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Karnataka State Board Class 9 English Essay Writing
Our environment is a precious gift of nature. It consists of the air we breathe, the water which we drink, the earth on which we live. Environmental pollution is the unfavourable alteration of our surroundings, wholly or largely as a by-product of man’s actions, through direct or indirect effects of changes in energy patterns, radiation levels, chemical and physical constitution.
Pollution can occur in water, soil or air when substances released into them are beyond their capacity of assimilation. Water is required in large quantities for industrial purposes while the waste is later dumped in rivers or into the sea. Community wastes such as sewage and garbage from urban settlements are discharged into watercourses.
Water that flows on the surface of cultivated fields where fertilisers, pesticides, insecticides and other agrochemicals are used, contributes much to the pollution of water.
The pollution of air is largely due to the discharge of wastes in the form of smoke from industry, power plants, automobiles and houses; and also due to burning of fossil fuels. Soil pollution inevitably follows the pollution of air and water.
Besides, the solid residuals from industries, commercial concerns and households contribute to it. Deforestation at an unprecedented scale is causing soil erosion, floods, droughts and siltation. In addition to the above there is the problem of noise pollution.
Noise is unwanted sound that is usually unpleasant. Noise pollution is caused by industries, automobiles, explosions, and public address systems. Fall out from nuclear explosions and emissions from industrial use of nuclear energy cause radioactive pollution. In most of the cases pollution is caused by careless and non-judicious human activities, without caring for their harmful effects on nature.
The television is one of the recent wonders of science. People can watch television not only in cities but also in villages for this medium has begun to spread even to the remote parts of the countries. The day is not far off when the television will be as common as the radio or the cinema. The use of television as an effective communication medium cannot be ignored. Television gives us information faster than the newspapers. It can bring us reports of events even as they are happening.
Television can also be used as a teaching medium. The educational programmes telecast via satellite and the adult educational programmes are examples. We also see health and family welfare programmes and science features on television.
Some people call TV the “idiot box”. It is owing to the low standard of entertainment that television offers us. Also, it may tend to make children TV addicts at the expense of other activities. In countries where mass media are not completely free, as in India, television can also become a tool for the ruling party.
The TV is such a powerful medium of propaganda that only very intelligent or cautious watchers can resist being influenced by it. In short, we may say that television is a very powerful means of communication whose benefits for the citizen depend chiefly on the way it is used.
My favourite book.
I was rather young when I first laid my hands on R.K. Narayan’s ‘Swami and Friends’. I had been addicted to comics like Amar Chitra Katha and would never touch anything else. But, one day, when I was very bored and there was not a single comic lying by, I reluctantly took up ‘Swami and Friends’. That is how I stepped into the world of Malgudi.
Soon, I found that Swami was a child very like myself. Swami’s petty jealousies and terrible agonies were my own. I suffered when his cruel master Ebenzes troubled him and wept when he was badly treated by friends. I was elated when Swami befriended Rajam and Mam, and finally, at Rajam’s departure, I could not hold myself from sobbing out aloud.
I wonder now, as I did then, how R.K. Narayan can conjure up a child’s world so easily as if he were himself no more than a child. No other writer, except perhaps Mark Twain has such ability to enter into the recesses of a child’s mind. Even now, whenever I wish to go back to my childhood again, all I have to do is take up “Swami and Friends”.
A cup of tea and the morning newspaper widely spread in the hands – this is how a gentleman was described by a writer. This is today typical of many an urbanite. A newspaper is a must, like a cup of tea, for modem citizens.
The newspaper fulfils a wide variety of roles in the modem community. It gives information about the happenings within the country and abroad, comments on political, economic and social developments and thus educates the reader. It helps him in coming to his own conclusions and forming opinions.
It is the newspaper again, that gives information regarding jobs or workers available. One can insert an advertisement in a local newspaper and choose his employees or even employers. They also give information regarding the large number of laws and rules made by the government from time to time. Ignorance is no excuse so far as law is concemed.
Newspapers also advertise for brides and bridegrooms. The “matrimonial” column is quite popular with eligible bachelors and spinsters and though the proverb is that “Marriages are made in Heaven” some are actually made through newspapers. There are other interesting columns such as Lost and Found, Machinery and equipment for sale, accommodations wanted or available and what not.
It is again the newspaper that gives us information regarding weather, and forecast about rainfall, which of course remains only a forecast. They also notify the radio and television programmes of the day, the films running in the cinema houses of the town and other entertainments available. For the traders, a newspaper is a must as it gives information regarding the prices prevailing at the market centres.
On Sundays, the newspapers carry special feature articles on topical subjects. They also review the latest books published in various fields. On the whole, newspapers today occupy a position in the lives of the people, which nothing else did so far. They are the source of all information one gets and they educate in the process. The politician, industrialist, the businessman and the student or the housewife all should read newspapers every day.
India is a melting pot of different cultures, castes and communities. On the one hand if it gives us the pride of unity in diversity, on the other it also poses the problem of small differences in practices and rituals leading to big differences and communal discord. That is why, it is important for all of us to behave in such a way that none of our acts go against national integration.
India has all along proclaimed to the whole world “Vasudeva Kutumbakam” which means the whole world is one family. That is why, it doesn’t suit the spirit of India if we fight in the name of caste and community. We should preserve our integration by having the feeling of brotherhood. India is also known for its doctrine of non-violence.
Let us purge our hearts of every instinct of violence so as to uphold the concept of peace. Only when each Indian has the feeling of oneness and non-violence in his heart, will our country be truly integrated. Towards this end, it is the youth of India who have to strive hard. The future of India is truly in the hands of the youth.
The word ‘explosion’ in the term ‘population explosion’ rightly points out the destructive edge of increased population. India has already crossed the one billion mark and the population is increasing unabated.
Although positive references have been made to population by optimists, all of us know that an overly populated nation is always on the brink of disaster. Where the population goes out of control, the government is unable to provide even basic necessities to its citizens. There is also the problem of unemployment. Family planning programmes have not been highly successful because the uneducated lot is unaware of the benefits of family planning.
Ironically, the poor and uneducated continue to have many children whereas the middle-class and the upper-middle-class go in for family planning. This has tilted the balance in such a way that soon the ratio between the haves and the have-nots will be a dangerous one. The poor people will outnumber the rich and such a development is not at all healthy.
That is why educating the masses is of paramount importance. Only through education and awareness programmes can we make the lower classes realize that there is no point in increasing the number of children. Thus, children will get the chance to grow as healthy citizens and society too will progress without unrest and dissatisfaction among its people.
India, which has made substantial programmes in almost every field, will have the satisfaction of being progressive in the area of population too. Having said this much, it is.necessary to acknowledge with joy that in certain areas where intensive family planning work has been done, the birth rate has come down and this leaves us with a ray of hope.
Even a couple of decades ago, other than the newspaper, the only means of reaching out to people was through the radio. It was a marvel that by possessing a small rectangular box, people could get local, national and international news. It could also entertain them with songs, stories and skits. It could intellectually stimulate them with discussions and talks.
It is true that with the advent of television, radio has lost its prominence. It is an understandable phenomenon as people generally go in for visual impact rather than auditory. But the fact remains that despite the stiff competition, radio has retained its importance. In fact unlike TV, radio improves our power of concentration and it is free of the destructive edge. It is still very popular in the rural areas. Since it is portable, it is possible to carry a battery-operated radio from one place to another.
Radio, as any other mass medium, focuses primarily on informing people of the important events. Secondly, it educates masses and creates awareness. Finally, it entertains. All the three roles are equally important and radio is undoubtedly a friend of man.
Hobbies are what people do to engage themselves during their leisure. They must be encouraged because they provide a welcome diversion from routine work. Most students have hobbies. Photography, stamp collection and gardening are some of the most popular hobbies.
Unlike most hobbies which incur some expenditure, gardening is least expensive. Moreover, it can be turned into a source of income. But it needs both land and water and cannot be pursued in crowded areas of cities. It may start as a hobby with a child and the child may become a good photographer when he grows up.
There are some hobbies which are not so common or inexpensive. In the west, millionaires hunt for curious photos and paintings and stock them in their private galleries. Some people take this to such an extent that they even arrange thefts to procure paintings illegally.
This becomes a mania and not a hobby. Hobbies should never be allowed to become manias. In people who are very prestige-conscious, hobbies are pursued not for pleasure but for the social importance they get through them. This is a negative aspect of hobbies.
We should be engaged in some hobby or other. Otherwise we would be in the danger of losing ourselves solely in our work. Hobbies take our minds off our worries and further our interest in life.
Since the attainment of independence, we have been observing three days as national festivals. They are the Independence day on 15th of August, the Republic day on 26th of January and Gandhi Jayanti on 2nd of October. On 15th of August India obtained independence from British rule and the day is celebrated with due joy.
India was declared a republic on 26th of January 1950 and the day is celebrated as Republic Day. On Republic Day, an impressive parade is held at New Delhi attended by high dignitaries from India and abroad. It is also observed in State capitals and all important cities and towns.
Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated on 2nd of October, the birthday of Gandhiji, in order to express our deep respect for the great ideals of Mahatma Gandhi. Truth, non-violence, simplicity, universal brotherhood, dignity of labour, as practised by Gandhiji, are highlighted so that students inculcate these values of life in their own lives also.
These national festivals help in the formation of a strong and united India. They keep the spirit of freedom alive in the hearts of Indians for all times to come.
Uses/Importance of forests.
Forests are nature’s gift to mankind. They are of multifarious uses and as such are considered to be of immense help to human beings. They moderate the climate, maintain soil mantle, and regulate water supplies. By their photosynthetic activity, the plants take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen thus purifying the air and also convert solar energy into various forms of energy such as fuel, food, oil and oil products, which can be directly used by human beings.
Forests have a great potential to control rainfall and contribute largely towards moderation of flow of water in the catchment areas. They also offer protection to soil against erosion by wind and water.
The ecological usefulness of forests is most readily observed in their beneficial effect on water catchment areas, where they have a regulatory influence on streamflow and where they protect soils from erosion and prevent silting of dams and canals. Forests also play a significant role in economic development.
In addition to their important influence on the environment, they provide innumerable products of vital use to man. Forest products are extensively used in most societies; they provide food, fuel, fibre, building materials, and industrial products such as gums, resins, oils, transmission poles, newsprint and other papers, packaging materials, textiles and clothing. Almost every modern industry is, to some extent, dependent on forest products in one or more of its processes.
Importance of sports and games in schools.
Right from our childhood till our adulthood we have been taught the truth – work while you work; play while you play; that, is the way to be happy and gay. In recognition of this truth, in schools sports and games are given a lot of importance. Only when children have physical activities coupled with academic pursuits their education can be considered complete.
Sports and games can be divided into athletics and team games. If athletics are individual events sharpening the spirit of competition, team games teach players the spirit of working together. Values of cooperation, adjustment and sacrifice are taught through team games.
In the present time when children have become victims of passive forms of entertainment through T.V. and computer, sports and games in schools are the only physical activity that the children get. The scenario has further increased the importance of sports and games in schools.
Sports and games in schools also tap the hidden potential of youngsters. Not all can be academically brilliant. Some may have their strength in other spheres. If their abilities are recognized and channelled into skills, these may shine as stars eventually.