KSEEB Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

Karnataka Board Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

KSEEB Solutions Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Intext Questions

Question 1.
What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits, and vegetables?
Answer:
Cereals such as wheat, rice, maize, ragi and jowar provide us carbohydrates for energy requirement.
Pulses like gram, pea, black gram, green gram, pigeon pea, lentil provide us with protein, vegetables provide us a range of vitamins and minerals in addition to small amounts of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

Question 2
How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?
Answer:
Crops production can go down due to biotic (diseases, insects, and nematodes) and abiotic (drought, salinity, waterlogging, heat, cold and frost) stresses under different situations varieties resistant to these stresses can improve crop production.

Question 3.
What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements?
Answer:
Tallness and profuse branching are desirable characters for fodder crops. Deafness is desired in cereals so that less nutrients are consumed by these crops. Thus developing varieties of desired agronomic characters help give higher productivity.

Question 4.
What are macro-nutrients and why are they called macro-nutrients?
Answer:
The nutrients which are required to plants in large quantities are called macro-nutrients. Eg. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium magnesium, sulphur. They are required in large quantities and are therefore called macro-nutrients.

Question 5.
How do plants get nutrients?
Answer:
Nutrients are supplied to plants
by air, water and soil. There are sixteen nutrients which are essential for plants. Air supplies carbon and oxygen, hydrogen comes from water and soil supplies the other thirteen nutrients, six are required in large quantities and are therefore called macronutrients. The other seven nutrients are used by plants in small quantities and are therefore called micro-nutrients.

Question 6.
Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.
Answer:

Manure Fertilizer
1. Produced by natural phenomena. Produced from the chemical processes.
2. Dosage is not. fixed. The dosage is fixed.
3. Maintain the pH of soil. the pH of soil may be altered.
4. Rich with microbes nutrients and do not pollute the soil. 4. Rich with phosphorous potassium and pollute the soil.

Question 7.
Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?
a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.
b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilizers.
c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.
Answer:
(c) This condition will give the most benefits. Because it includes all agricultural methods. Hence yield is more.

Question 8.
Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?
Answer:
Because insects, rodents, fungi, miles and bacteria, moisture and temperature cause degradation in quality, loss in weight, poor germinability, discolouration of produce, all leading to poor marketability of crops. Therefore By preventive measures and biological control methods crops should be protected.

Question 9.
What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?
Answer:
Moisture and temperature are the factors which are responsible for losses of grains during storage.

Question 10.
Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?
Answer:
Exotic or foreign breeds (eg: Jersey) are selected for long lactation periods, while local breeds (eg: Red sindhi) show excellent resistance to diseases. The two can be cross-breed to get animals with both the desired qualities.

Question 11.
Discuss the implications of the following statement:
“It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fiber foodstuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food.”
Answer:
This statement is correct. The rotation (daily food requirement) for broilers is protein-rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamins A and K is kept high in the poultry feeds.

Question 12.
What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
Answer:
Broiler chickens are fed with vitamin-rich supplementary feed for good growth rate and better feed efficiency. Care is taken to avoid mortality and to maintain feathering and carcass quality. They are produced as broilers and sent to the market for meat purposes.

For the good production of poultry birds, good management practices are important. These include maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions in housing and poultry feed, as well as prevention and control of diseases and pests. The ration (daily food requirement) for broilers is protein-rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamins A and K is kept high in the poultry feeds.

Question 13.
What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?
Answer:

Broilers Layers
These provide a good quality of meat. These are producing good quality of eggs.

The housing, nutritional and environmental requirements of broilers are somewhat different from those of egg layers. The ration (daily food requirement) for broilers is protein-rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamins A and K is kept in the poultry feeds.

Question 14.
How are fish obtained?
Answer :
There are two ways of obtaining fish, one is from natural resources, which is called capture fishing. The other way is by fish farming which is called culture fishery.

Question 15.
What are the advantages of composite fish culture?
Answer:

  1. By composite fish culture, the food available in all the parts of the pond is used.
  2. This increases the fish yield from the pond.
    These are the advantages of composite fish culture.

Question 16.
What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?
Answer:
The value or quality of honey depends upon the pasturage, or the flowers available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. In addition to an adequate quantity of pasturage, the kind of flowers available will determine the taste of the honey.

Question 17.
What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?
Answer:
Varieties of plants, trees belonging to different species altogether are called pasturage. It should be rich in the environment for obtaining good quality of honey. Because the value or quality of honey depends upon the pasturage, or the flowers available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. In addition to an adequate quantity of pasturage, the kind of flowers available will determine the taste of the honey.

KSEEB Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.
Answer:
Inter-cropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern. A few rows of one crop alternate with a few rows of second crop, for example, soyabean+maize, or finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (lobia). The crops are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different. This ensures maximum utilization of the nutrients supplied and also prevents pests and diseases from spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in a field. This way both crops can give better returns.

Question 2.
Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields?
Answer:
Fertilizers supply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. They are used to ensure good vegetative growth (leaves, branches and flowers) giving rise to healthy plants. Fertilizers are a factor in the higher yields of high-cost farming. Soil fertility is maintained properly by the application of fertilizers.

Question 3.
What are the advantages of intercropping and crop rotation?
Answer:

  1. Intercropping: In this method, the crops are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different. This ensures maximum utilisation of nutrients supplied and also prevent pests and diseases from spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in a field. This way both crops can give better returns.
  2. Crop rotation: The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a preplanned succession is known as crop rotation. If crop rotation is done properly then two or three crops can be grown in a year with a good harvest.

Question 4.
What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?
Answer:
The desirable characteristics of the crop can be genetically modified to establish progeny.
(a) Resources can be conserved.
(b) Period of yield can be maintained,
(c) Availability of crop of all seasons . can be produced and maintained

Question 5.
How do storage grain losses occur?
Answer:
Storage losses in agricultural produce can be very high. Factors responsible for such losses are biotic- insects, fungi, mites and bacteria, and abiotic – inappropriate, moisture, and temperatures in the place of storage. These factors cause degradation in quality, loss in weight, poor germinability, discolouration of produce.

Question 6.
How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?
Answer:
Animal-based farming includes cattle, goat, sheep, poultry and fish farming. As the population increases and as living standards increase, the demand for milk, eggs and meat is also going up. Also the growing awareness of the need for the humane treatment of livestock has brought in new limitations in livestock farming.

Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes – milk and draught labour for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and carting. Milk-producing females are called milch animals (dairy animals) while the ones used form labour are called draught animals.

Question 7.
What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Answer:
Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes – milk and draugt labour for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation and carting. Milk producing females are called milch animals (dairy animals), while the ones used for farm labour are called draught animals. These are the benefits of cattle farming.

Question 8.
For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?
Answer:
For increasing production of all these there should be proper cleaning, sanitation and spraying of disinfectants are regular intervals. Appropriate vaccination can prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases.

Question 9.
How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture and aquaculture?
Answer:

  1. Capture fishing: Capture fishing is also done in such inland water bodies, the yield is not high.
  2. Mari-culture fishing: Marine fish are caught using many minds of fishing nets from fishing boats. Yield are increased by locating large schools of fish in the open sea using satellites and echo-sounders.
  3. Aquaculture: Aquaculture is a method of fishing in ponds, canals, dams and rivers. In this method yield is less.

KSEEB Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
Name the major groups of activities for improving crop yields.
Answer:

  1. Crop variety improvement.
  2. Crop production improvement.
  3. Crop protection and management.

Question 2.
How is soil fertility is maintained to get higher yield?
Answer:
By using compost manure vermicompost and green manure we can maintain soil fertility. We get the maximum yield.

Question 3.
What do you mean by intercropping?
Answer:
Inter-cropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern.

Question 4.
What are the weeds? Give examples.
Answer:
Weeds are unwanted plants which are grown on along with crops.
Eg: Xanthium, parthenium, etc.

Question 5.
Name two processes of obtaining fish.
Answer:

  1. From natural process.
  2. By fish farming which is called culture fishery.
KSEEB Solutions for Class 9 Science

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