KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Students can download Class 10 Sociology Chapter 2 Labour Important Questions, KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Social Science Important Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Social Science Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 1.
What is division of labour?
Answer:
The separation of a work process into a number of tasks, with each task performed by a separate person or group of persons is called division of labour.

Question 2.
Explain division of labour with an example.
Answer:
Division of labour is the separation of a work process into a number of tasks, with each task being performed by a separate person or group of persons. For example, the cloth that we wear is manufactured by the collective effort of the farmer who provides the raw material, the weaver who weaves the cloth and the tailor who stitches the dress. All these people work at different places. This kind of distribution of work is called division of labour.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 3.
Who wrote the book ‘Republic’?
Answer:
The book ‘Republic’ is written by Plato.

Question 4.
What are Plato’s views on division of labour?
Answer:
Plato’s views on division of labour are found in his book The Republic’. According to him, human society is formed on natural inequalities. This natural inequality is based on division of labour.

Question 5.
What are Karl Marx’s views on division of labour?
Answer:
According to Karl Marx, division of labour creates less skilled workers. He classified division of labour into two different divisions, namely division of economic labour and division of social labour. He opined that division of economic labour goes with technical and people’s co-operation. The division of social labour achieves social control through class, status and stratification.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 6.
How did Karl Marx classify division of labour?
Answer:
Karl Marx classified division of labour into two different divisions, namely economic labour and social labour. He opined that division of economic labour goes with technical and people’s co-operation. The division of social labour achieves social control through class, status and stratification.

Question 7.
What kind of division of labour is seen in the post – industrialised society? Explain.
Answer:
In the post – industrialised society or digital world, the division of labour is done through computers. For example, in the information technology society, the division of labour is based on various skills in using computers. Different computer technicians are consulted for various aspects related to information technology.

Question 8.
What are the aspects on which division of labour depends?
Answer:
Division of labour depend? on interests, tastes, skills, age, ability, talents, special skills and gender of the people doing the work.

Question 9.
What are the effects of division of labour?
Answer:

  1. Division of labour leads to specialisation.
  2. Division of labour has helped people to gain skill in a particular field and earn economic benefits in accordance with their skills.
  3. Division of labour has led to the emergence of class system.
  4. Widespread acceptability of division of labour has led to the emergence of businesses and industrialisation. As a result, a few people could invest and earn more profits.
  5. Division of labour has created inequality in society.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 10.
Division of labour has led to the emergence of classes. Explain.
Answer:
Division of labour, by leading to specialisation, has helped people to gain skills in a particular field and earn more economic benefits according to their skills. This has led to the creation of economic strata and class system. Also, with specialisation developing in every field, businesses and industries have grown in number. Due to this, a few people have been able to invest more money and earn more profits. This has led to the formation of strata and classes in society.

Question 11.
What is specialisation?
Answer:
Specialisation means having deeper knowledge and in – depth skill in a particular field.

Question 12.
What is the importance of specialisation in the present day post – industrialised society?
Answer:
In the present day post – industrialised society, specialisation has become very important. It has created division of labour. With specialisation developing in every field, businesses and industries have grown in number. Due to this, certain people have invested more and earned more profits.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 13.
What is labour?
Answer:
Labour is an act or function performed in order to achieve a particular goal. If an individual is able to get economic or any other benefit, in cash or in kind, through manual/ physical effort or through the use of his intellect, it is called labour.

Question 14.
What is meant by inequality in labour?
Answer:
Any labour that goes against the dictum equal pay for equal work’ is termed as inequality in labour.

Question 15.
What is discrimination in labour?
Answer:
If differential payments are given to two people who put in the same amount of time and effort, then it is called discrimination in labour.

Question 16.
Write a note on inequality in labour.
OR
Explain the labour inequalities in India.
Answer:
Any labour that does not guarantee equal pay for equal work can be termed as inequality in labour. In India, though men and women engage in similar work, their compensations are not the same. Men are paid more than women for the same work. Such discrimination is less in the governmental sector and more in the other sectors, notably the unorganised sector. Such discrimination is found even in the agricultural sector. Though women work not only at home but also outside, while providing compensation or in decision-making, they are not treated on par with men. Discrimination is also made between educated and uneducated workers.

Question 17.
What is labour with pay?
OR
What is labour without pay?
OR
Answer:
Distinguish between labour with pay and labour without pay – If work is done without payment either in cash or in kind, it is called labour without pay. If the labourer gets compensation based on the total work done by him, then it is called wages or labour with pay.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 18.
Give examples of labour without pay.
Answer:
Work done by the family members in their house, students taking part in the activities involving scouts and guides and NCC as part of their schooling, an artist engaging in painting for his own satisfaction are examples of labour without pay.

Question 19.
What is wages?
Answer:
The payment made to labour based on the total work done by them is called labour with pay or wages. Wages are paid based on hours, days, weeks or month.

Question 20.
Give examples of labour with pay.
Answer:
Labour in small businesses, work in factories, work in schools,construction work, vehicle repair garages, agricultural farm work are examples of labour with pay.

Question 21.
What is organised sector?
Answer:
The sector which is governed by the laws of the government and workers are paid fixed wages and provided with facilities as per law, is called organised sector.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 22.
State the features of the organised sector.
Answer:

  1. The organised sector is governed by specific rules and regulations.
  2. Workers are paid fixed wages and provided facilities as per law.
  3. Permission of the government is mandatory.
  4. It is mandatory to pay the salaries on specified dates along with overtime pay if any.
  5. The relationship between employers and employees is guided by legal provisions.

Question 23.
Mention some of the laws that are applicable to the organised sector.
Answer:
Minimum Wages Act, Factories Act, Employees’ Provident Fund Act are some of the laws applicable to the organised sector.

Question 24.
Who are organised workers?
Answer:
People working in specific fields which are governed by rules and regulations are called organised workers.

Question 25.
Give examples of institutions in the organised sector.
Answer:
Schools, hospitals, industries, commercial banks, life insurance companies, military are some of the institutions that come under the organised sector.

Question 26.
How is the labour sector classified? Explain.
Answer:
The labour sector is divided into three categories primary, secondary and tertiary. Based on the employment conditions these are further classified as organised and unorganised sector. The organised sector is one that is incorporated with the appropriate authority or government and follows its rules and regulations. On the other hand, the unorganised sector can be understood as the sector which is not governed by the laws of the government.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 27.
What is unorganised sector?
Answer:
The sector which is not governed by the laws of the government and workers are not paid fixed wages or provided with facilities as per law, is called unorganised sector.

Question 28.
What are the features of unorganised sector?
Answer:

  1. The unorganised sector is not completely governed by legal provisions.
  2. The relationship between employers and employees is not guided by legal provisions.
  3. There are no provisions for payment of taxes.
  4. There is neither job security nor fixed working hours.
  5. Most of the workers usually earn daily wages.
  6. The wages in this sector is usually below that fixed by the government.
  7. The workers do not receive any medical or overtime benefits.
  8. Compared to the organised sector, the unorganised sector is vast.

Question 29.
Who are unorganised workers?
Answer:
People who work in areas which are not governed by specific rules and regulations, and who lead their lives by earning daily wages or through material benefit in any other form, are called unorganised workers.

Question 30.
Who are included under unorganised workers?
Answer:
Domestic servants, construction workers, agricultural labourers, self-employed workers like footpath hawkers, vehicle repairers, push cart vegetable vendors, fishermen, etc., come under the category of unorganised workers.

Question 31.
What are the challenges faced by the workers in the unorganised sector?
Answer:
The work of unorganised workers is not governed by any rules or regulations. They do not have fixed work schedule, fixed pay or social security. The unorganised sector fosters child labour. Women are subject to physical and mental exploitation.

Question 32.
Explain the problems or challenges faced by workers in the unorganised sector.
Answer:
(a) Migration – Migration is one of the main features of the unorganised sector. Workers in the unorganised sector migrate from one place to another in search of work. Such migrants do not have any social security.

(b) Social security – Workers in the unorganised sector face social insecurity. It is not possible to provide social security such as housing, health, food, drinking water, etc., to the workers in the unorganised sector.

(c) Legal framework – Legal provisions do not apply to workers in the unorganised sector. They are not eligible for minimum wages, gratuity, provident fund or such other benefits.

(d) Child labour – The unorganised sector promotes child labour. Children work in unhealthy environments in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs.

(e) Physical and mental exploitation – Most of the women in the unorganised sector work as domestic helps. They are subjected to physical and mental exploitation.

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 33.
What is meant by social security?
Answer:
Social security means having the basic minimum required to lead a life such as housing, health, water, food, equal opportunity to work, etc.

Question 34.
What are the challenges faced on the issue of social security in the unorganised sector?
Answer:
Workers in the unorganised sector face social insecurity. Social security means having the basic Minimum required to lead a life such as housing, health, water,food, equal opportunity to work, etc. But it is not possible to provide these facilities to all those who work in the unorganised sector.

Question 35.
What are the differences between organised and unorganised workers?
Answer:
Organised workers:

  • They work in specific fields which are governed by rules and regulations.
  • They get facilities like fixed wages, pension, provident fund, gratuity, etc.
  • They have specific hours of work.
  • The organised sector is not very large.

Unorganised workers:

  • They work in areas which are not governed by rules and regulations.
  • They earn daily wages.
  • They work without any additional facilities and have no job security or fixed wages.
  • The unorganised sector is vast.

Multiple – choice Questions

Question 1.
Plato’s views on division of labour are found in his book ________
(A) Foot Losers
(B) Equal labour equal pay
(C) The Republic
(D) Division of Labour.
Answer:
(C) The Republic

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 2.
Karl Marx classified division of labour into ________
(A) division of economic labour and division of skilled labour
(B) division of skilled labour and division of social labour
(C) division of organised labour and division of unorganised labour
(D) division of economic labour and division of social labour
Answer:
(D) division of economic labour and division of social labour

Question 3.
Division of labour creates
(A) specialisation
(B) Natural inequalities
(C) stratification
(D) computerisation
Answer:
(A) specialisation

Question 4.
Discrimination in wages is the least in ________
(A) private sector
(B) government sector
(C) unorganised sector
(D) agricultural sector
Answer:
(B) government sector

Question 5.
Work done by women at home is ________
(A) organised labour
(B) labour with pay
(C) labour without pay
(D) unorganised labour
Answer:
(C) labour without pay

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 6.
The compensation which labour gets based on hours, days or months for semi – skilled or skilled work is called ________
(A) minimum wages
(B) wages
(C) gratuity
(D) differential payment
Answer:
(B) wages

Question 7.
Commercial bank is an example for ________
(A) organised sector
(B) unorganised sector
(C) labour without pay
(D) primary sector
Answer:
(A) organised sector

Question 8.
Daily wages is a feature of ________
(A) organised sector
(B) government sector
(C) public sector
(D) unorganised sector
Answer:
(D) unorganised

Question 9.
Rules and regulations do not apply to this sector ________
(A) Government sector
(B) Organised sector
(C) Unorganised sector
(D) Private sector
Answer:
(C) Unorganised sector

Question 10.
The book ‘Foot Losers’ is a study on ________
(A) social security of labourers
(B) migration of labourers
(C) child labour
(D) exploitation of women in unorganised sector
Answer:
(B) migration of labourers

KSEEB Class 10 Sociology Important Questions Chapter 2 Labour

Question 11.
The unorganised sector promotes ________
(A) child labour
(B) specialisation
(C) equal labour equal pay
(D) social security.
Answer:
(A) child labour

Question 12.
Having deep knowledge and in-depth skill in one particular field is called ________
(A) labour discrimination
(B) division of labour
(C) specialisation
(D) labour inequality
Answer:
(C) specialisation

Fill in the blanks

  1. Division of labour leads to specialisation.
  2. Landless labourers are called unorganised labourers.
  3. Labourers of medical institutions are called organised.

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