KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Students can download Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources Important Questions, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 1.
What is a resource?
Answer:
A source of supply or support held in reserve is called a resource. Any natural or artificial substance, energy or organism that satisfies a need is called a resource.

Question 2.
What are natural resources?
Answer:
Resources that are found in nature that support life and contribute to our development are known as natural resources. Natural resources are those resources in nature that support our needs and wants.

Question 3.
List some of our natural resources.
Answer:
Our natural resources include soil, water, air, land, minerals, sunlight, plants, animals, microorganisms, oceans, fossil fuels, wild life etc.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 4.
What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?
Answer:
Some of the changes that can be incorporated in our habits to become environment-friendly include the following:

  1. Avoiding throwing garbage on the roadside.
  2. Switching off lights, fans, TV when not required.
  3. Using environment-friendly products to satisfy our daily requirements.
  4. Exploiting the natural light and wind, and conserving electricity.
  5. Consuming fewer quantities of water and avoiding its wastage.
  6. Avoiding the use of plastic and other products that are non-biodegradable.
  7. Walking or using bicycle to cover short distances.
  8. Segregating wastes as biodegradable, recyclable, non-biodegradable and ensuring their appropriate disposal.

Question 5.
What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?
Answer:
The exploitation of resources with short-term aims may appear to be advantageous in the short-term. By doing so, we may be able to enjoy the comforts of life and the economy may grow rapidly. The needs of the present generation may be satisfied to a great extent by such exploitation of available resources.

Question 6.
How would short-term advantages differ from the advantages of using a long-term perspective in managing our resources?
Answer:

Short-term perspective of using resources Long-term perspective of using resources
1. This will satisfy our immediate needs and may make life comfortable. This calls for judicious use of resources keeping in view the long-term needs.
2. Have only short-term gains or advantages. Have long-term benefits or advantages.
3. Satisfies the needs of the present generation. Satisfies the needs of both present and future generations.
4. Not environment-friendly. More environment-friendly.
5. Not a sustainable model. This is a more sustainable model.

Question 7.
What are the consequences of over-exploitation of our natural resources?
Answer:
Over-exploitation of natural resources leads to a crisis as we soon run out of these resources. Over-exploitation also
results in destruction, degradation and extinction of our natural resources. In addition, over-exploitation of natural resources causes several environmental problems including pollution, loss of habitat, ecological imbalance and so on.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 8.
What is conservation of natural resources?
Answer:
The proper management and use of natural resources for the benefit of all forms of life and for ensuring sustainable development and to prevent their abuse, over-exploitation, destruction or degradation is known as conservation.

Question 9.
Why should we conserve our natural resources?
Answer:
We need to conserve our natural resources in order to:

  1. Ensure sustainable use as natural resources are limited.
  2. Maintain ecological balance, which is critical for supporting life forms.
  3. Preserve different species of organisms.
  4. Make resources available for both present and future generations.
  5. To preserve biodiversity.
  6. To avert a possible crisis arising from the scarcity of natural resources.

Question 10.
Write a brief note on Ganga Action Plan (GAP).
Answer:
River Ganga that extends from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Gangasagar in the Bay of Bengal is one of the highly polluted rivers in the world. Several cities and towns of many states located on the banks of the river dump garbage and sewage into the river.

The pollution of the river is also caused by other human activities like bathing, washing of clothes and immersion of ashes or unburned corpses. All these led to heavy pollution of the river. Awareness regarding pollution of Ganga has prompted Government of India to undertake the task of cleaning up Ganga.

Namami Gange Programme is an Integrated Conservation Mission approved as a Flagship Programme by the Union Government in June 2014. It was launched to accomplish the twin objectives of effective abatement of pollution conservation and rejuvenation of River Ganga. The National Mission for Clean Ganga is the implementation wing set up in October 2016.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 11.
What are the five R’s of environmental conservation? Explain each of them briefly.

OR

List the advantages of ‘reduce’ and ‘reuse’ to save environment.
Answer:
The five R’s of environmental conservation refer to Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose, Recycle.
1. Refuse:
This means to say ‘no’ to things people offer you that you don’t need. Refuse to buy products that can harm you and the environment.

2. Reduce:
This refers to limiting the use of resources. We must use a resource when it is absolutely essential and use it only as long as it is necessary. We must save resources wherever possible. We must also reduce the production of waste materials, which affects the environment adversely. Sometimes we purchase items that we don’t really need.

Other times we purchase items that may have more packaging than is necessary. When we make decisions with these issues in mind, we either stop using environmentally unfriendly products or reduce their use. By doing these we proactively help to conserve the health of our environment.

3. Reuse:
This is a very effective strategy for resource conservation and environmental health. In the ‘reuse’ strategy, we simply use things again and again. In this strategy, we may use a material more than once either for the same purpose or for a different purpose. Reusing of resources is actually an effective strategy because this process neither requires fresh raw materials nor energy for reprocessing.

4. Repurpose:
This means when a product can no more be used for the original purpose, use it for some other useful purpose.

5. Recycle:
This principle calls for using the same resource by recycling it. Many of the substances that we use such as plastic, paper, water etc., can be recycled and used again. This is not only economical but also environment-friendly. This puts lesser pressure on fresh raw materials, makes available materials at cheaper cost and reduces waste. Recycling involves turning the old material into a new version of the same thing or into something completely different. This requires reprocessing of the materials.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 12.
“Practice of reuse and recycle of materials will contribute to maintain sustainability of the
environment”. Support this statement with reasons.
Answer:
The concept of sustainable development encourages forms of growth that meet current basic human needs while preserving the resources for the needs of future generations. Sustainable development depends upon the willingness of people to change their perceptions of the socio-economic and environmental conditions around them, and the readiness of each individual to alter their present use of natural resources.

1. Reuse:
Reuse means using a product more than once, either for the same purpose (for example returnable glass milk bottles) or for a different purpose (such as old jam jars for food storage). Repairing products, selling them or donating them to charity/community groups is also reusing.

2. Recycle:
Recycling is a way to manage waste materials once they have been generated if they can’t be reused. It prevents waste from being sent to landfill and makes waste into new goods or products. This can involve turning the old material into a new version of the same thing or into something completely different. For example, used glass bottles can be recycled into new bottles or they can be recycled into road materials for use in construction projects.

Question 13.
What measures would you take to reduce the consumption of electricity in your home?
Answer:
The following measures will help to reduce the consumption of electricity:

  1. Use of solar cookers and solar water heating systems.
  2. Switching off of fans and lights when they are not needed.
  3. Using natural light and wind during daytime.
  4. Replacing incandescent lamps with LED bulbs.
  5. Avoiding unnecessary use of electrical gadgets.

Question 14.
List some resources that we use in our daily life whose consumption can be reduced. Give specific examples as to how we can reduce their use.
Answer:
Some of the resources whose use can be reduced include water, paper, electricity, plastic, food and so on.

  1. We can stop the wastage of water by stopping leakage of taps.
  2. We can reduce the use of water to some extent when we bathe or wash.
  3. We can switch off lights and fans when they are really not needed.
  4. We can use natural light and breeze whenever and wherever possible. This reduces the consumption of electricity.
  5. We can reduce use of plastic bags by using cloth bags. Cloth bags can be used again and again.
  6. Wastage of food should be avoided.

Question 15.
Name some items that can be reused.
Answer:
Many of the things that we use in our day-to-day life can be reused. Such items include bottles, cloth bags, old clothes, furniture, old doors, and newspapers.

Question 16.
List some materials that can be recycled.
Answer:
Recyclable materials include plastic, paper, glass and metal items.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 17.
Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?
Answer:
Every person, irrespective of the socio-economic status, has equal right over the resources. All sections of the society must have access to resources and benefit from their use. No individual or group has sole right over the resources of the earth.

In fact the resources of the earth should be made available on priority to the needy, marginalized and the poor. This calls for equitable distribution of resources. Human greed, corruption, and the lobby of the rich and powerful are the forces working against an equitable distribution of resources.

Question 18.
What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?
Answer:
I would suggest the following to make my home environment-friendly:

  1. Ensure that there is no wastage of water.
  2. Take steps to reduce the consumption of water to the extent possible.
  3. Repair all the leaky taps to prevent wastage.
  4. Use LED lamps instead of incandescent bulbs.
  5. Conserve electricity to the extent possible.
  6. Switch off lights and fans when they are not really required.
  7. Make efforts to harvest rainwater.
  8. Plant saplings near the house.

Question 19.
Can you suggest some changes in your school that would make it environment-friendly?
Answer:
Schools can take some of the following steps to make the school environment-friendly:

  1. There must be an awareness campaign in the school to sensitize all stakeholders to make environment-friendly choices.
  2. Schools can initiate tree-planting programmes in and round the school.
  3. Schools may use CNG instead of diesel in school buses.
  4. Parents may be persuaded to go for vehicle pooling for sending children to school.
  5. More and more children should be encouraged to either go on foot or to use bicycles when distances are small.
  6. Schools must try to harvest rainwater, prevent water wastage and avoid lavish use of water.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 20.
What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
Answer:
I will take the following measures to conserve our natural resources:

  1. Reduce the consumption of electricity, use bicycle to travel short distances, use staircase instead of lift, switch off lights and fans when they are not needed and use LED bulbs. These measures help to conserve coal.
  2. I will always use public transport instead of personal transport. I will resort to vehicle pooling whenever possible. This will help to conserve petroleum products.
  3. I will stop all leakages in taps and reduce the consumption of water to the extent possible. This will help to conserve water.
  4. I will never waste food.
  5. I will adopt ‘refuse, reduce, reuse, repurpose and recycle’ principle for the use of resources and for handling waste materials.

Question 21.
List five things you have done over the last one week to:

  1. Conserve our natural resources.
  2. Increase the pressure on our natural resources.

Answer:
1. I have conserved natural resources during the last one week by the following activities:

  • I have not wasted any food during this period.
  • I have not wasted water.
  • I fixed leakage in a tap in my house.
  • I have not used petroleum products directly during the last week.
  • I have reduced the use of electricity.

2. I have done the following things, which would increase pressure on natural resources:

  • I purchased new clothes although I had enough to wear.
  • I burnt lot of waste paper lying in my house instead of sending it for recycling.
  • I broke an electronic gadget forcing my parents to purchase a new one.
  • I used pesticides in my house garden and polluted the soil making it relatively unfit for growing vegetables.
  • I used lot of fresh paper to work out Maths sums.

Question 22.
What is sustainable development? What does it aim at?
Answer:
A development model that meets the needs of the present generation without harming the environment and without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is called sustainable development.

Sustainable development aims to address all the environmental, economic, and socio-political problems, without compromising one another and without jeopardising human capability and development.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 23.
How can we attain the goal of sustainable development? Suggest measures.
Answer:
The following are some of the measures to attain the goal of sustainable development:

  1. Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
  2. Encouraging people to make environment-friendly choices in every aspect of their life.
  3. Ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns.
  4. Taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impact.
  5. Encouraging people to follow five R’s principle while making choices.
  6. Taking steps to ensure equal opportunities for development for all people in all places by taking equitable measures.
  7. Conserving and sustainably using the oceans, seas and marine resources.
  8. Protecting, restoring and promoting sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably managing forests, combating desertification, and halting and reversing land degradation and halting biodiversity loss.
  9. Persuading people to change their life styles in conformity with sustainable development goals.
  10. Creating awareness among people to change their perceptions of the socio-economic and
    environmental conditions around them, and the readiness of each individual to alter his or her present use of natural resources.

Question 24.
Why do we need to manage our resources judiciously?
Answer:
We have limited availability of resources. The demand for resources is however on the increase. There are widespread inequalities among different sections of people in the access and use of natural resources. If we aim at sustainable development, we need to manage and use our resources judiciously.

Question 25.
Explain the importance of forests as a natural resource.
Answer:
Forests and trees are a crucial part of life on Earth. They help to maintain biodiversity and clean up the air and water. They maintain the water cycle, prevent landslides, control floods, and control weather and climate.

They provide habitat and protection to many wild animals, plants and microbes. Therefore, forests are considered as biodiversity hotspots. Forests maintain soil quality by preventing soil erosion. They provide timber, honey, medicines, gums, resins, dyes and other products and services.

They provide raw materials for many industries. They also contribute to basic human needs and contribute to culture and recreation.

Question 26.
List how the people living in or around forests use forest resources.
Answer:
The local people use forest resources to satisfy their needs:

  1. They use large quantities of firewood as fuel.
  2. They use small timber for thatching the roof.
  3. Bamboo is used to make slats for huts, and baskets for collecting and storing food materials.
  4. They use wood from the trees for making agricultural implements, fishing boats and hunting devices.
  5. They hunt wild animals for their food and animal products.
  6. They use roots, fruits and nuts for their food.
  7. They use forests for grazing cattle and for obtaining fodder for the domesticated animals.
  8. They obtain medicines from plant and animal products.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 27.
Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.
Answer:
The following are some of the approaches towards conservation of forests:

  1. Afforestation is one of the most important approaches to conserve forests. Massive tree planting efforts are required on a large scale by ensuring people’s participation in the task.
  2. There must be a ban on deforestation. The existing forest cover should be conserved at all costs.
  3. Public awareness about the importance of forests is the key to forest conservation.
  4. Public participation and involvement of local people in the task of managing protected areas is found to be an efficient approach in forest conservation.
  5. National parks and sanctuaries must be developed to conserve the biodiversity.
  6. Strict legislation and honest implementation of the policies and laws is essential for preventing hunting of wild animals.
  7. Just and fair laws are necessaiy for exploitation of forest resources.
  8. Alternatives to forest produce must be encouraged and popularized.

Question 28.
Find out about any two forest produce that are the basis for an industry. Discuss whether this industry is sustainable in the long run. Or, do we need to control our consumption of these products?
Answer:
Paper industry uses wood and bamboo on a massive scale. Similarly ‘Tendu’ leaves are used in beedi industry. Industries obtain these raw materials from forests. The stock of these materials is depleting at a faster rate and hence they cannot be made available to industries for long. Therefore, these industries are not sustainable in the long run. Hence, we need to control the consumption of these products.

Question 29.
Who are the major stakeholders in forest conservation efforts?
Answer:
The main stakeholders in forest conservation efforts include the following:

  1. The people who live in or around forests are dependent on forest produce for various aspects of their life.
  2. The Forest Department of the Government, which owns the land and controls the resources from forests.
  3. The industrialists who use various forest produce, but are not dependent on the forests in any one area.
  4. The wildlife and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature and its components in its pristine form.

Question 30.
There are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among them should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?
Answer:
The people, especially those who live in and around forests, should have a major say and a major role in the management of forest produce. There are various reasons for this. Forest dwellers have traditionally been dependent on forests for their livelihood.

They have learnt to respect the forest and always desist from over-exploitation of resources. They have some traditional knowledge, which can really help in forest conservation. Therefore, the government, through the Department of Forests, along with the local people should jointly share the authority to decide on the management of forest produce.

Question 31.
Give two examples of people’s involvement in forest conservation.
Answer:
An example of people’s participation in the protection and conservation of forests and wildlife is the case of Bishnoi community in Rajasthan. A group of 364 people led by Amrita Devi Bishnoi sacrificed their life in the year 1731 to protect ‘khejri trees’ in Khejrali village near Jodhpur.

Another example of people’s involvement in forest conservation is the ‘Chipko movement’ that took place in Tehri-Garhwal region of Uttar Pradesh in the 1970’s. Women in the region led by Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna successfully prevented large-scale felling of trees by hugging them.

Question 32.
What was ‘Appiko movement’? Where did it take place? Who led this movement?
Answer:
Appiko movement was a forest conservation effort initiated and managed by common people. This movement that took place in Karnataka was similar to the ‘Chipko movement’ of Uttar Pradesh. Appiko movement took place under the leadership of Sri Panduranga Hegde.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 33.
What was the forest conservation effort by people in West Bengal in the 1970’s?
Answer:
When traditional methods of surveillance and forest management led to clashes between forest department officials and local villagers, the West Bengal government achieved success by involving people in the task in the 1970’s. In the Arabari forest range of Midnapore district, the forest officer A.K. Banerjee involved the villagers in the protection of 1,272 hectares of badly degraded sal forests and succeeded in the remarkable recovery of sal forests in about 10 years.

Question 34.
Why are Arabari forests in West Bengal cited as a good example of conservation of forests?
Answer:
Saving of sal forests in the Arabari region of West Bengal is a good example of forest conservation because the effort involved active and willing participation of the local people. The sal trees in these forests were dwindling fast despite several measures initiated by the Department of Forests. An effort was made by the state government to involve local people in the task of conservation and this yielded good result in a matter of 10 years.

Question 35.
What is wildlife?
Answer:
The term ‘wildlife’ refers to all the plants and animals on earth that are not domesticated or cultivated by humans. They refer to the species of plants and animals that live in the wild. Wildlife includes all living organisms in their natural habitat other than cultivated plants and domesticated animals.

Question 36.
Mention some human activities that are detrimental to wildlife.
Answer:
Deforestation, illegal wildlife trade, hunting, poaching, climatic changes, forest fires, habitat loss, introduction of invasive species are some of the human activities that are threatening wildlife.

Question 37.
Describe briefly the importance of wildlife.
Answer:
The importance of wildlife includes the following:

  1. Wildlife helps to maintain ecological ‘balance of nature’, food chain and nature cycles.
  2. Wildlife has economic value. Many wild plants provide useful substances like timber, paper, gums etc. And they also have wide applications in Ayurveda and other branches of medicine. ‘Wild animals’ products are tusks, ivory, leather, honey etc.
  3. Most important contribution of wildlife for human progress is availability of large gene pool for the scientists to carry on breeding programmes in agriculture, animal husbandry and fisheries.
  4. Wildlife provides aesthetic value to humans.
  5. Wildlife of a country is its cultural asset.

Question 38.
What is conservation of wildlife? Mention the steps that can be taken to conserve wildlife.
Answer:
The practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats is known as conservation of wildlife. Creating public awareness, protecting the habitat and maintaining the natural habitats, creation of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, conservation of forests, massive afforestation programmes, establishing biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries, captive breeding, creation of seed banks and gene banks are some of the measures that can be taken to protect wildlife.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 39.
Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?
Answer:
Naturally occurring plants and animals are the flora and fauna of the forests. Forests are biodiversity hotspots. The loss of forests and wildlife leads to ecological imbalance. Hence, it is important to conserve forests and wildlife.
Other reasons for the need for conserving wildlife and forests include the following:

  1. Forests provide home for many flora and fauna.
  2. They play an important role in regulating rain, and climate.
  3. They play a crucial role in maintaining balance in the environment.
  4. They prevent the warming up of earth or global warming.
  5. They help to maintain the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  6. Conserving wildlife is critical for maintaining the balance in the ecosystem.

Question 40.
What is meant by conservation of water? Why is it necessary?
Answer:
The effort made by society towards rational use, prevention of pollution and recycling of water is called water conservation. Conservation of water is very much necessary. This is because less than 1% of the total water on earth is available for the consumption of living beings.

The demand for water is continuously increasing. There is acute shortage of water for human activities and for other living beings. Therefore, we need to conserve water.

Question 41.
What is rainwater harvesting? Why is it important?
Answer:
The practice of collecting, storing and utilising rainwater is known as rainwater harvesting. Only about 10% of the rainwater is being utilized in our country. The rest of the rainwater is going to the drains and eventually to the sea. There is a serious water crisis, which is assuming threatening proportions day-by-day. Therefore, rainwater harvesting is important to tide over the severe water crisis.

Question 42.
Suggest some measures to conserve water.
Answer:
The following are some of the measures that can help to conserve water:

  1. Rainwater harvesting.
  2. Growing vegetation in the catchment area which will hold water in the soil and allow it to percolate into deeper layers. This helps in the recharging of ground water.
  3. Constructing dams and reservoirs to regulate the supply of water to the field and to generate electricity.
  4. Taking measures to prevent all forms of pollution of water.
  5. Judicious use of water and to avoid all wasteful habits of spending water.
  6. Developing plant breeds that consume less water.

Question 43.
Why has the government made rainwater harvesting compulsory in every house?
Answer:
Water is a highly precious but scarce commodity. There is acute shortage of water and the existing resources cannot meet the requirements of water of all people. The problem has become much worse in the ever-expanding cities.

A vast majority still does not have access to potable drinking water. We are all familiar with the fact that women in some villages have to walk hundreds of kilometres to bring home a few pots of drinking water. Many families in cities depend on water supplied by tankers once a week or so. Rainwater harvesting can be a viable, economical option to avert the water crisis.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 44
The traditional system of water harvesting differs from region to region. Justify this statement with suitable examples.
Answer:
The traditional system of water harvesting differs from region to region. For example, people use

  1. Khadins, tanks and nadis for water conservation in Rajasthan
  2. Bandharas and Tals in Maharashtra
  3. Ahars and Pynes in Bihar
  4. Kattas in Karnataka.

These examples show that people of different regions use different traditional methods for water conservation.

Question 45.
Find out about the traditional systems of water harvestine/manaeement in your reeion.
Answer:
The traditional system of water harvesting/management in our region is to collect rainwater in ponds, pits, lakes, soaking pits and other water reservoirs.

Question 46.
Related to water harvesting system, mention: Two advantages of rejuvenating indigenous methods.
Answer:
Advantages of rejuvenating indigenous water harvesting systems: The indigenous water harvesting systems are designed and built by the local people to suit their local needs and therefore, the ownership for construction and maintenance is with the people. Therefore, the chances of compliance are higher. Secondly, indigenous systems of water harvesting are simpler and less expensive both in terms of construction and maintenance.

Question 47.
Compare the traditional system of water harvestine/manasement in your region with the probable systems in hillv/mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.
Answer:
In hilly/mountainous areas like Himachal Pradesh, kulhs are used to take water to several villages down the hillside. In plain regions, water harvesting structures are mainly in the form of crescent shaped earthen embankments or low, straight concrete-and-rubble check dams built across seasonally flooded gullies.

Question 48.
What are the advantages of harvesting water by setting up of the khadin system?
Answer:
A Khadin is an ingenious construction designed to harvest surface runoff water for agriculture. The embankment in Khadin system not only helps to increase moisture in the submerged land, but also prevents the washing away of the top soil and the manure added to it.

Depending upon the amount of rainfall and consequent runoff received during the monsoon, one or two crops are grown. This system assures the farmers of at least one crop even in very dry tracts. Khadins not only increase the green cover but also improve the fertility of the soil.

Question 49.
What are dams? State three major criticisms against the construction of big dams.

OR

Related to water harvesting system, mention: Two disadvantages of construction of huge dams.
Answer:
A barrier or thick wall constructed across a river to hold back water and raise its level in order to produce electricity or to control water supply or both is called a dam.
Three major criticisms against the construction of big dams are:

  1. Social problems: Big dams displace large number of peasants and tribal people. Often these people are not provided with adequate compensation or rehabilitation.
  2. Economic problems: Big. dams swallow up huge amounts of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits.
  3. Environmental problems: Construction of big dams contributes enormously to deforestation and the loss of biological diversity.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 50.
How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of

  1. Forests and wildlife,
  2. Water resources, and
  3. Coal and petroleum?

Answer:
1. Management of forests and wildlife:
Individuals can help in this area by avoiding or reducing the use of forest resources such as wood, timber, animal skin, ivory etc. Individuals can also play a crucial role in the management of forests by creating public awareness. As an individual, one can participate in afforestation programmes in the local area. Individuals can also participate in Tree Plantation Campaigns. Individuals can also draw the attention of the authorities to any violation of laws relating to forests and wildlife conservation.

2. Management of water resources:
Individual persons can help in the management of water resources by taking steps to prevent the wastage of water wherever possible. Individuals can also help this cause by not contributing to the contamination of surface water. They can also persuade people to desist from open defecation, throwing of garbage in the open and proper disposal of domestic wastes. They can also build public awareness in this regard.

3. Management of coal and petroleum:
Reducing the use of fossil fuels can be an individual effort. Using bicycle or going on foot to cover short distances is a way of contributing to the conservation of coal and petroleum. Using public transport to cover long distances will also help in this cause. Reduction in the use of electricity helps in the reduction of usage of coal in thermal power plants. Individuals can also build public awareness regarding rational use of coal and petroleum.

Question 51.
What are fossil fuels? Name them.
Answer:
Fuels formed in the interior of the earth over millions of years from the remains of dead plants and animals are called fossil fuels.
E.g.: Coal, petroleum and natural gas.

Question 52.
Explain why fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources.
Answer:
The stock of fossil fuels in nature is limited and it takes millions of years for their formation. Therefore, fossil fuels do not get replenished within a reasonable period of time. We are exploiting this natural resource at rapid rate. Therefore, the stock of these fuels is fast depleting and there is a clear signal that it would be exhausted soon. Therefore, fossils fuels are exhaustible.

Question 53.
How is coal formed in the interior of the earth? Explain briefly.
Answer:
There were dense forests in low-lying areas on earth. These forests were buried under the soil due to natural processes. The plants underwent chemical changes under the influence of temperature and pressure and got converted into coal over millions of years by a process called carbonization.

Question 54.
What is petroleum? How is it formed?
Answer:
Petroleum is an important fossil fuel, which is found between the rocky layers in the interior of the earth in the form of a dark viscous liquid. Petroleum is formed from organisms that live in the ocean. When marine organisms die, their body gets covered by sand and clay and gets submerged in the interior of the earth.

The remains of marine animals undergo physical and chemical changes in the interior of the earth under the influence of heat and pressure. During this process, they get converted into petroleum and natural gas over millions of years.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 55.
What is the effect of overuse offossil fuels?

OR

Why should we conserve fossil fuels?
Answer:
Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources. They are limited in stock. We will be carrying the risk of fossil fuels running but of stock if we use them indiscriminately. This may lead to a crisis. Secondly, burning of fossil fuels creates many hazards, which include air pollution, global warming, acid rain and fog. Therefor ‘, we must avoid overuse of fossil fuels and conserve them.

Question 56.
List the problems of overuse offossil fuels.
Answer:
The overuse of fossil fuels poses many problems. They include the following:

  • Fossil fuels are exhaustible resources. They will get exhausted in the foreseeable future if we continue to exploit them indiscriminately.
  • Burning of fossil fuels is the biggest cause of air pollution. It pollutes and poisons air, causes increase in the temperature of the earth and causes acid rain.
  • The present technologies, which are critically dependent on fossil fuels, are not sustainable and hence may become obsolete soon.
  • Burning fossil fuels in insufficient air (oxygen) releases carbon monoxide instead of carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide is a highly poisonous gas.
  • Mining of coal creates plenty of dust and pollutes the air.

Question 57.
List some alternatives to fossil fuels.
Answer:
Solar energy, wind energy, geo-thermal energy, tidal energy and nuclear energy are some viable alternatives to fossil fuels.

Question 58.
List some of the steps that could be taken to conserve fossil fuels.
Answer:
The following are some of the steps that can be taken to conserve fossil fuels:

  1. Use of public transport instead of using personal vehicles for transport.
  2. Use of solar panels.
  3. Avoiding wasteful habits of spending energy.
  4. Switching off lights and fans when not needed; using natural light and wind wherever possible.
  5. Harnessing alternative sources of energy wherever feasible and possible.
  6. Following the principle of 5R’s namely Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle.

Question 59.
What is meant by sustainable management of natural resources?
Answer:
The management and use of natural resources in a way and at a rate that maintains and enhances the resilience of ecosystems and meets the needs of the present generation of people without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their needs is known as sustainable management of natural resources.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Fill In The Blanks

1. Dams are usually built across rivers
2. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are known as fossil fuels
3. The place in Shillong that gets highest rainfall during Monsoon season is Cherrapunji
4. The practice of collecting, storing and utilizing rain water is known as rainwater harvesting
5. Sundarlal Bahuguna gave leadership to a forest conservation movement called Chipko movement
6. The natural living place of an organism is called its habitat

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
To preserve the resources for the future, we have to
(A) look for their greater exploitation
(B) conserve them
(C) exploit commercially
(D) use them more frequently and rapidly
Answer:
(B) conserve them

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 2.
From the choices given below, pick the item that is not a natural resource.
(A) Soil
(B) Water
(C) Electricity
(D) Air
Answer:
(C) Electricity

Question 3.
The most rapidly dwindling natural resource in the world is
(A) water
(B) forests
(C) wind
(D) sunlight
Answer:
(B) forests

Question 4.
The most appropriate definition of a natural resource is that it is a substance/commodity that is
(A) a gift of nature to human beings
(B) a man-made substance placed in nature
(C) available only in the forest
(D) present only on land
Answer:
(A) a gift of nature to human beings

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 5.
The main cause for abundant Coliform bacteria in the river Ganga is
(A) immersion of ashes
(B) disposal of unburned dead bodies into Ganga water
(C) discharge of effluents from electroplating industries
(D) washing of clothes
Answer:
(B) disposal of unburned dead bodies into Ganga water

Question 6.
Which of the following is the principal greenhouse gas in our atmosphere?
(A) Nitrogen dioxide
(B) Sulphur dioxide
(C) Carbon dioxide
(D) Carbon monoxide
Answer:
(C) Carbon dioxide

Question 7.
Floods can be prevented or controlled by
(A) afforestation on a massive scale
(B) removal of top soil through human intervention
(C) deforestation on a large scale
(D) massive expansion of agriculture
Answer:
(A) afforestation on a massive scale

Question 8.
Amrita Devi Bishnoi sacrificed her life in the cause of protection of
(A) Sal trees
(B) Pine trees
(C) Khejri trees
(D) Alpine meadows
Answer:
(C) Khejri trees

Question 9.
‘Narmada Bachao Andolan ’ was launched to
(A) clean Narmada River w
(B) protest raising of the height of the dam on the river Narmada
(C) expand Narmada dam
(D) none of the above
Answer:
(B) protest raising of the height of the dam on the river Narmada

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 10.
The pH range most conducive for life of fresh water plants and animals is
(A) 6.5 – 7.5
(B) 2.0 – 3.5
(C) 3.5 – 5.0
(D) 9.0 – 10.5
Answer:
(A) 6.5 – 7.5

Question 11.
The best course to conserve our environment is
(A) reducing the use of resources
(B) recycling valuable resources and materials
(C) reusing resources wherever possible
(D) All of the above
Answer:
(D) All of the above

Question 12.
In Independent India, the plantation of which trees caused the problem of monocultures?
(A) Tamarind and Jack fruit
(B) Jack fruit, Neem and Coconut
(C) Eucalyptus, Pine and Teak
(D) Rose, Pine and Neem
Answer:
(C) Eucalyptus, Pine and Teak

Question 13.
The concept of sustainable development encourages
(A) growth that meets current basic needs.
(B) growth to meet the needs of the present and future generations.
(C) massive economic development by exploitation of natural resources.
(D) massive expansion of agriculture, infrastructure and industries
Answer:
(B) growth to meet the needs of the present and future generations.

Question 14.
The problem of construction of large dams is that they
(A) displace large number of peasants and tribals without proper rehabilitation
(B) swallow up huge amounts of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits
(C) contribute enormously to deforestation and loss of biological diversity
(D) All of the above.
Answer:
(D) All of the above.

Question 15.
Coliform is a group of
(A) bacteria
(B) wild plants
(C) wild animals
(D) diseases
Answer:
(A) bacteria

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 16.
The contamination of river Ganga water is indicated by the presence of
(A) Lactobacillus bacteria
(B) Amoeba
(C) Coliform bacteria
(D) Mucor spores
Answer:
(C) Coliform bacteria

Question 17.
The five R’s to save the environment are
(A) Reserve, Reduce, Recycle, Refuse, Return
(B) Reuse, Reserve, Reconstruct, Recover, Recycle
(C) Reserve, Reuse, Reduce, Reject, Rethink
(D) Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose, Recycle.
Answer:
(D) Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose, Recycle.

Question 18.
An act or an effortfor replenishment of forests is
(A) Immunization
(B) Deforestation
(C) Afforestation
(D) Desertification
Answer:
(C) Afforestation

Question 19.
In our country, vast tracts of forests are cleared and a single species of plant is cultivated. This practice promotes
(A) biodiversity in the area
(B) monoculture in the area
(C) growth of natural forest
(D) preserves the natural ecosystem in the area
Answer:
(B) monoculture in the area

Question 20.
‘Bundhis ’ are used for water harvesting in India in the state/s of
(A) Rajasthan
(B) Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh
(C) Madhya Pradesh and Bihar
(D) Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
Answer:
(D) Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 21.
A successful forest conservation strategy should involve
(A) protection of animals at the highest trophic level
(B) protection of only consumers
(C) protection of only herbivores
(D) comprehensive programme to protect all the physical and biological components
Answer:
(D) comprehensive programme to protect all the physical and biological components

Question 22.
The important message conveyed by the ‘Chipko Movement’ is
(A) to involve the community in forest conservation efforts
(B) to ignore the community in forest conservation efforts
(C) to cut down forest trees for developmental activities
(D) government agencies have the unquestionable right to order destruction of trees in forests.
Answer:
(A) to involve the community in forest conservation efforts

Question 23.
Select the incorrect statement from among the following:
(A) Economic development is linked to environmental conservation.
(B) Sustainable development encourages development for current generation and conservation of resources for future generations.
(C) Sustainable development does not consider the viewpoints of stakeholders.
(D) Sustainable development is a long planned and persistent development.
Answer:
(C) Sustainable development does not consider the viewpoints of stakeholders.

Question 24.
Which of the following is not a natural resource?
(A) Mango tree
(B) Snake
(C) Wind
(D) Wooden house
Answer:
(D) Wooden house

Question 25.
Deforestation on large scale may result in reduced
(A) rainfall
(B) soil erosion
(C) global warming
(D) atmospheric CO2
Answer:
(A) rainfall

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 26.
Watershed management
(A) increases droughts and floods
(B) increases production and income of the watershed community
(C) decreases the biodiversity of the downstream reservoirs
(D) increases deforestation.
Answer:
(B) increases production and income of the watershed community

Match The Following

Question 1.

Column A Column B
1. Sundarlal Bahuguna a. Industrialist who led massive deforestation
2. Panduranga Hegde b. Saved khejri trees by sacrificing her life
3. A.K. Banerjee c. Leader of Chipko movement in U.P.
4. Amrita Devi Bishnoi d. Saved sal forests in Bengal by involving people.
e. Leader of Appiko movement in Karnataka

Answer:
1 – c, 2 – e, 3 – d, 4 – b.

KSEEB Class 10 Science Important Questions Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Question 2.

Column A Column B
1. Khadins and Nadis a. Bihar
2. Tals and Bandharas b. Jammu & Kashmir
3. Bundhis c. Kerala
4. Ahars and Pynes d. Madhya Pradesh
5. Eris e. Rajasthan
6. Surangams f. Maharashtra
g. Tamil Nadu

Answer:
1 – e, 2 – f, 3 – d, 4 – a, 5 – g, 6 – c.

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