Karnataka Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 8 Science and Hope of Survival

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Science and Hope of Survival Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary

Question 1.
a. If you are so clever, why are you so poor?
The professional addressed as ‘you’ in the statement above refers more than others to a _______
(Fill in the blank choosing the best form in the alternative below)
i) scientist
ii) lawyer
iii) doctor
iv) businessman
The professionals addressed as ‘you’ in the statement is
Answer:
i) Scientist

Question 2.
Read paragraph (1) and (2) carefully, and fill in the blanks in the columns below:
Answer:

Professionals A writer A scientist A lawyer
Vocation Writing Experiment

research

arguing.
Field of activity Literature discovery Justice
Reward Appreciation honor Money

Question 3.
A few words are given below. Some of them are related to the field of business, and some are to the field of science. Maybe a couple of them related to both. Read, discuss and fill them in columns A, B and C accordingly.
Answer:
Wealth, profit and loss, friendship, rational thinking, advertisement, exploring nature, exploitation of nature, discover, commerce, research, playing to popular sentiments, universality.

Field of science Field of business Both
rational thinking exploring nature

discovery, research universality

wealth

Profit and loss, advertisement exploitation of nature

Commerce, playing to popular sentiments

friendship

 

Question 4.
The writer says, “I found myself in Geneva”. It expresses, more than anything else, the writer’s _____ (Choose the right option and fill in the blank)
i) pleasure
ii) surprise
iii) anxiety
iv) annoyance
Answer:
The writer says “I found myself in Geneva”. It expresses, more than anything else, the writer’s surprise.

Question 5.
A few statements are made below. Read them and say which of them are true or false according to the text Tick Yes / No accordingly.
i) The war was going on between the US and the USSR when the Geneva meeting was called Yes/No
Answer:
No

ii) Everyone lived under the fear of annihilation by nuclear weapons. Yes/No
Answer:
Yes

iii) In the nuclear wai; the first who strikes will be the survivor. Yes/No.
Answer:
No

iv) The three superpowers were willing to put a ban on nuclear weapon tests. Yes/No.
Answer:
Yes

Question 6.
Earth tremors are caused by two factors. One is the earthquake. What is the other factor?
Answer:
The other factor is the Nuclear Test.

Question 7.
Which of the following qualities helped the scientists to come up with a solution to the problem? Which of them did not? Put right (✓) or (×) wrong in the boxes accordingly.
Answer:
self – assessment                 [ ✓ ]
self – praise                          [ × ]
popularity                            [ × ]
experience                           [ ✓ ]
self – discipline                    [ ✓ ]
respect for evidence            [ ✓ ]

Question 8.
What was the important decision that the politicians took before Geneva Summit?
Answer:
The important decision that the politicians took before the Geneva summit was “Nuclear Test Ban”.

Question 9.
“Immersion in science does not go with common sense”, suggests _______
i) foolishness of scientists
ii) absent-mindedness of scientists
iii) that scientists do not bother about the results of their work
(Complete die sentence with the right choice)
Answer:
ii) absent-mindedness of scientists.

Question 10.
With whose help can the world be ready with preparedness to face the challenges that the natural calamities pose?
Answer:
With Scientist’s help, the world is ready with preparedness to face the challenges that the natural calamities pose.

Question 11.
Write at least the names of three subjects that come under the category of basic science.
Answer:
The three subjects that come under the category of basic science are Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics.

Question 12.
Who can best ensure our safety in the world?
Answer:
Scientists with their tools that are up to the challenge and can ensure our safety in the world.

Think About The Text

Question 1.
The pursuit of science is an exciting adventure. Do you agree? Can you compare this with other types of adventure like the pursuit of sports? Share your views with your friends.
Answer:
Yes, the pursuit of science is an exciting adventure. When you take up a scientific venture, you do so without knowing what the outcome is going to be. You can be in for trouble too. However, as in the case of an adventure, in the case of science to the final outcome, if it is what you wanted to achieve, gives you immense joy. However, in the field of science, unlike sports or other adventures, the outcome is directed at the welfare of common people.

Question 2.
Which sentence in the text suggest that the au¬thor was involved more in the theoretical research than in its application to the Warcraft?
Answer:
The sentence in the text suggests that the author was in¬volved more in the theoretical research than in its application to the Warcraft was in the 3rd para. i.e., “I did not give much thought to how it connects with the real life”.

Question 3.
“A paradox may refer to a person, a thing or a situation that has two opposite features and therefore seems strange”. In light of this definition, how is ‘MAD’ a paradox?
Answer:
The acronym MAD means Mutually Assured Destruction. It’s paradoxical because nations amass nuclear weapons with the argument that it’s for self-defense. But if they use them by any chance it will lead to their destruction because the enemies will use their weapons as well and since the weapons have the capacity to destroy whole nations, the whole world may get annihilated.

Question 4.
What was the ‘problem’ that the nuclear powers had faced? Was it a violation of the agreement or was it the detection of violation? Explain briefly.
Answer:
The problem faced by the nuclear powers was the possibility of breach of trust. Supposing nations sign a treaty banning nuclear explosions, and if one or the other nation breaks the bond, how would the other nations know about it. Thus the problem is both the violation of the agreement and the detection of it.

Question 5.
Why were the technical experts summoned by the three superpowers?
Answer:
The three superpowers had enough nuclear bombs to destroy others. If anyone of them used, it would take only 20 minutes to reach their targets, but other side had plenty of time to reverse action against their enemy. So the three superpowers were willing to come to an agreement to solve the problem. Hence they summoned the technical experts.

Question 6.
In which area did Kellis Brooks theoretical knowledge has a direct application?
Answer:
Keilis-Borok was doing research on the theory of seismic waves – tremors generated by an earthquake. Since underground nuclear explosions produced earth tremors very similar to those generated by earthquakes, it turned out that his knowledge of seismic waves had a direct application in the field of nuclear weapons or underground nuclear explosions.

Question 7.
“Iron Curtain” is referred to as a barrier. It was outwardly difficult for the opposite sides of the iron curtain to find out the solution for the problem of violation of the agreement. What was the reason?
Answer:
Iron curtain was a barrier. It was difficult for the opposite sides to find out the solution. Because of the cold war continued, the political tensions were hanging over. The scientists gave up their differences and worked together irrespective of their nationality.

Question 8.
How are scientists able to work in spite of political and cultural differences?
Answer:
According to the author, scientists should give up their cultural differences and work hard for the benefit of the whole of mankind. Scientists were able to work, based on respect to hard evidence known to be true something and they were skillful.

Question 9.
Make a list of lessons that the writer learned at the Geneva Summit.
Answer:
The following are the important points that the writer had learned from the Geneva Summit as follows:

  1. Asa Scientist, the author had people like him all over the world who could think and interact as the author.
  2. At abroad he need not feel lonely.
  3. Science gives hope of survival and well being for the whole of mankind.

Question 10.
Give a few examples which illustrate the writer’s stand that scientists are the most practical people in the world.
Answer:

The writer places before the readers a number of examples from technology, industry, defence and entertainment to show that the scientists are the most practical people in the world. He says that all new technologies, all new brands of industry from defence to entertainment stem from fundamental research. Antibiotics, electronics, biotechnology, synthetic fibres, the green revolution, and genetic forensic diagnosis are all taken by the writer as examples of scientists being practical.

Question 11.
Who will be headhunted by financial institutions and pharmaceutical industries? Why?
Answer:
The people who trained in theoretical physics are headhunted by financial institutions. Those who trained in frontiers of biological research become founders and directors in the pharmaceutical industry.

Question 12.
Some statements are given below. Why or why not are they true?
a) Money is more powerful than intellectual resources.
b) Intellectual resources help the survival of mankind.
c) Basic research is a way of stalling disasters.
Answer:
a) Money is more important than intellectual resources – False
There is no assurance that money can buy everything. In fact many problems are created by money. But intellectual resources, of which science is the most significant, can improve the quality of life.

b) Intellectual resources help the survival of mankind – True
It is because of the intellectual resources that we have combated many diseases. Though man is not the fittest among all the creations of God, he is able to ensure his safety against the other powerful creatures of nature because of his intellectual resources. Basic research can help our survival by giving us new sources of energy and new mineral deposits. Basic research can also protect us against terrorism.

c) Basic research is a way of stalling disasters – True
Meteorologists study the ecological changes and forewarn people about natural disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis, storms etc. People can be evacuated from the area posed with danger.

Question 13.
Imagine that you and some of your classmates have been selected to represent India in a meeting of scientists to be held in Russia to discuss the nuclear test. How would you all prepare for the meeting? Discuss among yourselves and write a paragraph about your proposed argument in the meeting.
Answer:
self-assessment.

Enrich Your Vocabulary:

Task – 2: Following the example given above, Jill in the blanks with correct collocations (an appropriate combination of words) choosing from those given.
The Government sanctioned a few crores of rupees to build a stadium in our town. The builders made rapid progress with the stadium. While the work was in progress, unfortunately, a boulder rolled down on a worker and he was injured. Immediately, he was rushed to a nearby hospital. I wished him a speedy recovery. The Government took swift action against the builders. The builders made prompt payment of the bills of the hospital
(a speedy recovery, a prompt payment, a swift action, rapid progress)

Task – 3: Champaka is in Goa. She writes a letter to her friend, Suma. She consciously uses collocations leaving options for Suma to choose right collocations. How would Suma use them?

Hi Suma
Weather’s fantastic here. We make/walk/take a stroll along the beach every morning. My grandpa made/got/accented friends with some foreigners here yesterday. He changed/exchanged/passed some interesting ideas with them. I happened to read an article on climate change in one of the local newspapers. It was excellent and said that rising/raising/going sea levels are the menacing/disturbing/changing actors for the ecological balance. They are causing irreparable/inseparable/acute damage to the environment. I will be back in Bengaluru next week and we can discuss more these things. Take care.
Bye,
Champaka.

Hi Suma
Weather’s fantastic here. We take a stroll along the beach every morning. My grandpa made friends with some foreigners here yesterday. He exchanged some interesting ideas with them. I happened to read an article cm climate change in one of for local news papa’s. It was excellent and said that rising sea levels are for changing factors for ecological balance. They are causing acute damage to the environment. I will be back in Bengaluru next week and we can discuss more these things. Take care
Bye,
Champaka.

Task – 4: Match the words in the box on the left with the words that they collocate with on the right Note some words are shown in the box A may collocate with more than one word in box B. After matching, frame appropriate sentences. You may follow the given examples.
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 8 Science and Hope of Survival 1
1. Sunder’s joke drew hilarious laughter from the audience.
2. Amit raised certain doubts about the decisions of the meeting.
3. Madhu committed the crime yesterday.
4. Ranga laid the carpets parallel to the dais in the hall.
5. The Joker made many gestures of goodwill in the show.
6. The two boys combated with little violence.
7. The children raised their doubts and asked with the neighbors.
8. We draw money from the bank whenever necessary.
9. Make up our mind to put emphasis on good habits.

Listen And Comprehend

On 18 May 1974, India exploded its first nuclear device code-named Operation Smiling Buddha. After about a quarter-century on 11 May 1998, Operation Shakti was carried out. Shakti was the code name of the thermonuclear device that was exploded in Pokhran as part of Pokhran II. Pokhran served as a test site. A total of five nuclear devices were detonated during Operation Shakti. Measurements confirmed that there was no release of radioactivity.

Task 1: The teacher reads the passage. Listen to the teacher carefully and fill in the table as the teacher reads the passage.

Code name of first nuclear device            : Operation Smiling Buddha 18th May 1974 Shakti
Date of explosion                                      : 18th May 1974
Code name of Pokhran II                          : Shakti
Test site : Pokhran
Number of nuclear weapons detonated   : 5
Type of device                                           : Thermonuclear

Speak well

Task – 2 : You can write a dialogue persuad¬ing your friend to accompany you on a trip to a hill station in Karnataka. You can make use of the following phrases.
You ought to _______
You’d better ________
I would urge you to ____
Shouldn’t you ______
Dialogues

Rama: Hi Krishna.
Krishna: Hi Rama, How are you?
Rama: I am fine. We are planned to go to Mullayanagiri hill station, you ought to come.
Krishna: When will it be?
Rama: Next Sunday
Krishna: O.K. I will see?
Rama: No, No. I urge you to accompany us.
Krishna: You’d better choose to call Govind I have some work on that day.
Rama: That I don’t know. You should come, Shouldn’t you?
Krishna: O.K. I will accompany you. Bye…
Rama: Bye… Bye…

Read And Respond

Task -1: Read the given story. The bits of the story are jumbled, you can arrange them in the right order to complete the story. You can also give a suitable title to it.
1. “Your candle has burned out, brother,” replied the stranger.
2. “I do not need a lantern,” he said. “Darkness or light is all the same to me”.
3. The blind man started off with the lantern and before he had walked far, someone ran into him. “Look out where you are going” he exclaimed to the stranger, “can’t you see the lantern”?
4. In early times in Japan, bamboo and paper lanterns were made with candles inside. A blind man, visiting a friend one night, was offered a lantern to carry home with him.
5. “I know you do not need a lantern to find your way,” his friend replied. “But if you don’t have one, someone else may run into you. So, you must take it.”
The Suitable title for this story is

The Blind Man

1. In early times in Japan, bamboo and paper lanterns were made with candles inside. A blind man, visiting a friend one night,
was offered a lantern to carry home with him
2. “I do not need a lantern”, he said. “Darkness or light is all the same to me”.
3. “I know you do not need a lantern to find your way”, his friend replied… “But if you don’t have one, someone else may run into you. So, you must take it”.
4. The blind man started off with the lantern and before he had walked far, someone ran into him. “Look out where you are going!” he exclaimed to the stranger. “Can’t you see the lantern?”.
5. “Your candle has burned out, brother”, replied the stranger.

Task – 2: Edit and rewrite the following article written by your friend for the school magazine on “Rockets”.

Rockets carry satellites and people into space, a rocket burn fuel produce a jet of gas. The hot gas expands and is blast downwards causing a force to push the rocket up. The first liquid-fueled rocket is launched in 1926.it reached 12.5 M. The flight lasted 2.5 seconds. There many kinds of rockets. Today rocket such Arianne 5is used to send satellites. It’s size determine whether it is sent up by a small or large rocket.

Rockets carry satellites and people into space. A rocket bums fuel produces a Jet of gas. The hot gas expands and is blast downwards causing a force to push the rocket up. The first liquid-fueled rocket was launched in 1926. It reached 12.5 M. The flight lasted 2.5 seconds. There are many kinds of rockets. Today rockets such as Arianne 5 is used to send satellites. Its size determines whether it is sent up by a small or large rocket.

Learn grammar through communication

Task – 2: Read the conversation between two business partners and complete the passage by choosing the appropriate word/ words given below.
Jane: Good morning, Robert.
Robert: Very good morning, Jane.
Jane: Let’s not waste our time. Shall we begin?
Robert: Sure. I’m rather glad you raised the subject.
Jane and Robert exchanged pleasantries. Jane was eager to get straight into the business. She asked him . Robert accepted and _____ that ______ glad as she _____the
subject
told her
had raised
if they should begin their talks
he was
Jane and Robert exchanged pleasantries.
Jane was eager to get into the business. She asked him if they should beein their talks. Robert accepted and told her that he was glad as she had raised the subject.

Task – 3 : Read what happened in a camera shop between the owner, Henry and a customer, Arathi. Complete the paragraph
that follows using the given choices appropriately.

Henry: Here’s a nice camera.
Arathi: oh, it’s beautiful!
Henry: That’s a little expensive.
Arathi: How much is it?
Henry: It’s 175 dollars.
Arathi: I think this one will be fine.
Henry showed Arathi a nice camera. She _____ it was beautiful. Henry ______ the camera was a bit costly. Later,
she _____ about its price to which he _____ 175 dollars. Finally, Arathi decided to buy it.
a. remarked that
b. wanted to know
c. replied that it was
d. admired it saying that
Henry showed Arathi a nice camera. She admired it savins that it was beautiful. Henry replied that the camera was a bit costly. Later, she wanted to know about its price to which he remarked 175 dollars. Finally, Arathi decided to buy it.

Task – 4: Read the conversation between two old school friends and write it in a paragraph in the reported form.

Chandan: I met Rani last week in Mysore.
Raghu: Oh. Does she look the same?
Chandan: There is a little bit of change in her appearance. But, She remains the same.
Raghu: What’s She doing now?
Chandan: She works for a private company.
Begin with
Chandan told Raghu _________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Chaiidan told Raghu that he met Rani last week in Mysore. Raghu asked that she was looked the same as before. Chandan replied that there were some little bit of changes in her appearance but she remained as before. Raghu enquired what was she doing! Chandan said that she was working in a private company.

Make Reference

Task-2:

i. Information on nuclear weapons – Encyclopedia.
ii Pronunciation of the word “exemplification” – Dictionary.
iii. Synonym of the word, “natural’ – Thesaurus.
iv. The place where first nuclear bombs exploded – Encyclopedia.
v. Variations of the word “inspire” – Dictionary.
vi. To know the spellings of the word, “approximately” – Dictionary.
vii To collect the information about the things that the scientists need for their research – Encyclopedia
viii. To find out the phrase that means, “to continue” – Thesaurus.

Science and Hope of Survival Additional Questions and Answers

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Science and Hope of Survival is the prose written by _____
a. Kellis Borok
b. Willian
c. Satish Gujral
d. Wordsworth

Question 2.
Leo Tolstoy was a _____ writer
a. Indian
b. Russian
c. American
d. English

Question 3.
‘War and Peace’ was a novel written by ______
a. Kellis Borok
b. Gandhiji
c. Premchand
d. Leo Tolstoy

Question 4.
It was 1960, the height of the _____
a. war
b. battle
c. cold ward
d. combatment

Question 5.
If you are so clever, why are you so poor? Was _____ expression
a. General
b. Special
c. Popular
d. Poitical

Question 6.
Science is a _____ adventure.
a. ideal
b. exciting
c. interesting
d. open

Question 7.
The author of the lesson doing his research on the theory of ____
a. Science
b. War
c. Mysteries
d. Seismic Waves

Question 8.
The ______ came from the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
a. Call
b. Summons
c. News
d. Invitation

Question 9.
The technical experts from the Soviet Union ______ and the United Kingdom
a. India
b. Russia
c. United States
d. Geneva

Question 10.
At that time, every man lived under the threat of _____
a. armihilatioia
b. war
c. cold war
d. Earthquake

Question 11
_____ strikes ensuring the destruction of their enemies only a few minutes later.
a. Threat
b. Iron Curtain
c. Retaliation
d. Fatal Fate

Question 12.
“MAD” means
a. Muting Against Destruction
b. Mutual Advise Done
c. Members Against Deed
d. Mutually Assured Destruction

Question 13.
The problem is”: how can the other powers detect the _____
a crime
b. fetal fete
c. violation
d. tremors

Question 14.
What saved us was a clear and obvious ____
a distinction
b. record
c. fete
d. research

Question 15.
One of the most important decisions of their times ____
a. Nuclear Bomb
b. Nuclear Test Ban
c. Nuclear Weapon
d. Nuclear research

Question 16.
While there is ______ there is the hope of Survival and well – being for all of us
a. Support
b. Cooperation
c. Science
d. hope

Question 17.
______ the most practical people in the world
a. Politicians
b. Scientists
c. Doctors
d. Engineers

Question 18.
People trained in theoretical physics are _____ by financial institutions
a. supported
b. serviced
c. headhunted
d. appointed

Question 19.
One of the man-made disasters are _____ destruction of megacities
a. Nuclear Bomb
b. Self- inflicted
c. Bombs
d. Cold – war

Question 20.
The hope and the responsibility for breaking the ______ rest not only on the money, but on intellectual resources
a. agreement
b. oath
c. stalemate
d. order

Question 21.
Nobody is satisfied with his wealth, everybody is satisfied with his _____
a. work
b. status
c. wisdom
d. power

Question 22.
“Ours is the time of contest over issues not completely understood” by
a. scientists
b. Me George Bundy
c. F. Press
d. Kellis Borok

Question 23.
Scientific research is a _____ venture
a. exciting
b. interesting
c. engineering
d. important

Question 24.
Only the basic research can create a _____ for developing new disaster prepared! less industry
a. challenge
b. problem
c. solution
d. springboard

Question 25.
Science is their _____ guardian and caretaker
a. responsible
b. real
c. indispensable
d. ideal

II. Match the following :

KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 8 Science and Hope of Survival 2 png
Ans:
1 – e
2 – c
3 – a
4 – f
5 – b
6 – d

III. Give one word or Name it

Question 1.
Russian writer, author of the novel ‘War and Peace’.
Answer:
Leo Tolstoy

Question 2.
A feeling of friendship when people work together.
Answer:
Camaraderie

Question 3.
A move to a more important position.
Answer:
Promotion

Question 4.
A great effect on you that you feel very happy.
Answer:
Overwhelming

Question 5.
One of the best educators on human nature.
Answer:
F. Press

Question 6.
Unfriendly relationship between the US and the Soviet Union after the Second World war.
Answer:
The Cold War

Question 7.
Something that people do not know anything about it.
Answer:
Mystery

Question 8.
Complete destruction.
Answer:
Annihilation

Question 9.
Action against someone who has done something bad to you.
Answer:
Retaliation

Question 10.
Making you feel that something bad is going to happen.
Answer:
Ominous

Question 11.
A word made from the first letters of the name of any organization, e.g. MAD
Answer:
Acronym

Question 12.
A state that continues to live or exist.
Answer:
Survival

Question 13.
The name for the socio-political border that was believed to exist between Western Europe and the communist countries of central and Eastern Europe.
Answer:
Iron Curtain

Question 14.
Continuing to exist or happen.
Answer:
Persistent

Question 15.
The act of Judging one’s own behavior or character.
Answer:
Self-Criticism

Question 16.
The knowledge or information about a subject.
Answer:
Lore

Question 17.
Being absorbed in an activity.
Answer:
Immersion

Question 18.
The most basic or important parts of something.
Answer:
Fundamental

Question 19.
Of the scientific method of finding out about the crime.
Answer:
Forensic

Question 20.
An act to find people with the right skills – or experience for a particular job.
Answer:
Headhunt

Question 21.
To cause pain or problem for oneself.
Answer:
Self – inflict

Question 22.
To make something happen very quickly.
Answer:
Trigger

Question 23.
The number equal to one lakh crores.
Answer:
Trillion

Question 24.
A situation in which it seems impossible to come to an agreement or disagreement.
Answer:
Stalemate

Question 25.
Something that helps one to start doing something.
Answer:
Springboard

Question 26.
A new activity that involves risk.
Answer:
Venture

Question 27.
Very useful and necessary
Answer:
Indispensable

Question 28.
He was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.
Answer:
Me. George Bundy

Answer the following questions in 2-3 sentences each:

Question 1.
In addition to war, what other man-made disasters are cited by the author?
Answer:
A massive release of radioactivity from nuclear waste disposal and an outburst of mass violence are cited by the author as man-made disasters.

Question 2.
What did the writer learn from his experience in Geneva?
Answer:
The episode at Geneva taught the writer that as a scientist he had people all over the world who thought and interacted the way he did. It taught him never to feel lonely abroad. And, above all, it taught him that while there is science, there is hope of survival and well-being for all of us.

Question 3.
How did the threat of mutually assured destruction protect the world?
Answer:
At the height of the cold war, every superpower had more than enough nuclear bombs to destroy the others in the first strike. If one country sent a nuclear missile to the enemy country, the enemy could know it immediately and retaliate by sending its own missile in the opposite direction. In the bargain, nations would destroy each other mutually. This threat of mutually assured destruction was for some years the only thin thread protecting the world from destruction.

Question 4.
Why did the scientists meet at Geneva?
OR
‘Technical experts were summoned to solve the problem that arose’. What was the problem?
OR
Why did technical experts from the nuclear power nations meet in Geneva? The scientists met at Geneva to discuss the problem of nuclear weapons. Since the tremor caused by an earthquake was the same as the tremor caused by a nuclear explosion, if countries which signed the treaty violated the terms, it would be difficult to know the violation. So the technical experts from the Soviet Union, United States and United Kingdom – three powers possessing nuclear weapons – met to come up with suggestions.

Question 5.
Why does Keilis-Borok feel that science is the indispensable guardian and caretaker of humanity? Support the statement with examples.
Answer:
Keilis-Borok feels that only the basic research in science can create a springboard
for developing new disaster-preparedness industry. Science is not the beginning and not the end either. If humanly used, it is their indispensable guardian and caretaker. In the present scenario the safety of mankind is threatened by both natural and man-made disasters. Be it a tsunami, be it terrorism, money alone cannot tackle the problem. Scientific solutions are the only hope. Thus the author has umpteen reasons to conclude that science is the hope of survival.

Question 6.
“Science is our indispensable guardian and caretaker”. Support this statement with a few examples which illustrate the writer’s stand.
Answer:
Science is our indispensable guardian and caretaker because it is only Science that can ensure that we move with time safely. When it comes to the question of ensuring that countries that have signed the treaty of not carrying out nuclear explosions keep to their word, it is only Science that can differentiate between the tremors caused by nuclear explosions and natural earthquakes. It is Science that can give us new sources of energy, new mineral deposits, and efficient defense from terrorism.

Answer the following questions in 5-6 / 8-10 sentences each:

Question 1.
When the author compares writers and scientists, what does he want to achieve?
Answer:
By comparing a writer and a scientist, the author wants to highlight the degree of involvement these two professionals have with their work. Though writers and scientists don’t have much in common as far as their work is concerned, the author brings them together for comparison because their attitude to their work is the same. Just as a writer writes because he cannot live without writing, a scientist experiments because he is passionate about the joy of discovery.

Question 2.
Which are the natural and man-made disasters that threaten our civilization?
OR
What are the commonly recognized threats for the survival of our civilization?
Answer:
The very survival of our civilization is threatened by natural and man-made disasters. Among them are earthquakes, self-inflicted destruction of megacities, environmental catastrophes, economic and social crises. Today, a massive release of radioactivity from a nuclear waste disposal, an earthquake in the middle of a megalopolis, an outburst of mass violence, or any other global disaster, can cause up to a million of casualties, render large part of our world uninhabitable, trigger global economic depression, or a war in a ‘hot’ region.

Read the following extracts and answer the questions given below them:

Question 1.
“If you are so clever, why are you so poor?”
a) Who is the person referred to as ‘you’ and ‘clever’?
b) What does the writer intend to show with this statement?
Answer:
a) The person referred to as ‘you’ and ‘clever’ is the scientist.
b) The writer intends to show that although scientists are very wise, their wisdom does not generally help them in generating wealth. That is, scientists are generally wise but not wealthy.

Question 2.
This episode taught me that as a scientist I have people all over the world who think and interact the way I do.
a) Who are the ‘people’ being referred to?
b) Which episode is being spoken about?
c) How does the world benefit from scientists who think alike?
Answer:
a) The ‘people’ being referred to are scientists.
b) The episode is the atmosphere of the cold war in which scientists from opposite sides had to come to an understanding to promote world peace and prevent the use of nuclear weapons.
c) The world has the hope of survival. Scientists will have the common goal of preventing the use of nuclear weapons, irrespective of the nations they are.

Question 3.
“My theoretical knowledge had a direct application in the area of survival of humankind”.
a) In which field did the author, Borok, have theoretical knowledge?
b) How would it have a direct application in the area of survival of humankind?
c) How would the author’s theoretical knowledge be helpful?
Answer:
a) The author was doing research on seismic waves and had theoretical knowledge in this field.

b) Underground nuclear explosions produced earth tremors like those generated by earthquakes. With this knowledge, the author would know the difference between the two. This would help in checking the violation of the Nuclear Test Ban agreement.

c) The author’s theoretical knowledge would be helpful in detecting the violation of the nuclear test ban agreement.

 

Science and Hope of Survival Summary in English

This prose is written by Kellis – Borok. He is a scientist and doing his research on the theory of seismic waves – tremors which is produced during an earthquake. There is a popular statement that if the person is so clever, why he is being so poor? Many youngsters want to become a scientist though it didn’t give much money When compared to the other professions like Business, Law, Medicine.

According to Leo Tolstoy that a writer is not merely a person who writes. A Writer is a person who cannot live without writing. Similarly, the author believed it is true for scientists also. The scientists would get money and honor only after their discovery. Instead of money, they get freedom, friendship, and independence. The honors and promotions would depend on scientists themselves and they would get the feeling of revealing the secrets of nature.

The present situation is proof upon the sayings of Frank Press that “An instant understanding, the efficiency of thought and action, and a good feeling that comes when the like-minded people to work together. At the time of cold war in I960 when the author was in Moscow and doing his research and involved in his problem; he enjoyed the mathematical challenge. He did not give much importance to how it connects to real life. One day he got the call from the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He had received the message from the Palace of Nations in Geneva.

The technical experts from the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom who had possessing nuclear weapons met behind closed doors. The President showed the letter from Geneva, an American Scientists, Frank Press quoted the authors work while arguing with Moscow experts. For his great surprize, the author had to attend the Geneva conference. At that time, everyone on the world was living under the threat of destruction which may cause by nuclear weapons. All three superpowers had enough nuclear bombs to destroy others. If anyone of them used, it would take 20 minutes to reach their targets but the other side had plenty of time to launch the reverse action against their enemies ensuring the destruction with the ominous acronym “MAD”. This MAD gave only a thin thread of protecting from the common destructive destiny.

The invention of more stronger bombs creates more imbalance. So the three nuclear powers were willing to come to an agreement, putting a ban on the nuclear weapon test. Hence, technical experts were called to solve the problem that arose.
The two problems were –

  • The nuclear powers had signed an agreement to stop the test of the new nuclear weapons
  • One of the participants had violated this agreement and secretly made an underground nuclear explosion. The problem was how can the other powers detect the violation?

This problem had a direct connection with the theory of seismic waves. The nuclear explosions produced earth tremors which are similar to those produced by earthquakes. How to identify whether the tremors are from an earthquake or by the nuclear explosion. The authors the theoretical knowledge had a direct application in the area of survival of the humankind. In this critical situation, with political tensions, Scientists and Engineers from the! opposite sides of the curtain had to find a solution, it seemed to be impossible. So according to author the scientists should give up their cultural differences and work hard for the benefit of the whole mankind.

Scientists were able to work, based on respect to hard evidence, known to be true ranking and they were skillful. They were working together to find a solution. Based on this the politicians took the most important decisions of their time Nuclear Test Ban.
From this event, the author learned that

  • he had similar people who think and interact like him all over the world.
  • There is no need to feel lonely in abroad.
  • Where there is science, there is the hope of survival and well being for all.

There is a general saying that scientists do not have a practical or general sense. In one or the other case, it may be true that the famous mathematician while thinking or involved in the subject may wear shoes of different pairs. However, if we look carefully we can find the other side of it. Scientists are the most practical people in the world. All new technologies, a new branch of industries from defense to entertainment are the fruit of scientists research.

The antibiotics, electronics, biotechnology synthetic fibers, the green revolution, genetic forensic diagnosis, etc., The basic scientific research could give us new sources of energy, new mineral deposits and efficient defense from terrorism, cure from cancer, forms of transportation, etc., These are all contributions of scientists. It is very common that the survival of our civilization is threatened by natural and man-made disasters. The most common are earthquakes, self – inflicted destructions of megacities, environmental great disaster, economic and social crisis.

The solid release of radioactivity from a nuclear waste disposal, an earthquake in the middle of a densely populated cities, an outburst of mass violence, or any other global disaster can cause millions of casualties, Even it can cause a large part of our world uninhabitable and quickens the global economic depression or a war in a “hot” region. These are controlled by known techniques and spent one lakh crores of dollars.

The hope and the responsibility for breaking the agreement depend not only on money but on intellectual resources. According to French Proverb, Nobody is satisfied with his wealth, but everybody is satisfied with his wisdom. Only the basic research can create a springboard for developing new disaster preparedness industry. I George Bundy says that “Ours is the time of contest over issues” not completely understood.

Scientific research is an exciting venture into the great unknown. It had a great role in human survival. We all safely move by the scientist’s tools. Finally, the author reminds us that science is not beginning or end. If it is humanly used, it acts as a very useful and necessary guardian and caretaker.

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