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Karnataka SSLC Class 10 Social Science Sociology Important Questions Chapter 3 Social Movements
What is meant by social movement?
When collective behaviour is organised and directed towards a specific goal, and aims to bring about social change, it is called a social movement.
What are the features of social movements?
- A social movement is a social process that is generally oriented towards bringing about social mobility, change and transition.
- It is a planned one, which means every movement has a goal which is achieved through a programme of action.
- Social movements have been part of human society ever since its evolution. They have taken place in all places and at all times.
- It is a community based programme.
- It is a social platform that enables people to put forward their needs and visions.
- People who participate in these movements undergo change, gain new experiences and develop new social practices.
- Every social movement creates new models of social change.
What were the factors that gave rise to tribal and environment movements?
Before the nineteenth century, most of the environmental resources were public property. With the emergence of industrialisation, governments and private companies started claiming ownership of these resources. Many legal provisions were brought in to control such initiatives. Restrictions were put on the use of natural fuels. This curtailed the access of tribal people who were dependent on these resources. This gave rise to tribal and environment movements.
What is a mob? Give examples.
A mob is a collection of people who have assembled temporarily around a common interest without any expectation or planning. People gathered around a scene of accident, people who have gathered in front of a theatre to watch a movie are examples of mobs.
State the features of mobs.
- A mob is a collection of people who have assembled around a common interest without any expectation or planning.
- It is a temporary assembly of people.
- The people assemble or gather at a particular place.
- The people respond to a particular issue or provocation.
- The members of a mob are easily influenced by emotional feelings and opinions.
Describe the nature of mobs.
A mob is a temporary assembly of people around a common interest without any expectation or planning. The members of a mob are easily influenced by emotional feelings and opinions. There is also a possibility of display of suppressed feelings. Many times such displays’ assume violent form. Such unrestrained behaviour reflects the shortcomings of that society. Often people express their frustration and dissatisfaction with social institutions, government policies, attitudes and decisions on specific programmes.
What is mob violence (or riot)? Give examples.
When the behaviour of a mob turns violent, it is called mob violence or riot. Communal violence, racial violence, caste violence, political violence are examples of mob violence.
What are the features of mob violence or riots?
- Mob violence or riots are violent and destructive in nature.
- The minimum level of unity seen in a mob is not seen in a riot.
- It leads to the dominance of anti-social elements.
- Anti – social elements lead the mob towards violence destroying public property.
- Such violence may lead to deaths.
- The people engaged in riots do not have any particular aim or cause for the destruction they indulge in.
- They create a serious law and order situation.
- Riots do not last for a long time.
Mention some of the motivating factors for riots.
Issues such as caste, land and religion are some of the motivating factors for riots.
Why is mob violence an anti-social activity?
Mob violence is an anti – social activity because:
- It results in destruction of property
- Creates confusion
- Creates law and order problem
- Results in deaths
- Leads to dominance of anti – social elements
- Leads to communal, racial, caste violence.
How can mob violence be controlled?
Mob violence can be controlled through effective use of police, military and other agencies of the government.
Differentiate between a social movement and a riot.
- A social movement has a specific goal. It is organised and directed towards that goal. It aims to bring about social change.
- A riot has no specific goal. It is unorganised, violent and destructive in nature.
What are environmental movements?
Environmental movements are the movements aimed at preserving the biological system.
Explain the nature of environmental movements.
Environmental movements are the movements aimed at preserving the biological system. These movements develop over a period of time and do not appear instantly. These movements usually relate to exploitation of nature, exploitation of water resources and displacement of tribal people.
List some of the environmental movements in India.
Chipko movement, Appiko movement, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Silent Valley Movement, movement against setting up of Mangalore Refineries and Petrochemicals in Dakshina Kannada and movement against Kaiga nuclear plant are some of the environmental movements in India.
Write a note on Jharkhand Mukti Morcha.
The mining activities of companies displaced thousands of tribal people of Jharkhand. The tribals opposed these activities. The Jharkhand Mukti Morcha was formed as a result of these agitations.
When and where did the Chipko movement take place?
The Chipko movement took place in Tehri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand in 1974.
Why did the Chipko movement take place?
Why was ihe Chipko movement organised?
The government had issued license to cut down around 2500 trees in Tehri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand. The women who learnt about this, decided to hug the trees in order to protect the trees and the environment. This movement is referred to as Chipko movement. As a result the permission given to cut the trees was withdrawn.
When and where did the Appiko movement take place?
The Appiko movement took place in Salyani village in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka in 1983.
What were the aims of the Appiko movement?
The aims of the Appiko movement were:
- To stop the smuggling of trees from the Kalase forest.
- To develop awareness among the people about the importance of growing trees and the importance of the environment.
Write a note on the Appiko movement.
The Appiko movement took place in Salyani village in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka in 1983. When the contractors came to cut down the trees in the Kalase forest, the people, in order to stop them, hugged the trees. Through this movement, the people aimed to stop the smuggling of trees from the Kalase forest, as also develop awareness about the importance of growing trees and the importance of the environment.
Who led the Narmada Bachao Andolan?
Medha Patkar led the Narmada Bachao Andolan.
Why was the Narmada Bachao Andolan launched?
The Narmada Bachao Andolan aimed at stopping the construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam across the river Narmada in Gujarat. They felt that construction of the dam would not only displace the local tribal people but also cause large – scale destruction of forests, affecting the ecological balance.
Where is the Silent Valley?
The Silent Valley is in Palghat (Palakkad) district of Kerala.
Why did the Silent Valley movement take place?
A dam was proposed to be built in the Silent Valley in Palghat district of Kerala. This threatened the ecological balance of the valley. The Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad and wildlife enthusiasts opposed the project. The movement was successful in stalling the , construction of the dam.
Mention two environmental movements of coastal Karnataka.
The movement opposing the setting up of the Mangalore Refineries and Petrochemicals Limited, the movement opposing the establishment of Nandikooru thermal power plant and special economic zone and the movement opposing the Kaiga nuclear power plant are some of the environmental movements of coastal Karnataka.
Why did people oppose the setting up of Mangalore Refineries and Petrochemicals Limited?
People opposed the setting up of Mangalore Refineries and Petrochemicals Limited when they realised that discharge of harmful chemicals into the sea from the plant would damage the environment.
Who led the agitation against the construction of a nuclear power plant at Kaiga?
Shivaram Karanth led the agitation against the construction of a nuclear power plant at Kaiga.
Why was the construction of the Kaiga nuclear power plant opposed?
The move to oppose the establishment of a nuclear power plant at Kaiga was undertaken by the people of coastal Karnataka under the leadership of Shivaram Karanth. It was argued that with the establishment of the nuclear plant, there would be large – scale deforestation and the radiation would endanger the lives of numerous species in the ecosystem.
Name two environmental activists.
Medha Patkar and Sundarlal Bahuguna are two well known environmental activists.
What is women’s movement? Give an example.
- Women’s movement is a movement opposing the patriarchal values exploiting women and the creation of inequality on the basis of gender.
- The alcohol prohibition movement is an example of women’s movement.
What is the aim of women’s movements?
Opposing gender inequality and the patriarchal values exploiting women is the aim of women’s movements.
Mention some of the ways in which women are exploited.
Physical and mental abuse, dowry harassment, rape, domestic violence, acid attack, kidnapping and human trafficking are some of the ways in which women are exploited.
Who proposed total prohibition during the freedom struggle?
Mahatma Gandhi proposed total prohibition during the freedom struggle.
What are the problems caused by alcohoUsm?
Alcoholism creates problems not only at the personal level but also at the community level. It creates problems in the lives of rural women in particular. Labourers lose their small earnings to this addiction. Even the money earned by the wife is taken away forcibly for consumption of alcohol.
Why are alcohol prohibition movements organised?
Alcoholism creates problems not only at the personal level but also at the community level. It creates problems in the lives of rural women in particular. Labourers lose their small earnings to this addiction. They often take away forcibly money earned by the wife also. Hence women have come together to organise protests against alcoholism.
Write a note on the alcohol prohibition movement in Karnataka.
The alcohol prohibition movement was a part of the environmental movements in coastal Karnataka and Malnad region. Besides, women have protested against the sale of liquor in Hassan, Kolar, Mandya and Chamarajanagar districts.
Why were the farmer’s movements organised?
The farmer’s movements were organised to draw the attention of the government to the various problems faced by farmers.
Mention some of the reforms introduced by Devaraj Urs.
In the 1970s, Devaraj Urs became the chief minister of Karnataka and ushered in various social reforms. He strived to bring in various legal measures to free the downtrodden from the shackles of the caste system. He took measures to free farmers from the clutches of tenancy system and bonded labour.
Why did the farmer’s revolt take place at Nargund?
The farmer’s revolt took place in Nargund in 1980 against the government’s attempts to use force against the farmers and the highhandedness of the police.
Who was the founder of Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha?
Prof. M.D. Nanjundaswamy was the founder of Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha.
What were the demands of the Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha?
The following were the demands of the Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha:
- Adopt scientific fixation of prices.
- Stop seizure of properties of farmers for recovery of their debts.
- Develop infrastructure in villages.
- Give villages share of the resources extracted.
- Abolish levy system.
What is meant by labour movement?
Labour movement is a movement demanding better working conditions and pay for the workers along with the demand for the implementation of legal provisions related to labour.
What were the consequences of industrialisation in Europe?
- Due to industrialisation, employment in the agricultural sector declined.
- There was increase in employment in the industrial sector.
- Migration of workers to industries led to their over – exploitation. They were forced to work for longer hours.
Which was the first labour union to be established? When and where was it established?
The International Working Men’s Association set up in London in 1864 was the first trade union to be established.
What was the main aim of the International Working Men’s Association?
The main aim of the International Working Men’s Association was to protect the interests of the workers end the right to an eight-hour working day.
What are the aims of the untouchabilityprevention movement?
The untouchability prevention movement is a movement aimed at eradicating the practice of untouchability and preventing attacks on the untouchable people. It is a movement against caste-based social exploitation.
What was the objective of the movement organised byJyothiba Phule against untouchability?
The aim of the movement organised by Jyothiba Phule against untouchability was to oppose varna system and resist the dominance of caste system.
Who started the self-respect movement in Tamil Nadu?
The self – respect movement in Tamil Nadu was started by E.V. Ramasamy, popularly called Periyar.
Explain the role of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in the upliftment of untouchables.
With Dr. B.R. Ambedkar taking up the cause of the untouchables, the movement for the removal of untouchability became more powerful. He espoused the cause of the untouchables at the round table conference held in London. He started a periodical’Mooka Nayaka’ and was instrumental in starting a number of movements against untouchability.
Name two leaders who fought for the removal of untouchability.
Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar were two leaders who fought for the removal of untouchability.
Multiple – choice Questions
The violent and destructive r.ature of mob behaviour is called _______
The ‘Chipko Movement’ was organized against cutting trees in _______
(A) Tehri Garhwal
(A) Tehri Garhwal
The movement organized against cutting of trees in Uttara Kannada district was _______
(D) Silent Valley.
The ‘Narmada Bachao’ movement was led by _______
(A) Vandana Shanbagh
(B) Smita Patil
(C) Vimala Ranade
(D) Medha Patkar.
(D) Medha Patkar.
Dr. Shivaram Karanth and other intellectuals of Karnataka organized a movement against the proposed nuclear plant at _______
Assembly of people around a common interest without any expectation or planning is called a _______
The Silent Valley is in _______
(A) Uttara Kannada
(B) Salyani village
(D) Uttar Pradesh
People of coastal Karnataka agitated under the leadership of Shivaram Karanth as they _______
(A) feared that the nuclear plant would destroy dense forests
(B) wanted the government to stop cutting down trees in Kalase forest
(C) thought that the ecological balance would be destroyed
(D) thought that environmental pollution would increase.
(A) feared that the nuclear plant would destroy dense forests
Fill in the blanks
- Environmental movements mean movements aimed at preserving the biological system.
- Narmada Bachao Movement was led by Medha Patkar.
- Shivaram Karanth opposed the establishment of Kaiga nuclear power plant.
- Women’s movement means movement opposing exploitation of women.