magistrates. In 1861, the Police Law was implemented which provided the basis for a good law and order system. In 1902, the Police Commission Law allowed the appointment of police officers w th suitable educational qualification.

Question 7.
How did the British use the military to control India?
Answer:
The military was the base of the administration during the British rule. The British appointed Indians in the military and took the whole of India under its control using the military. They protected their supremacy by addressing the challenges posed by outside as well as inside forces with the help of the military. The officers were all British. The highest post the Indians could reach was the rank of Subedar. Most of the Indians were coolie soldiers. The military system was redesigned on the recommendation of Peel after 1857.

Question 8.
Mention the land revenue systems introduced by the British.
Answer:
The land revenue systems that were introduced by the British were – the Permanent Zamindari system, the Mahalwari system and the Ryotwari system.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 9.
What is Permanent Zamindari system?
Answer:
The permanent zamindari system was a system of land revenue introduced by Governor General Lord Cornwallis.

Question 10.
Describe the system of land revenue introduced by Lord Cornwallis.
(OR)
What were the features of the permanent zamindari system?
Answer:
The system or land revenue introduced by Lord Cornwallis is called permanent zamindari system. Linder this system, the zamindar became the land owner. The zamindar was expected to pay the agreed land taxes to the company on a fixed date every year. He was free to collect any amount of land tax from the farmers and could retain the excess money collected. This benefitted the zamindar. If the zamindar was unable to collect land taxes due to floods or famine, the ownership of the lands was taken away by the company.

Question 11.
How did the zamindari system affect the farmers?
(OR)
What were the effects of the zamindari system?
Answer:

  • Due to the zamindari system, the zamindar became the owner of the land.
  • The zamindars collected from the farmers more taxes than what was expected and retained the excess money. They thus benefitted more from the system.
  • The farmers suffered due to exploitation and had to lead a life of insecurity.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 12.
Name the places where the zamindari system was introduced.
Answer:
The zamindari system was introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra and Varanasi.

Question 13.
In the permanent zamindari system, the Indian farmers “were born in debt, lived in debt and died in debt”. How? Prove.
Answer:
Under the permanent zamindari system, the zamindar was free to collect any amount of land tax from the farmers and could retain the excess money collected. The system benefitted both the zamindars and the Company and the farmers were the sufferers. The farmers and farm labourers suffered due to irregular working opportunities in farming. They were exploited and had to lead a life of insecurity. As Charles Metcalfe put it, “the Indian farmers were born in debt, lived in debt and died in debt due to the land tax policies of the British”.

Question 14.
Who introduced the Mahalwari system?
Answer:
The Mahalwari system was introduced by R.M. Bird and James Thomson.

Question 15.
In which provinces was the Mahalwari system introduced? ”
Answer:
The Mahalwari system was introduced in Uttar Pradesh, parts of Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi.

Question 16.
What were the features of the Mahalwari system?
Answer:
The Mahalwari system was introduced by R.M. Bird and James Thomson. Under the system, the government entered into an agreement at the level of Mahals or taluks with regard to payment of land tax. The implementation of this system varied from region to region. Both small and big zamindars were part of the system. Since the company officials fixed a higher land tax than the yield from the fields, many zamindars lost the ownership of their lands. The marginal farmers and agricultural labourers who were dependent on these zamindars also suffered due to this.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 17.
Who introduced the Ryotwari system?
Answer:
The Ryotwari system was introduced by Alexander Reid.

Question 18.
In which region was the Ryotwari system first introduced?
Answer:
The Ryotwari system was first introduced in Baramahal region.

Question 19.
Who introduced the Ryotwari system in Madras and Mysore regions?
Answer:
The Ryotwari system was introduced in Madras and Mysore regions by Thomas Munroe.

Question 20.
What were the features of the Ryotwari system?
(OR)
What were the main aspects of the Ryotwari system?
Answer:
The Ryotwari system was introduced by Alexander Reed in 1792. Under the system, both the farmer and the company were directly linked to each other. The tiller of the land was recognised as the owner of the land. The owner had to pay fifty percent of the produce as land tax to the company government. The land tax had thirty year tenure. The tax could be reviewed only after this tenure. When the farmers failed to pay the tax, they lost the right to the land.

Question 21.
What were the effects of the Ryotwari system?
Answer:
Under the Ryotwari system, though the small farmers were given land ownership, they were subjected to more suffering due to heavy land taxes. The officials took punitive action to collect land taxes. The farmers had to borrow from moneylenders whenever the crops failed. They had to sell their lands if they failed to repay the loans. More farmers lost their land due to the implementation of the system.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 22.
What were the effects of the British land taxes?
(OR)
What was the impact of the land tax systems introduced by the British?
Answer:

  • A new class of zamindars who exploited the farmers was created.
  • The exploited farmers gradually became landless.
  • Land became a commodity. Loans could be raised by mortgaging the lands.
  • Many zamindars also had to mortgage their lands in order to pay the land taxes.
  • The agriculture sector became commercialised and had to grow raw materials needed by industries back in England.
  • The moneylenders became stronger.

Question 23.
Explain the growth of modern education in India.
(OR)
Explain the development of modern education system in India during British rule.
Answer:
Though education in India was mostly traditional, the British introduced some changes during the 18th century. It was Warren Hastings who facilitated the expansion of modern education in India. In 1781 he started the Calcutta Madrasa. Jonathan Duncan, a Britisher, started the Sanskrit College in Benares in 1792. But it was Charles Grant who pressed for the universalisation of British education in India.

The expansion of English education in India received special support after the appointment of Lord William Bentinck as Governor General. Bentinck appointed Macaulay as member of the Governor General’s Executive Committee. He was also appointed as the chairperson of the Committee on Education. The report on education submitted by him in 1835 became the basis of modern education in India. English came to be used as the medium of learning after 1830s.

Another important development was the establishment of universities. Lord Dalhousie established universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras as per the recommendations of the Charles Wood Commission (1854). After this development, education became universalised in India.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 24.
Make a list of the effects of British education on India.
(OR)
What was the impact of English education on Indians?
(OR)
How were Indians benefited by the introduction of English education?
(OR)
How did English education influence the Indian freedom movement?
(OR)
How did English education play a role in bringing new awareness among Indians?
(OR)
The British education system created a new generation of Indians with progressive attitudes. Justify.
Answer:

  • Indians could develop modernity, secularism, democratic attitudes and rationality along with nationalistic ideas.
  • The impetus received by local literature and languages facilitated unity in the thought process of the educated class.
  • The emergence of periodicals, which scrutinised the policies and working of the government, enabled the Indians to have critical opinion on various issues.
  • New social and religious reform movements emerged.
  • The thoughts of J.S. Mill, Rousseau and Montesquieu brought fresh thinking in the educated youth of India.
  • The freedom struggles that were taking place across the globe influenced Indians as well.
  • Indians could understand and appreciate their rich tradition.
    Thus, the new thinking and cultural perception that emerged due to the British education system created a new generation of Indians with progressive attitudes.

Question 25.
Why did it become necessary for the British to introduce reforms in administration?
Answer:
With the expansion of British administration, the problems too increased. It became necessary to bring reforms in administration to deal with these problems. These reforms had also to satisfy the demands of Indians. Hence the British attempted to implement many laws and rules in the form of Acts and Regulations.

Question 26.
List the important Acts implemented during the rule of the East India Company.
Answer:
The Regulating Act of 1773, the Pitt’s India Act of 1784 and the Charter Acts of 1813 and 1833 were some of the important Acts implemented during the rule of the East India Company.

Question 27.
When was the Regulating Act passed?
Answer:
The Regulating Act was passed in 1773.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 28.
What were the main features of the Regulating Act?
Answer:

  • Before the implementation of this Act there were three Presidencies under British rule – Bengal, Madras and Bombay, which were independent administrative units. Under the Regulating Act, the Bengal Presidency gained control over the other two Presidencies.
  • The Governor of Bengal became the Governor General of all the three Presidencies.
  • The Governor General was authorised to direct, control and supervise the Madras and Bombay Presidencies.
  • The Bombay and Madras Presidencies could not declare war or enter into peace agreements with anyone without the prior approval of the Governor General of Bengal Presidency and the Board of Directors of the Company. They could act independently only during emergencies.
  • The Act provided for a Supreme Court consisting of a Chief Justice and three judges.

Question 29.
What were the restrictions imposed by the Regulating Act?
(OR)
What were the powers given to the Governor General and Bengal government by the Regulating Act?
Answer:
Under the Regulating Act, the Bengal Presidency gained control over the other two Presidencies, viz., Madras and Bombay. A Governor General was appointed who was authorised to direct, control and supervise the Madras and Bombay Presidencies. But the Bombay and Madras Presidencies could not declare war or enter into peace agreements with anyone without the prior approval of the Governor General of Bengal Presidency and the Board of Directors of the Company.

Question 30.
Which Act proposed the establishment of a supreme court?
Answer:
The Regulating Act of 1773 provided for the establishment of a supreme court.

Question 31.
Where was the Supreme Court proposed by the Regulating Act set up?
Answer:
The Supreme Court proposed by the Regulating Act was set up at Calcutta.

Question 32.
When was the Pitt’s India Act passed?
The Pitt’s India Act was passed in 1784.

Question 33.
Why was the Pitt’s India Act passed?
Answer:
The Pitt’s India Act was passed to not only rectify the inconsistencies in the Regulating Act of 1773 but also to clearly outline the powers of the East India Company and the British government.

Question 34.
What were the features of the Pitt’s India Act of 1784?
Answer:

  • The Act provided for the creation of a Board of Control in place of the Board of Directors. The Board, consisting of six commissioners, had powers to direct and control the issues related to land taxes, military and civil areas.
  • The Act curtailed the political rights of Indians.
  • It declared the areas under the possession of the East India Company an integral part of the British Empire. Hence, the Government of England became the ultimate ruler of India.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 35.
When and why were the Charter Acts passed?
Answer:
The Charter Acts were passed in 1793,1813,1833 and 1853 to renew the license of the East India Company. As and when the Charter Acts were implemented once in twenty years, new rules and regulations found fit by the British government were included in these Acts.

Question 36.
What were the features of the Charter Act of 1813?
(OR)
Why is the Charter Act of 1813 considered a historic Act?
Answer:

  • The Act renewed the license of the East India Company for another twenty years.
  • The Act started the era of free trade in India by allowing any interested persons to carry out trade in India.
  • A new era of license and authorisation started.
  • The Board of Directors was vested with the power to appoint the Governor General and the Commander-in-Chief.
  • The churches were allowed to enter India officially. The Christian Missionaries were directed to enrich the knowledge of Indians and also enhance their moral and spiritual life. Because of these developments, the Charter Act of 1813 is a historic Act.

Question 37.
What were the features of the Charter Act of 1833?
Answer:

  • The Act renewed the license of the East India Company for a further twenty years.
  • The Governor General of Bengal was named the Governor General of India.
  • The Governor General was vested with powers to direct, control and supervise all trades in India.
  • The government of Bengal had the final right to decide on issues like war, peace and diplomatic relations with the princely states of India.
  • The Governor General was mandated to put his difference of opinion with Executive Committee members in writing whenever he differed with the majority opinion.
  • The Act barred any discrimination based on religion, birth or skin colour.
  • The Governor General was mandated to appoint a law professional as member to his executive committee.
  • All British companies were allowed to have trade relations in India.

Question 38.
List the important Acts implemented by the British government.
Answer:
The important Acts implemented by the British government were Government of India Act 1858, Indian Councils Act 1861, Indian Councils Act 1892, Indian Councils Act 1909 (Minto- Morley Reforms), Government of India Act 1919 (Montague-Chelmsford Reforms) and Government of India Act 1935.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 39.
What were the features of the Government of India Act of 1858?
Answer:
As a result of the sepoy mutiny of 1857, the administration of India came under the direct control of the British government. Through the Government of India Act which came into effect from November 1,1858, Queen Victoria announced that the British government would ensure the all round development of India. The important features of the Act were:

  • The license of the East India Company was cancelled and India was brought under the direct administration of the Queen.
  • The post of Governor General was changed to Viceroy.
  • A new post called Secretary of State for India was created in the British government. The secretary was part of the British cabinet and was responsible for the administration of India.
  • An Indian Council consisting of 15 members was created to assist the secretary in the administration.

Question 40.
Who was the first Viceroy of India?
Answer:
Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India.

Question 41.
What were the features of the Indian Councils Act of 1861?
Answer:

  • Indians were nominated as non-official members to the Viceroy’s council.
  • The Viceroy was authorised to proclaim ordinances in case of emergency.

Question 42.
What is meant by Policy of Assertion?
Answer:
The Indian Councils Act of 1861 allowed the participation of Indians in the process of law creation. In order to understand the aspirations of Indians, they were given representation in the Viceroy’s council. This is called as Policy of Assertion.

Question 43.
What were the features of the Indian Councils Act of 1892?
Answer:

  • The number of additional members in the regional and central legislative bodies was increased.
  • The authority of the legislative councils was increased further by allowing discussion on budget-related issues.
  • Provision was made to question the government on public issues by serving six days’ advance notice.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 44.
What is the Indian Councib Act of 1909 also referred to as?
Answer:
The Indian Councils Act of 1909 is also referred to as Minto-Morley reforms.

Question 45.
Why is the Indian Councils Act of 1909 called Minto-Morley Reforms?
Answer:
The reforms included in the Indian Councils Act of 1909 were initiated by the then Viceroy Lord Minto and the then Secretary of State for India, Lord Morley. Hence the Act is referred to as Minto-Morley reforms.

Question 46.
What were the features of the Indian Councib Act of 1909?
(OR)
What were the important provisions of the Minto-Morley Reforms?
(OR)
What were the reforms brought about by the Act of 1909?
Answer:

  • The total number of members of the central legislative council was increased from 16 to 60.
  • The number of members of the regional council was also increased.
  • Representation to the regional council was allowed through election for the first time.
  • It provided for the formation of separate electoral constituencies on the basis of religion.

Question 47.
Which Act provided for separate electoral constituencies based on religion?
Answer:
The Indian Councils Act of 1909 provided for separate electoral constituencies based on religion.

Question 48.
What is the Government of India Act of 1919 also referred to as?
Answer:
The Government of India Act of 1919 is also referred to as Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.

Question 49.
Why is the Government of India Act of 1919 called Montague-Chelmsford Reforms?
Answer:
The reforms included in the Government of India Act of 1919 were initiated by the then Viceroy Lord Chelmsford and the then Secretary of State for India, Lord Montague. Hence the Act is referred to as Montague-Chelmsford reforms.

Question 50.
What are the features of the Government of India Act of 1919?
Answer:

  • The Act provided for a bicameral legislature with a lower house and an upper house.
  • Diarchy was allowed in the regional governments.
  • A High Commissioner for India was appointed.
  • The provincial budget was separated from the central budget.
  • Separate electoral colleges were extended for Muslims, Sikhs,Anglo-Indians and Europeans.
  • It promised to improve local-self government.

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 51.
Which Act introduced bicameralism in India?
Answer:
The Government of India Act of 1919 introduced bicameralism in India.

Question 52.
Mention the features of the Government of India Act of 1935.
Answer:

  • The Act provided for the formation of a federal system consisting of Indian principalities, British governed states and dominion states.
  • Reserve Bank of India was established.
  • It introduced diarchy at the centre.
  • It cancelled diarchy at the regional level and granted autonomy.
  • A Federal Court was established.

Question 53.
Which Act created a federal structure in India?
Answer:
The Government of India Act of 1935 created a federal structure in India.

Question 54.
Which Act became the basis for the Constitution of India?
Answer:
The Government of India Act of 1935 became the basis for the Constitution of India.
How can you say that the Government of India Act of 1935 formed the basis for the Indian Constitution?
(OR)
How does the Government of India Act of 935 become the base for the Indian Constitution? The Government of India Act of 1935 provided the base for the formation of the Indian Constitution. Most of the provisions in the Indian Constitution are based on this Act. The Act allowed for the formation of a fully responsible government by Indians.

Multiple-choice Questions:

Question 1.
The Fort William College in Calcutta was started by
(A) Warren Hastings
(B) Lord Wellesley
(C) Alexander Reed
(D) Thomas Munroe
Answer:
(B) Lord Wellesley

Question 2.
Lord Cornwallis created the new post of –
(A) Kotwal
(B) Chowkidar
(C) Magistrate
(D) Superintendent of Police
Answer:
(D) Superintendent of Police

Question 3.
The British redesigned their military system based on the recommendations of –
(A) Macaulay
(B) Charles Wood
(C) Peel
(D) Alexander Reed
Answer:
(C) Peel

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 4.
The land tax policy system implemented by R.M. Bird and James Thompson was –
(A) Mahalwari system
(B) Zamindari system
(C) Permanent zamindari system
(D) Ryotwari system
Answer:
(A) Mahalwari system

Question 5.
The institution started by Warren Hastings was –
(A) Sanskrit College
(B) Fort William College
(C) Calcutta University
(D) Calcutta Madrasa
Answer:
(D) Calcutta Madrasa

Question 6.
Universities were established in India on the recommendation of –
(A) Macaulay
(B) William Bentinck
(C) Charles Wood
(D) Jonathan Duncan
Answer:
(C) Charles Wood

Question 7.
Supreme Court was established in Calcutta according to this Act –
(A) Regulating Act 1773
(B) Pitt’s India Act 1784
(C) Minto-Morley Reforms
(D) Montague-Chelmsford Reforms
Answer:
(A) Regulating Act 1773

Question 8.
The administration of India came under the direct rule of the British government by this Act –
(A) Indian Councils Act 1861
(B) Charter Act of 1853
(C) Charter Act of 1833
(D) Government of India Act 1858
Answer:
(D) Government of India Act 1858

Question 9.
The first Viceroy of India was –
(A) Dalhousie
(B) Canning
(C) Minto
(D) Cornwallis
Answer:
(B) Canning

KSEEB Class 10 History Important Questions Chapter 3 The Impact of British Rule in India

Question 10.
One of the main features of the Regulating Act is –
(A) establishment of Supreme Court
(B) creation of a bicameral legislative body
(C) establishment of diarchy at the centre
(D) it allowed Indians to participate in the law-making process.
Answer:
(A) establishment of Supreme Court

Question 11.
The Government of India Act of 1935 is considered an important document because it –
(A) introduced bicameral governments in provinces
(B) appointed a Board of Control
(C) formed separate electoral constituencies based on religion
(D) led to the creation of a federal structure in the country.
Answer:
(D) led to the creation of a federal structure in the country.

Fill in the blanks:

  1. Diwani Adalat as a civil court was introduced by Warren Hastings
  2. The post of Superintendent of Police was created by Lord Cornwallis
  3. The Permanent Zamindari System was implemented in Bengal and Bihar provinces in 1793
  4. The land tax system implemented by Alexander Reed is Ryotwari system
  5. The British officer who supported modern education in India is Macaulay
  6. The Regulating Act was implemented in the year 1773

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